clostridium

Summary

Summary: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.

Top Publications

  1. doi Combined PCR-DGGE fingerprinting and quantitative-PCR indicates shifts in fecal population sizes and diversity of Bacteroides, bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster IV in institutionalized elderly
    Jutta Zwielehner
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria
    Exp Gerontol 44:440-6. 2009
  2. pmc Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species
    Koji Atarashi
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Science 331:337-41. 2011
  3. ncbi The ClosTron: a universal gene knock-out system for the genus Clostridium
    John T Heap
    Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
    J Microbiol Methods 70:452-64. 2007
  4. doi A modular system for Clostridium shuttle plasmids
    John T Heap
    BBSRC Sustainable BioEnergy Centre, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
    J Microbiol Methods 78:79-85. 2009
  5. pmc Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium
    Yili Chen
    Delaware Biotechnology Institute, Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
    MBio 2:e00340-10. 2011
  6. doi The induction of Treg cells by gut-indigenous Clostridium
    Yuji Nagano
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Curr Opin Immunol 24:392-7. 2012
  7. pmc Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol
    Arnold L Demain
    Charles A Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti, HS 330, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:124-54. 2005
  8. doi Microbiota and SCFA in lean and overweight healthy subjects
    Andreas Schwiertz
    Institute of Microecology, Auf den Lüppen 8, Herborn, Germany
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:190-5. 2010
  9. doi Comparative assessment of human and farm animal faecal microbiota using real-time quantitative PCR
    Jean Pierre Furet
    INRA, U910, Unité d Ecologie et de Physiologie du Système Digestif, Jouy en Josas, France
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 68:351-62. 2009
  10. pmc Regulation of neurotoxin production and sporulation by a Putative agrBD signaling system in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum
    Clare M Cooksley
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4448-60. 2010

Detail Information

Publications344 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Combined PCR-DGGE fingerprinting and quantitative-PCR indicates shifts in fecal population sizes and diversity of Bacteroides, bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster IV in institutionalized elderly
    Jutta Zwielehner
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria
    Exp Gerontol 44:440-6. 2009
    ..This study aimed at determining ageing-related shifts in diversity and composition of key members of the fecal microbiota by comparing institutionalized elderly (n = 17, 78-94 years) and young volunteers (n = 17, 18-31 years)...
  2. pmc Induction of colonic regulatory T cells by indigenous Clostridium species
    Koji Atarashi
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Science 331:337-41. 2011
    ..The spore-forming component of indigenous intestinal microbiota, particularly clusters IV and XIVa of the genus Clostridium, promoted T(reg) cell accumulation...
  3. ncbi The ClosTron: a universal gene knock-out system for the genus Clostridium
    John T Heap
    Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
    J Microbiol Methods 70:452-64. 2007
    ..The system has been used to make 6 mutants of Clostridium acetobutylicum and 5 of Clostridium difficile, exceeding the number of published mutants ever generated in ..
  4. doi A modular system for Clostridium shuttle plasmids
    John T Heap
    BBSRC Sustainable BioEnergy Centre, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
    J Microbiol Methods 78:79-85. 2009
    Despite their medical and industrial importance, our basic understanding of the biology of the genus Clostridium is rudimentary in comparison to their aerobic counterparts in the genus Bacillus...
  5. pmc Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium
    Yili Chen
    Delaware Biotechnology Institute, Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA
    MBio 2:e00340-10. 2011
    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology...
  6. doi The induction of Treg cells by gut-indigenous Clostridium
    Yuji Nagano
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    Curr Opin Immunol 24:392-7. 2012
    ..The presence of the gut microbiota, particularly the Clostridium species, affects the development and function of Treg cells...
  7. pmc Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol
    Arnold L Demain
    Charles A Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti, HS 330, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:124-54. 2005
    ..Coculture of a cellulolytic strain and a saccharolytic strain of Clostridium on agricultural resources, as well as on urban and industrial cellulosic wastes, is a promising approach to an ..
  8. doi Microbiota and SCFA in lean and overweight healthy subjects
    Andreas Schwiertz
    Institute of Microecology, Auf den Lüppen 8, Herborn, Germany
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 18:190-5. 2010
    ..However, our results contradict previous reports with regard to the contribution of various bacterial groups to the development of obesity and this issue remains controversial...
  9. doi Comparative assessment of human and farm animal faecal microbiota using real-time quantitative PCR
    Jean Pierre Furet
    INRA, U910, Unité d Ecologie et de Physiologie du Système Digestif, Jouy en Josas, France
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 68:351-62. 2009
    ..Three dominant bacterial groups (Bacteroides/Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides and Bifidobacterium) of the human microbiota showed differential population levels in animal species...
  10. pmc Regulation of neurotoxin production and sporulation by a Putative agrBD signaling system in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum
    Clare M Cooksley
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4448-60. 2010
    A significant number of genome sequences of Clostridium botulinum and related species have now been determined...
  11. pmc Clostridium ljungdahlii represents a microbial production platform based on syngas
    Michael Köpke
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Universitat Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13087-92. 2010
    b>Clostridium ljungdahlii is an anaerobic homoacetogen, able to ferment sugars, other organic compounds, or CO(2)/H(2) and synthesis gas (CO/H(2))...
  12. doi Discovery of nigerose phosphorylase from Clostridium phytofermentans
    Takanori Nihira
    National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1513-22. 2012
    A novel phosphorylase from Clostridium phytofermentans belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 65 (Cphy1874) was characterized...
  13. pmc Characterization of three beta-galactoside phosphorylases from Clostridium phytofermentans: discovery of d-galactosyl-beta1->4-l-rhamnose phosphorylase
    Masahiro Nakajima
    National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2 1 12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
    J Biol Chem 284:19220-7. 2009
    ..We characterized three d-galactosyl-beta1-->3-N-acetyl-d-hexosamine phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.211) homologs from Clostridium phytofermentans (Cphy0577, Cphy1920, and Cphy3030 proteins)...
  14. pmc Butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa species specifically colonize mucins in an in vitro gut model
    Pieter Van den Abbeele
    Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology LabMET, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    ISME J 7:949-61. 2013
    ..and Proteobacteria were enriched in the luminal content while Firmicutes rather colonized the mucin layer, with Clostridium cluster XIVa accounting for almost 60% of the mucin-adhered microbiota...
  15. doi Mechanisms of enhanced cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by co-cultivation of Clostridium and Thermoanaerobacter spp
    Qiang He
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
    Bioresour Technol 102:9586-92. 2011
    ..Co-cultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum with non-cellulolytic Thermoanaerobacter strains (X514 and 39E) significantly improved ethanol ..
  16. pmc Cloning, sequencing, and expression of clustered genes encoding beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, crotonase, and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824
    Z L Boynton
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, The Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 1892, USA
    J Bacteriol 178:3015-24. 1996
    ..beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (BHBD), crotonase, and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (BCD) from Clostridium acetobutylicum are responsible for the formation of butyryl-CoA from acetoacetyl-CoA...
  17. pmc Structural shifts of mucosa-associated lactobacilli and Clostridium leptum subgroup in patients with ulcerative colitis
    Meiling Zhang
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbial Ecology and Ecogenomics, Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai, China
    J Clin Microbiol 45:496-500. 2007
    ..composition of the dominant bacteria (16S rRNA gene V3 region) and three important groups: lactobacilli, the Clostridium leptum subgroup, and Bacteroides spp...
  18. ncbi A comparative genomic view of clostridial sporulation and physiology
    Carlos J Paredes
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:969-78. 2005
    ....
  19. pmc Transcriptional analysis of butanol stress and tolerance in Clostridium acetobutylicum
    Christopher A Tomas
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:2006-18. 2004
    ..on the growth, glucose metabolism, product formation, and transcriptional program of the solvent-tolerant Clostridium acetobutylicum strain 824(pGROE1) and the plasmid control strain 824(pSOS95del) were used to study solvent ..
  20. doi The ClosTron: Mutagenesis in Clostridium refined and streamlined
    John T Heap
    BBSRC Sustainable BioEnergy Centre, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
    J Microbiol Methods 80:49-55. 2010
    The recent development of the ClosTron Group II intron directed mutagenesis tool for Clostridium has advanced genetics in this genus, and here we present several significant improvements...
  21. pmc Binary bacterial toxins: biochemistry, biology, and applications of common Clostridium and Bacillus proteins
    Holger Barth
    Institut für Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Albert Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Otto Krayer Haus, Albertstrasse 25, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68:373-402, table of contents. 2004
    Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic "A-B" paradigm for protein toxins. The binary toxins produced by B. anthracis, B. cereus, C...
  22. pmc Engineering clostridium strain to accept unmethylated DNA
    Hongjun Dong
    Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e9038. 2010
    It is difficult to genetically manipulate the medically and biotechnologically important genus Clostridium due to the existence of the restriction and modification (RM) systems...
  23. pmc Northern, morphological, and fermentation analysis of spo0A inactivation and overexpression in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824
    Latonia M Harris
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:3586-97. 2002
    The Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 spo0A gene was cloned, and two recombinant strains were generated, an spo0A inactivation strain (SKO1) and an spo0A overexpression strain [824(pMPSOA)]...
  24. ncbi Clostridium infections associated with musculoskeletal-tissue allografts
    Marion A Kainer
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:2564-71. 2004
    ..S. tissue banks. After the death from Clostridium sordellii sepsis of a 23-year-old man who had received a contaminated allograft from a tissue bank (Tissue Bank ..
  25. pmc Use of 16S rRNA gene-targeted group-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis of predominant bacteria in human feces
    Takahiro Matsuki
    Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:7220-8. 2004
    ..group-specific primers were designed and validated for specific detection and quantification of the Clostridium leptum subgroup and the Atopobium cluster...
  26. ncbi Molecular identification of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis
    David N Fredricks
    Program in Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:1899-911. 2005
    ..The cause of bacterial vaginosis remains poorly understood despite numerous studies based on cultures. Bacteria in microbial communities can be identified without cultivation by characterizing their ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences...
  27. pmc Involvement of a bacterial microcompartment in the metabolism of fucose and rhamnose by Clostridium phytofermentans
    Elsa Petit
    Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e54337. 2013
    b>Clostridium phytofermentans, an anaerobic soil bacterium, can directly convert plant biomass into biofuels. The genome of C...
  28. pmc Improvement of cellulolytic properties of Clostridium cellulolyticum by metabolic engineering
    Emmanuel Guedon
    Laboratoire de Biochimie des Bactéries Gram Positif, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Henri Poincare, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:53-8. 2002
    ..As high carbon flux leads to pyruvate accumulation, which is responsible for the cessation of growth of Clostridium cellulolyticum, this accumulation is decreased by heterologous expression of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol ..
  29. pmc Assessment of heterologous butyrate and butanol pathway activity by measurement of intracellular pathway intermediates in recombinant Escherichia coli
    Curt R Fischer
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 56 469, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 88:265-75. 2010
    ..Our thermodynamic interpretation of pool size measurements is applicable to the analysis of other metabolic pathways...
  30. pmc Cloning, sequencing, and molecular analysis of the acetoacetate decarboxylase gene region from Clostridium acetobutylicum
    U Gerischer
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany
    J Bacteriol 172:6907-18. 1990
    Acetoacetate decarboxylase (ADC) (EC4.1.1.4) of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 was purified to homogeneity, and its first 25 N-terminal amino acids were determined...
  31. pmc Identification of the cellular receptor of Clostridium spiroforme toxin
    Panagiotis Papatheodorou
    Institut fur Experimentelle und Klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Infect Immun 80:1418-23. 2012
    b>Clostridium spiroforme produces the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CST (C. spiroforme toxin), which has been proposed to be responsible for diarrhea, enterocolitis, and eventually death, especially in rabbits...
  32. pmc Aquaporin 4-specific T cells in neuromyelitis optica exhibit a Th17 bias and recognize Clostridium ABC transporter
    Michel Varrin-Doyer
    Departments of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, USA
    Ann Neurol 72:53-64. 2012
    ..Our goal was to identify and characterize AQP4-specific T cells in NMO patients and healthy controls (HC)...
  33. pmc Overexpression of groESL in Clostridium acetobutylicum results in increased solvent production and tolerance, prolonged metabolism, and changes in the cell's transcriptional program
    Christopher A Tomas
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:4951-65. 2003
    ..used to examine the effects of groESL overexpression and host-plasmid interactions on solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824...
  34. doi Engineering solventogenic clostridia
    Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, 15 Innovation Way, Newark, DE 19711, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:420-9. 2008
    ....
  35. ncbi Type IV pili-dependent gliding motility in the Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens and other Clostridia
    John J Varga
    Department of Biological Sciences, 2119 Derring Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
    Mol Microbiol 62:680-94. 2006
    ..Recently, the genome sequences of three strains of Clostridium perfringens have been completed and we identified gene products involved in producing TFP in each strain...
  36. pmc Functional assembly of minicellulosomes on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface for cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production
    Shen Long Tsai
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Riverside, California 92521, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:6087-93. 2009
    ..miniscaffoldin on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface consisting of three divergent cohesin domains from Clostridium thermocellum (t), Clostridium cellulolyticum (c), and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (f)...
  37. doi Reclassification of Clostridium coccoides, Ruminococcus hansenii, Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus, Ruminococcus luti, Ruminococcus productus and Ruminococcus schinkii as Blautia coccoides gen. nov., comb. nov., Blautia hansenii comb. nov., Blautia hydroge
    Chengxu Liu
    Research Service, VA Medical Center West Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:1896-902. 2008
    ..The novel isolates formed a robust phylogenetic group with a number of organisms which included Clostridium coccoides, Ruminococcus luti, Ruminococcus obeum and a number of other misclassified ruminococci...
  38. pmc Electrotransformation of Clostridium thermocellum
    Michael V Tyurin
    Thayer School of Engineering Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:883-90. 2004
    Electrotransformation of several strains of Clostridium thermocellum was achieved using plasmid pIKm1 with selection based on resistance to erythromycin and lincomycin...
  39. pmc Adherence of Clostridium thermocellum to cellulose
    E A Bayer
    J Bacteriol 156:818-27. 1983
    The adherence of Clostridium thermocellum, a cellulolytic, thermophilic anaerobe, to its insoluble substrate (cellulose) was studied. The adherence phenomenon was determined to be selective for cellulose...
  40. pmc Regulation of expression of scaffoldin-related genes in Clostridium thermocellum
    Tali W Dror
    Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
    J Bacteriol 185:5109-16. 2003
    b>Clostridium thermocellum produces an extracellular multienzyme complex, termed the cellulosome, that allows efficient solubilization of crystalline cellulose...
  41. ncbi Changes in predominant bacterial populations in human faeces with age and with Clostridium difficile infection
    M J Hopkins
    MRC Microbiology and Gut Biology Group, University of Dundee Medical School
    J Med Microbiol 51:448-54. 2002
    ..were isolated from faecal samples from healthy young adults and elderly subjects, and elderly patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD)...
  42. pmc Repeated cycles of Clostridium-directed enzyme prodrug therapy result in sustained antitumour effects in vivo
    J Theys
    Department of Radiation Oncology Maastro Lab, GROW Research Institute, University of Maastricht, UNS 50 23, PO Box 616, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
    Br J Cancer 95:1212-9. 2006
    ..Although several recombinant Clostridium species have been generated during the past decade, their efficacy has been limited...
  43. pmc CelI, a noncellulosomal family 9 enzyme from Clostridium thermocellum, is a processive endoglucanase that degrades crystalline cellulose
    Rachel Gilad
    Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology and Institute of Catalysis Science and Technology, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000
    J Bacteriol 185:391-8. 2003
    The family 9 cellulase gene celI of Clostridium thermocellum, was previously cloned, expressed, and characterized (G. P. Hazlewood, K. Davidson, J. I. Laurie, N. S. Huskisson, and H. J. Gilbert, J. Gen. Microbiol. 139:307-316, 1993)...
  44. pmc Novel Clostridium populations involved in the anaerobic degradation of Microcystis blooms
    Peng Xing
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People s Republic of China
    ISME J 5:792-800. 2011
    ..b>Clostridium spp. were found to be the most dominant bacteria in the incubations, accounting for 72% of the sequenced clones...
  45. ncbi Cordycepin: selective growth inhibitor derived from liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris against Clostridium spp
    Y J Ahn
    School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Suwon 441 744, Republic of Korea
    J Agric Food Chem 48:2744-8. 2000
    ..This compound revealed potent growth-inhibiting activity toward Clostridium paraputrificum and Clostridium perfringens at 10 microgram/disk without adverse effects on the growth of ..
  46. ncbi Diversity of the Clostridium coccoides group in human fecal microbiota as determined by 16S rRNA gene library
    Hidenori Hayashi
    Microbe Division Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Saitama, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 257:202-7. 2006
    ..in seven healthy individuals by 16S rRNA gene libraries (universal library) using universal primers, and the Clostridium coccoides group libraries using the universal primer 27F and the C. coccoides group-specific primer Erec482...
  47. ncbi Kinetic studies of a recombinant cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) of the Clostridium thermocellum YM4 strain expressed in Escherichia coli
    Yeon Kye Kim
    Enzyme Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8642, Japan
    J Biochem 132:197-203. 2002
    A cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) cloned from the Clostridium thermocellum YM4 strain was purified to homogeneity, and the reaction mechanisms of both the phosphorolytic and synthetic reactions were studied in detail...
  48. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of the human gut microbiota using 16S rDNA clone libraries and strictly anaerobic culture-based methods
    Hidenori Hayashi
    Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama
    Microbiol Immunol 46:535-48. 2002
    ..16S rDNA libraries and colonies included the Bacteroides group, Streptococcus group, Bifidobacterium group, and Clostridium rRNA clusters IV, IX, XIVa, and XVIII...
  49. ncbi Clostridium perfringens beta toxin and Clostridium septicum alpha toxin: their mechanisms and possible role in pathogenesis
    R K Tweten
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, P O Box 26901, Oklahoma City 73190, OK, USA
    Vet Microbiol 82:1-9. 2001
    The Clostridium septicum alpha toxin and the Clostridium perfringens beta toxin are examples of pore-forming toxins that exhibit several different features...
  50. doi Effect of key factors on hydrogen production from cellulose in a co-culture of Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium thermopalmarium
    Alei Geng
    School of Life Science and Technology, Xi an Jiaotong University, Xianning Rd, Xi an 710049, PR China
    Bioresour Technol 101:4029-33. 2010
    ..thermopalmarium to C. thermocellum from 0.05:1 to 0.17:1 had little influence on hydrogen production, probably because of the limited availability of soluble sugar in the medium during the early stages of the co-culture...
  51. pmc Quantification of bacterial groups within human fecal flora by oligonucleotide probe hybridization
    A Sghir
    Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, Unité d Ecologie et Physiologie du Système Digestif, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy en Josas, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2263-6. 2000
    ..b>Clostridium leptum subgroup and Clostridium coccoides group-specific probes accounted for 16% +/- 7% and 14% +/- 6%, ..
  52. pmc Homologous xylanases from Clostridium thermocellum: evidence for bi-functional activity, synergism between xylanase catalytic modules and the presence of xylan-binding domains in enzyme complexes
    A C Fernandes
    CIISA Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Rua Gomes Freire, 1199 Lisboa Codex, Portugal
    Biochem J 342:105-10. 1999
    b>Clostridium thermocellum produces a consortium of plant-cell-wall hydrolases that form a cell-bound multi-enzyme complex called the cellulosome. In the present study two similar xylanase genes, xynU and xynV, were cloned from C...
  53. doi 3-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-L-rhamnose phosphorylase from Clostridium phytofermentans
    Takanori Nihira
    Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
    Carbohydr Res 350:94-7. 2012
    ..of phosphorylase catalyzed by a protein (Cphy1019) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65) from Clostridium phytofermentans...
  54. doi Optimization of medium compositions favoring butanol and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum
    Chuloo Moon
    Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39 1 Hawolgok Dong, Seongbuk gu, Seoul 136 791, Republic of Korea
    Bioresour Technol 102:10561-8. 2011
    Medium compositions favoring butanol and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production from glycerol by Clostridium pasteurianum DSM525 were investigated using statistical experimental designs...
  55. pmc Organization of a Clostridium thermocellum gene cluster encoding the cellulosomal scaffolding protein CipA and a protein possibly involved in attachment of the cellulosome to the cell surface
    T Fujino
    Departement des Biotechnologies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Bacteriol 175:1891-9. 1993
    The nucleotide sequence was determined for a 9.4-kb region of Clostridium thermocellum DNA extending from the 3' end of the gene (now termed cipA), encoding the S1/SL component of the cellulosome...
  56. ncbi Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children by Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI
    Hiromi Seki
    Department of Pediatrics, Showa Inan General Hospital, Komagane, Japan
    Pediatr Int 45:86-90. 2003
    b>Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI (CBM) is a probiotic bacteria used for anti-diarrheal medicine in Japan. The preventive effect of CBM was investigated for antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children.
  57. pmc Genomic sequence of bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 and activity of its endolysin and engineered variants against Clostridium sporogenes
    Melinda J Mayer
    Institute of Food Research, Colney, Norwich, United Kingdom
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:3685-92. 2012
    Lytic bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 produces large plaques on its host Clostridium sporogenes...
  58. pmc Expression, purification, and characterization of the cellulose-binding domain of the scaffoldin subunit from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum
    E Morag
    Department of Biophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1980-6. 1995
    The major cellulose-binding domain (CBD) from the cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum YS was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli...
  59. doi Novel and neglected issues of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by clostridia: Clostridium metabolic diversity, tools for process mapping and continuous fermentation systems
    Petra Patáková
    Department of Fermentation Chemistry and Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, CZ16628 Prague 6, Czech Republic
    Biotechnol Adv 31:58-67. 2013
    ..ABE) fermentation by solventogenic clostridia cannot be limited to research on the strain Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824...
  60. pmc Clostridium leptum group bacteria abundance and diversity in the fecal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study in India
    Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss
    Wellcome Trust Research Laboratory, Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 632004, India
    BMC Gastroenterol 13:20. 2013
    ..We examined the abundance and diversity of Clostridium leptum group, an important group of carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria, in the feces of patients with IBD and ..
  61. pmc NADP-specific electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase in a functional complex with formate dehydrogenase in Clostridium autoethanogenum grown on CO
    Shuning Wang
    Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 195:4373-86. 2013
    ..The complex was found in high concentrations (6% of the cytoplasmic proteins) in the acetogenic Clostridium autoethanogenum autotrophically grown on CO, which was fermented to acetate, ethanol, and 2,3-butanediol...
  62. pmc Comparison of the mesophilic cellulosome-producing Clostridium cellulovorans genome with other cellulosome-related clostridial genomes
    Yutaka Tamaru
    Department of Life Science, Mie University Graduate School of Bioresources, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514 8507, Japan
    Microb Biotechnol 4:64-73. 2011
    b>Clostridium cellulovorans, an anaerobic and mesophilic bacterium, degrades native substrates in soft biomass such as corn fibre and rice straw efficiently by producing an extracellular enzyme complex called the cellulosome...
  63. ncbi Structural basis for thermostability in aporubredoxins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Clostridium pasteurianum
    E R Zartler
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
    Biochemistry 40:7279-90. 2001
    The structures of apo- and holorubredoxins from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfRd) and Clostridium pasteurianum (CpRd) have been investigated and compared using residual dipolar couplings to probe the origin of thermostability...
  64. pmc Structure of the gene encoding cyclomaltodextrinase from Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E and characterization of the enzyme purified from Escherichia coli
    S M Podkovyrov
    Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824
    J Bacteriol 174:5400-5. 1992
    b>Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E, a gram-positive thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, produced a cyclodextrin (CD)-degrading enzyme, cyclodextrinase (CDase) (EC 3.2.1.54)...
  65. ncbi The identification and structure of the membrane-spanning domain of the Clostridium septicum alpha toxin
    Jody A Melton
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73190, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:14315-22. 2004
    Alpha toxin (AT) is a pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium septicum that belongs to the unique aerolysin-like family of pore-forming toxins...
  66. ncbi Metabolism of lactose by Clostridium thermolacticum growing in continuous culture
    Christophe Collet
    Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology LBE, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne EPFL, Station 6, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Arch Microbiol 185:331-9. 2006
    The objective of the present study was to characterize the metabolism of Clostridium thermolacticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, growing continuously on lactose (10 g l(-1)) and to determine the enzymes involved in the pathways ..
  67. pmc Regulation of expression of cellulosomal cellulase and hemicellulase genes in Clostridium cellulovorans
    Sung Ok Han
    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:6067-75. 2003
    The regulation of expression of the genes encoding the cellulases and hemicellulases of Clostridium cellulovorans was studied at the mRNA level with cells grown under various culture conditions...
  68. doi Production of hydrogen by Clostridium species in the presence of chlorinated solvents
    Kimberly S Bowman
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 290:188-94. 2009
    ..In this study, 18 Clostridium strains including nine uncharacterized isolates originating from chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater ..
  69. pmc Electrosynthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide is catalyzed by a diversity of acetogenic microorganisms
    Kelly P Nevin
    106B Morrill 4 North, University of Massachusetts, Microbiology, 639 North Pleasant St, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:2882-6. 2011
    ..Several other acetogenic bacteria, including two other Sporomusa species, Clostridium ljungdahlii, Clostridium aceticum, and Moorella thermoacetica, consumed current with the production of organic ..
  70. ncbi Clostridium caminithermale sp. nov., a slightly halophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from an Atlantic deep-sea hydrothermal chimney
    Nadege Brisbarre
    IRD, UR 101 Extrêmophiles, IFR BAIM, Universite de Provence, ESIL, Marseille, France
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1043-9. 2003
    ..Phylogenetically, strain DVird3T branched with members of cluster XI of the order Clostridiales, with Clostridium halophilum as its closest relative (similarity of 94.6%)...
  71. ncbi Enzyme system of Clostridium stercorarium for hydrolysis of arabinoxylan: reconstitution of the in vivo system from recombinant enzymes
    Helmuth Adelsberger
    Research Group Microbial Biotechnology, Technische Universität Munich, Am Hochanger 4, D 85350 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Microbiology 150:2257-66. 2004
    Four extracellular enzymes of the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium stercorarium are involved in the depolymerization of de-esterified arabinoxylan: Xyn11A, Xyn10C, Bxl3B, and Arf51B...
  72. doi ClosTron-targeted mutagenesis
    John T Heap
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation, BBSRC Sustainable BioEnergy Centre, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 646:165-82. 2010
    Members of the genus Clostridium have long been recognised as important to humankind and its animals, both in terms of the diseases they cause and the useful biological processes they undertake...
  73. pmc Regulation of expression of cellulosomes and noncellulosomal (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes in Clostridium cellulovorans during growth on different carbon sources
    Sung Ok Han
    Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:4218-27. 2004
    Cellulosomes and noncellulosomal (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes are produced by Clostridium cellulovorans to degrade plant cell walls...
  74. ncbi Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum
    Zetang Wu
    Department of Chemical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 140 West 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Biotechnol Bioeng 82:93-102. 2003
    A novel extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose, using immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous bed bioreactor, was developed by using 10% (v/v) Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol as the extractant ..
  75. ncbi Cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum: molecular study of the Dockerin/Cohesin interaction
    H P Fierobe
    Laboratoire de Bioenergetique et Ingenierie des Proteines, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 31, Chemin Joseph Aiguier, F 13402 Marseille, France
    Biochemistry 38:12822-32. 1999
    b>Clostridium cellulolyticum produces cellulolytic complexes (cellulosomes) made of 10-13 cell wall degrading enzymes tightly bound to a scaffolding protein (CipC) by means of their dockerin domain...
  76. pmc 2,3-butanediol production by acetogenic bacteria, an alternative route to chemical synthesis, using industrial waste gas
    Michael Köpke
    LanzaTech NZ Ltd, 24 Balfour Road, Parnell, Auckland 1052, New Zealand
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:5467-75. 2011
    ..Here we present evidence of 23BD production by three nonpathogenic acetogenic Clostridium species-Clostridium autoethanogenum, C. ljungdahlii, and C...
  77. ncbi NADP-dependent bacterial alcohol dehydrogenases: crystal structure, cofactor-binding and cofactor specificity of the ADHs of Clostridium beijerinckii and Thermoanaerobacter brockii
    Y Korkhin
    Department of Structural Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    J Mol Biol 278:967-81. 1998
    ..The carboxyl group of Asp150 is oriented with respect to the active carbon of NADP(H) so as to form hydrogen bonds with both pro-S and pro-R hydrogen atoms...
  78. pmc Mechanism of proton transfer in [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum
    Adam J Cornish
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 1319, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:38341-7. 2011
    ..Previously, structural characterization of [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium pasteurianum indicated a potential proton transport pathway involving four residues (Cys-299, Glu-279, Ser-319, ..
  79. ncbi Effective cellulose degradation by a mixed-culture system composed of a cellulolytic Clostridium and aerobic non-cellulolytic bacteria
    Souichiro Kato
    Department of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Applied Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1 1 1, Tokyo 113 8657, Japan
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 51:133-42. 2004
    ..Cellulose-degrading efficiency of an anaerobic cellulolytic isolate, Clostridium straminisolvens CSK1, was remarkably lower than that of the original microflora...
  80. pmc Genomic analysis of carbon monoxide utilization and butanol production by Clostridium carboxidivorans strain P7
    Guillaume Bruant
    Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS ONE 5:e13033. 2010
    ..Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol...
  81. pmc Kinetics and metabolism of cellulose degradation at high substrate concentrations in steady-state continuous cultures of Clostridium cellulolyticum on a chemically defined medium
    M Desvaux
    , Domaine Scientifique Victor Grignard, , , , France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3837-45. 2001
    The hydrolysis and fermentation of insoluble cellulose were investigated using continuous cultures of Clostridium cellulolyticum with increasing amounts of carbon substrate. At a dilution rate (D) of 0...
  82. ncbi Additivity in both thermodynamic stability and thermal transition temperature for rubredoxin chimeras via hybrid native partitioning
    David M LeMaster
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Structure 13:1153-63. 2005
    ..Both conformational stability and thermal transition temperature measurements demonstrate that 39% of the differential stability arises from these seven residues...
  83. doi Old acetogens, new light
    Harold L Drake
    Department of Ecological Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1125:100-28. 2008
    ..The first acetogen to be isolated, Clostridium aceticum, was reported by Klaas Tammo Wieringa in 1936, but was subsequently lost...
  84. doi Decreased colonization of fecal Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale species from ulcerative colitis patients in an in vitro dynamic gut model with mucin environment
    Joan Vermeiren
    Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol 79:685-96. 2012
    ..community analysis of those microbial groups known to produce butyrate revealed that the diversity of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale and Clostridium leptum group, and counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were ..
  85. ncbi Purification and characterization of an extracellular feruloyl esterase from the thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium stercorarium
    J A Donaghy
    Food Science Division Microbiology, Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast, UK
    J Appl Microbiol 88:458-66. 2000
    ..This study shows the extracellular production of a feruloyl esterase by the thermophilic anaerobe Clostridium stercorarium when grown on birchwood xylan...
  86. pmc mRNA analysis of the adc gene region of Clostridium acetobutylicum during the shift to solventogenesis
    U Gerischer
    Institut fur Mikrobiologie, Universitat Gottingen, Germany
    J Bacteriol 174:426-33. 1992
    ..extension analysis, we located the transcription start point of the acetoacetate decarboxylase (adc) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum 90 nucleotides upstream from the initiation codon with A as the first transcribed nucleotide...
  87. pmc Butanol production from crystalline cellulose by cocultured Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4
    Shunichi Nakayama
    Department of Fermentation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Bio Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:6470-5. 2011
    We investigated butanol production from crystalline cellulose by cocultured cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and the butanol-producing strain, Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum (strain N1-4)...
  88. ncbi Electrotransformation studies in Clostridium cellulolyticum
    C Tardif
    , CNRS, Marseilles, France
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 27:271-4. 2001
    Electropermeabilization of Clostridium cellulolyticum was optimized using ATP leakage assays. Electrotransformation was then performed under optimized conditions (6 to 7...
  89. doi Continuous butanol production with reduced byproducts formation from glycerol by a hyper producing mutant of Clostridium pasteurianum
    Alok Malaviya
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering BK21 Program, Institute for the BioCentury, KAIST, Yuseong Gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1485-94. 2012
    ..First, a hyper butanol producing strain of Clostridium pasteurianum was isolated by chemical mutagenesis. The best mutant strain, C...
  90. ncbi Bioproduction of butanol from biomass: from genes to bioreactors
    Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji
    University of Illinois, Biotechnology and Bioengineering Group, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 1207 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:220-7. 2007
    ....
  91. doi Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4
    Vu Hong Thang
    Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Applied Biochemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Honjo cho 1, Saga 840 8502, Japan
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol 161:157-70. 2010
    ..work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented...
  92. ncbi Sporulation of Clostridium cellulolyticum while grown in cellulose-batch and cellulose-fed continuous cultures on a mineral-salt based medium
    M Desvaux
    Laboratoire de Biochimie des Bactéries Gram, Domaine Scientifique Victor Grignard, Universite Henri Poincare, Faculte des Sciences, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex, France
    Microb Ecol 43:271-9. 2002
    b>Clostridium cellulolyticum sporulation was investigated during growth on cellulose fibers in a mineral-salt based medium which corresponds to conditions linked to its natural ecological niche...
  93. ncbi Importance of the carbohydrate-binding module of Clostridium stercorarium Xyn10B to xylan hydrolysis
    M K Ali
    Faculty of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:41-7. 2001
    The Clostridium stercorarium xylanase Xyn10B is a modular enzyme comprising two thermostabilizing domains, a family 10 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolases, a family 9 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), and two S-layer homologous (SLH)..
  94. pmc Flux analysis of the metabolism of Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in cellulose-fed continuous culture on a chemically defined medium under ammonium-limited conditions
    M Desvaux
    , Domaine Scientifique Victor Grignard, , , , France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3846-51. 2001
    An investigation of cellulose degradation by the nonruminal, cellulolytic, mesophilic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum was performed in cellulose-fed chemostat cultures with ammonium as the growth-limiting nutrient...
  95. ncbi Mechanism of transfer of the methyl group from (6S)-methyltetrahydrofolate to the corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein catalyzed by the methyltransferase from Clostridium thermoaceticum: a key step in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetyl-CoA synthesis
    J Seravalli
    Department of Biochemistry, Beadle Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68588 0664, USA
    Biochemistry 38:5728-35. 1999
    The methyltetrahydrofolate:corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein methyltransferase (MeTr) from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzes transfer of the N5-methyl group from (6S)-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate) to the cobalt center of a ..
  96. pmc Characterization and development of two reporter gene systems for Clostridium acetobutylicum
    Lothar Feustel
    Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Universitat Ulm, 89069 Ulm, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 70:798-803. 2004
    ..encoding beta-galactosidase) and lucB from Photinus pyralis (encoding luciferase) as reporter genes in Clostridium acetobutylicum was analyzed with promoters of genes required for solventogenesis and acidogenesis...
  97. pmc Hyperfine-shifted (13)C and (15)N NMR signals from Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: extensive assignments and quantum chemical verification
    I Jin Lin
    Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of Wisconsin Madison, 433 Babcock Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:15555-63. 2009
    ..to carry out comprehensive assignments of the hyperfine-shifted (13)C and (15)N signals of the rubredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum (CpRd) in both its oxidized and reduced states...
  98. pmc Targeted gene inactivation in Clostridium phytofermentans shows that cellulose degradation requires the family 9 hydrolase Cphy3367
    Andrew C Tolonen
    Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 USA
    Mol Microbiol 74:1300-13. 2009
    ..b>Clostridium phytofermentans has a repertoire of 108 putative glycoside hydrolases to break down cellulose and hemicellulose ..
  99. pmc Genome shuffling in Clostridium diolis DSM 15410 for improved 1,3-propanediol production
    Burkhard Otte
    Fraunhofer Institut für Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Ökologie, Forckenbeckstrasse 6, 52074 Aachen, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7610-6. 2009
    Several microorganisms are known for their efficient anaerobic conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol, with Clostridium diolis DSM 15410 as one of the better performers in terms of molar yield and volumetric productivity...
  100. ncbi Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101
    N Qureshi
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering Group, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, 1207 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 26:290-5. 2001
    ..Of the 746 g kg(-1) total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg(-1) is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C...
  101. ncbi Differential regulation of two thiolase genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792
    K Winzer
    Mikrobiologie und Biotechnologie, Universitat Ulm, Germany
    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2:531-41. 2000
    Thiolase of Clostridium acetobutylicum is an important enzyme involved in both, acid and solvent fermentation...

Research Grants75

  1. Development of Vaccines against Clostridium difficile Infection
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is in response to RFA-AI-09-016 requesting applications to develop vaccines for selected pathogens including Clostridium difficile, the cause of pseudomembranous colitis, which accounts for a quarter of all cases of antibiotic-..
  2. Salmonella Vaccines Against Bacterial Enteropathogens
    Roy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile...
  3. Robust Peptide-Based Diagnostics of Botulinum Toxins
    John E Mueller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs;A-G), secreted by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, are highly lethal microbial proteins with an extremely low half-lethal dose of only 1-3 ng/kg in ..
  4. C. Difficile Outcomes and Effectiveness of Treatment Strategies in SCI
    Charlesnika T Evans; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of national VA medical data bases to assess morbidity, mortality, and utilization associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in veterans with spinal cord injury and disorder (SCI/D)...
  5. Therapeutics for Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Myxopyronins
    Richard H Ebright; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Clostridium difficile in culture...
  6. Localization and characterization of the Clostridium difficile biofilm
    Adam Driks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals around the world. In the US, it accounts for over $3.2 billion/year in health care costs in hospitals...
  7. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis, and (FosX) in Brucella melitensis, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum...
  8. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, and is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world with more than 300,000 cases of C...
  9. Development of a Novel PolC Inhibitor as a Gram-Positive Antibiotic
    THALE CROSS JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Group A strep), vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE), Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium difficile...
  10. A common denominator of pathogenesis;a rare opportunity for novel therapeutic de
    DOUGLAS ALAN MITCHELL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by at least three other notorious human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Clostridium botulinum...
  11. Cellular functions of the essential PcrA helicase in Staphylococcus aureus
    Saleem A Khan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..bacteria, including important human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, etc. PcrA was discovered in S...
  12. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Category "A" agents) include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), and a group of RNA viruses that cause ..
  13. Evaluation of a new class of antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile
    SAUL R contact TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..is a response to RFA AI-10-010 requesting applications among others to develop antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile. C...
  14. Structures of RNA processing and Silencing Enzymes in Prokaryotes
    Hong Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Helicobacter pylori, Neisseria meningitides, Vibrio vulnificus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi and Clostridium tetani...
  15. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, and is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world with more than 300,000 cases of C...
  16. PA-50/PA-41 antitoxin antibody therapy for C. difficile infection
    William C Olson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause both of hospital-acquired diarrhea and of death due to intestinal infections in the US...
  17. (PQA1) Mechanism of Vitamin D Chemoprevention Against Colon Cancer
    Yan Chun Li; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in gnotobiotic mice mono-associated with Lactobacillus acidophilus lacking 7-DH to mice also associated with Clostridium scindens expressing 7-DH fed Western diet or diet supplemented with VD...
  18. Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile as an Oral Vaccine for C. difficile Infection
    DALE NICHOLAS GERDING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..toxin A or toxin B will elicit an immune response by the host that will protect against future symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) after colonization with the non-toxigenic vaccine strain is lost...
  19. Epithelium, dendritic cells, and Clostridium difficile associated colitis
    Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile, an etiologic agent for pseudomembranous colitis, accounts for a quarter cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea...
  20. Structure and mechanism of CRISPR interference.
    Ailong Ke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..bacterial genomes thus far sequenced, including important human pathogens such as Campylobacter human jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia pestis...
  21. Preclinical development of a novel antibacterial for Clostridium difficile diseas
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..IIIC and IIIE, several compounds are active against multiple strains of the anaerobic Gram+ bacterium Clostridium difficile (Cdiff)...
  22. Phenotype MicroArray Analysis of Fastidious Pathogens
    Barry Bochner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Wolinella), and important colonizers of the colon and vagina (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Escherichia)...
  23. Shifts in the Gastrointestinal Metabolome During Clostridium difficile Infection
    CASEY THERIOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary/Abstract Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and is responsible for significant morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs...
  24. Role of Bile Acids and Gut Bacteria in GI Diseases
    Phillip B Hylemon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The formation of secondary bile acids is carried out by a few species of the genus Clostridium and the level of these bacteria in feces is correlated with DCA levels in bile...
  25. Chicago Prevention and Intervention Epicenter (Chicago PIE)
    ROBERT ALAN WEINSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli - and Clostridium difficile-associated infections (CDIs) are increasing causes of HAIs...
  26. A fully integrated assay and platform for detecting Clostridium difficile
    BRUCE D IRVINE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with harmful bacteria can destroy the normal colonic flora, and increase the patient's susceptibility to Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Pathogenic strains of C...
  27. Receptors for clostridial neurotoxins
    Edwin R Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..There are seven related toxins (also called serotypes), A-G, produced mainly by toxigenic strains of Clostridium botulinum...
  28. Novel, Non-antibiotic Therapy for Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease
    Dangshe Ma; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that represents the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. C...
  29. Structure and Function of S-adenosyl-L-methionine Riboswitches
    Ailong Ke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genes in important pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Clostridium, and Mycobacterium...
  30. Mechanisms of Action of C. perfringens Enterotoxin
    BRUCE A MC CLANE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Clostridium perftingens enterotoxin (CPE) causes the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms ofthe 2nd most common bacterial foodborne disease in the USA and 5-15% of antibiotic-associated diarrhea cases...
  31. Genetic Discovery and Application in a Clinical Setting Continuing a Partnership
    Eric B Larson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Target phenotypes are infectious disease susceptibility, specifically to Clostridium difficile diarrhea, shingles from varicella zoster virus, and fungal nail infection, responses to ..
  32. Mucosal Immune Ontogeny and Intestinal Microbiota in Infants
    Edward N Janoff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Breastfeeding limits the complexity of the GI microbiota. Colonizing bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides and Clostridium species) are implicated in driving the development and diversity of the immunoglobulin genes that determine the ..
  33. Antidote for botulism
    DAVID OWEN BEENHOUWER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Background. The CDC category A bioterrorism agent, Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), is a zinc protease that cleaves proteins involved in presynaptic acetylcholine release thereby causing paralysis...
  34. Second Generation Small Molecule Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxins
    Sina Bavari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Secreted by spore forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum, baratii, and butyricium, BoNTs are responsible for the flaccid paralysis associated with botulism...
  35. A synergy-based therapy against C. difficile
    Kim Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The increasing incidence of infections by the intestinal anaerobe Clostridium difficile coupled with the spread of drug resistant highly virulent strains dictates the need for developing new therapies for this potentially lethal ..
  36. Fecal Bacteriotherapy for Relapsing Clostridium difficile Infection
    COLLEEN RENEE KELLY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a common nosocomial pathogen. By far the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients in North America, there has been an alarming rise in incidence of C...
  37. Structural basis of tetracycline resistance by efflux pump TetL
    DANENG WANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp. and Listeria spp...
  38. MtaR-regulated virulence in Streptococcus agalactiae
    Daniel Shelver; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..While some pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Clostridium perfringens are armed with a wide variety of toxins and other molecules that damage the host, it is not ..
  39. A novel vaccine to prevent Clostridium difficile colitis
    Edgar C Boedeker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The need for novel therapeutic and prophylactic approaches to Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections in the VA Health Care system, is urgent...
  40. Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-Effectiveness Refined (P-NICER)
    Patricia W Stone; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, with increased HAIs caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile (C...
  41. Structural and functional studies of botulinum neurotoxin
    Rongsheng Jin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BoNTs are produced by Clostridium botulinum as large progenitor toxin complexes (PTCs) that include auxiliary clostridial proteins known as ..
  42. Exposporium determinants of Bacillus anthracis
    George C Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, a number of endospore-forming human pathogens possess exosporia, including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium difficile and a more detailed understanding of the exosporium of B...
  43. AN HTS ASSAY FOR INHIBITORS OF C. DIFFICLE TOXINS
    David B Haslam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is an illness characterized by damage to the intestine and a marked inflammatory response...
  44. Structural mechanisms of Clostridium difficile pathogenesis
    DANA BORDEN LACY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe that infects the colon, causing a range of human disease including diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and toxic megacolon...
  45. Integration of metabolism and virulence in Gram-positive bacteria
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Analogous studies with two important human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile, will reveal where within the CodY hierarchy various virulence genes fall...
  46. Role of misoprostol in Clostridium sordellii endometritis in a rodent model
    David M Aronoff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..otherwise healthy women developed (and died from) overwhelming infections of the uterus caused by the bacterium Clostridium sordellii, within days of using the oral MFP/vaginal misoprostol regimen...
  47. Vaccine Potential of Type IV Pilin from Clostridium difficle
    Michael S Donnenberg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes severe and sometimes deadly colitis. Epidemiological evidence indicates that both the severity and incidence of C...
  48. A Four-arm Prospective, Multicenter Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy, Effect
    Daniel J Sexton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..environment such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter...
  49. Mucosal live vector vaccine against recurrent Clostridium difficile infections
    James E Galen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..technologies, we can construct a mucosally administered multivalent vaccine to immunize against recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDI)...
  50. Evaluating Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Patients
    AMY LYNN PAKYZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For valid and fair HAI comparisons, risk adjustment methods may be required. The organism Clostridium difficile, which causes diarrhea, has become a common microbial threat for patients, probably due to a recently ..
  51. Development of Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics
    Paul B Savage; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In addition, specific ceragenins display very high levels of activity against certain clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile, and it is expected that minor modifications to ceragenins will result in compound with broad, ..
  52. Clostridium perfringens Type B-D Virulence Plasmids
    Francisco A Uzal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium perfringens type B, C and D isolates have significant medical, veterinary and biodefense importance...
  53. Motor neuron-targeted adenovirus antidotes for botulism
    CHARLES BIX SHOEMAKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a CDC Category A biodefense threat agent for which no antidote exists...
  54. DNA Microarray analysis of Clostridium botulinum
    Wei Jen Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin, the most potent protein toxin, which is known to cause botulism in humans and animals...
  55. Development of a novel antibody therapy for clostridium difficile infection
    Irving Nachamkin; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile is a common cause of both hospital- and community acquired gastrointestinal infection that may occur after patients have been treated for other infections with a variety of ..
  56. Novel multivalent vaccine for anthrax and botulinum
    Mansour Mohamadzadeh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of this proposal is to test the efficacy of such an oral multivalent vaccine consisting of anthrax PA and Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) heavy chain (Hc) in inhaled anthrax and BoNT/A intoxication and lastly ..
  57. GENE EXPRESSION DURING SPORULATION
    Patrick J Piggot; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..subtilis spore formation are also found in other spore forming species including the pathogens B. anthracis, Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, C. botulinum and C...
  58. FORESPORE ENGULFMENT DURING B SUBTILIS SPORULATION
    KIT J POGLIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacteria from the genera Bacillus and Clostridium produce unusually durable endospores that are the infectious agent of Anthrax and Botulism...
  59. Genetic approaches to discover host factors critical to dengue virus infection
    JAN EDUARD CARETTE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..this approach can be used to identify host genes required for different pathogens including Ebola virus and Clostridium difficile...
  60. Reasons for poor durability of resin-dentin bonds
    David H Pashley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently discovered several quaternary ammonium-containing monomers that can inhibit Clostridium collagenase. This result may cause a paradigm shift in adhesive formulations...
  61. Aerobic Growth of Anaerobic Pathogens
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two very different bacterial pathogens, the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis and the Gram-positive Clostridium difficile, have been considered as textbook examples of strict anaerobes that inhabit the large intestine. B...
  62. A Feeding Tube Model for Bacterial Cell-Cell Communication
    AMY HITCHCOCK CAMP; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..subtilis such as B. anthracis, Clostridium botulinum, and C. difficile...
  63. Multiplex PCR Detection of CDC 'A' Bioterrorism Agents
    Kelly Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the greatest threat include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), and a group of RNA viruses that cause ..
  64. Mosquitocidal Avtive Clostridium Toxins
    Sarjeet Gill; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In contrast Clostridium bifermentans subsp malaysia, another Gram positive spore forming strain isolated from Malaysia, has the highest ..
  65. Chemically Interrogating Clostridium difficile Glucosylating Toxin Activation
    Aimee Shen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Jimmy Ballard at Oklahoma State University) where I will learn how to culture Clostridium difficile and purify its glucosylating toxins...
  66. Anaerobic Bacteria as Oncopathic Agents for Pancreatic Cancer
    Savio Woo; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..for anaerobic bacterial colonization that can lead to tumor destruction, and one such anaerobic bacterium is Clostridium perfringens (Cp)...
  67. CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION
    JERGANG CHANG; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..long term objective of this proposed research is to enhance our understanding of spontaneous diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile in aged hamsters...
  68. BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN: MECHANISM OF TOXICITY
    BIBHUTI DASGUPTA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Botulinum neurotoxin (MT), produced by the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum, is the sole cause of the dreaded neuroparalytic disease botulism...
  69. DEVELOPMENT OF A CD-ROM OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC IMAGES
    David Becker; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The primary focus of this proposal is the characterization of the lethal toxin (alpha toxin) from Clostridium septicum...
  70. ADVANCED EPR STUDIES OF B12 DEPENDENT ENZYMES
    GARY GERFEN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..cob(ll)alamin-organic radical pairs generated as intermediates in the catalytic cycles of glutamate mutase from Clostridium cochlearium and ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannIi...
  71. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens
    Ian Paulsen; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (Applicant?s Abstract): Clostridium perfringens has a long history of being associated with a high level of morbidity and mortality in battlefield and clinical settings, due to its ability to produce a wide range of deadly ..
  72. TARGET-GUIDED BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN INHIBITOR DISCOVERY
    Hartmuth Kolb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum are among the most potent toxins known to man...
  73. MECHANISM OF BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN ACTION
    Bal Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In general, the botulism disease results from ingestion of food where anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, has grown and produced the neurotoxin...
  74. Botulinum Toxin Plantibodies
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Botulinum toxins (BoNT) are extremely potent neurotoxins produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum...
  75. ISOLATION OF TOXINS FROM C. DIFFICILE & C. SORDELLII
    Tracy Wilkins; Fiscal Year: 1992
    b>Clostridium difficile is a relatively "new" pathogen that causes colitis in some patients receiving antibiotic therapy. The organism and its toxins occur in about 15% of patients with diarrhea in hospitals and that is a lot of patients...