bacillus anthracis

Summary

Summary: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Cellular and systemic effects of anthrax lethal toxin and edema toxin
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 33, Room 1W20B, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:439-55. 2009
  2. ncbi A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis
    Raymond Schuch
    Laboratory of Bacteriql Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 418:884-9. 2002
  3. ncbi The 1.6 A crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PlyB, a bacteriophage lysin active against Bacillus anthracis
    Corrine J Porter
    Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and The ARC Centre of Excellence for Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
    J Mol Biol 366:540-50. 2007
  4. pmc Reliable detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis by using multiplex qPCR including internal controls for nucleic acid extraction and amplification
    Ingmar Janse
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    BMC Microbiol 10:314. 2010
  5. pmc Mechanisms of NK cell-macrophage Bacillus anthracis crosstalk: a balance between stimulation by spores and differential disruption by toxins
    Maria Klezovich-Bénard
    Laboratoire Pathogénie et Toxi Infections Bactériennes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002481. 2012
  6. pmc Sequencing Bacillus anthracis typing phages gamma and cherry reveals a common ancestry
    Derrick E Fouts
    The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:3402-8. 2006
  7. ncbi Anthrax toxins: a weapon to systematically dismantle the host immune defenses
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    Unité Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche, France
    Mol Aspects Med 30:456-66. 2009
  8. pmc The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis
    Matthew D Dyer
    Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12089. 2010
  9. pmc Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing
    Jeffrey Martin
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:S10. 2010
  10. ncbi Anthrax toxins cooperatively inhibit endocytic recycling by the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst
    Annabel Guichard
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0349, USA
    Nature 467:854-8. 2010

Detail Information

Publications336 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Cellular and systemic effects of anthrax lethal toxin and edema toxin
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 33, Room 1W20B, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:439-55. 2009
    ..A brief reexamination of early historic findings on toxin in vivo effects in the context of our current knowledge is also presented...
  2. ncbi A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis
    Raymond Schuch
    Laboratory of Bacteriql Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 418:884-9. 2002
    The dormant and durable spore form of Bacillus anthracis is an ideal biological weapon of mass destruction...
  3. ncbi The 1.6 A crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PlyB, a bacteriophage lysin active against Bacillus anthracis
    Corrine J Porter
    Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and The ARC Centre of Excellence for Structural and Functional Microbial Genomics, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
    J Mol Biol 366:540-50. 2007
    ..and function of a novel bacteriophage-derived lysin, PlyB, which displays potent lytic activity against the Bacillus anthracis-like strain ATCC 4342...
  4. pmc Reliable detection of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis by using multiplex qPCR including internal controls for nucleic acid extraction and amplification
    Ingmar Janse
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    BMC Microbiol 10:314. 2010
    ..To reduce the impact of such highly pathogenic micro-organisms, rapid and accurate diagnostic tools are needed for their detection in various samples, including environmental samples...
  5. pmc Mechanisms of NK cell-macrophage Bacillus anthracis crosstalk: a balance between stimulation by spores and differential disruption by toxins
    Maria Klezovich-Bénard
    Laboratoire Pathogénie et Toxi Infections Bactériennes, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002481. 2012
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis spores can efficiently drive IFN-γ production by NK cells...
  6. pmc Sequencing Bacillus anthracis typing phages gamma and cherry reveals a common ancestry
    Derrick E Fouts
    The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:3402-8. 2006
    The genetic relatedness of the Bacillus anthracis typing phages Gamma and Cherry was determined by nucleotide sequencing and comparative analysis...
  7. ncbi Anthrax toxins: a weapon to systematically dismantle the host immune defenses
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    Unité Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche, France
    Mol Aspects Med 30:456-66. 2009
    ..The two toxins of Bacillus anthracis, lethal toxin and edema toxin, appear to have been shaped by evolution to assist the microorganism in this ..
  8. pmc The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis
    Matthew D Dyer
    Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e12089. 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for ..
  9. pmc Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing
    Jeffrey Martin
    DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:S10. 2010
    ..score related to gene expression? We used the whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of a bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis to assess correlation of gene expression level with promoter, terminator and RBS scores, codon adaptation ..
  10. ncbi Anthrax toxins cooperatively inhibit endocytic recycling by the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst
    Annabel Guichard
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0349, USA
    Nature 467:854-8. 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax in humans and other mammals...
  11. pmc Inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b-dependent resistance to anthrax is mediated by caspase-1, IL-1 signaling and neutrophil recruitment
    Mahtab Moayeri
    Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001222. 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis infects hosts as a spore, germinates, and disseminates in its vegetative form. Production of anthrax lethal and edema toxins following bacterial outgrowth results in host death...
  12. ncbi What sets Bacillus anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?
    Anne Brit Kolstø
    Laboratory for Microbial Dynamics and Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo 0316, Norway
    Annu Rev Microbiol 63:451-76. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the cause of anthrax, and two large plasmids are essential for toxicity: pXO1, which contains the toxin genes, and pXO2, which encodes a capsule. B. anthracis forms a highly monomorphic lineage within the B...
  13. ncbi Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management
    Thomas V Inglesby
    Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    JAMA 287:2236-52. 2002
    To review and update consensus-based recommendations for medical and public health professionals following a Bacillus anthracis attack against a civilian population.
  14. pmc Allelic variation on murine chromosome 11 modifies host inflammatory responses and resistance to Bacillus anthracis
    Jill K Terra
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002469. 2011
    Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease resulting from infection with Bacillus anthracis. The outcome of infection is influenced by pathogen-encoded virulence factors such as lethal toxin (LT), as well as by genetic variation within the ..
  15. pmc Contribution of lethal toxin and edema toxin to the pathogenesis of anthrax meningitis
    Celia M Ebrahimi
    Department of Biology and Center for Microbial Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr, San Diego, California 92182 4614, USA
    Infect Immun 79:2510-8. 2011
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax disease in humans and animals...
  16. pmc Anthrax toxin targeting of myeloid cells through the CMG2 receptor is essential for establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections in mice
    Shihui Liu
    Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, Laboratory of Bacterial Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:455-62. 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis kills through a combination of bacterial infection and toxemia. Anthrax toxin working via the CMG2 receptor mediates lethality late in infection, but its roles early in infection remain unclear...
  17. ncbi Anthrax edema toxin cooperates with lethal toxin to impair cytokine secretion during infection of dendritic cells
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche Cedex, France
    J Immunol 174:4934-41. 2005
    b>Bacillus anthracis secretes two critical virulence factors, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). In this study, we show that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) infected with B...
  18. pmc Sepsis and pathophysiology of anthrax in a nonhuman primate model
    Deborah J Stearns-Kurosawa
    Department of Free Radical Biology and Aging Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE 13th St, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
    Am J Pathol 169:433-44. 2006
    ..natural responses to bacterial sepsis assumed new relevance after the lethal bioterrorist attacks with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), a spore-forming, toxigenic gram-positive bacillus...
  19. pmc Cutting edge: resistance to Bacillus anthracis infection mediated by a lethal toxin sensitive allele of Nalp1b/Nlrp1b
    Jill K Terra
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Immunol 184:17-20. 2010
    Pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis is associated with the production of lethal toxin (LT), which activates the murine Nalp1b/Nlrp1b inflammasome and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptotic death in macrophages and dendritic cells...
  20. pmc Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States
    J A Jernigan
    NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:933-44. 2001
    ..4 to November 2, 2001, the first 10 confirmed cases of inhalational anthrax caused by intentional release of Bacillus anthracis were identified in the United States...
  21. pmc Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings
    Daniel B Jernigan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1019-28. 2002
    ..A national investigation was initiated to identify additional cases and determine possible exposures to Bacillus anthracis. Surveillance was enhanced through health-care facilities, laboratories, and other means to identify cases, ..
  22. pmc The secret life of the anthrax agent Bacillus anthracis: bacteriophage-mediated ecological adaptations
    Raymond Schuch
    The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6532. 2009
    ..tenet, based on limited and often conflicting studies, has long held that growing or vegetative forms of Bacillus anthracis survive poorly outside the mammalian host and must sporulate to survive in the environment...
  23. ncbi Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin
    K A Bradley
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1400 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    Nature 414:225-9. 2001
    The tripartite toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, helps the bacterium evade the immune system and can kill the host during a systemic infection...
  24. pmc A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide
    Li Chung Hsu
    Departments of Pharmacology and Pathology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7803-8. 2008
    ..Importantly, Bacillus anthracis infection induces IL-1beta secretion in a manner that depended on caspase-1 and NOD2...
  25. pmc Monoclonal antibody therapies against anthrax
    Zhaochun Chen
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Toxins (Basel) 3:1004-19. 2011
    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It not only causes natural infection in humans but also poses a great threat as an emerging bioterror agent...
  26. pmc Role of luxS in Bacillus anthracis growth and virulence factor expression
    Marcus B Jones
    Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, J Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD, USA
    Virulence 1:72-83. 2010
    ..The luxS/AI-2-mediated QS system has been identified in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, possesses genes involved in luxS/AI-2-mediated QS, and deletion of luxS ..
  27. pmc Bacillus anthracis-derived nitric oxide is essential for pathogen virulence and survival in macrophages
    Konstantin Shatalin
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1009-13. 2008
    ..Here, we report the surprising observation that in vivo survival of a notorious pathogen-Bacillus anthracis-critically depends on its own NO-synthase (bNOS) activity...
  28. pmc Cellular functions and X-ray structure of anthrolysin O, a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin secreted by Bacillus anthracis
    Raymond W Bourdeau
    Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:14645-56. 2009
    Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of ALO in anthrax pathogenesis...
  29. pmc Cell cycle arrest induced by the bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins from Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis
    Mary C Gray
    Department of Medicine, Box 800419, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Cell Microbiol 13:123-34. 2011
    b>Bacillus anthracis oedema toxin (ET) and Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) enter host cells and produce cAMP...
  30. ncbi The hidden lifestyles of Bacillus cereus and relatives
    G B Jensen
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Environ Microbiol 5:631-40. 2003
    Bacillus cereus sensu lato, the species group comprising Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus (sensu stricto), has previously been scrutinized regarding interspecies genetic correlation and pathogenic characteristics...
  31. pmc New insights into the biological effects of anthrax toxins: linking cellular to organismal responses
    Annabel Guichard
    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 0349, USA
    Microbes Infect 14:97-118. 2012
    The anthrax toxins lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) are essential virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. These toxins act during two distinct phases of anthrax infection...
  32. pmc Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax
    Fabien Dumetz
    Pathogenesis of Bacterial Toxi Infections Laboratory, Pasteur Institute Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Am J Pathol 178:2523-35. 2011
    ..We visualized the interactions between wild-type Bacillus anthracis and its host during a spore infection through bioluminescence imaging coupled with histology...
  33. pmc GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro
    Alfred G Tamayo
    Section of Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Mol Microbiol 81:1390-401. 2011
    ..Finally, we have used siRNA to demonstrate that knock-down of GRP78 results in the emergence of resistance to anthrax lethal toxin and oedema toxin action...
  34. pmc A high-affinity monoclonal antibody to anthrax protective antigen passively protects rabbits before and after aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spore challenge
    Nehal Mohamed
    Elusys Therapeutics Inc, P O Box 102, 25 Riverside Drive, Pine Brook, NJ 07058, USA
    Infect Immun 73:795-802. 2005
    ..from a lethal aerosolized anthrax spore challenge ( approximately 60 to 450 times the 50% lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis Ames)...
  35. pmc In vitro and in vivo characterization of anthrax anti-protective antigen and anti-lethal factor monoclonal antibodies after passive transfer in a mouse lethal toxin challenge model to define correlates of immunity
    Herman F Staats
    Department of Pathology, Box 3712, DUMC, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5443-52. 2007
    ..may be useful for preexposure prophylaxis against biological agents used as weapons of terror, such as Bacillus anthracis. Studies were performed to evaluate the ability of anthrax antiprotective antigen (anti-PA) and antilethal ..
  36. pmc Global genetic population structure of Bacillus anthracis
    Matthew N Van Ert
    Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e461. 2007
    Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a disease of historical and current importance that is found throughout the world...
  37. pmc A requirement for FcγR in antibody-mediated bacterial toxin neutralization
    Nareen Abboud
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    J Exp Med 207:2395-405. 2010
    ..of antibody constant region function in toxin neutralization, we generated IgG2a and IgG2b variants of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen-binding IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 19D9...
  38. ncbi Toxins of Bacillus anthracis
    F Brossier
    Unité des Toxines et Pathogénie Bactériennes URA CNRS 2172, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75725 15, Paris Cedex, France
    Toxicon 39:1747-55. 2001
    b>Bacillus anthracis, a gram positive bacterium, is the causative agent of anthrax. This organism is capsulogen and toxinogenic...
  39. ncbi Anthrax, toxins and vaccines: a 125-year journey targeting Bacillus anthracis
    Jean Nicolas Tournier
    CRSSA, Unité Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, BP 87, F 38702 La Tronche, France
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7:219-36. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease that plagues both humans and various animal species...
  40. pmc Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy
    Sunil K Joshi
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000588. 2009
    ..In the present study, we tested the effect of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) on NKT cells both in vivo and in vitro...
  41. ncbi Murine splenocytes produce inflammatory cytokines in a MyD88-dependent response to Bacillus anthracis spores
    Ian J Glomski
    Institut Pasteur, Unité des Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, Paris, F 75015, France
    Cell Microbiol 9:502-13. 2007
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that causes the disease anthrax...
  42. pmc The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids
    Silke R Klee
    Centre for Biological Security ZBS, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e10986. 2010
    Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene...
  43. pmc Humans and evolutionary and ecological forces shaped the phylogeography of recently emerged diseases
    PAUL S KEIM
    The Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 4073, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:813-21. 2009
    ..This Review describes the distributions of the bacteria that cause anthrax, plague and tularaemia and investigates the forces that created clonal structures in these species...
  44. ncbi Molecular basis for improved anthrax vaccines
    Robert N Brey
    DOR BioPharma, Inc, 1691 Michigan Avenue, Suite 435, Miami, FL 33139, USA
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 57:1266-92. 2005
    ..known as anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), consists of a culture filtrate from an attenuated strain of Bacillus anthracis adsorbed to aluminum salts as an adjuvant...
  45. ncbi Cutaneous anthrax associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and coagulopathy in a 7-month-old infant
    Abigail Freedman
    Department of Pediatrics, New York University Medical Center, 550 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA
    JAMA 287:869-74. 2002
    ..The systemic manifestations of the disease persisted for nearly a month despite corticosteroid therapy, but resolved...
  46. ncbi cAMP signaling by anthrax edema toxin induces transendothelial cell tunnels, which are resealed by MIM via Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization
    Madhavi P Maddugoda
    INSERM, U, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, Centre Méditerranéen de Médecine Moléculaire, Nice, France
    Cell Host Microbe 10:464-74. 2011
    ..We reveal that cyclic-AMP signaling produced by Bacillus anthracis edema toxin (ET) also induces TEM formation, which correlates with increased vascular permeability...
  47. pmc Four superoxide dismutases contribute to Bacillus anthracis virulence and provide spores with redundant protection from oxidative stress
    Robert J Cybulski
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814 4799, USA
    Infect Immun 77:274-85. 2009
    The Bacillus anthracis genome encodes four superoxide dismutases (SODs), enzymes capable of detoxifying oxygen radicals. That two of these SODs, SOD15 and SODA1, are present in the outermost layers of the B...
  48. ncbi Identification and characterization of immunodominant B-cell epitope of the C-terminus of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis
    Manpreet Kaur
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, Delhi, India
    Mol Immunol 46:2107-15. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is the etiological agent of anthrax. Protective antigen (PA) has been established as the key protective immunogen and is the major component of anthrax vaccine...
  49. pmc Antibacterial role for natural killer cells in host defense to Bacillus anthracis
    Christine M Gonzales
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Infect Immun 80:234-42. 2012
    ..To determine a potential role for NK cells in immunity to Bacillus anthracis, we utilized primary human and murine NK cells, in vitro assays, and in vivo NK cell depletion in a murine ..
  50. pmc Anthrax infection
    Daniel A Sweeney
    Medical Intensivist Program, Washington Hospital, Fremont, California, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184:1333-41. 2011
    b>Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it...
  51. ncbi Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis growth and virulence-gene expression by inhibitors of quorum-sensing
    Marcus B Jones
    Department of Microbiology, Sackler Institute, and Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1881-8. 2005
    ..We studied the effects on Bacillus anthracis growth and the virulence gene (pagA, lef, and cya) expression of the QS inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(..
  52. ncbi Anthrax vaccine powder formulations for nasal mucosal delivery
    Ge Jiang
    BD Technologies, 21 Davis Dr, RTP, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Pharm Sci 95:80-96. 2006
    ..anthrax vaccine currently under clinical evaluation consists of a recombinant Protective Antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis. We have previously demonstrated that complete protection against inhalational anthrax can be achieved in a ..
  53. ncbi Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor
    N S Duesbery
    Advanced BioScience Laboratories Basic Research Program, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Post Office Box B, Frederick, MD 21702
    Science 280:734-7. 1998
    Anthrax lethal toxin, produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is the major cause of death in animals infected with anthrax...
  54. ncbi Evaluation of spore extraction and purification methods for selective recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis spores
    D C Dragon
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2B3 08 Walter C Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2JZ
    Lett Appl Microbiol 33:100-5. 2001
    ..To investigate methods of improving anthrax spore detection with PLET...
  55. pmc Development and comparison of two assay formats for parallel detection of four biothreat pathogens by using suspension microarrays
    Ingmar Janse
    Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 7:e31958. 2012
    ..developed diagnostic suspension microarrays for sensitive and specific detection of the biothreat pathogens Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis and Coxiella burnetii...
  56. pmc Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax
    Mark T Albrecht
    Biological Defense Research Directorate, Naval Medical Research Center, 12300 Washington Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5425-33. 2007
    ..absence of real-time detection systems have highlighted the need for an efficient postexposure therapy for Bacillus anthracis infection...
  57. ncbi Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: a short history of anthrax
    Maxime Schwartz
    Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France
    Mol Aspects Med 30:347-55. 2009
    ..The aetiological agent, Bacillus anthracis, was identified by French and German scientists in the 1860s and 1870s...
  58. pmc O-Acetylation of peptidoglycan is required for proper cell separation and S-layer anchoring in Bacillus anthracis
    Maria Halima Laaberki
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:5278-88. 2011
    ..Here, we report that the peptidoglycan of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is O-acetylated and that, unusually, this modification is produced by two ..
  59. pmc The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms functional octameric complexes
    Alexander F Kintzer
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
    J Mol Biol 392:614-29. 2009
    ..This assembly mechanism may provide a novel means to control cytotoxicity...
  60. ncbi Preparedness for an anthrax attack
    David R Franz
    Midwest Research Institute, Frederick, MD, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:503-10. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a long-known bacterial organism with a uniquely stable spore stage...
  61. pmc Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities
    Tod J Merkel
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18091-6. 2010
    ..Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be ..
  62. ncbi A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax
    Jyotsna Gorantala
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
    Vaccine 29:4521-33. 2011
    ..In the present study, we expressed domain IV of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene [PA(dIV)] in planta (by nuclear agrobacterium and chloroplast transformation) and E...
  63. ncbi Lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis causes apoptosis of macrophages
    Serguei G Popov
    Hadron Advanced Biosystems, Inc, 10900 University Boulevard, MSN 1A8, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293:349-55. 2002
    ..We suggest that apoptosis rather than direct lysis is biologically relevant to lethal toxin intracellular activity...
  64. pmc Structural analysis and evidence for dynamic emergence of Bacillus anthracis S-layer networks
    Evelyne Couture-Tosi
    Groupe de Microscopie Structurale Moléculaire CNRS URA 2185, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Bacteriol 184:6448-56. 2002
    ..b>Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, responsible for anthrax, synthesizes two abundant surface ..
  65. pmc Mechanism of inhibition of Bacillus anthracis spore outgrowth by the lantibiotic nisin
    Ian M Gut
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States
    ACS Chem Biol 6:744-52. 2011
    ..Nisin also inhibits the outgrowth of bacterial spores, including spores of Bacillus anthracis, whose structural and biochemical properties are fundamentally different from those of vegetative bacteria...
  66. pmc NrdH-redoxin protein mediates high enzyme activity in manganese-reconstituted ribonucleotide reductase from Bacillus anthracis
    Mikael Crona
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 286:33053-60. 2011
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a severe mammalian pathogen encoding a class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR is a universal enzyme that provides the four essential deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA replication and repair...
  67. ncbi Fatal inhalational anthrax in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman
    Lydia A Barakat
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Griffin Hospital, 130 Division St, Derby, CT 06418, USA
    JAMA 287:863-8. 2002
    ..emphasizing the importance of this diagnostic test in evaluating ill patients who have been exposed to Bacillus anthracis. The patient's clinical course was characterized by progression of respiratory insufficiency, pleural ..
  68. ncbi Bacillus anthracis surface-layer proteins assemble by binding to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide in a manner that requires csaB and tagO
    Justin Kern
    Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, 920 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Mol Biol 401:757-75. 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, requires surface (S)-layer proteins for the pathogenesis of infection...
  69. pmc Charge requirements for proton gradient-driven translocation of anthrax toxin
    Michael J Brown
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:23189-99. 2011
    ..Our Brownian ratchet model includes a mechanism for unfolding and a novel role for positive charges, which we propose chaperone negative charges through the PA channel during ΔpH translocation...
  70. pmc Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis
    Florigio Lista
    Army Medical Research Center, Via Santo Stefano Rotondo 4 00184 Rome Italy
    BMC Microbiol 6:33. 2006
    The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult...
  71. ncbi Structure and function of anthrax toxin
    D B Lacy
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 271:61-85. 2002
    ..This chapter presents a review of experiments probing these structural interactions and rearrangements in the hopes of gaining a molecular understanding of toxin action...
  72. pmc The genome and variation of Bacillus anthracis
    Paul Keim
    The Microbial Genetics and Genomics Center, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff AZ 86011 4073, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:397-405. 2009
    The Bacillus anthracis genome reflects its close genetic ties to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis but has been shaped by its own unique biology and evolutionary forces...
  73. pmc Use of allostery to identify inhibitors of calmodulin-induced activation of Bacillus anthracis edema factor
    Elodie Laine
    Institut Pasteur, Unité de Bioinformatique Structurale and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité de Recherche Associée 2185, 25 28, rue du Dr Roux, 75 724 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11277-82. 2010
    ..along this path was used to identify a putative allosteric site that could regulate activation of Bacillus anthracis adenylyl cyclase toxin (EF) by calmodulin...
  74. ncbi Surface localized and extracellular Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus anthracis is a plasminogen binding protein
    Sumit Kumar Matta
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1804:2111-20. 2010
    ..enzyme, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) on the surface and in the extracellular medium of Bacillus anthracis. Out of the three heterologously expressed recombinant isoforms, rGapA (334 amino acids in native form; GapA)..
  75. pmc Anthrax toxins suppress T lymphocyte activation by disrupting antigen receptor signaling
    Silvia Rossi Paccani
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Policlinico Le Scotte, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Exp Med 201:325-31. 2005
    Anthrax is an infection caused by pathogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, which secretes a three-component toxic complex consisting of protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF)...
  76. ncbi Factors involved in the germination and inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores in murine primary macrophages
    Haijing Hu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 272:245-50. 2007
    ..complete inhibition of germination by d-alanine plus d-histidine, it is likely that only two of the several Bacillus anthracis germination systems are involved within macrophages...
  77. pmc Modeling the potential distribution of Bacillus anthracis under multiple climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan
    Timothy Andrew Joyner
    Emerging Pathogens Institute and the Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e9596. 2010
    Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that persists throughout much of the world in livestock, wildlife, and secondarily infects humans...
  78. pmc Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing method for identification of Bacillus anthracis species and strains among B. cereus group species
    Makoto Kuroda
    Laboratory of Bacterial Genomics, Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 48:2821-9. 2010
    As an issue of biosecurity, species-specific genetic markers have been well characterized. However, Bacillus anthracis strain-specific information is currently not sufficient for traceability to identify the origin of the strain...
  79. ncbi Anthrax lethal toxin has direct and potent inhibitory effects on B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production
    Hui Fang
    Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Office of Biotechnology Products, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 176:6155-61. 2006
    ..These results indicate that anthrax LT directly inhibits the function of B cells in vitro and in vivo, revealing a potential mechanism through which the pathogen could bypass protective immune responses...
  80. ncbi The alveolar macrophage: the Trojan horse of Bacillus anthracis
    Chantal Guidi-Rontani
    Laboratoire Organismes Photosynthetiques et Environnement, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d Ulm, 75005 CNRS URA2172, Paris, France
    Trends Microbiol 10:405-9. 2002
    b>Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has a particular strategy for invading the host and crossing the alveolar barrier. B...
  81. pmc Primary involvement of pharynx and peyer's patch in inhalational and intestinal anthrax
    Ian J Glomski
    Unité des Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 3:e76. 2007
    b>Bacillus anthracis causes three forms of anthrax: inhalational, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous...
  82. pmc Anthrax toxins inhibit neutrophil signaling pathways in brain endothelium and contribute to the pathogenesis of meningitis
    Nina M van Sorge
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2964. 2008
    Anthrax meningitis is the main neurological complication of systemic infection with Bacillus anthracis approaching 100% mortality...
  83. pmc Structures of sortase B from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis reveal catalytic amino acid triad in the active site
    Rongguang Zhang
    Structural Biology Center and Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 USA
    Structure 12:1147-56. 2004
    ..A putative active site located on the edge of the beta-barrel is comprised of a Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad and presumably faces the bacterial cell surface. A putative binding site for the sorting signal is located nearby...
  84. pmc Enhancement of antibody responses to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen domain IV by use of calreticulin as a chimeric molecular adjuvant
    Yong Sung Park
    Laboratory of Infection and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea
    Infect Immun 76:1952-9. 2008
    ..humoral immune responses against the receptor-binding domain (domain IV) of protective antigen [PA(dIV)] of Bacillus anthracis represents a plausible approach against anthrax toxin...
  85. ncbi alpha-Enolase binds to human plasminogen on the surface of Bacillus anthracis
    Shivangi Agarwal
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1784:986-94. 2008
    alpha-enolase of Bacillus anthracis has recently been classified as an immunodominant antigen and a potent virulence factor determinant. alpha-enolase (2-phospho-d-glycerate hydrolase (EC 4.2.1...
  86. pmc Detection of Bacillus anthracis spore germination in vivo by bioluminescence imaging
    Patrick Sanz
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 4799, USA
    Infect Immun 76:1036-47. 2008
    We sought to visualize the site of Bacillus anthracis spore germination in vivo. For that purpose, we constructed a reporter plasmid with the lux operon under control of the spore small acid-soluble protein B (sspB) promoter. In B...
  87. pmc Chimeric influenza virus hemagglutinin proteins containing large domains of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen: protein characterization, incorporation into infectious influenza viruses, and antigenicity
    Zhu Nan Li
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Rollins Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Virol 79:10003-12. 2005
    Large polypeptides of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) were inserted into an influenza A virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA), and the chimeric proteins were functionally characterized and incorporated into infectious ..
  88. ncbi Non-uniform assembly of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium and a bottle cap model for spore germination and outgrowth
    Christopher T Steichen
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    Mol Microbiol 64:359-67. 2007
    Spores of Bacillus anthracis are enclosed by an exosporium composed of a basal layer and an external hair-like nap...
  89. pmc Rap phosphatase of virulence plasmid pXO1 inhibits Bacillus anthracis sporulation
    Cristina Bongiorni
    Division of Cellular Biology, Mail Code MEM 116, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037
    J Bacteriol 188:487-98. 2006
    This study shows that the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 virulence plasmid carries a Rap-Phr system, BXA0205, which regulates sporulation initiation in this organism...
  90. ncbi A phase 1 study of PAmAb, a fully human monoclonal antibody against Bacillus anthracis protective antigen, in healthy volunteers
    G Mani Subramanian
    Human Genome Sciences, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:12-20. 2005
    Inhibition of the binding of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) to its cellular receptor can abrogate the downstream toxin-mediated deleterious effects of the anthrax toxin. A fully human monoclonal antibody against B...
  91. pmc Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
    Wenwan Zhong
    Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3446-9. 2007
    A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method was developed for discriminating Bacillus anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. A worldwide collection of 25 B...
  92. pmc Identification of the Bacillus anthracis (gamma) phage receptor
    Sophie Davison
    Toxines et Pathogénie Bactérienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Dr Roux, Cedex 15, Paris 75724, France
    J Bacteriol 187:6742-9. 2005
    b>Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, is the etiological agent of anthrax. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus group, which also contains Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Most B...
  93. pmc Characterization of the exosporium basal layer protein BxpB of Bacillus anthracis
    Christopher T Steichen
    UAB, Department of Microbiology, BBRB 409, 1530 3rd Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35294 2170, USA
    J Bacteriol 187:5868-76. 2005
    b>Bacillus anthracis spores, the cause of anthrax, are enclosed by a prominent loose-fitting structure called the exosporium. The exosporium is composed of a basal layer and an external hair-like nap...
  94. ncbi Selection of Bacillus anthracis isolates resistant to antibiotics
    A Athamna
    The Triangle Research and Development Center, Kfar Qaraa, Israel
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:424-8. 2004
    Long-term therapy for anthrax might induce antimicrobial resistance in Bacillus anthracis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of 18 different antibiotics to select resistant isolates of B...
  95. pmc Glucose-dependent activation of Bacillus anthracis toxin gene expression and virulence requires the carbon catabolite protein CcpA
    Christina Chiang
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, MEM 116, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Bacteriol 193:52-62. 2011
    Sensing environmental conditions is an essential aspect of bacterial physiology and virulence. In Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, transcription of the two major virulence factors, toxin and capsule, is triggered by ..
  96. pmc Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by Bacillus anthracis requires the pXO1-encoded BslA protein
    Celia M Ebrahimi
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:7165-73. 2009
    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Human infection occurs after the ingestion, inhalation, or cutaneous inoculation of B. anthracis spores...
  97. pmc ClpX contributes to innate defense peptide resistance and virulence phenotypes of Bacillus anthracis
    Shauna M McGillivray
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0687, USA
    J Innate Immun 1:494-506. 2009
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogen and the causative agent of the deadly disease anthrax...
  98. pmc Genomewide screening for novel genetic variations associated with ciprofloxacin resistance in Bacillus anthracis
    Masakuni Serizawa
    Laboratory of Bacterial Genomics, Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1 23 1 Toyama, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:2787-92. 2010
    Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance of Bacillus anthracis is a serious concern in the fields of biodefense and bioterrorism since FQs are very effective antibiotics and are recommended as first-line treatment against this lethal bacterium...
  99. pmc The Sortase A enzyme that attaches proteins to the cell wall of Bacillus anthracis contains an unusual active site architecture
    Ethan M Weiner
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1570, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:23433-43. 2010
    The pathogen Bacillus anthracis uses the Sortase A (SrtA) enzyme to anchor proteins to its cell wall envelope during vegetative growth. To gain insight into the mechanism of protein attachment to the cell wall in B...
  100. pmc Subunit and small-molecule interaction of ribonucleotide reductases via surface plasmon resonance biosensor analyses
    Mikael Crona
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Protein Eng Des Sel 23:633-41. 2010
    ..No strengthening of subunit interactions was observed in the class Ib RNR from the human pathogen Bacillus anthracis that lacks the ATP cone...
  101. ncbi A collagen-like surface glycoprotein is a structural component of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium
    Patricia Sylvestre
    Unite Toxines et Pathogénie Bacteriénnes URA 2172, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Mol Microbiol 45:169-78. 2002
    b>Bacillus anthracis, the aetiological agent of anthrax, is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. The exosporium is the outermost integument surrounding the mature spore...

Research Grants78

  1. An Oral Vaccine Against Multiple Biowarfare Agents
    KARL KLOSE; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Two such bacterial agents, Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis, can be easily spread by aerosolization causing a high level of mortality, and ..
  2. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF HEMOGLOBINS AND MYOGLOBINS
    John S Olson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in two single domain animal (Ascaris suum and Cerebratulus lacteus) and two microbial (Aquifex aeolicus and Bacillus anthracis) hemoglobins, which contain markedly altered distal pocket structures (TyrB10/Gln or ThrE7) and, in some ..
  3. ENZYMOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..select human pathogens, for example, (FosA) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (FosB) in Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis, and (FosX) in Brucella melitensis, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum...
  4. Development of an effective therapy against post-exposure Anthrax
    Maurizio Pellecchia; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. This rod shaped bacterium infects humans through the respiratory system, skin, or digestive tract...
  5. Development of a Novel PolC Inhibitor as a Gram-Positive Antibiotic
    THALE CROSS JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pneumoniae (PRSP), Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep), vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE), Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium difficile...
  6. Transcriptional Control by the Global Regulator Spx
    PETER A ZUBER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..subtilis, but is also found in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus anthracis. Spx has been shown to control the expression of virulence-associated activities in S...
  7. Cellular functions of the essential PcrA helicase in Staphylococcus aureus
    Saleem A Khan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, etc. PcrA was discovered in S...
  8. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..identified to pose the greatest potential threat (Category "A" agents) include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (..
  9. Analyzing Anthrax Toxins in Drosophilia
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..period we made a paradigm shifting discovery in which we showed that the two key virulence factors from Bacillus anthracis, edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) act cooperatively to inhibit protein trafficking to cell-cll ..
  10. Regulatory targets and pathogenic mechanisms of anthrax edema factor
    Jin Mo Park; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces three toxin polypeptides: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF)...
  11. Defining the functions of uncharacterized genes in priority pathogens
    Sean Crosson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is to define the biochemical and physiological functions of 235 uncharacterized genes in NIAID Category A (Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis) and Category B (Brucella abortus and Coxiella burnetii) priority pathogens...
  12. High-throughput multiplex microsphere screening for toxin protease inhibitors
    Steven W Graves; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..as specific activity probes and inhibitors for the important toxin proteases from Botulinum neurotoxin and Bacillus anthracis. In this way, this proposal will discover important new compounds that can be the basis of new ..
  13. Development and testing of polyvalent anthrax toxin inhibitors
    JEREMY S MOGRIDGE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Anthrax toxin is a combination of three proteins that are secreted separately by Bacillus anthracis and form toxic complexes that are internalized by mammalian cells...
  14. Proteomics of RNA polymerase interactomes in pathogenic bacteria
    Evgeny Nudler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the central enzyme of gene expression, RNA polymerase, in pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis, as well as the topology and composition of the more stable macromolecular complexes formed by this enzyme ..
  15. Chemistry, Structure and Biology of Thiol Transferases
    Richard N Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..obtained the genes, expressed and purified the FosB enzymes from several sources including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus aureus which puts us in an excellent position to accomplish this aim...
  16. Immunobiology of Bacillus anthracis Spore-Host Interactions
    JOHN FRANKLIN KEARNEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon depends on dispersal of its spores in the environment, entrance into the body, spore uptake by the human host cells, germination of the spores in the host and the pathological consequences of ..
  17. Isolation of new phage enzymes to kill B. anthracis
    Vincent A Fischetti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We have discovered for the first time that the anthrax agent Bacillus anthracis can survive outside the infected host in long-lived, non-spore forms and in novel niches as a result of ..
  18. Role and function of Spx paralogs of Bacillus anthracis
    PETER A ZUBER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The life cycle of Bacillus anthracis involves two cellular states, both of which function in establishing a productive infection...
  19. cGMP manufacturing of PBI-220, a broad spectrum immunoadhesin therapeutic against
    LLOYD M YU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..countermeasure, PBI-220, a therapeutic for patients symptomatic for inhalational anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Category A pathogen...
  20. FUNCTION AND BIOLOGY OF EUKARYOTIC DNA TOPOISOMERASES
    Neil Osheroff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The primary research model for this study will be human topoisomerase II[unreadable] and II[unreadable]. Bacillus anthracis gyrase and topoisomerase IV will be used for some experiments to provide comparisons between the prokaryotic ..
  21. Functional analysis of the Francisella capBCA gene locus
    Jing Ren Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The capBCA locus closely resembles the biosynthetic gene locus of the poly-3-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule in Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent. The B. anthracis capsule is a major virulence factor...
  22. Inhibition of Anthrax Lethal Factor by alpha-defensins
    Wuyuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Anthrax toxin consists of three proteins secreted by Bacillus anthracis - protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)...
  23. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobials Targeting the D-Alanine Pathway
    KAREN G ANTHONY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..medicinal chemistry and screening will be used to broaden the spectrum of activity of these agents against Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the causative agent ..
  24. Investigating the role of Bacillithiol in metal ion homeostasis and the reactive
    Pete Chandrangsu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..model organism for a number of medically and biotechnologically important Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, the information generated from these studies will be of ..
  25. Structure and Function of the B. anthracis Exosporium
    Charles L Turnbough; Fiscal Year: 2010
    PROJECT SUMMARY Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a highly pathogenic bacterium considered to be a serious threat as an agent of bioterrorism...
  26. Cellular responses to pore-forming toxins and regulation/function of the exocyst
    Anand Sitaram; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..virulence factors and are secreted by several major human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Vibrio cholerae [3-5]...
  27. Identifying Host-Factors Required for Toxin Entry and Toxicity
    ERIK HETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For instance, anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is one of the primary virulence factors that Bacillus anthracis utilizes to subvert the host immune system and induce cell death, resulting in a rapid onset of death that ..
  28. Structure and Function of S-adenosyl-L-methionine Riboswitches
    Ailong Ke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..subtilis as a model organism, but are also found to control essential genes in important pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Clostridium, and Mycobacterium...
  29. Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Inhibition Study
    Elizabeth A Amin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) enzyme directly enables the Bacillus anthracis bacterium to evade host immunological mechanisms, leading to circulatory shock and death...
  30. Protective Effects of Anti-BclA Antibodies in Bacillus anthracis Infection
    JUAN B RODRIGUEZ BARRANTES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Protective Effects of anti-BclA Antibodies in Bacillus anthracis infection The use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon in 2001 underlies the importance of understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis ..
  31. Alternative approaches for NALT-based immunity to respiratory pathogens
    Prosper N Boyaka; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The nasopharyngeal tract is a major portal entry of debilitating and potentially lethal pathogens including Bacillus anthracis and influenza virus...
  32. Structural and functional studies of autoinducer-2 processing proteins
    Stephen T Miller; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are known to carry the gene for LuxS, the AI-2 synthase, including pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Vibrio cholerae [84]...
  33. Interaction between B. cereus RecQ helicase and topoisomerase III
    Zhiyu Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..two type IA topoisomerases and single RecQ helicase, some Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, encode multiple chromosomal copies of type IA topoisomerase (annotated as ..
  34. Multivalent Plague, Anthrax Vaccines Using Bacteriophage T4 Display
    Venigalla B Rao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and develop trivalent plague and multivalent plague-anthrax vaccines that can confer protection against Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, two Category A biodefense pathogens...
  35. Structural Biology of Multifunctional Bacterial Phosphatases
    Matthew B Neiditch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For example, sporulation is repressed in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of the disease anthrax, by Rap proteins encoded on its chromosome and virulence plasmid,..
  36. Topical DNA immunization by modifying the hair follicle cycle
    Zhengrong Cui; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Using a plasmid that encodes the protective antigen (PA) protein of Bacillus anthracis as a model DNA vaccine, we have generated some promising data that were strongly supportive of this ..
  37. Structural basis of tetracycline resistance by efflux pump TetL
    DANENG WANG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the family of antibiotic resistance efflux proteins (Tet) in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, including Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Clostridium spp., Enterococcus spp...
  38. Exposporium determinants of Bacillus anthracis
    George C Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant);Bacillus anthracis is an endospore-forming, soil microorganism that is an important zoonotic pathogen. It is of significant concern as a potential bioterrorism agent...
  39. Final preclinical development of an immunoadhesin therapy for inhalation anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Description (provided by the applicant): Inhalational anthrax, caused by inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ~50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics...
  40. Development of a Novel Lead Series Against Category A &B Bacterial Pathogens
    Terry L Bowlin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These compounds are also active against ciprofloxacin-resistant Bacillus anthracis (MIC 0.2-0.4ug/ml) and a variety of other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species...
  41. Biosynthesis & Function of a Bacillus anthracis-specific cell wall polysaccharide
    Russell W Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Our laboratory has recently reported the structure of a Bacillus anthracis species-specific polysaccharide...
  42. Conjugate Anthrax Vaccine with Dual Virulence Factor Specificity
    Lallan Giri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Anthrax is a lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. The two major virulence factors of B...
  43. Immune Responses to Biodefense Vaccines Early in Life
    Marcela F Pasetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..on attenuated Salmonella as a live vector to mucosally deliver protective antigens from Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis. Our first goal is to determine whether these Salmonella biodefense vaccines are well tolerated and induce ..
  44. Antidotes to Anthrax Lethal Factor Intoxication
    ALAN THOMAS JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..LF) is a protein toxin introduced into the cells of mammalian hosts during infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The toxemia due to LF results from disruption of intracellular signaling pathways mediated by the MAPKKs ..
  45. Novel Therapeutic Approaches to Pathogen Inactivation
    James A Cowan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis and other bacterial pathogens are among the more pronounced threats in the arena of bio- terrorism and biological warfare, while the occurrence of resistant strains of other gram positive pathogens (including ..
  46. Phase I clinical trial of an immunoadhesin antitoxin for anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Inhalational anthrax, caused by inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores, has a ~50% fatality rate even when treated with antibiotics...
  47. Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Metalloproteinase
    Alan Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..LF) is a metalloproteinase introduced into the cells of mammalian hosts during infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. LF disrupts intracellular signaling pathways mediated by the MAPKKs, resulting in cell toxicity, sepsis, ..
  48. Novel antiobiotic development for biodefense
    Michael E Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents for anthrax, tularemia and plague, respectively, are all classed as Category A agents due to their potential use in bioterrorism and biowarfare...
  49. Coordination Chemistry of Microbial Iron Transport Compounds
    Kenneth N Raymond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The most successful human pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis, devise elaborate, multifaceted strategies to ensure their iron supply...
  50. Countermeasures for Bioterroism Targeting Cellular Host Factors
    John C Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to use Anthrax as a well-established model of a Class A pathogen. Bacillus anthracis is deadly in part because of the toxin it secretes...
  51. Role of RepX Protein in Replication/Partitioning of Anthrax Toxin Plasmid pXO1
    Saleem A Khan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis is an important human pathogen that is the etiological agent of anthrax in humans and a potential biological weapon. Two large plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, play a major role in the virulence of this organism...
  52. A novel anti-spore nasal vaccine for protection from anthrax
    Amy Rasley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is a pressing national need for an improved vaccine against Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, that can be used for prophylactic mass inoculation as well as immediately after ..
  53. Identification of novel mammalian genes required for intoxication by antrax toxin
    G Jilani Chaudry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Anthrax toxin (AT) is crucial for the lethality of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax...
  54. Novel Therapy for Pulmonary Anthrax
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The American public is vulnerable to a bioterrorist attack using Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)...
  55. IMPDH-targeted antibiotics for select agents
    LIZBETH K HEDSTROM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the structural variation of the target enzyme and the permeability of the bacteria (select agents in bold): Bacillus anthracis (Gram positive), Francisella tularensis (Gram-negative facultative intracellular), Listeria monocytogenes (..
  56. Targeting Replication-Segregation of plasmid pX01 in Bacillus anthracis
    Debabrata RayChaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming pathogen, which causes lethal inhalation anthrax in humans. It has also gained recent notoriety as a potential biothreat weapon. A hallmark of B...
  57. Surface Proteins of Bacillus anthracis
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a zoonotic disease transmitted by spores that germinate in the infected host. The resulting vegetative forms of B...
  58. In vivo effects of anthrax toxins:imaging host response & bacterial proliferation
    Ian Justin Glomski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacillus anthracis is the bacterium that causes the disease anthrax. Concern over its use as a bioweapon has renewed interest in elucidating mechanisms of how it causes disease. B...
  59. Peptide-Based Quorum Sensing Controlling Virulence in Bacillus anthracis
    Hyunwoo Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacillus anthracis is a member of the B. cereus group that includes B. cereus and B. thuringiensis...
  60. Herpes virus typing assay for detecting genital herpes
    Huimin Kong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..k.a. Rabbit). Finally, we have developed a number of DNA probe based assays for biodefense targets;e.g. Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus...
  61. The role of calcium-DPA in the virulence of Bacillus anthracis spores
    ERNESTO V ABEL-SANTOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To account for this paradox, we propose that factors unique to Bacillus anthracis spores can account for the ability of germinated cells to survive the macrophage's phagosome...
  62. Regulation of Innate Immunity by Pyrin Proteins
    Jonathan A Harton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..autoinflammatory diseases and innate immune response towards a growing number of pathogens, including Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis...
  63. The Mechanisms of Heme Toxicity and Detoxification in Staphylococcus aureus
    CATHERINE ANN WAKEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..aureus and other pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Listeria monocytogenes, we will provide potential insight into targeted ..
  64. PRIMATE MODEL AND PATHOGENESIS OF ANTHRAX SEPSIS
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The threat of bioterrorism has become a reality since the attacks with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in the fall of 2001. The virulence of B.anthracis depends on a tripartite exotoxin and an anti-phagocytic bacterial capsule...
  65. Development of Therapeutic Inhibitors to Anthrax Toxins
    JOHNNY PETERSON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Anthrax is a highly infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, and aerosolization of the dried bacterial spores is a major biological warfare and bioterrorism threat...
  66. PGA antigenemia for early diagnosis of anthrax
    Thomas Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Detection of microbial antigens in body fluids is a proven technology in diagnosis of infectious disease. Bacillus anthracis is surrounded by an anti-phagocytic capsule that is composed of poly-y-D-glutamic acid (PGA), raising the ..
  67. Applicability of smartDNA Rapid Detection of Priority Agents in Food
    RICHARD BLIDNER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..assays and instrumentation for use by first responders for the detection of multiple bio-terrorism agents (Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis)...
  68. Immunoprotective monoclonals to B. anthracis spores
    ALISON O BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Bacillus anthracis spores were recently used as agents of bioterrorism...
  69. Anthrax vaccination by targeting spore germination
    Chun Ming Huang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Germination occurs as an upstream event during the life cycle of Bacillus anthracis. Germinating spores may be considered the weakest link during its life cycle because stopping their function would prevent further development of the ..
  70. Mechanisms Mediating Hypotension to Anthrax Lethal Toxin
    Michael J Kenney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacillus anthracis infection is a deadly pathophysiological condition and a major bioterrorism health threat...
  71. Detection of Category A Pathogens by Gold Nanoparticles
    Steven Wolinsky; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Recent deliberate exposure of civilian population of the United States populace to Bacillus anthracis spores uncovered an unmet need for tests to rapidly diagnose disease caused by this bacterium...
  72. Choosing Drug Doses for Biodefense Pathogens
    George Drusano; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..robustly determining doses and schedules of drugs to treat patients infected with the Bioterror pathogens Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and the Pox viruses Vaccinia Virus and Cowpox Virus...
  73. Dual Antigen Nanoparticle Vaccine System For Bacillus Infectious Disease
    Puthupparampil Scaria; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Initially this platform will be tested for feasibility using a pair of antigens from Bacillus anthracis, which is an area of intense effort to develop a better vaccine...
  74. Potentiating an anthrax DNA vaccine with electroporation
    Brian Livingston; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Anthrax, an infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, became a pressing concern because of its potential biowarfare use, most likely via aerosolized anthrax spore dissemination, resulting in deadly inhalation anthrax...
  75. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor
    NORTON PEET; Fiscal Year: 2006
    Aerosolized spores of Bacillus anthracis represent one of the most serious bio-terrorist threats to the security of the United States...
  76. Nisin as a decontaminant for B. anthracis spores on human skin
    Kenneth Alibek; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project summary: An attack or terrorist event using spores of Bacillus anthracis continues to be an imminent threat...
  77. A Novel Target for New Anti-Anthrax Drugs
    Wayne Brouillette; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The use of Bacillus anthracis in acts of terrorism and/or biological warfare is a demonstrated threat to U.S. security...
  78. Bacillus anthracis cell surface carbohydrates
    Russell Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The bioterrorist threat with regard to Bacillus anthracis requires the development of improved vaccines, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents...