biofilms

Summary

Summary: Films of bacteria or other microbial organisms, usually embedded in extracellular polymers such as implanted medical devices, which adhere to surfaces submerged in, or subjected to, aquatic environments (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed). Biofilms consist of multilayers of microbial cells glued together to form microbial communities which are highly resistant to both phagocytes and antibiotics.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms
    Niels Høiby
    Department of Clinical Microbiology 9301, Juliane Mariesvej 22, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:322-32. 2010
  2. ncbi The biofilm matrix
    Hans Curt Flemming
    Biofilm Centre, University of Duisburg Essen, Geibelstrasse 41, D 47057 Duisburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:623-33. 2010
  3. pmc Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms
    Rodney M Donlan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:167-93. 2002
  4. ncbi Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents
    T F Mah
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Trends Microbiol 9:34-9. 2001
  5. ncbi Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases
    Luanne Hall-Stoodley
    Department of Veterinary Molecular Microbiology, Departments of Microbiology and Civil Engineering, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:95-108. 2004
  6. ncbi Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms
    P S Stewart
    Center for Biofilm Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 3980, USA
    Lancet 358:135-8. 2001
  7. ncbi Extracellular DNA required for bacterial biofilm formation
    Cynthia B Whitchurch
    ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, QLD, Australia
    Science 295:1487. 2002
  8. pmc A recently evolved transcriptional network controls biofilm development in Candida albicans
    Clarissa J Nobile
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94102, USA
    Cell 148:126-38. 2012
  9. ncbi Persister cells, dormancy and infectious disease
    Kim Lewis
    Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:48-56. 2007
  10. pmc Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces
    Rodney M Donlan
    Biofilm Laboratory, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:881-90. 2002

Detail Information

Publications345 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms
    Niels Høiby
    Department of Clinical Microbiology 9301, Juliane Mariesvej 22, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:322-32. 2010
    ..Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well ..
  2. ncbi The biofilm matrix
    Hans Curt Flemming
    Biofilm Centre, University of Duisburg Essen, Geibelstrasse 41, D 47057 Duisburg, Germany
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:623-33. 2010
    The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that form their immediate environment...
  3. pmc Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms
    Rodney M Donlan
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:167-93. 2002
    Though biofilms were first described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the theory describing the biofilm process was not developed until 1978...
  4. ncbi Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents
    T F Mah
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Trends Microbiol 9:34-9. 2001
    b>Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents...
  5. ncbi Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases
    Luanne Hall-Stoodley
    Department of Veterinary Molecular Microbiology, Departments of Microbiology and Civil Engineering, Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 2:95-108. 2004
    b>Biofilms--matrix-enclosed microbial accretions that adhere to biological or non-biological surfaces--represent a significant and incompletely understood mode of growth for bacteria...
  6. ncbi Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms
    P S Stewart
    Center for Biofilm Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 3980, USA
    Lancet 358:135-8. 2001
    ..The mechanisms of resistance in biofilms are different from the now familiar plasmids, transposons, and mutations that confer innate resistance to ..
  7. ncbi Extracellular DNA required for bacterial biofilm formation
    Cynthia B Whitchurch
    ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, QLD, Australia
    Science 295:1487. 2002
  8. pmc A recently evolved transcriptional network controls biofilm development in Candida albicans
    Clarissa J Nobile
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94102, USA
    Cell 148:126-38. 2012
    ..analyze the transcriptional network controlling biofilm formation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, whose biofilms are a major source of medical device-associated infections...
  9. ncbi Persister cells, dormancy and infectious disease
    Kim Lewis
    Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:48-56. 2007
    ..The molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of dormant persister cells are now being unravelled and are the focus of this Review...
  10. pmc Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces
    Rodney M Donlan
    Biofilm Laboratory, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:881-90. 2002
    Microorganisms attach to surfaces and develop biofilms. Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and the up- ..
  11. pmc Hsp90 governs dispersion and drug resistance of fungal biofilms
    Nicole Robbins
    Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002257. 2011
    Fungal biofilms are a major cause of human mortality and are recalcitrant to most treatments due to intrinsic drug resistance...
  12. ncbi Biofilms as complex differentiated communities
    P Stoodley
    Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman 59717, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 56:187-209. 2002
    Prokaryotic biofilms that predominate in a diverse range of ecosystems are often composed of highly structured multispecies communities...
  13. ncbi Bacterial biofilms: an emerging link to disease pathogenesis
    Matthew R Parsek
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 3109, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 57:677-701. 2003
    The role of biofilms in the pathogenesis of some chronic human infections is now widely accepted. However, the criteria used to determine whether a given infection is caused by biofilms remain unclear...
  14. ncbi A characterization of DNA release in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and biofilms
    Marie Allesen-Holm
    Centre for Biomedical Microbiology, BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Mol Microbiol 59:1114-28. 2006
    ..aeruginosa produces extracellular DNA which functions as a cell-to-cell interconnecting matrix component in biofilms. Comparison of extracellular DNA and chromosomal DNA by the use of polymerase chain reaction and Southern ..
  15. ncbi Biofilm formation as microbial development
    G O'TOOLE
    Department of Microbiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 54:49-79. 2000
    b>Biofilms can be defined as communities of microorganisms attached to a surface...
  16. pmc Active starvation responses mediate antibiotic tolerance in biofilms and nutrient-limited bacteria
    Dao Nguyen
    Departments of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Science 334:982-6. 2011
    ..Furthermore, inactivating this protective mechanism sensitized biofilms by several orders of magnitude to four different classes of antibiotics and markedly enhanced the efficacy of ..
  17. pmc Signals, regulatory networks, and materials that build and break bacterial biofilms
    Ece Karatan
    Department of Biology, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 73:310-47. 2009
    b>Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that live attached to surfaces...
  18. pmc Biofilm matrix regulation by Candida albicans Zap1
    Clarissa J Nobile
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Biol 7:e1000133. 2009
    ..b>Biofilms are a major natural growth form of microorganisms and the cause of pervasive device-associated infection...
  19. pmc How Staphylococcus aureus biofilms develop their characteristic structure
    Saravanan Periasamy
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:1281-6. 2012
    b>Biofilms cause significant problems in the environment and during the treatment of infections. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm formation are poorly understood...
  20. pmc Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides
    Kyle R Allison
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for BioDynamics and Center for Advanced Biotechnology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 473:216-20. 2011
    ..Bacterial persisters have been implicated in biofilms and in chronic and recurrent infections...
  21. pmc Specialized persister cells and the mechanism of multidrug tolerance in Escherichia coli
    Iris Keren
    Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 134 Mugar Hall, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115
    J Bacteriol 186:8172-80. 2004
    ..The function of these specialized dormant cells is to ensure the survival of the population in the presence of lethal factors...
  22. pmc New insights into Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis revealed by high-density pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis
    Michael G Smith
    Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Genes Dev 21:601-14. 2007
    ..The DNA sequencing approach described in this study allows the rapid elucidation of the DNA sequence of any microbe and, when combined with genetic screens, can identify many novel genes important for microbial pathogenesis...
  23. ncbi Evolving concepts in biofilm infections
    Luanne Hall-Stoodley
    Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Cell Microbiol 11:1034-43. 2009
    ..b>Biofilms are usually defined as surface-associated microbial communities, surrounded by an extracellular polymeric ..
  24. ncbi Physiological heterogeneity in biofilms
    Philip S Stewart
    Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 3980, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:199-210. 2008
    b>Biofilms contain bacterial cells that are in a wide range of physiological states...
  25. pmc Staphylococcal biofilms
    M Otto
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 322:207-28. 2008
    ..causes of nosocomial infections and infections on indwelling medical devices, which characteristically involve biofilms. Recent advances in staphylococcal molecular biology have provided more detailed insight into the basis of ..
  26. ncbi Staphylococcus and biofilms
    Friedrich Götz
    Department of Microbial Genetics, Universitat Tubingen, Waldhäuser Str 70 8, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 43:1367-78. 2002
    ..Concepts for the prevention of obstinate polymer-associated infections include the search for new anti-infectives active in biofilms and new biocompatible materials that complicate biofilm formation and the development of vaccines.
  27. pmc Selenium nanoparticles inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth
    Phong A Tran
    Physics Department, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
    Int J Nanomedicine 6:1553-8. 2011
    ..Therefore, this study suggests that selenium nanoparticles may be used to effectively prevent and treat S. aureus infections and thus should be further studied for such applications...
  28. pmc Targeting of csgD by the small regulatory RNA RprA links stationary phase, biofilm formation and cell envelope stress in Escherichia coli
    Franziska Mika
    Institut für Biologie Mikrobiologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 84:51-65. 2012
    ..Thus, antagonistic regulation of csgD and RprA at the mRNA level integrates cell envelope stress signals with global gene expression during stationary phase and biofilm formation...
  29. pmc Nuclease modulates biofilm formation in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Megan R Kiedrowski
    Department of Microbiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e26714. 2011
    ..Altogether, our findings confirm the important role for eDNA in the S. aureus biofilm matrix and indicates Nuc is a regulator of biofilm formation...
  30. pmc Staphylococcal biofilm disassembly
    Blaise R Boles
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, MI 48109, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:449-55. 2011
    ..Staphylococcal biofilms exhibit extraordinary resistance to antimicrobial killing, limiting the efficacy of antibiotic therapy, and ..
  31. ncbi Prosthetic-joint infections
    Werner Zimmerli
    Basel University Medical Clinic, Kantonsspital, Liestal, Switzerland
    N Engl J Med 351:1645-54. 2004
  32. pmc The sensor kinase CbrA is a global regulator that modulates metabolism, virulence, and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Amy T Y Yeung
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Bacteriol 193:918-31. 2011
    ..However, as CbrB did not have a resistance phenotype, CbrA likely modulates antibiotic resistance in a manner independent of CbrB...
  33. pmc Essential role for the major autolysin in the fibronectin-binding protein-mediated Staphylococcus aureus biofilm phenotype
    Patrick Houston
    School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science and Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Infect Immun 79:1153-65. 2011
    ..These data reveal an essential role for the major autolysin in the early events of the FnBP-dependent S. aureus biofilm phenotype...
  34. ncbi Should we stay or should we go: mechanisms and ecological consequences for biofilm dispersal
    Diane McDougald
    Centre for Marine Bio Innovation and School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, University of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW 2088, Australia
    Nat Rev Microbiol 10:39-50. 2012
    In most environments, bacteria reside primarily in biofilms, which are social consortia of cells that are embedded in an extracellular matrix and undergo developmental programmes resulting in a predictable biofilm 'life cycle'...
  35. pmc The clinical impact of bacterial biofilms
    Niels Høiby
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet
    Int J Oral Sci 3:55-65. 2011
    Bacteria survive in nature by forming biofilms on surfaces and probably most, if not all, bacteria (and fungi) are capable of forming biofilms...
  36. pmc Interconnections between Sigma B, agr, and proteolytic activity in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm maturation
    Katherine J Lauderdale
    Department of Microbiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Infect Immun 77:1623-35. 2009
    ..Altogether, our observations demonstrate that SigB is an essential regulator of S. aureus biofilm maturation...
  37. ncbi Survival strategies of infectious biofilms
    C A Fux
    Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, 366 EPS Building P O Box 173980, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
    Trends Microbiol 13:34-40. 2005
    Modern medicine is facing the spread of biofilm-related infections. Bacterial biofilms are difficult to detect in routine diagnostics and are inherently tolerant to host defenses and antibiotic therapies...
  38. pmc Agr-mediated dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms
    Blaise R Boles
    Department of Microbiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000052. 2008
    ..aureus biofilm development, as agr mutants exhibit a high propensity to form biofilms, and cells dispersing from a biofilm have been observed displaying an active agr system...
  39. pmc Genetic control of Candida albicans biofilm development
    Jonathan S Finkel
    Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:109-18. 2011
    Candida species cause frequent infections owing to their ability to form biofilms - surface-associated microbial communities - primarily on implanted medical devices...
  40. pmc Self-generated diversity produces "insurance effects" in biofilm communities
    Blaise R Boles
    Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:16630-5. 2004
    ..are produced by a recA-dependent mechanism and affect multiple traits, including the behavior of the bacteria in biofilms. Some biofilm-derived variants exhibit an increased ability to disseminate, whereas others manifest accelerated ..
  41. ncbi Role of autolysin-mediated DNA release in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis
    Zhiqiang Qin
    Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministry of Education and Public Health, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences and Medical Microbiology, Shanghai Medical School of Fudan University Box 228, Yi Xue Yuan Road 138, Shanghai 200032, P R China
    Microbiology 153:2083-92. 2007
    ..epidermidis cultures and biofilms is generated through activity of the autolysin AtlE...
  42. pmc The intercellular adhesion (ica) locus is present in Staphylococcus aureus and is required for biofilm formation
    S E Cramton
    Mikrobielle Genetik, Universitat Tubingen, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Infect Immun 67:5427-33. 1999
    Nosocomial infections that result in the formation of biofilms on the surfaces of biomedical implants are a leading cause of sepsis and are often associated with colonization of the implants by Staphylococcus epidermidis...
  43. ncbi Pseudomonas aeruginosa: all roads lead to resistance
    Elena B M Breidenstein
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Trends Microbiol 19:419-26. 2011
    ....
  44. pmc The Calgary Biofilm Device: new technology for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms
    H Ceri
    Biofilm Research Group, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
    J Clin Microbiol 37:1771-6. 1999
    ..Adherent bacterial populations (biofilms) present with an innate lack of antibiotic susceptibility not seen in the same bacteria grown as planktonic ..
  45. pmc Portrait of Candida albicans adherence regulators
    Jonathan S Finkel
    Department of Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002525. 2012
    Cell-substrate adherence is a fundamental property of microorganisms that enables them to exist in biofilms. Our study focuses on adherence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans to one substrate, silicone, that is relevant to device-..
  46. pmc Antibiotics as intermicrobial signaling agents instead of weapons
    J F Linares
    Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Darwin 3, Campus Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19484-9. 2006
    ..This is a complete change on our vision on the ecological function of antibiotics with clear implications both for the treatment of infectious diseases and for the understanding of the microbial relationships in the biosphere...
  47. pmc Staphylococcus epidermidis--the 'accidental' pathogen
    Michael Otto
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike Building 33 1W10, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 7:555-67. 2009
    ..epidermidis in balancing the epithelial microflora and serving as a reservoir of resistance genes. In this Review, I discuss the molecular basis of the commensal and infectious lifestyles of S. epidermidis...
  48. pmc Staphylococcus epidermidis surfactant peptides promote biofilm maturation and dissemination of biofilm-associated infection in mice
    Rong Wang
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:238-48. 2011
    b>Biofilms are surface-attached agglomerations of microorganisms embedded in an extracellular matrix...
  49. pmc Vibrio cholerae VpsT regulates matrix production and motility by directly sensing cyclic di-GMP
    Petya V Krasteva
    Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Science 327:866-8. 2010
    ..Rather than being regulated by phosphorylation, VpsT undergoes a change in oligomerization on c-di-GMP binding...
  50. ncbi Pathogenesis of infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci
    Christof von Eiff
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Münster Hospital and Clinics, Munster, Germany
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:677-85. 2002
    ....
  51. ncbi Biofilms: the matrix revisited
    Steven S Branda
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Trends Microbiol 13:20-6. 2005
    Microbes often construct and live within surface-associated multicellular communities known as biofilms. The precise structure, chemistry and physiology of the biofilm all vary with the nature of its resident microbes and local ..
  52. pmc Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: development, architecture, and drug resistance
    J Chandra
    Center for Medical Mycology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:5385-94. 2001
    b>Biofilms are a protected niche for microorganisms, where they are safe from antibiotic treatment and can create a source of persistent infection...
  53. pmc The cidA murein hydrolase regulator contributes to DNA release and biofilm development in Staphylococcus aureus
    Kelly C Rice
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:8113-8. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate that cidA-controlled cell lysis plays a significant role during biofilm development and that released genomic DNA is an important structural component of S. aureus biofilm...
  54. pmc FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast
    Scott Smukalla
    FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Northwest Labs, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Cell 135:726-37. 2008
    ..in the laboratory strain S288C restores flocculation, an altered physiological state, reminiscent of bacterial biofilms. Flocculation protects the FLO1 expressing cells from multiple stresses, including antimicrobials and ethanol...
  55. pmc Critical role of Bcr1-dependent adhesins in C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo
    Clarissa J Nobile
    Department of Microbiology, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e63. 2006
    ..Candida albicans is frequently associated with catheter-based infections because of its ability to form resilient biofilms. Prior studies have shown that the transcription factor Bcr1 governs biofilm formation in an in vitro catheter ..
  56. pmc Candida infections of medical devices
    Erna M Kojic
    Medical Service, Infectious Disease Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:255-67. 2004
    ..Candida spp. produce biofilms on synthetic materials, which facilitates adhesion of the organisms to devices and renders them relatively ..
  57. ncbi The role of bacteria in the caries process: ecological perspectives
    N Takahashi
    Division of Oral Ecology and Biochemistry, Department of Oral Biology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai, 980 8575, Japan
    J Dent Res 90:294-303. 2011
    Dental biofilms produce acids from carbohydrates that result in caries. According to the extended caries ecological hypothesis, the caries process consists of 3 reversible stages...
  58. ncbi Genes involved in matrix formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilms
    Lisa Friedman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Microbiol 51:675-90. 2004
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms diverse matrix-enclosed surface-associated multicellular assemblages (biofilms) that aid in its survival in a variety of environments...
  59. ncbi Multidrug tolerance of biofilms and persister cells
    K Lewis
    Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02459, USA
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 322:107-31. 2008
    ..Similarly, slow-growing biofilms produce substantial numbers of persisters...
  60. ncbi The Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensor RetS switches type III and type VI secretion via c-di-GMP signalling
    Joana A Moscoso
    Imperial College London, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, South Kensington Campus, Flowers Building, London SW7 2AZ, UK
    Environ Microbiol 13:3128-38. 2011
    ..These results provide a firm link between the RetS/GacS and the c-di-GMP pathways, which coordinate bacterial lifestyles, as well as secretion systems that determine the infection strategy of P. aeruginosa...
  61. pmc Global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms
    Karen E Beenken
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W Markham, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:4665-84. 2004
    ..Indeed, we identified 48 genes in which expression was induced at least twofold in biofilms over expression under both planktonic conditions...
  62. ncbi Structural changes induced by a lytic bacteriophage make ciprofloxacin effective against older biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Vivek Verma
    Department of Microbiology, Basic Medical Sciences BMS Block, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
    Biofouling 26:729-37. 2010
    ..of the two agents in combination as ciprofloxacin alone could not reduce bacterial biomass significantly in older biofilms (P > 0.05)...
  63. pmc Interface of Candida albicans biofilm matrix-associated drug resistance and cell wall integrity regulation
    Jeniel E Nett
    University of Wisconsin, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI 53705, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:1660-9. 2011
    ..The phenotypes of these mutant biofilms mimicked those of the smi1Δ/smi1Δ biofilm, and overexpression of FKS1 in the smi1Δ/smi1Δ mutant restored the ..
  64. pmc Extracellular nucleases and extracellular DNA play important roles in Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation
    Andrea Seper
    Institut fuer Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Karl Franzens Universitaet Graz, Humboldtstrasse 50, 8010 Graz, Austria
    Mol Microbiol 82:1015-37. 2011
    b>Biofilms are a preferred mode of survival for many microorganisms including Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe secretory diarrhoeal disease cholera. The ability of the facultative human pathogen V...
  65. pmc Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: properties, regulation, and roles in human disease
    Nathan K Archer
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Virulence 2:445-59. 2011
    Increasing attention has been focused on understanding bacterial biofilms and this growth modality's relation to human disease...
  66. pmc D-amino acids trigger biofilm disassembly
    Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 328:627-9. 2010
    Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time...
  67. ncbi Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants
    Mikkel Klausen
    Molecular Microbial Ecology Group, BioCentrum DTU, Building 301, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Mol Microbiol 48:1511-24. 2003
    ..but the cell appendages had roles in biofilm development, as wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants formed biofilms with different structures...
  68. ncbi Dental caries
    Robert H Selwitz
    College of Dentistry, Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, University of Florida, FL, USA
    Lancet 369:51-9. 2007
    ..Secondary prevention and treatment should focus on management of the caries process over time for individual patients, with a minimally invasive, tissue-preserving approach...
  69. pmc Streptococcus adherence and colonization
    Angela H Nobbs
    Oral Microbiology Unit, Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 2LY, United Kingdom
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 73:407-50, Table of Contents. 2009
    ..There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed...
  70. ncbi Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli biofilm formation: roles of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and type I pili
    L A Pratt
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Microbiol 30:285-93. 1998
    ..Here, we demonstrate that E. coli forms biofilms on multiple abiotic surfaces in a nutrient-dependent fashion...
  71. ncbi Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis
    Niels Høiby
    Department of Clinical Microbiology 9301, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 22, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Future Microbiol 5:1663-74. 2010
    ..In CF lungs, the polysaccharide alginate is the major part of the P. aeruginosa biofilm matrix. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and resist phagocytosis, as well as ..
  72. pmc Dispersion as an important step in the Candida albicans biofilm developmental cycle
    Priya Uppuluri
    Department of Biology and South Texas Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000828. 2010
    b>Biofilms are dynamic microbial communities in which transitions between planktonic and sessile modes of growth occur interchangeably in response to different environmental cues. In the last decade, early events associated with C...
  73. ncbi A signaling network reciprocally regulates genes associated with acute infection and chronic persistence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Andrew L Goodman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Dev Cell 7:745-54. 2004
    ..This study defines RetS as a pleiotropic regulator of multiple virulence phenotypes that orchestrates genes required for acute infection and genes associated with chronic persistence...
  74. pmc Modulation of eDNA release and degradation affects Staphylococcus aureus biofilm maturation
    Ethan E Mann
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e5822. 2009
    ....
  75. pmc New insights into the WalK/WalR (YycG/YycF) essential signal transduction pathway reveal a major role in controlling cell wall metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus
    Sarah Dubrac
    Unité de Biologie des Bactéries Pathogènes à Gram Positif, CNRS URA 2172, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Bacteriol 189:8257-69. 2007
    ..We also demonstrated a direct relationship between WalKR levels and the ability to form biofilms. This is the first example in S...
  76. pmc The pel polysaccharide can serve a structural and protective role in the biofilm matrix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Kelly M Colvin
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001264. 2011
    Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides are a key constituent of the extracellular matrix material of biofilms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a model organism for biofilm studies and produces three extracellular polysaccharides that have been ..
  77. pmc Identification of genes involved in polysaccharide-independent Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation
    Blaise R Boles
    Department of Microbiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10146. 2010
    ..Recent studies suggest that many clinical isolates form polysaccharide-independent biofilms. However, a systematic screen for defective mutants has not been performed to identify factors important for ..
  78. ncbi Oral microbial communities in sickness and in health
    Howard F Jenkinson
    Department of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK
    Trends Microbiol 13:589-95. 2005
    ..Understanding the microbial communities that drive sickness or health is a key to combating human oral diseases...
  79. pmc Small-molecule inhibitors target Escherichia coli amyloid biogenesis and biofilm formation
    Lynette Cegelski
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 5:913-9. 2009
    ..Notably, the curlicides retained pilicide activities and inhibited both curli-dependent and type 1-dependent biofilms. Furthermore, pretreatment of UPEC with FN075 significantly attenuated virulence in a mouse model of urinary ..
  80. pmc Interspecies interactions within oral microbial communities
    Howard K Kuramitsu
    Department of Oral Boiology, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:653-70. 2007
    ..to begin adopting new strategies using emerging concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, polymicrobial disease, etc...
  81. ncbi Understanding biofilm resistance to antibacterial agents
    David Davies
    Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:114-22. 2003
  82. pmc Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus form polymicrobial biofilms: effects on antimicrobial resistance
    Melphine M Harriott
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3914-22. 2009
    Candida albicans readily forms biofilms on the surface on indwelling medical devices, and these biofilms serve as a source of local and systemic infections. It is estimated that 27% of nosocomial C...
  83. ncbi Versatility of the capsular genes during biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Mirian Domenech
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas CSIC, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Environ Microbiol 11:2542-55. 2009
    ..We propose that non-encapsulated mutants of pneumococcal type 3 strains are essentially involved in the initial stages (the attachment stage) of biofilm formation during colonization/pathogenesis...
  84. pmc Biofilms
    Daniel Lopez
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a000398. 2010
    The ability to form biofilms is a universal attribute of bacteria. Biofilms are multicellular communities held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix...
  85. ncbi Identification of adenoid biofilms with middle ear pathogens in otitis-prone children utilizing SEM and FISH
    Michael Hoa
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 73:1242-8. 2009
    b>Biofilms have been implicated in the development of several chronic infections...
  86. ncbi Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients
    Thomas Bjarnsholt
    Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Pediatr Pulmonol 44:547-58. 2009
    ..This strongly suggests that the conductive zone serves as a bacterial reservoir where the bacteria are organized in mucoid biofilms within the mucus, protected against antibiotics and host defenses.
  87. ncbi Bacterial quorum sensing: signals, circuits, and implications for biofilms and disease
    Arul Jayaraman
    Departments of Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 10:145-67. 2008
    ....
  88. pmc Two genetic loci produce distinct carbohydrate-rich structural components of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix
    Lisa Friedman
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:4457-65. 2004
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix...
  89. pmc Experimental evidence for negative selection in the evolution of a Yersinia pestis pseudogene
    Yi Cheng Sun
    Program in Microbial Pathogenesis, Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8097-101. 2008
    ..Although Y. pseudotuberculosis makes biofilms in other environments, it fails to do so in the insect...
  90. ncbi Our current understanding of fungal biofilms
    Gordon Ramage
    Section of Infection and Immunity, Glasgow Dental School and Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, UK
    Crit Rev Microbiol 35:340-55. 2009
    Fungal biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Candida albicans is the most notorious of all fungal biofilm formers...
  91. ncbi Tolerance to the antimicrobial peptide colistin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is linked to metabolically active cells, and depends on the pmr and mexAB-oprM genes
    Sünje Johanna Pamp
    BioCentrum DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
    Mol Microbiol 68:223-40. 2008
    ..potential mechanisms, which might contribute to resistance or tolerance development towards these compounds in biofilms. Here we provide evidence that a spatially distinct subpopulation of metabolically active cells in Pseudomonas ..
  92. pmc Identification of psl, a locus encoding a potential exopolysaccharide that is essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation
    Kara D Jackson
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1064, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:4466-75. 2004
    Bacteria inhabiting biofilms usually produce one or more polysaccharides that provide a hydrated scaffolding to stabilize and reinforce the structure of the biofilm, mediate cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, and provide protection ..
  93. pmc Biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae: role of choline, extracellular DNA, and capsular polysaccharide in microbial accretion
    Miriam Moscoso
    Departamento de Microbiologia Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    J Bacteriol 188:7785-95. 2006
    ..PcpA putative adhesin, and PspA (pneumococcal surface protein A) mutants had a decreased capacity to form biofilms, whereas no such reduction was observed in Pce phosphocholinesterase or CbpD putative amidase mutants...
  94. ncbi Effect of a high-molecular-weight component of cranberry on constituents of dental biofilm
    Doron Steinberg
    Institute of Dental Sciences and Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hebrew University Hadassah, PO Box 12272, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:86-9. 2004
    ..Previous studies have shown that high molecular-weight non-dialysable material derived from cranberry juice (NDM) inhibits co-aggregation of a variety of oral bacteria...
  95. ncbi Periodontal diseases
    Bruce L Pihlstrom
    Center for Clinical Research, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 6401, USA
    Lancet 366:1809-20. 2005
    ..Prevention and treatment are aimed at controlling the bacterial biofilm and other risk factors, arresting progressive disease, and restoring lost tooth support...
  96. pmc A Staphylococcus aureus ypfP mutant with strongly reduced lipoteichoic acid (LTA) content: LTA governs bacterial surface properties and autolysin activity
    Iris Fedtke
    Cellular and Molecular Microbiology Division, University of Tubingen, Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 65:1078-91. 2007
    ..Moreover, the hydrophobicity of the LTA mutant was altered and its ability to form biofilms on plastic was completely abrogated indicating a profound impact of LTA on physicochemical properties of ..
  97. pmc Exopolysaccharides produced by Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases modulate the establishment of microcolonies within multispecies biofilms
    H Koo
    Center for Oral Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    J Bacteriol 192:3024-32. 2010
    ..mutans is a key contributor to the formation of the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix in dental biofilms. The exopolysaccharides, which are mostly glucans synthesized by streptococcal glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), ..
  98. pmc Microtiter plate assay for assessment of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation
    D Djordjevic
    Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 68:2950-8. 2002
    Listeria monocytogenes has the ability to form biofilms on food-processing surfaces, potentially leading to food product contamination...
  99. pmc Biofilm formation by group A Streptococcus: a role for the streptococcal regulator of virulence (Srv) and streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB)
    Christopher D Doern
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Microbiology 155:46-52. 2009
    Recently, biofilms have become a topic of interest in the study of the human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). In this study, we sought to learn more about the make-up of these structures and gain insight into biofilm regulation...
  100. ncbi P. aeruginosa Biofilms in CF Infection
    Victoria E Wagner
    Ethox International Inc STS Life Sciences Division, Rush, NY 14543, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 35:124-34. 2008
    ..These include high resistance to antimicrobials, ability to form biofilms, plethora of virulence products, and metabolic versatility. In P...
  101. pmc Human host defense peptide LL-37 prevents bacterial biofilm formation
    Joerg Overhage
    Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Infect Immun 76:4176-82. 2008
    The ability to form biofilms is a critical factor in chronic infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has made this bacterium a model organism with respect to biofilm formation...

Research Grants81

  1. Biology and Drug Resistance of Candida Biofilms
    Mahmoud Ghannoum; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Dental plaque consists of a complex biofilm of bacteria and yeasts, predominantly Candida albicans. C. albicans biofilms have received much less attention than bacterial biofilms, and our present knowledge of their biology and drug ..
  2. Anti-Inflammatory Glycosaminoglycan Ethers for Treatment of Periodontitis
    JUSTIN RODNEY SAVAGE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We propose to develop anionic, partially lipophilic hyaluronic acid derivatives as a simple mechanistically-based treatment for this chronic extraordinarily common dental disorder. ..
  3. Periodontal Biomaterials with BITE (Biofilm Immunity via T-cell Enhancement)
    James D Bryers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Biofilms are thought to cause a significant amount of all human microbial infections, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [1]. Nosocomial infections are the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S...
  4. Molecular Basis of E. coli Adhesins in Bladder Disorders
    Scott J Hultgren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  5. Biochemistry and Function of a Novel Bacterial Photosensory Two-Component System
    MELISSA MARKS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Through this work we will gain a better understanding of the role the LovK/LovR two-component system and the ubiquitous environmental signal, sunlight, in the regulation of bacterial physiology and development. ..
  6. Anti-Inflammatory Glycosaminoglycan Ethers for Treatment of Periodontitis
    JUSTIN RODNEY SAVAGE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  7. 4th ASM Conference on Prokaryotic Cell Biology and Development
    Susan S Golden; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Similarly, important insights have been gained into how cells organize and interact to differentiate and form biofilms by means of sophisticated intercellular communication systems and intracellular signal transduction pathways...
  8. Mechanism Underlying Nitrite Sensitivity of Mucoid Pseudomonas in COPD
    Daniel J Hassett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of NO2- on viability of wild-type versus mucoid, DmucA mutants in complex, highly organized communities known as biofilms using 3 different established model systems...
  9. New therapeutics for the treatment of Acinetobactor baumannii infections.
    ALLEN BERNARD REITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, A. baumannii biofilms have been implicated in cystic fibrosis, periodontitis and urinary tract infections, due to the bacteria's ..
  10. The Electricidal Effect, a Novel Anti-Biofilm Strategy
    Robin Patel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In biofilms, microorganisms are protected from killing by innate host defenses and most available antimicrobial agents, ..
  11. Advanced Nitric Oxide Release Bactericidal Urinary Catheters
    Mark E Meyerhoff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  12. Anti-Bacterial Innate Responses Enhance Paramyxovirus Replication
    Griffith D Parks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In Aim 3, we will establish in vitro bacterial biofilms with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) or with Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and determine the ..
  13. Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Infections
    Natalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..is the originator of the modern biofilm paradigm (1978), and a pioneer researcher in many aspects of microbial biofilms, ecology, and polymicrobial communities. Dr...
  14. Role of Vimentin in Pathogenesis of CNS Inflammation
    Sheng He Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2). Determine how Vim and PSF contribute to IbeA-induced pathogen penetration and PMN transmigration across the BBB by SCP analysis of cBMEC and genetic blockage of Vim. ..
  15. Insights from Comparative Genomics for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Infections
    Natalia Luisa Hiller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is the originator of the modern biofilm paradigm (1978), and a pioneer researcher in many aspects of microbial biofilms, ecology, and polymicrobial communities. Dr...
  16. Biofilm Infections in Postsurgical, Trauma, and Critically Ill Patients
    Carol L Wells; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is increasing awareness that biofilms are involved in the majority of infectious diseases, especially those in postsurgical, trauma, and critically ill ..
  17. Analogs of GTP as novel inhibitors of bacterial c-di-GMP-synthesizing enzymes
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..second messenger c-di-GMP (cyclo-(GMP)2) is responsible for inducing certain pathogenic bacteria to form biofilms, complex structures of one or more bacterial strains that resist conventional antibiotics and are associated with ..
  18. Localization and characterization of the Clostridium difficile biofilm
    Adam Driks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficile forms a biofilm in the host. C. difficile biofilms could contribute to CDI by facilitating attachment of C...
  19. Studies on the virulence of Fillifactor alocis
    Hansel M Fletcher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..rod, is one of the marker organisms that is now identified to be significant to the pathogenetic structure of biofilms associated with periodontal inflammation and should be considered an important organism for periodontal disease...
  20. Biomarkers of Fusarium biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo
    PRANAB KUMAR MUKHERJEE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The ability of Fusarium to form biofilms on contact lenses/lens cases was suggested to be one of the factors that contributed to the recent Fusarium ..
  21. Click chemistry for novel antimicrobials against periodontal pathogens
    Valery V Fokin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  22. Contribution of the Streptococcus mutans cid and lrg Murein Hydrolase Regulator H
    KELLY CHRISTINE RICE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Therefore, research that contributes to our understanding of how this pathogen is able to colonize and grow in dental plaque will facilitate the development of novel preventative and/or treatment strategies for both of these diseases. ..
  23. Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Immunity in Otitis Media
    Lauren O Bakaletz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  24. Novel immunotherapeutics for the management of otitis media due to H. influenzae
    Steven D Goodman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Significantly, we've come to appreciate the role that biofilms play in the chronicity and recurrence of NTHI-induced OM...
  25. Regulation of Bacteroides fragilis multidrug efflux pumps
    Hannah Wexler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Determine the effect of TF on efflux-mediated MDR and on ability to form biofilms. Assess the effect of bile exposure on TF transcription levels, MICs and biofilm forming ability...
  26. Haemophilus influenzae iron/heme regulon
    Terrence L Stull; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..heme sources, as well as protection against heme toxicity and oxidative damage and for their ability to form biofilms. These studies will provide a framework for advancing our understanding of the iron/heme acquisition systems of H...
  27. Novel biofilm polymicrobial infection-resistant implants for otologic application
    Paul Stoodley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We plan to develop tympanostomy tube materials using such combination strategies and test their safety in an established animal model. ..
  28. Biofilm matrix-degrading enzymes for the treatment and prevention of S. aureus-as
    Jeffrey B Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bacteria that colonize wounds form adherent, multicellular communities known as biofilms. The cells in a biofilm produce an extracellular polymeric matrix that holds the cells together in a mass and ..
  29. Eukaryotic-type STK/STP-mediated modulation of enterococcal pathogenesis
    Vijay Pancholi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..extracellular matrix-binding surface proteins, and toxins, which are important in the development of enterococcal biofilms and causation of endocarditis...
  30. Exploiting deep ocean biology for biomedical discovery
    David C Rowley; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..These tests will determine if antibiotic agents can prevent biofilms from forming in catheters, a problematic source of infections in hospitals...
  31. Mechanism of PsrP mediated adhesion
    Carlos J Orihuela; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will determine if passive vaccination with mAbs and active vaccination with recombinant BR constructs protects mice against pneumococcal challenge. ..
  32. Delivery of Polyphenols in Gum for Treatment of Gingivitis
    Craig S Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Periodontitis represents a polymicrobial disease, in which a complex microbial ecology that matures in biofilms in the subgingival sulcus triggers a chronic immune-inflammatory lesion that destroys soft and hard tissues of ..
  33. H. influenzae: Role of Sialic Acid in Virulence
    Michael A Apicella; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, studies of isolates from human subjects colonized with NTHi 2019strR will examine the role of phase variation on LOS structure and determine if foreign DNA is acquired by NTHi during colonization. ..
  34. Plague biofilm formation--regulation and function
    ROBERT DONALD PERRY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Systems similar to that responsible for plague biofilm are present in a number of diverse bacteria. Biofilms are often associated with the ability to survive harsh conditions as well as increased resistance to antibiotics...
  35. H. influenzae: Role of Sialic Acid in Virulence
    Michael Apicella; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Expression of clp genes in Streptococcus mutans
    Indranil Biswas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The organism colonizes the oral cavity by forming diverse, multispecies biofilms on the tooth surface, known as dental plaque...
  37. Re-Wiring Cellular Metabolism to Control Biofilm Formation and Virulence BY...
    Thomas K Wood; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Microfluidic devices will be used for secondary screening and to build designer, engineered, multi-species biofilms for applications. The paradigm shift is in controlling biofilms to achieve engineering and medical aims (e.g...
  38. Deciphering of the Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in E. coli
    Masayori Inouye; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  39. Genetics and Genomics of the yidC paralogs in Streptococcus mutans
    SARA MARIE RASER PALMER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The data generated will provide essential new information that can be used to design novel and more effective therapies to combat dental caries and other bacterial infections. ..
  40. Innovative technologies to effectively treat Multi-drug resistant and/or biofilm-
    Jie Wen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Bacteria within biofilms are inherently insensitive to antiseptics, microbicides, and host immune system...
  41. New composite material design based on studies of tooth-composite and microbial i
    J Paul Santerre; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutans UA159 alone or with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 746 in a chemostat based biofilms fermentor (CBBF), mimicking oral conditions for 7 days...
  42. The effect of inter-species interactions on the virulence of Streptococcus mutans
    Bing yan Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mutans. i) Colonization of S. mutans WT and its comC mutant on preformed biofilms of S. gordonii Challis or A...
  43. Characterization of a novel role for DEAD-box RNA helicases in bacteria.
    CHRISTOPHER ANTHONY VAKULSKAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  44. Host-associated regulation of P. aeruginosa colonization and virulence
    Deborah A Hogan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, inhibition of PlcH may decrease P. aeruginosa virulence directly and by decreasing antibiotic-resistant biofilms. In this proposal, we aim to test the hypothesis that GB directly increases Anr activity in oxic environments and ..
  45. Structure and mechanism of CRISPR interference.
    Ailong Ke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our findings will serve to reveal the common theme and mechanistic diversity among different CRISPR-Cas systems. ..
  46. Molecular Basis of Bacterial Quorum Sensing Gene Regulation
    MAIR E CHURCHILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..gene-regulatory mechanism bacteria use to regulate the production of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms, both of which increase the morbidity of the infection. The virulence of P...
  47. Isolation of new phage enzymes to kill B. anthracis
    Vincent A Fischetti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..conversion that is associated with major changes in their capacity to sporulate, produce exopolysaccharide, form biofilms, survive in the soil, and colonize the earthworm gut. Thus, for B...
  48. Partnership for Primary Care Imaging
    Stephen A Boppart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has strongly associated chronic, recurrent episodes of otitis media with the presence of middle ear bacterial biofilms, and currently no non-invasive means exists to detect and quantify, let alone longitudinally monitor, these ..
  49. Functional Amyloid Formation in Streptococcus mutans
    L Jeannine Brady; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Organisms that cause cavities form recalcitrant biofilms, generate acids from dietary sugars, and tolerate acid end products...
  50. Antimicrobial Phototherapy of Antibiotic Resistant Chronic Sinusitis
    MERRILL ABRAHAM BIEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..resistant Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Hemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in the sinuses of cure resistant CRS...
  51. Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Expression of P. gingivalis Surface Structures
    MARY ELLEN DAVEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gingivalis. These mechanisms are in essence an "Achilles heel" that can be used as a target to stop the injury caused by this bacterium. ..
  52. Phages and Genomic Variation in Vibrio Cholerae Evolution
    JOHN JOSEPH MEKALANOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  53. Identifying novel anti-infectives by high through-put screening in whole animals
    Frederick M Ausubel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Rather than simply preventing bacteria from growing, these new sophisticated drugs will prevent disease by interfering with a microbe's ability to interact with the human body. ..
  54. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF CHOLESTEATOMA
    RICHARD ARTHUR CHOLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These bacteria form biofilms within the cholesteatoma resulting in chronic infection which is recalcitrant to antibiotics and host defenses...
  55. Aminoglycoside potentiators for P. aeruginosa therapy
    Donald T Moir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to inhibition by AMGs, even if they carry the rmtD 16S rRNA methylase AMG-resistance allele or are grown as biofilms. In addition, the AMG tobramycin was more effective in rescuing mice infected with these P...
  56. Synchrotron imaging of crystalline biofilms in urinary catheters
    Aaron I Packman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    A suite of synchrotron-based x-ray imaging methodologies will be used to assess the development of crystalline biofilms formed by Proteus mirabilis in urinary catheters...
  57. Bordetella Biofilms and Pathogenesis
    RAJENDAR K DEORA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..pertussis in humans is due to its ability to exist in a sessile form known as biofilms. Our preliminary results demonstrate that B...
  58. Role of the Spx Regulator in Streptococcus mutans
    JOSE A LEMOS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The virulence of S. mutans resides in three core attributes;its abilities to adhere and form biofilms on tooth surfaces, to produce large quantities of organic acids from a wide range of carbohydrates, and to ..
  59. The Role of Uncultivated Bacteria in Bacterial Vaginosis
    DAVID NEAL FREDRICKS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is ongoing debate whether biofilms are important in the pathogenesis of BV, with intriguing data supporting this concept based on some small cross-..
  60. BIOGENESIS AND INHIBITION OF BIOFILM-ASSOCIATED BACTERIAL AMYLOID
    Scott J Hultgren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Many chronic/recurrent human infectious disease states are recognized to involve bacterial biofilms. These include urinary tract infections (UTIs), chronic skin infections, otitis media and cystic fibrosis lung ..
  61. Role of influenza-induced prothrombosis in Streptococcus pyogenes superinfections
    Michael S Chaussee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The results will be important in assessing, and mitigating with new treatment approaches, the morbidity and mortality associated with the flu. ..
  62. Genetics &Biology of M. catarrhalis LOS in Otitis Media
    Anthony A Campagnari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..catarrhalis LOS and (2) Determine the role of M. catarrhalis LOS structures in pathogenesis. ..
  63. Combinatorial Imaging of the Oral Microbiome
    Floyd E Dewhirst; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..labeled with different combinations of fluorophores, will be designed and tested on cultured cells, in vitro biofilms and on plaque obtained from volunteers...
  64. Novel aryl-rhodanine inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans biofilms
    TIMOTHY J OPPERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g. toothpaste or mouthwashes), where aryl-rhodanines will prevent recolonization of the teeth and subsequent biofilm formation by S. mutans, but not commensal organisms ..
  65. Selenium Coated Dialysis Catheters for Reduced Biofilm Formation
    Eric Tobin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The technology would have immediate application for Spire's existing chronic hemodialysis catheter line. ..
  66. Enhancement of antimicrobics by electrical current
    Robin Patel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Bacteria growing in biofilms cause a wide range of human infections...
  67. Biofilm Population Structure in the Gangetic Delta
    Gary Schoolnik; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..cholerae is believed to be associated with phyto- and zoo- plankton and to reside in mixed-species biofilms on a variety of surfaces. One such surface, the chitinous exoskeletons of copepods, can be degraded by V...
  68. Micro-patterned surfaces for reducing the risk of catheter-associated UTI
    SHRAVANTHI REDDY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..each year, and each one of those patients is at risk for acquiring a urinary tract infection due to the bacterial biofilms that form on the catheter surface...
  69. Biofilm Architecture of Subgingival Plaque
    Renate Lux; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Even though extensive inventory of the oral flora and general structural information about oral biofilms are available, detailed analysis of the species distribution and their interactions in biofilms causing ..
  70. Development of a LH-PCR Based Diagnostic for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    Patrick Gillevet; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  71. Topical negative pressure dressings for the prevention of chronic wound biofilm
    GUY ORGAMBIDE; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Instead of any one species of bacteria, most chronic wound biofilms are comprised of multiple species...
  72. Microfluidic devices for studying genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans
    STEPHEN JAMES HAGEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Biofilms can pose significant threats to human health. In oral biofilms (i.e...
  73. Investigation of the role of AI-2 in the development of dental plaque biofilms
    ALEXANDER HAMMOND RICKARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The mechanism by which the pathogens can successfully integrate and expand in commensal biofilms is unknown...
  74. Bacterial biofilm-host interaction during Vibrio cholerae infection
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..live in natural aquatic habitats in association with various plankton and zooplankton, often in the form of biofilms. Existence of V...
  75. Intra-species regulatory functions of fsr
    Satish Pillai; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..of beta-lactam induced killing; and (3) simulate the conditions of chronic enterococcal infections by developing biofilms in the modified Robbins Device, in order to determine how fsr influences the overall response of E...
  76. Oral Biofilms and the Immune System
    Kim Janda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to Program Announcement PA-06-538 that specifically aims to stimulate research on host response to microbial biofilms leading to improved strategies for diagnosing, preventing, and treating biofilm-associated infectious diseases...
  77. Biofilm Formation And P. aeruginosa infection of the eye
    Michael Zegans; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Bacteria grow as planktonic (or free-living) cells or as surface-attached communities known as biofilms. Biofilm formation contributes to the pathogenesis of many clinical infections associated with prosthetic devices ..
  78. Intra-Oral Biofilm Formation
    Sigmund Socransky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The major problems that affect the oral cavity are caused by organisms that live in biofilms colonizing the hard and soft tissues...
  79. The Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Dispersion Response
    David Davies; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..aeruginosa (using glucose as a sole carbon source), and have tested this extract against biofilms formed by P...
  80. Role of extracellular matrix proteins in Candida biofilm formation
    PRANAB KUMAR MUKHERJEE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Candida albicans (CA) is the most commonly isolated fungus associated with biofilms [extracellular matrix (ECM)-encased microbial communities formed on indwelling medical devices which are resistant against commonly used antifungals...
  81. Analyses of Host-Biofilm Interactions: A Novel Polymicrobial Model
    Karen Novak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The General Hypotheses to be tested are: (1) Oral bacteria in biofilms will elicit different patterns of host responses from gingival epithelial cells;and (2) Host cells will respond ..