clostridium botulinum type b

Summary

Summary: Subtype of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM that produces botulinum toxin type B which is neurotoxic to humans and animals.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Production of anti-neurotoxin antibody is enhanced by two subcomponents, HA1 and HA3b, of Clostridium botulinum type B 16S toxin-haemagglutinin
    Jae Chul Lee
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Microbiology 151:3739-47. 2005
  2. ncbi Inhibition of toxigenesis of group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B in meat products by using a reduced level of nitrite
    Riikka Keto-Timonen
    Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, P O Box 66, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Food Prot 75:1346-9. 2012
  3. pmc Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of two predominant Nordic group I (proteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B clusters
    Miia Lindstrom
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P O Box 66, 00014 Helsinki University, Finland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:2643-51. 2009
  4. ncbi Comparison of electrochemiluminescence assay and ELISA for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin
    V Guglielmo-Viret
    Immunobiologie, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de recherche du, service de santé des armées, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, PO Box 38702, La Tronche, France
    J Immunol Methods 301:164-72. 2005
  5. ncbi On the enhancement of anti-neurotoxin antibody production by subcomponents HA1 and HA3b of Clostridium botulinum type B 16S toxin-haemagglutinin
    M Zouhair Atassi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Microbiology 152:1891-5; discussion 1895-7. 2006
  6. ncbi Molecular properties of each subcomponent in Clostridium botulinum type B haemagglutinin complex
    Hideyuki Arimitsu
    Department of Microbiology, Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, Kutsukake cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
    Microb Pathog 45:142-9. 2008
  7. ncbi Functional dissection of the Clostridium botulinum type B hemagglutinin complex: identification of the carbohydrate and E-cadherin binding sites
    Yo Sugawara
    Laboratory of Infection Cell Biology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 9:e111170. 2014
  8. pmc Crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum whole hemagglutinin reveals a huge triskelion-shaped molecular complex
    Sho Amatsu
    From the Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasakigosyokaido cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8585 and
    J Biol Chem 288:35617-25. 2013
  9. ncbi Complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid containing the botulinum neurotoxin gene in Clostridium botulinum type B strain 111 isolated from an infant patient in Japan
    Koji Hosomi
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 58 Rinku Orai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598 8531, Japan
    Mol Genet Genomics 289:1267-74. 2014
  10. ncbi A case of infant botulism with a possible link to infant formula milk powder: evidence for the presence of more than one strain of Clostridium botulinum in clinical specimens and food
    M M Brett
    Health Protection Agency Food Safety Microbiology Laboratory, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Med Microbiol 54:769-76. 2005

Scientific Experts

  • Riikka Keto-Timonen
  • Mari Nevas
  • Katri Jalava
  • M Wictome
  • M K Lindström
  • H I J Roest
  • P Fach
  • Hideyuki Arimitsu
  • S Kozaki
  • Kaoru Umeda
  • K A Lawlor
  • Sandra C Stringer
  • A M Gibson
  • Lucia Fenicia
  • Tomoko Kohda
  • Takuhiro Matsumura
  • Yo Sugawara
  • Sho Amatsu
  • Yukako Fujinaga
  • Hideshi Ihara
  • Maria Lövenklev
  • Masafumi Mukamoto
  • Hiroyasu Tsutsuki
  • Koji Hosomi
  • Amy L Johnson
  • Diana Salgado
  • Yan Li Gao
  • Yoshihiko Sakaguchi
  • Elizabeth Borysiewicz
  • Waseem M Fathalla
  • Jamie Spiegelman
  • Na Ri Shin
  • Janice Gilsdorf
  • M Zouhair Atassi
  • Keiji Oguma
  • Leonard A Smith
  • Seetharaman Jayaraman
  • V Guglielmo-Viret
  • Jae Chul Lee
  • M M Brett
  • Giovanna Franciosa
  • Elisabet Holst
  • Elisabeth Borch
  • Peter Radstrom
  • Daisuke Motooka
  • Masahiro Yutani
  • Kazuyoshi Gotoh
  • Shota Nakamura
  • Tetsuya Iida
  • Kengo Kitadokoro
  • Raymond W Sweeney
  • Susan C McAdams
  • Robert H Whitlock
  • J Antonio Torres
  • Gonzalo Velazquez
  • Jorge Welti-Chanes
  • Jing Lin Wang
  • Chong Nie
  • Lin Kang
  • Shan Gao
  • Daniel Dlaboga
  • Daniel Fil
  • Gregory W Konat
  • JAMES M O'DONNELL
  • David W Cescon
  • Elamin Ahmed
  • Brian J Murray
  • Anita Rachlis
  • Brie V Mazza
  • Yael Friedman
  • John W Austin
  • Khalid A Mohammed
  • Hee Bok Oh
  • So Yeon Yoon
  • Yun Jeong Kim
  • Ji Hun Shin
  • Yukiji Seto
  • Yuko Kabumoto
  • Bong Su Kim
  • Yingji Jin
  • Won Keun Seong
  • Masayuki Hara
  • Gi Eun Rhie
  • Nizamettin Gul
  • S Ashraf Ahmed
  • R J Forsyth
  • S O'BRIEN
  • P Thullier
  • N Black
  • Kenji Yokota

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi Production of anti-neurotoxin antibody is enhanced by two subcomponents, HA1 and HA3b, of Clostridium botulinum type B 16S toxin-haemagglutinin
    Jae Chul Lee
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Microbiology 151:3739-47. 2005
    b>Clostridium botulinum type B strain produces two forms of progenitor toxin, 16S and 12S...
  2. ncbi Inhibition of toxigenesis of group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B in meat products by using a reduced level of nitrite
    Riikka Keto-Timonen
    Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, P O Box 66, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Food Prot 75:1346-9. 2012
    ..of sodium nitrite (0, 75, and 120 mg/kg) on growth and toxigenesis of group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B was studied in Finnish wiener-type sausage, bologna-type sausage, and cooked ham...
  3. pmc Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of two predominant Nordic group I (proteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B clusters
    Miia Lindstrom
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P O Box 66, 00014 Helsinki University, Finland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:2643-51. 2009
    Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of 32 Nordic group I Clostridium botulinum type B strains isolated from various sources revealed two homogeneous clusters, clusters BI and BII...
  4. ncbi Comparison of electrochemiluminescence assay and ELISA for the detection of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin
    V Guglielmo-Viret
    Immunobiologie, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de recherche du, service de santé des armées, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, PO Box 38702, La Tronche, France
    J Immunol Methods 301:164-72. 2005
    ..5 h for the in-house ECL versus 5 h for in-house ELISA with precoated wells). Overall, these elements can be used to compare the qualities of the two technologies, at least for the detection of protein antigens such as toxins...
  5. ncbi On the enhancement of anti-neurotoxin antibody production by subcomponents HA1 and HA3b of Clostridium botulinum type B 16S toxin-haemagglutinin
    M Zouhair Atassi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Microbiology 152:1891-5; discussion 1895-7. 2006
  6. ncbi Molecular properties of each subcomponent in Clostridium botulinum type B haemagglutinin complex
    Hideyuki Arimitsu
    Department of Microbiology, Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, Kutsukake cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
    Microb Pathog 45:142-9. 2008
    ....
  7. ncbi Functional dissection of the Clostridium botulinum type B hemagglutinin complex: identification of the carbohydrate and E-cadherin binding sites
    Yo Sugawara
    Laboratory of Infection Cell Biology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 9:e111170. 2014
    ..Carbohydrate binding potentiates the epithelial barrier-disrupting activity by enhancing cell surface binding, while E-cadherin binding is essential for the barrier disruption. ..
  8. pmc Crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum whole hemagglutinin reveals a huge triskelion-shaped molecular complex
    Sho Amatsu
    From the Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasakigosyokaido cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8585 and
    J Biol Chem 288:35617-25. 2013
    ..Our results suggest that whole HA is functionally and structurally separable into two parts: HA1, involved in recognition of cell-surface carbohydrates, and HA2-HA3, involved in paracellular barrier disruption by E-cadherin binding. ..
  9. ncbi Complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid containing the botulinum neurotoxin gene in Clostridium botulinum type B strain 111 isolated from an infant patient in Japan
    Koji Hosomi
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 58 Rinku Orai Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598 8531, Japan
    Mol Genet Genomics 289:1267-74. 2014
    ..botulinum strains. It was suggested that these plasmids had been derived from a common ancestor and had played important roles for the bont gene transfer between C. botulinum. ..
  10. ncbi A case of infant botulism with a possible link to infant formula milk powder: evidence for the presence of more than one strain of Clostridium botulinum in clinical specimens and food
    M M Brett
    Health Protection Agency Food Safety Microbiology Laboratory, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Med Microbiol 54:769-76. 2005
    Infant botulism was confirmed in a 5-month-old female by both isolation of Clostridium botulinum type B and by detection of type B botulinum neurotoxin in rectal washout and faeces...
  11. ncbi Two cases of food-borne botulism in Finland caused by conserved olives, October 2011
    K Jalava
    Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Euro Surveill 16:20034. 2011
    ..One of these two died. Clostridium botulinum type B and its neurotoxin were detected in the implicated olives by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively...
  12. ncbi Expression, purification, and characterization of Clostridium botulinum type B light chain
    Janice Gilsdorf
    Integrated Toxicology Division, U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702 5011, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 46:256-67. 2006
    ..The synthetic BoNT/B LC has been found to be highly active on its substrate (vesicle associated membrane protein-2) and, therefore, can serve as a useful reagent for BoNT/B research...
  13. ncbi N-terminal helix reorients in recombinant C-fragment of Clostridium botulinum type B
    Seetharaman Jayaraman
    Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 330:97-103. 2005
    ..The probable reasons for different binding affinity of botulinum and tetanus toxins are discussed...
  14. ncbi Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Clostridium botulinum type B isolates in Japan: comparison with other isolates and genotyping methods
    Kaoru Umeda
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Osaka 543 0026, Japan
    Infect Genet Evol 16:298-304. 2013
    ..The MLVA scheme used for this study is apparently useful not only for high-resolution molecular typing, but also for phylogenetic characterization of C. botulinum type B...
  15. ncbi Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of the neurotoxin gene of Clostridium botulinum type B in equine and bovine samples
    Amy L Johnson
    Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA
    Vet J 194:118-20. 2012
    b>Clostridium botulinum type B is estimated to cause more than 85% of cases of equine botulism in the United States, as well as many outbreaks in cattle...
  16. ncbi Sequence of the gene for Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin associated with infant botulism, expression of the C-terminal half of heavy chain and its binding activity
    Hideshi Ihara
    Department of Earth and Life Sciences, College of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1625:19-26. 2003
    ....
  17. pmc Quantitative interaction effects of carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite on neurotoxin gene expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B
    Maria Lövenklev
    Applied Microbiology, Lund Institute of Technology, Mathematical Statistics, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2928-34. 2004
    ..unit of optical density(-1) in the 10% CO(2) atmosphere and 126 ng x ml(-1). unit of optical density(-1) in the 70% CO(2) atmosphere...
  18. ncbi Stability of toxigenicity in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B upon serial passage
    Kaoru Umeda
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 8 34 Tojo cho, Tennoji ku, Osaka 543 0026, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 56:338-41. 2012
    Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B strains were investigated for stability of toxigenicity and bont/b gene upon serial passage...
  19. ncbi Effect of input data variability on estimations of the equivalent constant temperature time for microbial inactivation by HTST and retort thermal processing
    Diana Salgado
    Div de Biotecnología y Alimentos, Inst Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Av Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Col Tecnológico, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico
    J Food Sci 76:E495-502. 2011
    ..Finally, the benefit of reducing the variability in initial load and decimal thermal time was confirmed, achieving a 26.3% reduction in processing time when standard deviation values were lowered by 90%...
  20. pmc Relative neurotoxin gene expression in clostridium botulinum type B, determined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR
    Maria Lövenklev
    Applied Microbiology, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, SE 221 00 Lund, Sweden
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2919-27. 2004
    ..This was most obvious in the late exponential growth phase, but at the highest sodium nitrite concentration investigated, 45 ppm, a one- to threefold decline in the cntB mRNA level was observed in all growth phases...
  21. pmc Characterization of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin associated with infant botulism in japan
    S Kozaki
    Department of Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Ishikawa, Japan
    Infect Immun 66:4811-6. 1998
    ..These findings indicate that the 111/NT molecule possesses the receptor-recognition site structurally different from Okra/NT, probably causing a decreased specific toxicity...
  22. ncbi Towards an international standard for detection and typing botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia types A, B, E and F in food, feed and environmental samples: a European ring trial study to evaluate a real-time PCR assay
    Lucia Fenicia
    Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety Department, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, National Reference Centre for Botulism, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Int J Food Microbiol 145:S152-7. 2011
    ....
  23. ncbi [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?]
    H I J Roest
    Divisie Bacteriologie en TSE s, Centraal Veterinair Instituut van Wageningen UR, Lelystad, Nederland
    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 134:790-5. 2009
    ..As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses...
  24. ncbi Phosphodiesterase 4B2 gene is an effector of Toll-like receptor signaling in astrocytes
    Elizabeth Borysiewicz
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University School of Medicine, 4052 HSN, P O Box 9128, Morgantown, WV 26506 9128, USA
    Metab Brain Dis 24:481-91. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that the phosphodiesterase 4B2 gene is an effector of Toll-like receptor signaling in astrocytes, and that its up-regulation at the protein level is controlled by complex mechanisms...
  25. ncbi Expression of Hc fragment from Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype B in Escherichia coli and its use as a good immunogen
    Yan Li Gao
    Laboratory of Toxinology, State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, The Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing China
    Hum Vaccin 6:462-6. 2010
    ..The work presented here demonstrates that the purified rBoNT/B-Hc was a highly effective immunogen and able to protect against a high-dose neurotoxin challenge...
  26. pmc Genetic characterization of Clostridium botulinum associated with type B infant botulism in Japan
    Kaoru Umeda
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 8 34 Tojo cho, Tennoji ku, Osaka 543 0026, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2720-8. 2009
    The 15 proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B strains, including 3 isolates associated with infant botulism in Japan, were genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis of boNT/B gene sequences, genotyping, and determination of the ..
  27. ncbi An innovative molecular detection tool for tracking and tracing Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, F and other botulinum neurotoxin producing Clostridia based on the GeneDisc cycler
    P Fach
    French Food Safety Agency, Laboratory for Study and Research on Food Quality and Processes, 23 Av du Général De Gaulle, Fr 94706 Maisons Alfort, France
    Int J Food Microbiol 145:S145-51. 2011
    ..The test is robust, has a low detection limit (c.a. 5 to 50 genome copies in the PCR reaction microwell) and is promising for monitoring BoNT-producing Clostridia in different kinds of samples including food and clinical samples...
  28. pmc Bowel loops and eyelid droops
    Jamie Spiegelman
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ont
    CMAJ 179:927-9. 2008
    ..Fecal cultures were positive for viable Clostridium botulinum. This case emphasizes the importance of a broad differential diagnosis and doing a complete examination to account for all signs and symptoms...
  29. ncbi The effect of 100% CO2 on the growth of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum at chill temperatures
    A M Gibson
    Food Science Australia, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia
    Int J Food Microbiol 54:39-48. 2000
    The growth of a cocktail of spores from six nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B and E isolates at 5 and 10 degrees C was used to assess the combined effect of NaCl (0.5-4.5% w/v), pH (5.5-6...
  30. ncbi Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum toxigenesis in cooked turkey stored under modified atmospheres
    K A Lawlor
    Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061 0418, USA
    J Food Prot 63:1511-6. 2000
    The ability of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B spores to grow and produce toxin in cooked, uncured turkey packaged under modified atmospheres was investigated at refrigeration and mild to moderate abuse temperatures...
  31. ncbi Inhibition of growth of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B in sous vide cooked meat products is achieved by using thermal processing but not nisin
    M Lindstrom
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Food Prot 64:838-44. 2001
    ..botulinum type B spores. The intensity of each heat treatment needs to be carefully evaluated individually for each product to ensure product safety in relation to nonproteolytic C. botulinum...
  32. pmc Differentiation of the gene clusters encoding botulinum neurotoxin type A complexes in Clostridium botulinum type A, Ab, and A(B) strains
    Giovanna Franciosa
    Centro Nazionale per la Qualita degli Alimenti e per i Rischi Alimentari, Reparto Pericoli Microbiologici Connessi agli Alimenti, Istituto Superiore della Sanità, Rome, Italy
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7192-9. 2004
    ..Total genomic DNA from the strains was subjected to pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and the results were consistent with the boNT/A gene clusters obtained...
  33. pmc Infant botulism acquired from household dust presenting as sudden infant death syndrome
    Mari Nevas
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P O Box 66, 00014 Helsinki University, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 43:511-3. 2005
    b>Clostridium botulinum type B was detected by multiplex PCR in the intestinal contents of a suddenly deceased 11-week-old infant and in vacuum cleaner dust from the patient's household. C...
  34. pmc Efficient DNA fingerprinting of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis
    Riikka Keto-Timonen
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, PO Box 66, FI 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1148-54. 2005
    ..botulinum group identification...
  35. ncbi Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B in the gastric content of a patient with type E botulism due to whitefish eggs
    Miia Lindstrom
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 1:53-7. 2004
    ..This is the first domestic case of foodborne botulism in Finland...
  36. ncbi Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in honey produced in the Nordic countries
    Mari Nevas
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P O Box 66, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Int J Food Microbiol 105:145-51. 2005
    ..At a similarity level of 95%, four clusters were produced, three of which contained 20 of the 24 analysed strains. One of the clusters included isolates from both Denmark and Norway...
  37. pmc Heterogeneity of times required for germination and outgrowth from single spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum
    Sandra C Stringer
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UA, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4998-5003. 2005
    ..This information can make a substantial contribution to improved predictive modeling and better quantitative microbiological risk assessment...
  38. ncbi Nitric oxide inhibits depolarization-evoked glutamate release from rat cerebellar granule cells
    Hiroyasu Tsutsuki
    Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen cho, Sakai, Osaka, Japan
    Nitric Oxide 16:217-27. 2007
    ..Treatment with NO-related reagents revealed that NO inhibited high-K(+)-evoked glutamate release. Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin (BoNT/B) attenuated the enhancement of glutamate release caused by NO synthase (NOS) ..
  39. ncbi Human milk SIgA binds to botulinum type B 16S toxin and limits toxin adherence on T84 cells
    Takuhiro Matsumura
    Laboratory for Infection Cell Biology, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Yamada oka 3 1, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 352:867-72. 2007
    Botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type B is in the form of a complex of 12S and 16S toxins. Food-borne botulism is caused by these complex toxins which are ingested orally and absorbed from the digestive tract...
  40. ncbi Differential contribution of the residues in C-terminal half of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin type B to its binding to the ganglioside GT1b and the synaptotagmin 2/GT1b complex
    Tomoko Kohda
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599 8531, Japan
    Microb Pathog 42:72-9. 2007
    b>Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin was effectively bound to synaptotagmin 2 (Stg2) associated with ganglioside GT1b, however, the molecular interaction between the neurotoxin and the Stg2/GT1b complex has not been identified...
  41. ncbi Development of enrichment semi-nested PCR for Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, and F and its application to Korean environmental samples
    Na Ri Shin
    Division of High risk Pathogen Research, Center for Infectious Diseases, Korean National Institute of Health, Seoul 122 701, Korea
    Mol Cells 24:329-37. 2007
    ..5 and 99.8% identity with the amino acid sequence of accession no. AB084152. Our data suggest that semi-nested PCR is a useful tool for detecting C. botulinum in sediments, and renders it practicable to conduct environmental surveys...
  42. ncbi Infant botulism type Ba: first culture-confirmed case in the United Arab Emirates
    Waseem M Fathalla
    Division of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
    Pediatr Neurol 39:204-6. 2008
    ..Our case also demonstrates a favorable response to human botulism immune globulin, despite the relatively late treatment...
  43. pmc Development of an in vitro bioassay for Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin in foods that is more sensitive than the mouse bioassay
    M Wictome
    Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 OJG, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 65:3787-92. 1999
    ..specific monoclonal antibodies as the capture phase, we found that the endopeptidase assay was capable of differentiating between the type B neurotoxins produced by proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum type B.