clostridium botulinum type c

Summary

Summary: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type C which is neurotoxic to ANIMALS, especially CATTLE, but not humans. It causes dissociation of ACTIN FILAMENTS.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Binding properties of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin to mucins
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science and Department of Biotechnology, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1770:551-5. 2007
  2. ncbi C terminal half fragment (50 kDa) of heavy chain components of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins can be used as an effective vaccine
    Jae Chul Lee
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 51:445-55. 2007
  3. pmc Molecular analysis of an extrachromosomal element containing the C2 toxin gene discovered in Clostridium botulinum type C
    Yoshihiko Sakaguchi
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    J Bacteriol 191:3282-91. 2009
  4. ncbi Molecular characterization and comparison of Clostridium botulinum type C avian strains
    Hanna Skarin
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
    Avian Pathol 39:511-8. 2010
  5. ncbi Sugar-binding sites of the HA1 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    J Mol Biol 376:854-67. 2008
  6. pmc Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an HA17-HA70 (HA2-HA3) complex from Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin
    Chikako Iwasa
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 70:64-7. 2014
  7. pmc Production and evaluation of a recombinant chimeric vaccine against clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C and D
    Luciana A F Gil
    Faculdade de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 8:e69692. 2013
  8. ncbi Investigation of Clostridium botulinum in commercial poultry farms in France between 2011 and 2013
    R Souillard
    a Anses UEB, Ploufragan Plouzane Laboratory, Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit, Ploufragan, France
    Avian Pathol 43:458-64. 2014
  9. ncbi Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy
    Francesco Defilippo
    1 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell Emilia Romagna IZSLER, Brescia, Italy
    J Wildl Dis 49:1042-6. 2013
  10. pmc Eutrophication and bacterial pathogens as risk factors for avian botulism outbreaks in wetlands receiving effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants
    Ibone Anza
    Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC, CSIC UCLM JCCM, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 80:4251-9. 2014

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications66

  1. ncbi Binding properties of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin to mucins
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science and Department of Biotechnology, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1770:551-5. 2007
    It has been reported that Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin (C16S toxin) first binds to the sialic acid on the cell surface of mucin before invading cells [A. Nishikawa, N. Uotsu, H. Arimitsu, J.C. Lee, Y. Miura, Y...
  2. ncbi C terminal half fragment (50 kDa) of heavy chain components of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins can be used as an effective vaccine
    Jae Chul Lee
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 51:445-55. 2007
    ..chains (H, 100 kDa) and their N-terminal (Hn, 50 kDa) and C-terminal (Hc, 50 kDa) half fragments of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli...
  3. pmc Molecular analysis of an extrachromosomal element containing the C2 toxin gene discovered in Clostridium botulinum type C
    Yoshihiko Sakaguchi
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    J Bacteriol 191:3282-91. 2009
    ..In these regions, there were 9 and 11 genes rarely found in plasmids, indicating that this plasmid plays an important role in purine catabolism, as well as in C2 toxin production...
  4. ncbi Molecular characterization and comparison of Clostridium botulinum type C avian strains
    Hanna Skarin
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
    Avian Pathol 39:511-8. 2010
    ..The RAPD system proved to be as discriminative as PFGE. This study reveals a small genetic diversity among Swedish type C strains, with a high similarity between strains from broilers and herring gulls...
  5. ncbi Sugar-binding sites of the HA1 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    J Mol Biol 376:854-67. 2008
    b>Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponent, designated HA1, which appears to play an important role in the effective internalization of the toxin in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and ..
  6. pmc Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an HA17-HA70 (HA2-HA3) complex from Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin
    Chikako Iwasa
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 70:64-7. 2014
    The haemagglutinin (HA) complex of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin is composed of three types of subcomponents: HA33, HA17 and HA70 (also known as HA1, HA2 and HA3, respectively). Here, a 260 kDa HA17-HA70 complex was crystallized...
  7. pmc Production and evaluation of a recombinant chimeric vaccine against clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C and D
    Luciana A F Gil
    Faculdade de Veterinaria, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 8:e69692. 2013
    ..The presence of LTB was essential for the development of a strong humoral immune response, as it acted in synergism with Al(OH)3. Thus, the vaccine described in this study is a strong candidate for the control of botulism in cattle. ..
  8. ncbi Investigation of Clostridium botulinum in commercial poultry farms in France between 2011 and 2013
    R Souillard
    a Anses UEB, Ploufragan Plouzane Laboratory, Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit, Ploufragan, France
    Avian Pathol 43:458-64. 2014
    ..All cases were associated with Clostridium botulinum type C-D. Presence of C...
  9. ncbi Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy
    Francesco Defilippo
    1 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell Emilia Romagna IZSLER, Brescia, Italy
    J Wildl Dis 49:1042-6. 2013
    ..The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin...
  10. pmc Eutrophication and bacterial pathogens as risk factors for avian botulism outbreaks in wetlands receiving effluents from urban wastewater treatment plants
    Ibone Anza
    Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC, CSIC UCLM JCCM, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 80:4251-9. 2014
    ..Clostridium perfringens type A, and Clostridium botulinum type C/D. Also, water and sediment physicochemical properties were determined. Overall, APEC, C...
  11. ncbi New insight in the epidemiology of avian botulism outbreaks: necrophagous flies as vectors of Clostridium botulinum type C/D
    Ibone Anza
    CSIC UCLM JCCM, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Environ Microbiol Rep 6:738-43. 2014
    ..Our results confirm that adult necrophagous flies play a role in the spreading of botulism outbreaks, which have implications in the epidemiology of this disease. ..
  12. pmc An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture
    Philippe Bouvet
    Institut Pasteur, Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 52:339-43. 2014
    ..botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes. ..
  13. ncbi Improved detection methods by genetic and immunological techniques for botulinum C/D and D/C mosaic neurotoxins
    Keiji Nakamura
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 58 Rinku Ourai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka 598 8531, Japan
    Vet Microbiol 162:881-90. 2013
    b>Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains produce serotype-specific or mosaic botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Botulinum C/D and D/C mosaic neurotoxins (BoNT/CD and /DC) are related to avian and bovine botulism, respectively...
  14. ncbi Mucosal immunisation with Clostridium botulinum type C 16 S toxoid and its non-toxic component
    Nazira Mahmut
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Japan
    J Med Microbiol 51:813-20. 2002
    ..The C-16 S toxoid-immunised mice showed similar behaviour with type D toxin challenge, probably due to the same mechanism, but were protected against 20 MLD of C-16 S toxin...
  15. ncbi Molecular characterization of binding subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin for intestinal epithelial cells and erythrocytes
    Yukako Fujinaga
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Microbiology 150:1529-38. 2004
    b>Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin consists of a neurotoxin (NTX), a non-toxic non-HA (NTNH), and a haemagglutinin (HA)...
  16. ncbi Binding of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins to ganglioside and phospholipid. Novel insights into the receptor for clostridial neurotoxins
    Kentaro Tsukamoto
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:35164-71. 2005
    ..Our results provide novel insights into the receptor for clostridial neurotoxin...
  17. ncbi Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against haemagglutinin associated with Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin
    Nazira Mahmut
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan
    J Med Microbiol 51:286-94. 2002
    ....
  18. ncbi Type C botulism in a commercial turkey farm: a case report
    Christina Popp
    Poultry Health Service Baden Württemberg, Schaflandstr 3 3, 70736 Fellbach, Germany
    Avian Dis 56:760-3. 2012
    ..Within 2 wk the total mortality reached roughly 50%. Based on the "precautionary principle" and in agreement with the local authorities, the birds were euthanatized using CO2 in order to not compromise food safety...
  19. ncbi Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin
    Ni Nengah Dwi Fatmawati
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Acta Med Okayama 67:9-18. 2013
    b>Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C...
  20. ncbi Systemic antibodies to Clostridium botulinum type C: do they protect horses from grass sickness (dysautonomia)?
    L C Hunter
    Medical Microbiology, University of Edinburgh Medical School, UK
    Equine Vet J 33:547-53. 2001
    ..There is increasing evidence that toxicoinfection with Clostridium botulinum type C is involved...
  21. pmc Environmental factors influencing the prevalence of a Clostridium botulinum type C/D mosaic strain in nonpermanent Mediterranean wetlands
    Dolors Vidal
    Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC, CSIC UCLM JCCM, Ciudad Real, Spain
    Appl Environ Microbiol 79:4264-71. 2013
    ..The presence of Clostridium botulinum type C/D in wetland sediments was detected by real-time PCR (quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in 5...
  22. ncbi Cell internalization and traffic pathway of Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin in HT-29 cells
    Nobuo Uotsu
    Department of Applied Biological Science, and Department of Biotechnology, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu shi, 183 8509 Tokyo, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1763:120-8. 2006
    The bacterium Clostridium botulinum type C produces a progenitor toxin (C16S toxin) that binds to O-linked sugar chains terminating with sialic acid on the surface of HT-29 cells prior to internalization [A. Nishikawa, N. Uotsu, H...
  23. ncbi Protective effect of botulinum C/D mosaic toxoid against avian botulism
    Masato Takeda
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 68:325-30. 2006
    Avian botulism is a paralytic disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C. Since type C isolates from cases of avian botulism produced a neurotoxin consisting of a mosaic form of parts of type C and D neurotoxins, ..
  24. ncbi [Presence of botulinum-producing clostridia in the soils of Entre Ríos]
    C Luquez
    Departamento de Patologia, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Casilla de Correo 33, Mendoza, Argentina
    Rev Argent Microbiol 35:45-8. 2003
    ..In our country, this study has been carried out in a partial way. With the aim to contribute to such knowledge, 240 soil samples from Entre Ríos province were examined for C. botulinum and 35 (14.6%) samples resulted positive...
  25. ncbi Determination of the median toxic dose of type C botulinum toxin in lactating dairy cows
    Robert B Moeller
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Tulare Laboratory, University of California, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 15:523-6. 2003
    ..Four lactating Holstein cows were dosed at 0.125 or 0.25 ng/kg with Clostridium botulinum type C toxin and failed to develop clinical signs of botulism during the 7-day observation period...
  26. ncbi Association between Key-Gaskell syndrome and infection by Clostridium botulinum type C/D
    F Nunn
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH8 9AG
    Vet Rec 155:111-5. 2004
    There is growing evidence that equine dysautonomia is a toxicoinfection with Clostridium botulinum type C. The possibility that feline dysautonomia has the same aetiology was investigated by attempting to detect botulinum type C ..
  27. ncbi Validation of a real-time PCR based method for detection of Clostridium botulinum types C, D and their mosaic variants C-D and D-C in a multicenter collaborative trial
    Cedric Woudstra
    French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety Anses, Food Safety Laboratory, 23 Av du Général De Gaulle, Fr 94706 Maisons Alfort, France
    Anaerobe 22:31-7. 2013
    ..botulinum types C, D and mosaic types C-D and D-C. These are the first tests for C. botulinum C and D that have been evaluated in a European multicenter collaborative trial. ..
  28. ncbi Real-time PCR for Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin (BoNTC) gene, also covering a chimeric C/D sequence--application on outbreaks of botulism in poultry
    A Lindberg
    National Veterinary Institute, Department of Bacteriology, SE 751 89 Uppsala, Sweden
    Vet Microbiol 146:118-23. 2010
    ..DNA extraction and the real-time PCR assay were both performed in a 96-well format, facilitating for future large-scale detection in outbreak situations and prevalence studies...
  29. pmc Botulinum toxin
    P K Nigam
    Department of Dermatology and STD, Pt J N M Medical College and Assoc Dr B R A M Hospital, Raipur 492 001, India
    Indian J Dermatol 55:8-14. 2010
    ..A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice...
  30. ncbi Short communication: Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows
    R B Moeller
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, University of California, Tulare 93274, USA
    J Dairy Sci 92:2529-33. 2009
    ..Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood-milk barrier...
  31. ncbi Production of serotype C specific and serotype C/D generic monoclonal antibodies using recombinant H(C) and H(N) fragments from Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types C(1) and D
    R M Curran
    Veterinary Sciences Division School of Biological Sciences, Queens University of Belfast, Stoney Rd, Stormont, Belfast BT43SD, United Kingdom
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 130:1-10. 2009
    ....
  32. ncbi Molecular diversity of the two sugar-binding sites of the β-trefoil lectin HA33/C (HA1) from Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8, Saiwai cho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Arch Biochem Biophys 512:69-77. 2011
    ..The architectures and the properties of the sugar-binding sites of HA33/C and HA33/A were shown to be drastically different...
  33. ncbi Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum
    Fabrizio Anniballi
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, National Reference Centre for Botulism, Viale Regina Elena, 299 00161 Rome, Italy
    Vet Microbiol 154:332-8. 2012
    b>Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks...
  34. ncbi Outbreak of botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C) in wild waterfowl: Seoul, Korea
    Gye Hyeong Woo
    Laboratory of Pathology, Animal Disease Diagnostic Center, National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang, Gyeonggi do 430 824, Republic of Korea
    J Wildl Dis 46:951-5. 2010
    ..b>Clostridium botulinum type C toxin was identified in sera collected from the birds using a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins; ..
  35. ncbi Temperature dependency of Clostridium botulinum C and D toxin production from anaerobically enriched bovine gastrointestinal samples
    C E Brooks
    Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI, Veterinary Sciences Division VSD, Stormont, Belfast, UK
    Lett Appl Microbiol 53:174-7. 2011
    ....
  36. ncbi Characterization of proteins, insoluble at low temperature, produced by Clostridium botulinum type C and C. subterminale. Their antigenic relationship with a similar protein synthesized by C. botulinum type G
    J A Gimenez
    Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas UBA CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Argentina
    Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 265:45-56. 1987
    ....
  37. ncbi Diagnostic and possible therapeutic application of a monoclonal antibody (14G8) directed against botulinum type C neurotoxin
    Vicki A Montgomery
    Division of Integrated Toxicology, U S Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Hybridoma (Larchmt) 30:209-16. 2011
    A monoclonal antibody, designated 14G8, detected Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin in immunoassays requiring native confirmation of the analyte...
  38. ncbi Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium botulinum type C1 in waterbird and sediment samples: comparison with other PCR techniques
    Dolors Vidal
    Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM, Ronda de Toledo s n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
    J Vet Diagn Invest 23:942-6. 2011
    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for detection of the neurotoxin of the Clostridium botulinum type C (BoNTC) encoding gene has been compared with a nested PCR (nPCR) and a conventional PCR (cPCR) using 2 toxigenic C...
  39. pmc Outbreak of botulism in a dairy herd in Turkey
    S Senturk
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Uludag University, 16190, Bursa, Turkey
    Ir Vet J 60:481-4. 2007
    ..This study is the first confirmation, by direct toxin isolation, of Clostridium botulinum type C and Clostridium botulinum type D in cattle, in Turkey.
  40. ncbi Crystal structure of the HA3 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    J Mol Biol 385:1193-206. 2009
    The Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a neurotoxin and several nontoxic components, designated nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (HA), HA1 (HA-33), HA2 (HA-17), HA3a (HA-22-23), and HA3b (HA-53)...
  41. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of Clostridium botulinum type A by multi-locus sequence typing
    Mark J Jacobson
    Department of Bacteriology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Microbiology 154:2408-15. 2008
    ..botulinum type A strains, which resulted in 24 distinct sequence types. This strategy should be applicable to phylogenetic studies and typing of other C. botulinum serotypes and Clostridium species...
  42. ncbi Type C bovine botulism outbreak due to carcass contaminated non-acidified silage
    J Myllykoski
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Epidemiol Infect 137:284-93. 2009
    ..b>Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from liver samples...
  43. pmc Clustering of equine grass sickness cases in the United Kingdom: a study considering the effect of position-dependent reporting on the space-time K-function
    N P French
    Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Epidemiol Infect 133:343-8. 2005
    ..Although the aetiology of this disease is unknown, there is increasing evidence that Clostridium botulinum type C plays an important role in this condition...
  44. pmc Diversity of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strains, determined by a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis approach
    Mari Nevas
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, PO Box 66, 00014 Helsinki University, Finland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1311-7. 2005
    ..botulinum types A and B. However, epidemiological conclusions based on PFGE data only should be made with discretion, since highly similar PFGE patterns were noticed, especially within the type B strains...
  45. ncbi Detection of Clostridium botulinum type C cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by polymerase chain reaction
    P Nol
    USGS National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    J Wildl Dis 40:749-53. 2004
    We established a method of directly detecting Clostridium botulinum type C cells, while minimizing spore detection, in the intestinal contents of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)...
  46. pmc Natural Clostridium botulinum type C toxicosis in a group of cats
    D Elad
    Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5406-8. 2004
    ..b>Clostridium botulinum type C was isolated from one cat. The microorganism and its toxin were found in the pelican...
  47. pmc Type C botulism due to toxic feed affecting 52,000 farmed foxes and minks in Finland
    Miia Lindstrom
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4718-25. 2004
    ..Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed...
  48. ncbi Prevalence of neurotoxic Clostridium botulinum type C in the gastrointestinal tracts of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in the Salton Sea
    P Nol
    USGS National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    J Wildl Dis 40:414-9. 2004
    ..sites throughout the Sea during the summers of 1999 through 2001 and tested them for the presence of Clostridium botulinum type C cells by polymerase chain reaction targeting the C(1) neurotoxin gene...
  49. ncbi The receptor and transporter for internalization of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin into HT-29 cells
    Atsushi Nishikawa
    Department of Applied Biological Science, United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 319:327-33. 2004
    ..In this study, we report the important findings concerning the mechanism of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin (C16S) endocytic mechanism...
  50. pmc Vaccination with recombinant whole heavy chain fragments of Clostridium botulinum Type C and D neurotoxins
    Hideyuki Arimitsu
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:496-502. 2004
    Mice and ducks were subcutaneously immunized with recombinant whole heavy (H) chains of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins, which were expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins...
  51. ncbi Efficacy of a type C botulism vaccine in green-winged teal
    T E Rocke
    U S Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    J Wildl Dis 36:489-93. 2000
    ..toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (Anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by Clostridium botulinum type C. We challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type C botulinum toxin to ..
  52. ncbi In vitro evaluation methods for Clostridium botulinum type C and D vaccines
    C E Ellis
    Bacterial Vaccine Development Unit, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 24:369-72. 1999
    Reagents were prepared for use in ELISAs to determine the concentration of the antigenic components of Clostridium botulinum type C and D...
  53. ncbi Production and purification of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxin
    F Gessler
    Institute for Crop and Animal Production in the Tropics, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 24:361-7. 1999
    ..6% and 10.6%, respectively. A specific toxicity of 1.86 x 10(7) minimal lethal dose mg(-1) (type C) and 5.26 x 10(7) minimal lethal dose mg(-1) (type D) was determined in the mouse bioassay...
  54. ncbi Bacterial toxins: potential weapons against HIV infection
    Massimo Alfano
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina n 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    Curr Pharm Des 11:2909-26. 2005
    ..in the case of Diphteria and Shiga toxins, and Ribosome inactivating proteins), actin polymerization (Clostridium botulinum type C, C2, toxins and Enterotoxin A), signal transduction pathways (Cholera toxin, Heat-labile enterotoxins, ..
  55. pmc The genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin-converting phage and the molecular mechanisms of unstable lysogeny
    Yoshihiko Sakaguchi
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:17472-7. 2005
    ....
  56. pmc Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the HA3 component of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8 Saiwai cho, Fuchu shi, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 63:1038-40. 2007
    HA3, a 70 kDa haemagglutinating protein, is a precursor form of HA3a and HA3b, the subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin...
  57. ncbi Correlation of Clostridium botulinum type C antitoxin titers in mink and guinea pigs to protection against type C intoxication in mink
    D R Kolbe
    Center for Veterinary Biologics, USDA APHIS VS, Ames, IA 50010, USA
    Anaerobe 14:128-30. 2008
    In USA, the potency of commercial vaccines containing Clostridium botulinum type C toxoid is determined by a mink vaccination-challenge assay outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Part 113.110...
  58. ncbi Optimization of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Clostridium botulinum type C and D in bovine samples
    V Prevot
    Pasteur Institute of Brussels, Rue Engeland 642, B1180 Bruxelles, Belgium
    Zoonoses Public Health 54:320-7. 2007
    ..These findings indicate that the current PCR is a reliable method for the detection of C. botulinum toxigenic strains type C and D in bovine samples but only after proper enrichment in CMM and TYG broth...
  59. ncbi Presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in Israel
    Amir Steinman
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Wildl Dis 43:548-50. 2007
    ..This report describes detection of anti BoNT antibodies in wild canids other than coyotes (Canis latrans) for the first time and demonstrates that C. botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel...
  60. ncbi Seroprevalence of antibotulinum neurotoxin type C antibodies in horses in Israel
    A Steinman
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Equine Vet J 39:232-5. 2007
    b>Clostridium botulinum type C is prevalent in Israel and outbreaks recorded in many species, other than horses...
  61. ncbi Identification of structural genes for Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin-converting phage particles
    Hyun Jung Hwang
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 270:82-9. 2007
    ....
  62. ncbi A PCR approach to determine the distribution of toxin genes in closely related Clostridium species: Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins and C2 toxin, and Clostridium novyi alpha toxin
    Ann Heffron
    Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The Chancellor s Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
    J Med Microbiol 56:196-201. 2007
    ..In the alpha toxin-negative strains (22), both of the C2 genes were detected in 5 strains (3 C. botulinum), with component I in 11 strains and neither gene in 6 strains...
  63. ncbi Effect of nicking the C-terminal region of the Clostridium botulinum serotype D neurotoxin heavy chain on its toxicity and molecular properties
    Tomonori Suzuki
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099 2493, Japan
    Protein J 26:173-81. 2007
    ..These results help to clarify the role of the C-terminal half of the Hc in the oral toxicity of single-chain and more complex forms of BoNT...
  64. ncbi Comparison of IgG antibody levels to Clostridium botulinum antigens between euthanased and surviving cases of chronic grass sickness
    F G Nunn
    Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh EH16 4SB, UK
    Res Vet Sci 83:82-4. 2007
    ..C and D (BoNT/C and BoNT/D) and to a surface antigen extract of a neurotoxin negative strain of Clostridium botulinum type C. Collectively, the six surviving CGS cases demonstrated significantly higher initial IgG levels (P=0...
  65. pmc Sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxin types C and D with an immunoaffinity chromatographic column test
    Frank Gessler
    Institute for Applied Biotechnology in the Tropics, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:7897-903. 2005
    A sensitive and specific immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of Clostridium botulinum type C (BoNT/C) and type D neurotoxin was developed...
  66. ncbi A tobacco syntaxin with a role in hormonal control of guard cell ion channels
    B Leyman
    Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biophysics, University of London, Wye College, Wye, Kent TN25 5AH, UK
    Science 283:537-40. 1999
    ..Disrupting Nt-Syr1 function by cleavage with Clostridium botulinum type C toxin or competition with a soluble fragment of Nt-Syr1 prevents potassium and chloride ion channel ..