clostridium difficile

Summary

Summary: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.

Top Publications

  1. doi Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based survey
    Martijn P Bauer
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    Lancet 377:63-73. 2011
  2. doi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
  3. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales
    Miao He
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7527-32. 2010
  4. doi Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection
    Thomas J Louie
    University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
    N Engl J Med 364:422-31. 2011
  5. ncbi The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome
    Mohammed Sebaihia
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 38:779-86. 2006
  6. doi Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA)
    Stuart H Cohen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious and Immunologic Diseases, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31:431-55. 2010
  7. doi Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile
    Els Van Nood
    Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 368:407-15. 2013
  8. doi Clostridium difficile infection: new developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis
    Maja Rupnik
    Institute of Public Health Maribor, Centre for Microbiology, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:526-36. 2009
  9. pmc Targeted restoration of the intestinal microbiota with a simple, defined bacteriotherapy resolves relapsing Clostridium difficile disease in mice
    Trevor D Lawley
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002995. 2012
  10. pmc Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
    Daniel E Voth
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005

Detail Information

Publications411 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based survey
    Martijn P Bauer
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    Lancet 377:63-73. 2011
    Little is known about the extent of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe. Our aim was to obtain a more complete overview of C difficile infection in Europe and build capacity for diagnosis and surveillance.
  2. doi The role of toxin A and toxin B in Clostridium difficile infection
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
    Nature 467:711-3. 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea in Europe and North America. During infection, C. difficile produces two key virulence determinants, toxin A and toxin B...
  3. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales
    Miao He
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7527-32. 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile has rapidly emerged as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrheal disease, with the transcontinental spread of various PCR ribotypes, including 001, 017, 027 and 078...
  4. doi Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection
    Thomas J Louie
    University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
    N Engl J Med 364:422-31. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile infection is a serious diarrheal illness associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients generally have a response to oral vancomycin or metronidazole; however, the rate of recurrence is high...
  5. ncbi The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome
    Mohammed Sebaihia
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 38:779-86. 2006
    We determined the complete genome sequence of Clostridium difficile strain 630, a virulent and multidrug-resistant strain...
  6. doi Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA)
    Stuart H Cohen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious and Immunologic Diseases, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31:431-55. 2010
    Since publication of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America position paper on Clostridium difficile infection in 1995, significant changes have occurred in the epidemiology and treatment of this infection. C...
  7. doi Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile
    Els Van Nood
    Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 368:407-15. 2013
    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection.
  8. doi Clostridium difficile infection: new developments in epidemiology and pathogenesis
    Maja Rupnik
    Institute of Public Health Maribor, Centre for Microbiology, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:526-36. 2009
    b>Clostridium difficile is now considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections. C...
  9. pmc Targeted restoration of the intestinal microbiota with a simple, defined bacteriotherapy resolves relapsing Clostridium difficile disease in mice
    Trevor D Lawley
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002995. 2012
    ..Further, we demonstrate a rational approach to harness the therapeutic potential of health-associated microbial communities to treat C. difficile disease and potentially other forms of intestinal dysbiosis...
  10. pmc Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease
    Daniel E Voth
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:247-63. 2005
    As the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, Clostridium difficile colonizes the large bowel of patients undergoing antibiotic therapy and produces two toxins, which cause notable disease pathologies...
  11. pmc Toxin B is essential for virulence of Clostridium difficile
    Dena Lyras
    Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Nature 458:1176-9. 2009
    b>Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals worldwide, because of its virulence, spore-forming ability and persistence. C...
  12. pmc Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile 027 strains provides insight into the evolution of a hypervirulent bacterium
    Richard A Stabler
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
    Genome Biol 10:R102. 2009
    The continued rise of Clostridium difficile infections worldwide has been accompanied by the rapid emergence of a highly virulent clone designated PCR-ribotype 027...
  13. pmc Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in a region of Quebec from 1991 to 2003: a changing pattern of disease severity
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que
    CMAJ 171:466-72. 2004
    Recent reports suggest that Clostridium difficile colitis may be evolving into a more severe disease. During the second half of 2002 we noted an increase in the number of patients with severe C...
  14. ncbi Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
    Michel Warny
    Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
    Toxins A and B are the primary virulence factors of Clostridium difficile. Since 2002, an epidemic of C difficile-associated disease with increased morbidity and mortality has been present in Quebec province, Canada...
  15. pmc Relationship between bacterial strain type, host biomarkers, and mortality in Clostridium difficile infection
    A Sarah Walker
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK
    Clin Infect Dis 56:1589-600. 2013
    ..Despite substantial interest in biomarkers, their impact on clinical outcomes and variation with bacterial strain has rarely been explored using integrated databases...
  16. doi CcpA-mediated repression of Clostridium difficile toxin gene expression
    Ana Antunes
    Laboratoire Pathogenèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mol Microbiol 79:882-99. 2011
    ..of glucose or other rapidly metabolizable carbon sources in the bacterial growth medium strongly represses Clostridium difficile toxin synthesis independently of strain origin...
  17. doi Host and pathogen factors for Clostridium difficile infection and colonization
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave W, Rm L5 06, Montreal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
    N Engl J Med 365:1693-703. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and the bacterium can also be carried asymptomatically...
  18. ncbi Asymptomatic carriers are a potential source for transmission of epidemic and nonepidemic Clostridium difficile strains among long-term care facility residents
    Michelle M Riggs
    Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:992-8. 2007
    Asymptomatic fecal carriage of Clostridium difficile is common in patients staying in health care facilities, but the importance of asymptomatic carriers with regard to disease transmission is unclear.
  19. doi Emergence of Clostridium difficile infection due to a new hypervirulent strain, polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078
    Abraham Goorhuis
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1162-70. 2008
    Since 2005, an increase in the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to polymerase chain reaction ribotype 078 has been noticed in The Netherlands...
  20. doi Decreased diversity of the fecal Microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
    Ju Young Chang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:435-8. 2008
    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile (CDAD) is thought to reflect colonization of a disrupted microbial community by the pathogen...
  21. doi Riboswitches in eubacteria sense the second messenger cyclic di-GMP
    N Sudarsan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Science 321:411-3. 2008
    ..In addition, sequences matching the consensus for cyclic di-GMP riboswitches are present in the genome of a bacteriophage...
  22. pmc Multilocus sequence typing of Clostridium difficile
    David Griffiths
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 48:770-8. 2010
    A robust high-throughput multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Clostridium difficile was developed and validated using a diverse collection of 50 reference isolates representing 45 different PCR ribotypes and 102 isolates from ..
  23. pmc Importance of toxin A, toxin B, and CDT in virulence of an epidemic Clostridium difficile strain
    Sarah A Kuehne
    Clostridia Research Group, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 209:83-6. 2014
    b>Clostridium difficile infection is the main cause of healthcare-acquired diarrhea in the developed world...
  24. doi Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 8:17-26. 2011
    The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past decade...
  25. pmc The anti-sigma factor TcdC modulates hypervirulence in an epidemic BI/NAP1/027 clinical isolate of Clostridium difficile
    Glen P Carter
    Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002317. 2011
    ..It has recently become apparent that the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium difficile also falls within this category. Since 2000, there has been a striking increase in C...
  26. ncbi A comparison of vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, stratified by disease severity
    Fred A Zar
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 7323, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:302-7. 2007
    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been increasing, and there have been recent reports of metronidazole treatment failure...
  27. pmc The key sigma factor of transition phase, SigH, controls sporulation, metabolism, and virulence factor expression in Clostridium difficile
    Laure Saujet
    Laboratoire de Pathogénèse des Bactéries Anaérobies, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Bacteriol 193:3186-96. 2011
    Toxin synthesis in Clostridium difficile increases as cells enter into stationary phase...
  28. pmc Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults
    Susan M Poutanen
    Department of Microbiology, Toronto Medical Laboratories and Mount Sinai Hospital
    CMAJ 171:51-8. 2004
    b>Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults. Illness may range from mild watery diarrhea to life-threatening colitis...
  29. pmc The Clostridium difficile spo0A gene is a persistence and transmission factor
    Laura J Deakin
    Microbial Pathogenesis Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 80:2704-11. 2012
    b>Clostridium difficile is a major cause of chronic antibiotic-associated diarrhea and a significant health care-associated pathogen that forms highly resistant and infectious spores...
  30. doi Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections
    Christina M Surawicz
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 108:478-98; quiz 499. 2013
    b>Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of hospital-associated gastrointestinal illness and places a high burden on our health-care system...
  31. doi Clostridium difficile--more difficult than ever
    Ciaran P Kelly
    Gastroenterology Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:1932-40. 2008
  32. ncbi Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Sandra Dial
    Division of Critical Care and Respiratory and Clinical Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
    JAMA 294:2989-95. 2005
    Recent reports suggest an increasing occurrence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. We assessed whether the use of gastric acid-suppressive agents is associated with an increased risk in the community.
  33. doi Health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Canada: patient age and infecting strain type are highly predictive of severe outcome and mortality
    Mark Miller
    Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 50:194-201. 2010
    ..We used a large Canadian database of patients with CDI to explore the interaction between these 2 variables...
  34. pmc Characterization of the sporulation initiation pathway of Clostridium difficile and its role in toxin production
    Sarah Underwood
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:7296-305. 2009
    b>Clostridium difficile is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in the hospitalized elderly. C. difficile spores are infectious and are a major factor contributing to nosocomial transmission...
  35. pmc The changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infections
    J Freeman
    Department of Microbiology, Old Medical School, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 23:529-49. 2010
    The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed dramatically during this millennium. Infection rates have increased markedly in most countries with detailed surveillance data...
  36. pmc Concurrent infections of Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Clostridium difficile in children during a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a pediatric hospital in China
    Lin Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2437. 2013
    ..In this study, the concurrence during the outbreak of three other enteric pathogens with a similar transmission route, Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Clostridium difficile, was assessed.
  37. pmc Emergence and global spread of epidemic healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile
    Miao He
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 45:109-13. 2013
    ..Our analysis identifies key genetic changes linked to the rapid transcontinental dissemination of epidemic C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 and highlights the routes by which it spreads through the global healthcare system...
  38. doi Comparison of clinical severity score indices for Clostridium difficile infection
    Shigeki Fujitani
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32:220-8. 2011
    To compare 8 severity score indices for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
  39. doi A new macrocyclic antibiotic, fidaxomicin (OPT-80), causes less alteration to the bowel microbiota of Clostridium difficile-infected patients than does vancomycin
    Gerald W Tannock
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Microbiology 156:3354-9. 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common identifiable cause of diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. Current therapies rely on the administration of metronidazole or vancomycin, which reduce vegetative populations of C...
  40. pmc Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production
    Michelle Merrigan
    Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:4904-11. 2010
    Toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains produce two toxins (TcdA and TcdB) during the stationary phase of growth and are the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C...
  41. pmc Caspase and bid involvement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and modulation of toxin A effects by glutamine and alanyl-glutamine in vivo and in vitro
    Benedito A Carneiro
    Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, MR4, Lane Road, Room 3148, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Infect Immun 74:81-7. 2006
    b>Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial diarrhea. Glutamine and its stable and highly soluble derivative alanyl-glutamine, have been beneficial in models of intestinal injury...
  42. doi Clostridium difficile infection in Ohio hospitals and nursing homes during 2006
    Robert J Campbell
    Ohio Department of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30:526-33. 2009
    Healthcare data suggest that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitals are increasing...
  43. pmc Incidence of and risk factors for community-associated Clostridium difficile infection: a nested case-control study
    Jennifer L Kuntz
    Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 11:194. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in the United States. However, recent reports have documented that C...
  44. doi Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome after bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
    Alexander Khoruts
    Department of Medicine, Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55108, USA
    J Clin Gastroenterol 44:354-60. 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is the major known cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis, and the disease is thought to result from persistent disruption of commensal gut microbiota...
  45. pmc Multiple factors modulate biofilm formation by the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium difficile
    Tanja Ðapa
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 195:545-55. 2013
    ..The obligate anaerobe Clostridium difficile causes C...
  46. pmc Proteomic and genomic characterization of highly infectious Clostridium difficile 630 spores
    Trevor D Lawley
    Microbial Pathogenesis Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 191:5377-86. 2009
    b>Clostridium difficile, a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, produces highly resistant spores that contaminate hospital environments and facilitate efficient disease transmission. We purified C...
  47. ncbi An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile
    L Clifford McDonald
    Epidemiology and Laboratory Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2433-41. 2005
    Recent reports suggest that the rate and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in the United States are increasing and that the increase may be associated with the emergence of a new strain of C...
  48. pmc Comparative phylogenomics of Clostridium difficile reveals clade specificity and microevolution of hypervirulent strains
    R A Stabler
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 188:7297-305. 2006
    b>Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea worldwide, and recent reports suggested the emergence of a hypervirulent strain in North America and Europe...
  49. ncbi Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Bradley C Johnston
    The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Room 2420, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    Ann Intern Med 157:878-88. 2012
    Antibiotic treatment may disturb the resistance of gastrointestinal flora to colonization. This may result in complications, the most serious of which is Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD).
  50. pmc Characterisation of Clostridium difficile biofilm formation, a role for Spo0A
    Lisa F Dawson
    Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e50527. 2012
    b>Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhoea worldwide. We demonstrate that C. difficile aggregates and forms biofilms in vitro on abiotic surfaces...
  51. pmc Detection of mixed infection from bacterial whole genome sequence data allows assessment of its role in Clostridium difficile transmission
    David W Eyre
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Comput Biol 9:e1003059. 2013
    ..mixed infection experiments, and apply it to transmission of an important healthcare-associated pathogen, Clostridium difficile. Using hospital ward movement data in a previously described stochastic transmission model, 15 pairs of ..
  52. doi Clostridium difficile strain NAP-1 is not associated with severe disease in a nonepidemic setting
    Jeffrey Cloud
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:868-873.e2. 2009
    Recent outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and in Europe with very high case-fatality rates have been associated with infection by North American Pulsed Field Type I (NAP-1) isolates...
  53. pmc Precise manipulation of the Clostridium difficile chromosome reveals a lack of association between the tcdC genotype and toxin production
    Stephen T Cartman
    Clostridia Research Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, The University of Nottingham, University Park, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4683-90. 2012
    b>Clostridium difficile causes a potentially fatal diarrheal disease through the production of its principal virulence factors, toxin A and toxin B. The tcdC gene is thought to encode a negative regulator of toxin production...
  54. pmc Impact of strain type on detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile: comparison of molecular diagnostic and enzyme immunoassay approaches
    Fred C Tenover
    Cepheid, 904 Caribbean Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 98089, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:3719-24. 2010
    ..difficile assay on stool specimens collected from patients suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
  55. doi Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 mediates recognition of Clostridium difficile and induces neutrophil recruitment and protection against the pathogen
    Mizuho Hasegawa
    Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    J Immunol 186:4872-80. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive obligate anaerobic pathogen that causes pseudomembranous colitis in antibiotics-treated individuals. However, host immune protective mechanisms against C. difficile are largely unknown...
  56. ncbi Conjugative transfer of clostridial shuttle vectors from Escherichia coli to Clostridium difficile through circumvention of the restriction barrier
    Des Purdy
    Research Division, Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Wiltshire, UK
    Mol Microbiol 46:439-52. 2002
    Progress towards understanding the molecular basis of virulence in Clostridium difficile has been hindered by the lack of effective gene transfer systems...
  57. pmc Mutagenic analysis of the Clostridium difficile flagellar proteins, FliC and FliD, and their contribution to virulence in hamsters
    Tanis C Dingle
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
    Infect Immun 79:4061-7. 2011
    Although toxins A and B are known to be important contributors to the acute phase of Clostridium difficile infection, the role of colonization and adherence to host tissues in the overall pathogenesis of these organisms remains unclear...
  58. ncbi Development of a new PCR-ribotyping method for Clostridium difficile based on ribosomal RNA gene sequencing
    P Bidet
    Laboratoire de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, France
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 175:261-6. 1999
    ..in the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, has been recently used to investigate outbreaks due to Clostridium difficile. However, this method generates bands of high and close molecular masses which are difficult to separate ..
  59. doi Persistence of skin contamination and environmental shedding of Clostridium difficile during and after treatment of C. difficile infection
    Ajay K Sethi
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31:21-7. 2010
    Current guidelines for control of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) suggest that contact precautions be discontinued after diarrhea resolves...
  60. pmc Clostridium difficile mixed infection and reinfection
    David W Eyre
    NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 50:142-4. 2012
    Isolates from consecutive Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) fecal samples underwent multilocus sequence typing...
  61. doi Proton pump inhibitors increase significantly the risk of Clostridium difficile infection in a low-endemicity, non-outbreak hospital setting
    B R Dalton
    Department of Pharmacy Services, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, AB, Canada
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29:626-34. 2009
    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) have been linked to higher risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
  62. doi Evaluation of Clostridium difficile in dogs and the household environment
    J S Weese
    Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1100-4. 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile may be an emerging community-associated pathogen but little is known about its sources of exposure. This study evaluated C. difficile contamination in households and colonization of pets. C...
  63. pmc Clinical risk factors for severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Timothy J Henrich
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:415-22. 2009
    Identifying patients who are at high risk for severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) early in the course of their infection may help clinicians improve outcomes...
  64. doi Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection by toxin detection kits: a systematic review
    Tim Planche
    Department of Medical Microbiology, St George s Hospital, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:777-84. 2008
    b>Clostridium difficile can be a fatal hospital-acquired infection and its prevalence has increased. Accurate diagnosis of C difficile is essential for patient management, infection control, and for defining its epidemiology...
  65. pmc Genetic organisation, mobility and predicted functions of genes on integrated, mobile genetic elements in sequenced strains of Clostridium difficile
    Michael S M Brouwer
    Department of Microbial Diseases, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e23014. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in the US and Europe. Recently the incidence of C...
  66. doi Induction of toxins in Clostridium difficile is associated with dramatic changes of its metabolism
    Sture Karlsson
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Department of Bacteriology, Solna, Sweden
    Microbiology 154:3430-6. 2008
    Certain amino acids, and cysteine in particular, promptly blocked toxin expression in Clostridium difficile strain VPI 10463 when added to late-exponential-phase peptone-yeast cultures, i.e. prior to normal induction of toxins A and B...
  67. doi Fecal bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
    Johan S Bakken
    St Luke s Hospital, Infectious Disease Associates, 1001 East Superior Street, Suite L201 Duluth, MN 55802, USA
    Anaerobe 15:285-9. 2009
    b>Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has emerged as a major complication associated with the use of systemic antimicrobial agents...
  68. doi Iatrogenic gastric acid suppression and the risk of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection
    Michael D Howell
    Silverman Institute for Healthcare Quality and Safety, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Arch Intern Med 170:784-90. 2010
    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections are increasing. Acid-suppressive therapy has been suggested as a risk factor for C difficile, but this remains controversial.
  69. doi Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins
    Israel Lowy
    Medarex, Princeton, NJ, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:197-205. 2010
    New therapies are needed to manage the increasing incidence, severity, and high rate of recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection.
  70. pmc Clostridium difficile ribotype does not predict severe infection
    Seth T Walk
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1661-8. 2012
    Studies of Clostridium difficile outbreaks suggested that certain ribotypes (eg, 027 and 078) cause more severe disease than other ribotypes. A growing number of studies challenge the validity of this hypothesis.
  71. pmc Multiplex PCR targeting tpi (triose phosphate isomerase), tcdA (Toxin A), and tcdB (Toxin B) genes for toxigenic culture of Clostridium difficile
    Ludovic Lemee
    Groupe de Recherche sur les Antimicrobiens et les Microorganismes, Universite de Rouen, UFR Medecine Pharmacie, and Service de Bacteriologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, France
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5710-4. 2004
    ..culture approach was designed for simultaneous identification and toxigenic type characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates...
  72. pmc Burden of Clostridium difficile on the healthcare system
    Erik R Dubberke
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S88-92. 2012
    There are few high-quality studies of the costs of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and the majority of studies focus on the costs of CDI in acute-care facilities...
  73. ncbi Generation of an erythromycin-sensitive derivative of Clostridium difficile strain 630 (630Deltaerm) and demonstration that the conjugative transposon Tn916DeltaE enters the genome of this strain at multiple sites
    Haitham A Hussain
    Division of Microbial Diseases, Eastman Dental Institute for Oral Health Care Sciences, University College London, 256 Gray s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD, UK
    J Med Microbiol 54:137-41. 2005
    Erythromycin resistance in Clostridium difficile strain 630 is conferred by a genetic element termed Tn5398 which contains two erm(B) genes: erm1(B) and erm2(B)...
  74. ncbi Construction and analysis of chromosomal Clostridium difficile mutants
    Jennifer R O'Connor
    Australian Bacterial Pathogenesis Program, Department of Microbiology, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia
    Mol Microbiol 61:1335-51. 2006
    b>Clostridium difficile is an emerging nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance and virulence but our ability to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of C...
  75. pmc Comparison of nine commercially available Clostridium difficile toxin detection assays, a real-time PCR assay for C. difficile tcdB, and a glutamate dehydrogenase detection assay to cytotoxin testing and cytotoxigenic culture methods
    Kerrie Eastwood
    Microbiology Department, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3211-7. 2009
    The continuing rise in the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection is a cause for concern, with implications for patients and health care systems...
  76. pmc Clinical Clostridium difficile: clonality and pathogenicity locus diversity
    Kate E Dingle
    Nuffield Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e19993. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in healthcare settings...
  77. pmc OPT-80 eliminates Clostridium difficile and is sparing of bacteroides species during treatment of C. difficile infection
    Thomas J Louie
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:261-3. 2009
    During a 10-day treatment for Clostridium difficile infection, OPT-80 and vancomycin were comparably effective in reducing C. difficile counts...
  78. pmc Clinical outcomes, safety, and pharmacokinetics of OPT-80 in a phase 2 trial with patients with Clostridium difficile infection
    T Louie
    University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:223-8. 2009
    OPT-80, a novel, minimally absorbed macrocycle, is a candidate treatment option for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) based on cure without recurrence of CDI in the hamster challenge model, good in vitro activity against C...
  79. pmc Increase in adult Clostridium difficile-related hospitalizations and case-fatality rate, United States, 2000-2005
    Marya D Zilberberg
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01032, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:929-31. 2008
    Virulence of and deaths from Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) are on the rise in the United States. The incidence of adult CDAD hospitalizations doubled from 5.5 cases per 10,000 population in 2000 to 11...
  80. ncbi A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
    N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
    In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
  81. pmc Profound alterations of intestinal microbiota following a single dose of clindamycin results in sustained susceptibility to Clostridium difficile-induced colitis
    Charlie G Buffie
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Lucille Castori Center for Microbes, Inflammation and Cancer, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA
    Infect Immun 80:62-73. 2012
    ..b>Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive intestinal pathogen that causes colitis and diarrhea in patients following antibiotic ..
  82. pmc Markers of intestinal inflammation, not bacterial burden, correlate with clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection
    Rana E El Feghaly
    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 56:1713-21. 2013
    b>Clostridium difficile is a leading hospital-acquired infection. Many patients remain symptomatic for several days on appropriate antibiotic therapy...
  83. pmc Use of multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis genotyping to determine the role of asymptomatic carriers in Clostridium difficile transmission
    Scott R Curry
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
    Clin Infect Dis 57:1094-102. 2013
    Previous studies have suggested that asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile are a source of hospital-associated (HA) infections...
  84. doi Long-term follow-up of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
    Lawrence J Brandt
    Division of Gastroenterology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 107:1079-87. 2012
    b>Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased to epidemic proportions over the past 15 years, and recurrence rates of 30-65% with failure to respond to multiple courses of antimicrobials are common...
  85. doi Consequences of Clostridium difficile infection: understanding the healthcare burden
    E Bouza
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:5-12. 2012
    b>Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious nosocomial diarrhoea in developed countries, with a measured incidence of approximately five episodes per 10,000 days of hospital stay in Europe. Accurate diagnosis of C...
  86. doi A possible oligosaccharide-conjugate vaccine candidate for Clostridium difficile is antigenic and immunogenic
    Matthias A Oberli
    Department of Biomolecular Systems, Max Planck Institute for Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, Germany
    Chem Biol 18:580-8. 2011
    Nosocomial infections with the Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium difficile pose a major risk for hospitalized patients and result in significant costs to health care systems...
  87. doi Clinical and economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a systematic review of healthcare-facility-acquired infection
    P N Wiegand
    Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Hosp Infect 81:1-14. 2012
    ..abstracts were reviewed systematically to determine the clinical and economic burden associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) acquired and treated in European healthcare facilities...
  88. pmc Immunization with Bacillus spores expressing toxin A peptide repeats protects against infection with Clostridium difficile strains producing toxins A and B
    Patima Permpoonpattana
    School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 79:2295-302. 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infection in the developed world. Two toxins, A and B, produced by most strains of C...
  89. pmc A novel approach to generate a recombinant toxoid vaccine against Clostridium difficile
    Robert G K Donald
    Pfizer Vaccine Research, Pearl River, NY 10654, USA
    Microbiology 159:1254-66. 2013
    The Clostridium difficile toxins A and B are primarily responsible for symptoms of C. difficile associated disease and are prime targets for vaccine development...
  90. pmc Seasonal variations in Clostridium difficile infections are associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus activity independently of antibiotic prescriptions: a time series analysis in Quebec, Canada
    Rodica Gilca
    Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:639-46. 2012
    Seasonal variations in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), with a higher incidence occurring during winter months, have been reported...
  91. pmc Comparison of real-time PCR techniques to cytotoxigenic culture methods for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection
    C W Knetsch
    Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 49:227-31. 2011
    In the past decade, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with a more severe course has increased in Europe and North America. Assays that are capable of rapidly diagnosing CDI are essential...
  92. pmc Fidaxomicin preserves the intestinal microbiome during and after treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and reduces both toxin reexpression and recurrence of CDI
    Thomas J Louie
    Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Center, 1403 29th St NW, Calgary, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S132-42. 2012
    ..vancomycin 125 mg 4 times per day versus fidaxomicin 200 mg twice per day for 10 days as treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
  93. pmc Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for recurrence of Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea
    Ji Won Kim
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 156 707, South Korea
    World J Gastroenterol 16:3573-7. 2010
    ..To investigate the risk factors for Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) recurrence, and its relationship with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)...
  94. doi Clostridium difficile in food and domestic animals: a new foodborne pathogen?
    L Hannah Gould
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:577-82. 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile infection is increasingly recognized as a cause of diarrhea in outpatients and persons with no apparent health care facility contacts. In contrast to C...
  95. doi Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand rubs for removal of Clostridium difficile spores from hands
    Umair Jabbar
    Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31:565-70. 2010
    ..Alcohol is not effective against Clostridium difficile spores. We examined the retention of C...
  96. doi Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections
    Lynne V McFarland
    Department of Health Services Research and Development, Puget Sound Veterans Administration Healthcare System, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Anaerobe 15:274-80. 2009
    ..The use of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) has been tested in randomized controlled clinical trials...
  97. pmc Clostridium difficile in retail meat products, USA, 2007
    J Glenn Songer
    University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:819-21. 2009
    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, we sampled cooked and uncooked meat products sold in Tucson, Arizona. Forty-two percent contained toxigenic C...
  98. pmc Comparison of seven techniques for typing international epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile: restriction endonuclease analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat an
    George Killgore
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:431-7. 2008
    ..the United Kingdom, and the United States, we compared the results of analyses done with seven Clostridium difficile typing techniques: multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), amplified fragment length ..
  99. pmc Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis
    Perry Hookman
    University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL 33140, USA
    World J Gastroenterol 15:1554-80. 2009
    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s...
  100. ncbi Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe
    E J Kuijper
    Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 12:2-18. 2006
    The clinical spectrum of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) ranges from diarrhoea to severe life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis...
  101. pmc Effect of broad- and narrow-spectrum antimicrobials on Clostridium difficile and microbial diversity in a model of the distal colon
    Mary C Rea
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4639-44. 2011
    ..and the bacteriocin lacticin 3147 are active against a wide range of bacterial species, including Clostridium difficile. We demonstrate that, in a human distal colon model, the addition of each of the three antimicrobials ..

Research Grants74

  1. Bioorganic Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase
    PAUL LINDAHL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such models represent the most rigorous means of testing enzyme mechanisms. Relavance to Public Health: Clostridium difficile, which contains this enzyme ACS/CODH, causes antibiotic-associated colitis, toxic megacolon, intestinal ..
  2. Mucosal Immunity to Antigens Expressed by V.cholerae
    Edward Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is the cause of significant morbidity, mortality and cost. Systemic and mucosal immunity to C...
  3. Oral Immunotherapy for C. difficile Disease via Bacteria
    Thomas Parks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Clostridium difficile is the cause of pseudomembranous colitis and the leading cause of nosocomial intestinal infections in the U.S...
  4. Suppression of Clostridium difficile by Commensals
    Kenneth Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..with a rich variety of commensal bacteria that suppress populations of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium difficile, the cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. C...
  5. 0157:H7 INTIMIN AND STX--PATHOGENESIS IN A MOUSE MODEL
    David Schauer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..well as a hemolysin (HlyA), a serine protease (EspP), and an plasmid-encoded adhesin with homology to the Clostridium difficile toxin B (Efal)...
  6. Development of Vaccines against Clostridium difficile Infection
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in response to RFA-AI-09-016 requesting applications to develop vaccines for selected pathogens including Clostridium difficile, the cause of pseudomembranous colitis, which accounts for a quarter of all cases of antibiotic-associated ..
  7. C. Difficile Outcomes and Effectiveness of Treatment Strategies in SCI
    Charlesnika T Evans; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of national VA medical data bases to assess morbidity, mortality, and utilization associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in veterans with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D)...
  8. Therapeutics for Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Myxopyronins
    Richard H Ebright; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Clostridium difficile in culture...
  9. Localization and characterization of the Clostridium difficile biofilm
    Adam Driks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals around the world. In the US, it accounts for over $3.2 billion/year in health care costs in hospitals...
  10. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, and is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world with more than 300,000 cases of C...
  11. Development of a Novel PolC Inhibitor as a Gram-Positive Antibiotic
    THALE CROSS JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Group A strep), vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE), Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium difficile. TZUs demonstrate bactericidal activity, oral bioavailability, in vivo efficacy, a low propensity for ..
  12. Evaluation of a new class of antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile
    SAUL R contact TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..a response to RFA AI-10-010 requesting applications among others to develop antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile. C...
  13. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, and is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world with more than 300,000 cases of C...
  14. PA-50/PA-41 antitoxin antibody therapy for C. difficile infection
    William C Olson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause both of hospital-acquired diarrhea and of death due to intestinal infections in the US...
  15. Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile as an Oral Vaccine for C. difficile Infection
    DALE NICHOLAS GERDING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxin A or toxin B will elicit an immune response by the host that will protect against future symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) after colonization with the non-toxigenic vaccine strain is lost...
  16. Epithelium, dendritic cells, and Clostridium difficile associated colitis
    Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile, an etiologic agent for pseudomembranous colitis, accounts for a quarter cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea...
  17. Preclinical development of a novel antibacterial for Clostridium difficile diseas
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..IIIC and IIIE, several compounds are active against multiple strains of the anaerobic Gram+ bacterium Clostridium difficile (Cdiff)...
  18. Shifts in the Gastrointestinal Metabolome During Clostridium difficile Infection
    CASEY THERIOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary/Abstract Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is responsible for significant morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs...
  19. Chicago Prevention and Intervention Epicenter (Chicago PIE)
    ROBERT ALAN WEINSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli - and Clostridium difficile-associated infections (CDIs) are increasing causes of HAIs...
  20. A fully integrated assay and platform for detecting Clostridium difficile
    BRUCE D IRVINE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..harmful bacteria can destroy the normal colonic flora, and increase the patient's susceptibility to Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Pathogenic strains of C...
  21. Novel, Non-antibiotic Therapy for Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease
    Dangshe Ma; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that represents the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. C...
  22. Genetic Discovery and Application in a Clinical Setting Continuing a Partnership
    Eric B Larson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Target phenotypes are infectious disease susceptibility, specifically to Clostridium difficile diarrhea, shingles from varicella zoster virus, and fungal nail infection, responses to antihypertensive ..
  23. A synergy-based therapy against C. difficile
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The increasing incidence of infections by the intestinal anaerobe Clostridium difficile coupled with the spread of drug resistant highly virulent strains dictates the need for developing new therapies for this potentially lethal ..
  24. Fecal Bacteriotherapy for Relapsing Clostridium difficile Infection
    COLLEEN RENEE KELLY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a common nosocomial pathogen. By far the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients in North America, there has been an alarming rise in incidence of C...
  25. A novel vaccine to prevent Clostridium difficile colitis
    Edgar C Boedeker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The need for novel therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections in the VA Health Care system, is urgent...
  26. Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-Effectiveness Refined (P-NICER)
    Patricia W Stone; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, with increased HAIs caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile (C...
  27. Exposporium determinants of Bacillus anthracis
    George C Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..human pathogens possess exosporia, including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium difficile and a more detailed understanding of the exosporium of B...
  28. AN HTS ASSAY FOR INHIBITORS OF C. DIFFICLE TOXINS
    David B Haslam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is an illness characterized by damage to the intestine and a marked inflammatory response...
  29. Structural mechanisms of Clostridium difficile pathogenesis
    DANA BORDEN LACY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe that infects the colon, causing a range of human disease including diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and toxic megacolon...
  30. Integration of metabolism and virulence in Gram-positive bacteria
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Analogous studies with two important human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile, will reveal where within the CodY hierarchy various virulence genes fall...
  31. Vaccine Potential of Type IV Pilin from Clostridium difficle
    Michael S Donnenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes severe and sometimes deadly colitis. Epidemiological evidence indicates that both the severity and incidence of C...
  32. A Four-arm Prospective, Multicenter Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy, Effect
    Daniel J Sexton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter...
  33. Evaluating Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients
    AMY LYNN PAKYZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For valid and fair HAI comparisons, risk adjustment methods may be required. The organism Clostridium difficile, which causes diarrhea, has become a common microbial threat for patients, probably due to a recently ..
  34. Mucosal live vector vaccine against recurrent Clostridium difficile infections
    James E Galen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..technologies, we can construct a mucosally administered multivalent vaccine to immunize against recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDI)...
  35. Development of Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics
    Paul B Savage; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In addition, specific ceragenins display very high levels of activity against certain clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile, and it is expected that minor modifications to ceragenins will result in compound with broad, selective ..
  36. Development of a novel antibody therapy for clostridium difficile infection
    Irving Nachamkin; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a common cause of both hospital- and community acquired gastrointestinal infection that may occur after patients have been treated for other infections with a variety of ..
  37. Clostridium perfringens Type B-D Virulence Plasmids
    Francisco A Uzal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..perfringens can conjugatively exchange toxin plasmids or toxin genes with Clostridium difficile, another major clostridial enteropathogen, and whether certain C...
  38. Genetic approaches to discover host factors critical to dengue virus infection
    JAN EDUARD CARETTE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..approach can be used to identify host genes required for different pathogens including Ebola virus and Clostridium difficile. In this proposal we aim to find critical host factors that dengue virus uses to establish a successful ..
  39. Aerobic Growth of Anaerobic Pathogens
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two very different bacterial pathogens, the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis and the Gram-positive Clostridium difficile, have been considered as textbook examples of strict anaerobes that inhabit the large intestine. B...
  40. Clostridium difficile Cooperative Research Center
    Vincent B Young; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the UM ERIN CRC will focus its efforts on the study of antibiotic-associated colitis due to Clostridium difficile. C...
  41. Understanding Etiology: Mapping Clostridium difficile Spatial Distribution and Mi
    William E Holben; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Here, we propose using Clostridium difficile as a model for examining how an opportunistic pathogen either causes or takes advantage of changes in the ..
  42. A Monoclonal Cocktail for CDI
    ANDREW HIATT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDI) is an important cause of morbidity in hospital and nursing home patients, and is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality...
  43. Probiotics to Improve Outcomes of Clostridium difficile
    Nasia Safdar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a major pathogen causing serious healthcare-associated infection...
  44. A Feeding Tube Model for Bacterial Cell-Cell Communication
    AMY HITCHCOCK CAMP; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..subtilis such as B. anthracis and Clostridium difficile.
  45. Development of a New Diamine (SQ109) for the Treatment of C. difficile Infection
    MARINA N PROTOPOPOVA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is the major cause of nosocomial, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, an emerging drug- resistant infection. The antibiotic armamentarium for treating C...
  46. Phylogenomic epidemiology of Clostridium difficile
    Seth T Walk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium, Clostridium difficile, is a global healthcare problem and a common complication of antibiotic therapy. A subset of toxin-producing C...
  47. Reducing Antimicrobial Use Associated with Ventilator Associated Pneumonia and Ca
    SARA ELIZABETH COSGROVE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will assess length of stay, mortality, hospital costs, rates of emergence of resistance, rates of Clostridium difficile disease and rates of acquisition of MRSA and VRE in the study units during the baseline and intervention ..
  48. Chemically Interrogating Clostridium difficile Glucosylating Toxin Activation
    Aimee Shen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Jimmy Ballard at Oklahoma State University) where I will learn how to culture Clostridium difficile and purify its glucosylating toxins...
  49. Nature inspired treatments for persistent C. difficile infections
    Julian G Hurdle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have become more difficult to treat due to the rise of hypervirulent strains that have increased morbidity as well as mortality and the likelihood of ..
  50. Resilience in early development: How antibiotics shape infant microbiome assembly
    ELIZABETH COSTELLO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antibiotic disruption of the native microbiota is implicated in a wide range of human disease, including Clostridium difficile colitis and other acute and chronic forms of diarrhea...
  51. Allosteric therapy of the Clostridium difficile toxins
    Tor Savidge; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most prolific causes of bacterial-induced diarrhea in the United States, with 3 million cases estimated annually...
  52. Ultrasensitive quantitative digital ELISA for C. difficile toxins in stool
    Nira Pollock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The recent increase in global incidence and severity of disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium difficile presents a major clinical and diagnostic problem. C...
  53. Innate Immune Defense against Clostridium Difficile Infection
    Eric G Pamer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile causes colitis following antibiotic-mediated perturbation of the intestinal microbiota. C...
  54. TcdB Based Protein Delivery of iPSC Reprogramming Factors
    Yung Nien Chang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We propose to engineer Clostridium difficile toxin TcdB as a cytosolic delivery vehicle for embryonic transactivators that can reprogram adult somatic ..
  55. Toxemia and systemic disease in Clostridium difficile infection
    Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is one of the most important, resurging nosocomial enteric pathogens. Incidence and mortality rates for C...
  56. Effects of the Intestinal Microbiota on Infections During Bone Marrow Transplant
    Ying Taur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..between flora and the risk for two infections, bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)...
  57. Identification of Intestinal Bacteria Protective against C. Difficile Colitis
    Michael Jay Sadowsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) is a major growing public health problem. The growth of C...
  58. 2012 International Conference on Gram-positive Pathogens
    Paul D Fey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Infections caused by gram-positive pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Clostridium difficile, and Enterococcus faecium, among others, are a burden on our society causing significant morbidity and ..
  59. A vaccine against Clostridium difficile infections
    Barbara A Swanson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In this proposal we lay out a comprehensive research plan to evaluate our vaccination strategies targeting Clostridium difficile to prevent or treat infections...
  60. A Switch in Gene Expression During Bacterial Development
    AMY HITCHCOCK CAMP; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..antibiotic targets for gram-positive spore forming bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium difficile. Finally, this research plan is innovative not only because it addresses largely overlooked aspects of ..
  61. Structure and Role in Disease of Clostridium difficile Type IV Pili
    Michael S Donnenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic bacillus that causes severe colitis with high mortality. The incidence and severity of C...
  62. Surgical Site and Clostridium difficile Infections after Ambulatory Surgery
    Margaret A Olsen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) and infection with antibiotic resistant organisms, such as Clostridium difficile, after ASC procedures at the national level or from individual facilities...
  63. Role of Bile Acids in Human Susceptibiity to Clostridium difficile Infection
    JOSEPH AARON SORG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile has become the most frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Moreover, the need to prevent/treat C...
  64. Experiment based genome mining of ribosomal natural products
    Bradley S Moore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of ribosomally encoded toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium difficile as well as defensins produced by higher eukaryotes such as marine snails, primates and humans.
  65. Clinical Significance of Clostridium difficile Toxin Variants
    STUART BRIAN JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is an increasing problem in Veterans Hospitals and other hospitals throughout North America. Recent multi-hospital outbreaks in Canada and in the U.S...
  66. Gastrointestinal Colonization of Diarrheagenic Clostridium difficile
    GAYATRI PH D VEDANTAM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Our current Merit Award focuses on factors contributing to virulence in Clostridium difficile, and a number of surface-layer proteins (SLPs) have been identified, that mediate bacterial adhesion to ..
  67. Regulation of Clostridium difficile Colonization Factors
    Rita Tamayo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe that causes diseases ranging from antibiotic- associated diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis...
  68. CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION
    JERGANG CHANG; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..term objective of this proposed research is to enhance our understanding of spontaneous diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile in aged hamsters...
  69. ISOLATION OF TOXINS FROM C. DIFFICILE & C. SORDELLII
    Tracy Wilkins; Fiscal Year: 1992
    b>Clostridium difficile is a relatively "new" pathogen that causes colitis in some patients receiving antibiotic therapy. The organism and its toxins occur in about 15% of patients with diarrhea in hospitals and that is a lot of patients...
  70. Development of a C. difficile Monoclonal-based Product
    Larry Zeitlin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..One infectious disease that merits much more attention is Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD)...
  71. Clostridium difficile Toxin Gene Regulation
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Clostridium difficile is the principal causative agent of antibiotic-associated colitis and the only known cause of pseudomembranous colitis, a potentially lethal disease...
  72. New Treatment for C. difficile-Associated Diarrhea
    FARAH BABAKHANI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Clostridium difficile, a toxigenic, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea...
  73. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXINS
    Charles Faust; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Toxigenic Clostridium difficile located in the intestinal tract is known to be a major cause of antimicrobial associate colitis, and it is ..
  74. INTESTINAL MUSCLE EFFECTS OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN
    Richard Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Toxins derived from the bacterium Clostridium difficile are the principal cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea...