leishmania major

Summary

Summary: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Multifunctional TH1 cells define a correlate of vaccine-mediated protection against Leishmania major
    Patricia A Darrah
    Cellular Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 13:843-50. 2007
  2. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:502-7. 2002
  3. ncbi The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:845-58. 2002
  4. pmc CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) Th1 cells are the source of IL-10-mediated immune suppression in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Charles F Anderson
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:285-97. 2007
  5. ncbi A live Leishmania major vaccine containing CpG motifs induces the de novo generation of Th17 cells in C57BL/6 mice
    Wenhui Wu
    Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:2517-27. 2010
  6. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice
    Damo Xu
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:394-9. 2003
  7. pmc Structure and function of a "yellow" protein from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis that confers protective immunity against Leishmania major infection
    Xueqing Xu
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:32383-93. 2011
  8. pmc The role of interleukin (IL)-10 in the persistence of Leishmania major in the skin after healing and the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-10 receptor antibody for sterile cure
    Y Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 4 Rm 126, Center Dr MSC 0425, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 194:1497-506. 2001
  9. pmc Leishmania disease development depends on the presence of apoptotic promastigotes in the virulent inoculum
    Ger van Zandbergen
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lubeck, D 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13837-42. 2006
  10. ncbi Regulatory B cells shape the development of Th2 immune responses in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major through IL-10 production
    Catherine Ronet
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    J Immunol 184:886-94. 2010

Detail Information

Publications289 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Multifunctional TH1 cells define a correlate of vaccine-mediated protection against Leishmania major
    Patricia A Darrah
    Cellular Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 13:843-50. 2007
    ..cytometry to assess the immune responses after immunization, we show that the degree of protection against Leishmania major infection in mice is predicted by the frequency of CD4+ T cells simultaneously producing interferon-gamma, ..
  2. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:502-7. 2002
    ..Here we show that the persistence of Leishmania major in the skin after healing in resistant C57BL/6 mice is controlled by an endogenous population of CD4+CD25+ ..
  3. ncbi The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:845-58. 2002
    Established models of T-helper-2-cell dominance in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major -- involving the early production of interleukin-4 by a small subset of Leishmania-specific CD4+ T cells -- have been refined by accumulating ..
  4. pmc CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) Th1 cells are the source of IL-10-mediated immune suppression in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Charles F Anderson
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:285-97. 2007
    ..Using a Leishmania major strain that produces nonhealing dermal lesions in a T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-polarized setting, we have ..
  5. ncbi A live Leishmania major vaccine containing CpG motifs induces the de novo generation of Th17 cells in C57BL/6 mice
    Wenhui Wu
    Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:2517-27. 2010
    ..We have reported that vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with live Leishmania major plus CpG DNA (Lm/CpG) prevents lesion development and provides long-term immunity...
  6. ncbi CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress differentiation and functions of Th1 and Th2 cells, Leishmania major infection, and colitis in mice
    Damo Xu
    Department of Immunology and Bacteriology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 170:394-9. 2003
    ..Importantly, CD4+CD25+ T cells suppressed the disease development of Leishmania major infection in SCID mice reconstituted with naive CD4+CD25- T cells...
  7. pmc Structure and function of a "yellow" protein from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis that confers protective immunity against Leishmania major infection
    Xueqing Xu
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:32383-93. 2011
    ..longiplapis salivary proteins and demonstrated that LJM11 confers protective immunity against Leishmania major infection...
  8. pmc The role of interleukin (IL)-10 in the persistence of Leishmania major in the skin after healing and the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-10 receptor antibody for sterile cure
    Y Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 4 Rm 126, Center Dr MSC 0425, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 194:1497-506. 2001
    ..We analyzed the conditions necessary for the long term maintenance of Leishmania major in genetically resistant C57BL/6 mice after spontaneous healing of their dermal lesions...
  9. pmc Leishmania disease development depends on the presence of apoptotic promastigotes in the virulent inoculum
    Ger van Zandbergen
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lubeck, D 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13837-42. 2006
    The obligate intracellular pathogen Leishmania major survives and multiplies in professional phagocytes. The evasion strategy to circumvent killing by host phagocytes and establish a productive infection is poorly understood...
  10. ncbi Regulatory B cells shape the development of Th2 immune responses in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major through IL-10 production
    Catherine Ronet
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    J Immunol 184:886-94. 2010
    Recent evidence indicates that B cells are required for susceptibility to infection with Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. In this study, we analyzed the role of the IL-10 produced by B cells in this process...
  11. ncbi Arginase and polyamine synthesis are key factors in the regulation of experimental leishmaniasis in vivo
    Pascale Kropf
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK
    FASEB J 19:1000-2. 2005
    ..To address the underlying mechanisms, the arginase-induced L-arginine catabolism was investigated and the results demonstrate that arginase regulates parasite growth directly by affecting the polyamine synthesis in macrophages...
  12. pmc Genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis of Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum developmental stages reveals substantial differences between the two species
    Annie Rochette
    Research Centre in Infectious Diseases, CHUL Research Centre and Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Canada
    BMC Genomics 9:255. 2008
    ..g., L. infantum). The high conservation in gene content and genome organization between Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum contrasts their distinct pathophysiologies, suggesting that highly regulated ..
  13. ncbi The role of IL-10 in promoting disease progression in leishmaniasis
    M M Kane
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Immunol 166:1141-7. 2001
    To determine the role of IL-10 in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we examined lesion development following Leishmania major infection of genetically susceptible BALB/c mice lacking IL-10...
  14. pmc Demonstration of genetic exchange during cyclical development of Leishmania in the sand fly vector
    Natalia S Akopyants
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 324:265-8. 2009
    ....
  15. pmc IL-17 promotes progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis in susceptible mice
    Susanna Lopez Kostka
    Department of Dermatology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    J Immunol 182:3039-46. 2009
    ..We now assessed the role of IL-17 in cutaneous leishmaniasis. During the course of Leishmania major infection, BALB/c CD4 cells and neutrophils produced increased amounts of IL-17 as compared with cells from ..
  16. ncbi CD8+ T cells are required for primary immunity in C57BL/6 mice following low-dose, intradermal challenge with Leishmania major
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Dermatology Branch, Division of Clinical Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 168:3992-4000. 2002
    Standard murine models of cutaneous leishmaniasis, involving s.c. inoculation of large numbers of Leishmania major promastigotes, have not supported an essential role for CD8(+) T cells in the control of primary infection. Recently, a L...
  17. ncbi Cell biology and immunology of Leishmania
    Evelyne Mougneau
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
    Immunol Rev 240:286-96. 2011
    ..discovered that resistance and susceptibility to experimental infection with the intracellular protozoan Leishmania major was associated with the development of T-helper 1 (Th1)- and Th2-dominated immune responses, respectively...
  18. pmc Vector transmission of leishmania abrogates vaccine-induced protective immunity
    Nathan C Peters
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000484. 2009
    ..These observations identify the critical immunological factors influencing vaccine efficacy following natural transmission of Leishmania...
  19. pmc Leishmania major attenuates host immunity by stimulating local indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression
    Levi H C Makala
    Immunotherapy Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    J Infect Dis 203:715-25. 2011
    ..Inflammation stimulates immunity but can create immune privilege in some settings. Here, we show that cutaneous Leishmania major infection stimulated expression of the immune regulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) in local ..
  20. pmc Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to efficient control of infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major
    Pascale Kropf
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:1920-8. 2004
    ..contribute to the innate and acquired immune response to infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Our results show that TLR4 contributes to the control of parasite growth in both phases of the immune ..
  21. ncbi Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral disease?
    Diane McMahon-Pratt
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Immunol Rev 201:206-24. 2004
    ..CD4(+) T-helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 dichotomy is largely based on the curing/non-curing responses, respectively, to Leishmania major infection...
  22. pmc Low dose Leishmania major promotes a transient T helper cell type 2 response that is down-regulated by interferon gamma-producing CD8+ T cells
    Jude E Uzonna
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3800 Spruce Street, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Exp Med 199:1559-66. 2004
    ..we resolve this paradox by studying the early immune response in mice after infection with different doses of Leishmania major. We found that low parasite doses induced a Th2 response in C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas high doses induced a ..
  23. ncbi MyD88 is essential for clearance of Leishmania major: possible role for lipophosphoglycan and Toll-like receptor 2 signaling
    Michael J de Veer
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia
    Eur J Immunol 33:2822-31. 2003
    b>Leishmania major is an obligate intracellular eukaryotic pathogen of mononuclear phagocytes...
  24. ncbi Reciprocal CD40 signals through p38MAPK and ERK-1/2 induce counteracting immune responses
    Ram Kumar Mathur
    National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
    Nat Med 10:540-4. 2004
    Macrophages play host to Leishmania major, a parasite that causes leishmaniasis in 500,000 people annually...
  25. ncbi CD40-modulated dual-specificity phosphatases MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 and MKP-3 reciprocally regulate Leishmania major infection
    Neetu Srivastava
    National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
    J Immunol 186:5863-72. 2011
    The macrophage-expressed CD40 regulates immune responses to Leishmania major infection by reciprocal signaling through p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. CD40-induced IL-10 or IL-12 plays crucial roles in the promotion or protection from L...
  26. ncbi IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice
    P Launois
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Immunity 6:541-9. 1997
    BALB/c mice develop aberrant T helper 2 (Th2) responses and suffer progressive disease after infection with Leishmania major. These outcomes depend on the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) early after infection...
  27. pmc Immunity to distinct sand fly salivary proteins primes the anti-Leishmania immune response towards protection or exacerbation of disease
    Fabiano Oliveira
    Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e226. 2008
    ..papatasi salivary gland homogenate (SGH) or pre-exposed to uninfected bites were protected against Leishmania major infection delivered by needle inoculation with SGH or by infected sand fly bites...
  28. pmc The stage-regulated HASPB and SHERP proteins are essential for differentiation of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major in its sand fly vector, Phlebotomus papatasi
    Jovana Sadlova
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague CZ 128 44, Czech Republic
    Cell Microbiol 12:1765-79. 2010
    The stage-regulated HASPB and SHERP proteins of Leishmania major are predominantly expressed in cultured metacyclic parasites that are competent for macrophage uptake and survival...
  29. pmc Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease
    Christopher S Peacock
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 39:839-47. 2007
    ..The comparison of these sequences with the published genome of Leishmania major reveals marked conservation of synteny and identifies only approximately 200 genes with a differential ..
  30. ncbi IL-13 is a susceptibility factor for Leishmania major infection
    D J Matthews
    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 164:1458-62. 2000
    b>Leishmania major infection is useful as an experimental model to define factors responsible for the development and maintenance of Th cell immune responses...
  31. pmc L-arginine deprivation impairs Leishmania major-specific T-cell responses
    Markus Munder
    Department of Hematology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 39:2161-72. 2009
    ..show that decrease of L-arginine levels in the extracellular milieu affects the biological activities of Leishmania major-specific T cells, both at the level of the magnitude and the quality of their responses. L...
  32. ncbi A transgenic model to analyze the immunoregulatory role of IL-10 secreted by antigen-presenting cells
    H Groux
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 162:1723-9. 1999
    ..mice were also highly susceptible to infection with intracellular pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes or Leishmania major, in contrast to IL-10 transgenic mice, where the transgene was express in T cells...
  33. ncbi Delivery of a cocktail DNA vaccine encoding cysteine proteinases type I, II and III with solid lipid nanoparticles potentiate protective immunity against Leishmania major infection
    Delaram Doroud
    Molecular Immunology and Vaccine Research Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
    J Control Release 153:154-62. 2011
    ..The nanomedical feature of this novel formulation can be applied for wide-spread use in genetic vaccination against leishmaniasis, which is currently managed only through relatively ineffectual therapeutic regimens...
  34. ncbi Leishmania major induces distinct neutrophil phenotypes in mice that are resistant or susceptible to infection
    Mélanie Charmoy
    WHO Immunology Research and Training Center, Department of Biochemistry, Epalinges, Switzerland
    J Leukoc Biol 82:288-99. 2007
    ..Following infection with Leishmania major, neutrophils are recruited within hours to the site of parasite inoculation...
  35. ncbi The combination of DNA vectors expressing IL-12 + IL-18 elicits high protective immune response against cutaneous leishmaniasis after priming with DNA-p36/LACK and the cytokines, followed by a booster with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing p36/LACK
    Esther Tapia
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    Microbes Infect 5:73-84. 2003
    ..p36/LACK of Leishmania infantum followed by a booster with VVp36/LACK induced significant protection against Leishmania major infection...
  36. ncbi Leishmania major lipophosphoglycan: discrepancy in Toll-like receptor signaling
    Gholamreza Kavoosi
    Institute of Biotechnology, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran
    Exp Parasitol 124:214-8. 2010
    ..In addition, in the presence of anti-TLR4, nitric oxide stimulated by LPGs was not affected. We propose that lipophosphoglycan induces nitric oxide production via TLR2 signaling pathway...
  37. ncbi IL-4-independent inhibition of IL-12 responsiveness during Leishmania amazonensis infection
    D E Jones
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    J Immunol 165:364-72. 2000
    Leishmania amazonensis induces a nonhealing infection in C3H mice, whereas infection with Leishmania major is self-healing. We found that C3H mice infected with L...
  38. pmc Toward a defined anti-Leishmania vaccine targeting vector antigens: characterization of a protective salivary protein
    J G Valenzuela
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Dr, Rm. 4/126, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 194:331-42. 2001
    ..290:1351-1354). We have now characterized nine salivary proteins of Phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of Leishmania major. One of these salivary proteins, extracted from SDS gels and having an apparent mol wt of 15 kD, was able to ..
  39. pmc Increased transmission potential of Leishmania major/Leishmania infantum hybrids
    Petr Volf
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Prague 2, 12844 Czech Republic
    Int J Parasitol 37:589-93. 2007
    Development of Leishmania infantum/Leishmania major hybrids was studied in two sand fly species. In Phlebotomus papatasi, which supported development of L. major but not L...
  40. ncbi The p110delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase controls susceptibility to Leishmania major by regulating expansion and tissue homing of regulatory T cells
    Dong Liu
    Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Immunol 183:1921-33. 2009
    Resistance to Leishmania major and most intracellular pathogens is usually associated with a strong T cell-mediated immunity, particularly a CD4(+) Th1 response...
  41. ncbi Differential properties of CBA/J mononuclear phagocytes recovered from an inflammatory site and probed with two different species of Leishmania
    Ivana Nunes Gomes
    Laboratorio de Patologia e Biologia Celular, CPqGM, FIOCRUZ BA, R Valdemar Falcão, 121 Brotas Salvador, BA 40295 001, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 5:251-60. 2003
    ..mice fail to be permissive to Leishmania amazonensis-driven pathogenic processes, they heal easily following Leishmania major infection...
  42. pmc Characterization of unusual families of ATG8-like proteins and ATG12 in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major
    Roderick A M Williams
    Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK
    Autophagy 5:159-72. 2009
    b>Leishmania major possesses, apparently uniquely, four families of ATG8-like genes, designated ATG8, ATG8A, ATG8B and ATG8C, and 25 genes in total. L...
  43. pmc Comparative expression profiling of Leishmania: modulation in gene expression between species and in different host genetic backgrounds
    Daniel P Depledge
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology Hull York Medical School, University of York, York, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e476. 2009
    ..braziliensis. It is not yet known how many of these genes are expressed in the disease-promoting intracellular amastigotes of these species or whether genes conserved between the species are differentially expressed in the host...
  44. pmc Role for CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells in reactivation of persistent leishmaniasis and control of concomitant immunity
    Susana Mendez
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 200:201-10. 2004
    ..We have previously shown that persistence of the parasite Leishmania major is controlled by endogenous CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells...
  45. ncbi Leishmanization: use of an old method for evaluation of candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis
    Ali Khamesipour
    Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P O Box 14155 6383, Tehran 14166, Iran
    Vaccine 23:3642-8. 2005
    To establish the safety and reproducibility of live challenge with Leishmania major, a single frozen stabilate was used in two open, single-arm leishmanization (LZ) trials...
  46. pmc In vivo imaging reveals an essential role for neutrophils in leishmaniasis transmitted by sand flies
    Nathan C Peters
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 321:970-4. 2008
    ..Invading neutrophils efficiently captured Leishmania major (L.m.) parasites early after sand fly transmission or needle inoculation, but phagocytosed L.m...
  47. ncbi Improvements in transfection efficiency and tests of RNA interference (RNAi) approaches in the protozoan parasite Leishmania
    Kelly A Robinson
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 128:217-28. 2003
    ..and GFP to monitor transfection resulted in no effect on parasite morphology, growth or tubulin expression in Leishmania major or L. donovani...
  48. ncbi IL-18 gene therapy develops Th1-type immune responses in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice: is the effect mediated by the CpG signaling TLR9?
    Y Li
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Gene Ther 11:941-8. 2004
    ..IL-18 (rIL-18) alone does not promote Th1 response, but rather induces Th2 response and exacerbates Leishmania major infection in susceptible BALB/c mice...
  49. ncbi c-Rel promotes type 1 and type 17 immune responses during Leishmania major infection
    Katharina Reinhard
    Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 41:1388-98. 2011
    ..whether these opposite functions of c-Rel influence the course of antiparasitic immune responses against Leishmania major, an accepted model for the impact of T-cell subsets on disease outcome...
  50. ncbi The role of IL-12 in maintaining resistance to Leishmania major
    Audrey Y Park
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 Department of Environmental Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 168:5771-7. 2002
    IL-12p40 is required for the maintenance of resistance during Leishmania major infection. In this study, we addressed how IL-12 mediates this function...
  51. pmc Targeting the midgut secreted PpChit1 reduces Leishmania major development in its natural vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi
    Iliano V Coutinho-Abreu
    Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e901. 2010
    ..Thus, we predicted that silencing of sand fly chitinase will lead to reduction or elimination of Leishmania within the gut of the sand fly vector...
  52. ncbi 3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase of Leishmania contains an unusual C-terminal extension and is involved in thioredoxin and antioxidant metabolism
    Roderick A M Williams
    Division of Infection and Immunity, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:1480-6. 2003
    Cytosolic 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferases (EC ) of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana have been cloned, expressed as active enzymes in Escherichia coli, and characterized...
  53. pmc Isolation and characterization of functional Leishmania major virulence factor UDP-galactopyranose mutase
    Michelle Oppenheimer
    Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061, United States
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 407:552-6. 2011
    ..it was shown that the flavin-dependent enzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a virulence factor in Leishmania major. UGM catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose...
  54. ncbi Alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major plus bacille Calmette-Guérrin, a candidate vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: safety, skin-delayed type hypersensitivity response and dose finding in healthy volunteers
    A A Kamil
    Leishmaniasis Research Group, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:365-8. 2003
    In a previous efficacy study, autoclaved Leishmania major (ALM) + bacille Calmette-Guérrin (BCG) vaccine was shown to be safe, but not superior to BCG alone, in protecting against visceral leishmaniasis...
  55. pmc CD8+ T cells as a source of IFN-γ production in human cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami
    Medical Parasitology and Mycology Department, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e845. 2010
    ....
  56. pmc A role for IgG immune complexes during infection with the intracellular pathogen Leishmania
    Suzanne A Miles
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Exp Med 201:747-54. 2005
    ..because they have a targeted deletion in the Ig heavy chain (J) locus, were more resistant to infection with Leishmania major than were normal BALB/c mice...
  57. ncbi Re-examination of the immunosuppressive mechanisms mediating non-cure of Leishmania infection in mice
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Immunol Rev 201:225-38. 2004
    ..interleukin (IL)-4 driven, polarized T-helper 2 cell (Th2) response that controls non-healing infection with Leishmania major in BALB/c mice has long been embraced as the underlying principle with which to consider the pathogenesis of ..
  58. pmc Infection with arginase-deficient Leishmania major reveals a parasite number-dependent and cytokine-independent regulation of host cellular arginase activity and disease pathogenesis
    Helen M Muleme
    Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Immunol 183:8068-76. 2009
    The balance between the products of L-arginine metabolism in macrophages regulates the outcome of Leishmania major infection. L-arginine can be oxidized by host inducible NO synthase to produce NO, which contributes to parasite killing...
  59. ncbi Leishmania major-specific B cells are necessary for Th2 cell development and susceptibility to L. major LV39 in BALB/c mice
    Catherine Ronet
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Centre, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    J Immunol 180:4825-35. 2008
    B lymphocytes are considered to play a minimal role in host defense against Leishmania major. In this study, the contribution of B cells to susceptibility to infection with different strains of L...
  60. ncbi Organ-specific and stage-dependent control of Leishmania major infection by inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocyte NADPH oxidase
    Martin Blos
    Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 33:1224-34. 2003
    In the Leishmania major mouse model of cutaneous leishmaniasis inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is crucial for the killing of the parasite in the skin and draining lymph node. However, the effector mechanism operating against L...
  61. pmc Sphingolipid degradation by Leishmania major is required for its resistance to acidic pH in the mammalian host
    Wei Xu
    Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
    Infect Immun 79:3377-87. 2011
    ..In particular, we have generated a Leishmania major iscl(-) mutant which is deficient in SL degradation but grows normally as promastigotes in culture...
  62. ncbi Differences between IL-4- and IL-4 receptor alpha-deficient mice in chronic leishmaniasis reveal a protective role for IL-13 receptor signaling
    M Mohrs
    Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Freiburg, Germany
    J Immunol 162:7302-8. 1999
    ..Whereas Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice developed fatal progressive disease with type 2 Ab responses within 3 mo, both IL-..
  63. ncbi Decreased IL-10 and IL-13 production and increased CD44hi T cell recruitment contribute to Leishmania major immunity induced by non-persistent parasites
    Lukasz Kedzierski
    Infection and Immunity Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia
    Eur J Immunol 38:3090-100. 2008
    ..Our study shows that vaccination of susceptible BALB/c mice with live Leishmania major phosphomannomutase-deficient parasites, which are avirulent and non-persistent in vivo, leads to protection ..
  64. ncbi Leishmania major parasite stage-dependent host cell invasion and immune evasion
    Ulf Alexander Wenzel
    Division of Immunology, Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines, Paul Ehrlich Straße, Langen, Germany
    FASEB J 26:29-39. 2012
    Leishmania pathogenesis is primarily studied using the disease-inducing promastigote stage of Leishmania major. Despite many efforts, all attempts so far have failed to culture the disease-relevant multiplying amastigote stage of L. major...
  65. pmc Infection parameters in the sand fly vector that predict transmission of Leishmania major
    Lisa W Stamper
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1288. 2011
    ....
  66. pmc IL-4-deficient Balb/c mice resist infection with Leishmania major
    M Kopf
    Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 184:1127-36. 1996
    ..R1 (double mutants) on the Balb/c and 129Sv background were used to study the course of infection with Leishmania major. In contrast to genetically resistant 129Sv wildtype mice, IL-4/IFN-gamma R1 double mutant mice developed ..
  67. pmc DNA-Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium primer-booster vaccination biases towards T helper 1 responses and enhances protection against Leishmania major infection in mice
    Uta G Lange
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, and Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 72:4924-8. 2004
    ..in higher immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) responses compared to IgG1 responses, higher IFN-gamma responses compared to IL-10 CD4(+)-T-cell responses, and enhanced protection against Leishmania major infection in susceptible BALB/c mice.
  68. pmc Regulated expression of the Leishmania major surface virulence factor lipophosphoglycan using conditionally destabilized fusion proteins
    Luciana Madeira da Silva
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7583-8. 2009
    Surface glycoconjugates play important roles in the infectious cycle of Leishmania major, including the abundant lipophosphoglycan (LPG) implicated in parasite survival in the sand fly vector and the initial stages of establishment in the ..
  69. pmc Identification of a disulfide isomerase protein of Leishmania major as a putative virulence factor
    Y Ben Achour
    Laboratoire d Immunologie LAF301, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia
    Infect Immun 70:3576-85. 2002
    ..In a previous study, we demonstrated that Leishmania major freshly isolated from human cutaneous lesions showed significant differences in the severity of the ..
  70. ncbi Development of a recombinant Leishmania major strain sensitive to ganciclovir and 5-fluorocytosine for use as a live vaccine challenge in clinical trials
    Noushin Davoudi
    Department of Biotechnology, Pasteur Institute of Tehran, Pasteur Square, Tehran, Iran
    Vaccine 23:1170-7. 2005
    To provide a safer live challenge strain for use in clinical vaccine trials, a double drug sensitive strain of Leishmania major was derived using advances in gene targeting technology by stably introducing into the chromosome a modified ..
  71. ncbi Genetically resistant mice lacking MyD88-adapter protein display a high susceptibility to Leishmania major infection associated with a polarized Th2 response
    Eric Muraille
    Laboratory of Parasitology, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Erasme, Belgium
    J Immunol 170:4237-41. 2003
    Host resistance to the intracellular protozoan Leishmania major is highly dependent on IL-12 production by APCs...
  72. pmc IL-27 regulates IL-10 and IL-17 from CD4+ cells in nonhealing Leishmania major infection
    Charles F Anderson
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 183:4619-27. 2009
    Control of infection caused by Leishmania major requires the development of IFN-gamma+CD4+ lymphocytes for the induction of microbicidal activity in host macrophages...
  73. pmc Genome-wide in silico screen for CCCH-type zinc finger proteins of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major
    Susanne Kramer
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Genomics 11:283. 2010
    ..In kinetoplastids, CCCH type zinc finger proteins have been identified as being involved in the regulation of the life cycle and possibly the cell cycle. To date, no systematic listing of CCCH proteins in kinetoplastids is available...
  74. ncbi A comparative evaluation of different DNA vaccine candidates against experimental murine leishmaniasis due to L. major
    Sami Ben Hadj Ahmed
    Laboratory of Immunology, Vaccinology and Molecular Genetics, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13, Place Pasteur BP 74, 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia
    Vaccine 22:1631-9. 2004
    ..the protective effects in the highly susceptible BALB/c mice of DNA vaccine candidates encoding to various Leishmania major antigens...
  75. ncbi An essential role for the Leishmania major metacaspase in cell cycle progression
    A Ambit
    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Cell Death Differ 15:113-22. 2008
    ..The MCA gene of Leishmania major (LmjMCA) is expressed in actively replicating amastigotes and procyclic promastigotes, but at a lower level ..
  76. ncbi The relative contribution of IL-4 receptor signaling and IL-10 to susceptibility to Leishmania major
    Nancy Noben-Trauth
    Department of Immunology, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    J Immunol 170:5152-8. 2003
    The roles of IL-10 and IL-4 receptor signaling were evaluated in a murine model of Leishmania major infection. In previous studies the L...
  77. ncbi Comparative genomics of trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa
    Najib M El-Sayed
    Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Science 309:404-9. 2005
    A comparison of gene content and genome architecture of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major, three related pathogens with different life cycles and disease pathology, revealed a conserved core proteome of about ..
  78. pmc Infected site-restricted Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells are specific for microbial antigens
    Isabelle J Suffia
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 203:777-88. 2006
    ..addressed the antigenic specificity of natural T reg cells that accumulate at sites of chronic infection with Leishmania major in mice...
  79. ncbi Rapidly fatal leishmaniasis in resistant C57BL/6 mice lacking TNF
    P Wilhelm
    Institut fur Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie, Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Immunol 166:4012-9. 2001
    The resolution of infections with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major in mice requires a Th1 response that is closely associated with the expression of IL-12, IFN-gamma, and inducible NO synthase...
  80. ncbi Leishmania major LmACR2 is a pentavalent antimony reductase that confers sensitivity to the drug pentostam
    Yao Zhou
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:37445-51. 2004
    ..reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ScAcr2p, was used to clone the gene for a homologue, LmACR2, from Leishmania major. LmACR2 was able to complement the arsenate-sensitive phenotype of an arsC deletion strain of Escherichia ..
  81. ncbi Leishmania major activates IL-1 alpha expression in macrophages through a MyD88-dependent pathway
    Thomas R Hawn
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Microbes Infect 4:763-71. 2002
    ..In this study, Leishmania major stimulation of cytokine promoter-luciferase reporter constructs was examined in transfected macrophages to ..
  82. ncbi On the evolution of programmed cell death: apoptosis of the unicellular eukaryote Leishmania major involves cysteine proteinase activation and mitochondrion permeabilization
    D Arnoult
    EMI U 9922 INSERM Université Paris 7, IFR 02, AP HP, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, 46, rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18, France
    Cell Death Differ 9:65-81. 2002
    b>Leishmania major is a protozoan parasite from one of the most ancient phylogenic branches of unicellular eukaryotes, and containing only one giant mitochondrion...
  83. ncbi A plate-based assay system for analyses and screening of the Leishmania major inositol phosphorylceramide synthase
    John G Mina
    Department of Chemistry and School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Biophysical Sciences Institute, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 42:1553-61. 2010
    ..this end a fluorescent-based cell-free assay protocol in a 96-well plate format has been established for the Leishmania major IPC synthase...
  84. ncbi Immunomodulatory effects associated with a live vaccine against Leishmania major containing CpG oligodeoxynucleotides
    Wenhui Wu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington DC, USA
    Eur J Immunol 36:3238-47. 2006
    The inoculation of live Leishmania major to produce a lesion that heals (leishmanization) is to date the only vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis that has proven effective in humans, but it still has an unacceptable frequency of large ..
  85. pmc The Leishmania major LACK antigen with an immunodominant epitope at amino acids 156 to 173 is not required for early Th2 development in BALB/c mice
    Ben L Kelly
    Departmrnt of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, UCSF Medical Center, Room C 443, 521 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0654, USA
    Infect Immun 72:6924-31. 2004
    The Leishmania major LACK antigen contains an immunodominant epitope at amino acids 156 to 173 (LACK(156-173)) that is believed to nucleate the pathological Th2 immune response in susceptible BALB/c mice...
  86. pmc Lack of protection of pre-immunization with saliva of long-term colonized Phlebotomus papatasi against experimental challenge with Leishmania major and saliva of wild-caught P. papatasi
    Sami Ben Hadj Ahmed
    Laboratory of Vector Ecology, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Ecology of Parasites, and Laboratory of Immuno Pathology, Vaccinology, and Molecular Genetics, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:512-4. 2010
    Immunity to saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi protects against Leishmania major infection as determined by co-inoculation of parasites with salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) of this vector...
  87. pmc Vaccination with live Leishmania major and CpG DNA promotes interleukin-2 production by dermal dendritic cells and NK cell activation
    Eva Maria Laabs
    James A Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:1601-6. 2009
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is an emerging, chronic parasitic disease that causes disfigurement and social stigmatization. Drug therapy is inadequate, and there is no vaccine...
  88. ncbi FISH analysis reveals aneuploidy and continual generation of chromosomal mosaicism in Leishmania major
    Yvon Sterkers
    Universite Montpellier 1, UFR Medecine, Laboratoire de Parasitologie Mycologie, Montpellier, France
    Cell Microbiol 13:274-83. 2011
    ..We discuss the implications of this additional unique feature of Leishmania for its biology and genetics, in particular as a novel genetic mechanism to generate phenotypic variability from genomic plasticity...
  89. ncbi Despite increased CD4+Foxp3+ cells within the infection site, BALB/c IL-4 receptor-deficient mice reveal CD4+Foxp3-negative T cells as a source of IL-10 in Leishmania major susceptibility
    Hisashi Nagase
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA
    J Immunol 179:2435-44. 2007
    ..mice, despite the absence of IL-4/IL-13 signaling and potent Th2 responses, remain highly susceptible to Leishmania major substain LV39 due exclusively to residual levels of IL-10...
  90. ncbi An in silico immunological approach for prediction of CD8+ T cell epitopes of Leishmania major proteins in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 murine models of infection
    F Z Guerfali
    Laboratoire d Immuno pathologie, Vaccinologie et Génétique Moléculaire, WHO Collaborating Center for Research and Training in Leishmaniasis, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP 74, Tunis Belvedere 1002, Tunisia
    Infect Genet Evol 9:344-50. 2009
    ..humans, a great deal of evidence obtained recently with the susceptible BALB/c murine model of infection by Leishmania major indicates that CD8 T cells participate in both pathogenesis and immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  91. pmc Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis patients
    Thomas P C Dorlo
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Slotervaart Hospital The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Louwesweg 6, 1066 EC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2855-60. 2008
    ..We examined and characterized the pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in a group of patients with Old World (Leishmania major) cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  92. ncbi Distinguishing Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major in the Middle East using the polymerase chain reaction with kinetoplast DNA-specific primers
    Gerlind Anders
    Department of Parasitology, Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, P O Box 12272, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:S87-92. 2002
    ..The presence of 3 species (Leishmania major, L. tropica and L...
  93. ncbi The IL-4 rapidly produced in BALB/c mice after infection with Leishmania major down-regulates IL-12 receptor beta 2-chain expression on CD4+ T cells resulting in a state of unresponsiveness to IL-12
    H Himmelrich
    World Health Organization Immunology Research and Training Center, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland
    J Immunol 161:6156-63. 1998
    Within 1 day of infection with Leishmania major, susceptible BALB/c mice produce a burst of IL-4 in their draining lymph nodes, resulting in a state of unresponsiveness to IL-12 in parasite-specific CD4+ T cells within 48 h...
  94. pmc Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence-binding protein, a transcription factor of the IFN regulatory factor family, regulates immune responses in vivo through control of interleukin 12 expression
    N A Giese
    Laboratory of Immunopathology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0760, USA
    J Exp Med 186:1535-46. 1997
    ..immunity, we characterized the responses of control and ICSBP-/- mice to infection with influenza A (flu) and Leishmania major (L. major)...
  95. ncbi Ether phospholipids and glycosylinositolphospholipids are not required for amastigote virulence or for inhibition of macrophage activation by Leishmania major
    Rachel Zufferey
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:44708-18. 2003
    ..We generated null mutants of the Leishmania major alkyldihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase (ADS), the first committed step of ether lipid synthesis...
  96. ncbi Intradermal inoculations of low doses of Leishmania major and Leishmania amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes induce different immunoparasitic processes and status of protection in BALB/c mice
    Nathalie Courret
    Unité d Immunophysiologie et Parasitisme Intracellulaire, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Int J Parasitol 33:1373-83. 2003
    ..long term parasitisms which may occur in mammals infected with Leishmania, cutaneous leishmaniases due to Leishmania major or Leishmania amazonensis were induced using a model based on the inoculation of 10-1000 metacyclic ..
  97. pmc Antimicrobial peptide-induced apoptotic death of leishmania results from calcium-de pend ent, caspase-independent mitochondrial toxicity
    Manjusha M Kulkarni
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    J Biol Chem 284:15496-504. 2009
    ..Flufenamic acid, a nonspecific Ca2+ inhibitor, completely ablated AMP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death, indicating the importance of dysregulation of Ca2+ in antimicrobial peptide-induced apoptosis...
  98. pmc Sphingolipids are essential for differentiation but not growth in Leishmania
    Kai Zhang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Box 8230, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    EMBO J 22:6016-26. 2003
    ..Here we created a SL null mutant in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major through targeted deletion of the key de novo biosynthetic enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase subunit 2 (SPT2)...
  99. pmc Identification of a compensatory mutant (lpg2-REV) of Leishmania major able to survive as amastigotes within macrophages without LPG2-dependent glycoconjugates and its significance to virulence and immunization strategies
    Gerald F Späth
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Infect Immun 72:3622-7. 2004
    ..Previously, we showed that Leishmania major deletion mutants lacking the Golgi GDP-mannose transporter LPG2, which is required for assembly of the ..
  100. pmc Processing of metacaspase into a cytoplasmic catalytic domain mediating cell death in Leishmania major
    Habib Zalila
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 155 Chemin des Boveresses, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    Mol Microbiol 79:222-39. 2011
    ..The human protozoan parasite Leishmania major expresses a single metacaspase (LmjMCA) harbouring a central domain with the catalytic dyad histidine and ..
  101. ncbi Requirement for type 2 NO synthase for IL-12 signaling in innate immunity
    A Diefenbach
    Institut fur Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitat Erlangen, Wasserturmstrasse 3, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Science 284:951-5. 1999
    ..Activation of Tyk2 in NK cells by IFN-alpha/beta also required NOS2. Thus, NOS2-derived NO is a prerequisite for cytokine signaling and function in innate immunity...

Research Grants62

  1. P. papatasi midgut molecules: gene function and assessing TBV candidates
    JOSE MARCELO contact RAMALHO ORTIGAO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..vector competence and demonstrated that antibodies targeted to this midgut molecule prevent establishment of Leishmania major within the sand fly midgut...
  2. Controlling Th2 immunity by tuning CXCL13 dependent DC migration in lymph nodes
    Frances E Lund; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..T cells, particularly IFN[unreadable]-producing Th1 cells, provide protection to intracellular pathogens like Leishmania major. By contrast, IL-4 producing Th2 cells are not protective and mice (and humans) that make a Th2- dominated ..
  3. Translational partitioning of the SL RNA
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..aims of this application are: 1) To validate the cap-binding properties of TbeIF4E-3, a homolog of the Leishmania major cap 0-binding protein, and/or other candidates;and 2) To determine the TbeIF4E-3 RNA substrate(s) and any ..
  4. Nucleoside hydrolase Inhibitors from natural products for Leishmania
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for in vitro activity using a MycoLogics'proprietary strain of yeast that requires the activity of the Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase for growth on uridine as the sole source of uracil and the in vitro models of ..
  5. Defining modes of helper T cell motility within inflamed tissues
    Michael Glen Overstreet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..signaling through surface receptors (such as integrins), these observations have relevance in a model of Leishmania major, in which our previous data has suggests that there are functional alterations to T cells in the locally ..
  6. Homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells in aging
    David A Hildeman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data in elderly humans and in a mouse model of Leishmania major infection show that Treg actively suppress the functionality of effector T cells...
  7. Mechanistic and structural studies of eukaryotic UDP-galactopyranose mutases
    Pablo Sobrado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in severely attenuated virulence of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, suggesting UGM as a promising drug design target...
  8. Properties of Mouse of Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
    Svetlana Mojsov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are positioned to approach three intertwined aims: 1) to direct Th1 type protective immunity to the parasite Leishmania Major;2) to expand antigen- specific T reg by targeting the self antigen, myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein, to ..
  9. Role of B cells in the Cell-Mediated Immune Response to Leishmania amazonensis
    Katherine Nicole Gibson Corley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..C3HeB/FeJ (C3H) mice infected with Leishmania major develop a CD4+ TH1 response and resolve infection, while infection with Leishmania amazonensis stimulates a ..
  10. IL-12 AS AN IMMUNOPOTENTIATOR IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Phillip A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..C57BL/6 mice infected with Leishmania major are immune to rechallenge after they resolve their infections, but this immunity was thought to be dependent ..
  11. Leishmaniasis treatment: Macrophage scavenger receptor
    ROBERT O apos MARA RYAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, in vivo experiments in Leishmania major infected mice have revealed that ampB-ND show efficacy at non-toxic doses...
  12. Profiling the Leishmania-macrophage Host-pathogen Infectome
    David M Mosser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this study, we focus on the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, the causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  13. Remodeling of lymph node-derived cytokine responses at the infected tissue site
    Deborah J Fowell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our recent studies with the protozoa Leishmania major suggest that such tissue-specific accumulation of cytokine secreting effector cells can be subverted by a ..
  14. HELPER T CELL REGULATION IN MURINE LEISHMANIASIS
    Steven L Reiner; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that signals directing the activation of a CD4+ helper T cell during the immune response against the parasite Leishmania major may trigger a program of cell fate diversity among the initial daughter cells of the selected microbe-..
  15. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We expect that our work will lead to new compounds with a specific and known mechanism of action that will be useful for the treatment of human leishmaniasis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. ANALYSIS OF THE TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GENOME USING TILING ARRAYS
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The completion of the genomes of three trypanosomatids, namely Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major, has opened insights into the coding potential and evolution of these genomes...
  17. Monocyte subsets and host defense
    David M Mosser; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..subsets of murine monocytes that behave very differently during infection with the protozoan parasite, Leishmania major. One monocyte subset is rapidly mobilized from the blood in response to L...
  18. TRYPANASOMA CRUZI GENOME-SBRI
    Kenneth Stuart; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..interactive project, are designed to exploit ongoing genome sequencing projects on three related pathogens; Leishmania major at the Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (SBRI), Trypanosoma brucei at the Institute for Genome Research (..
  19. INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM OF LEISHMANIA
    JACOB BLUM; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies show that promastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major incubated with [1- 13C] glucose as sole carbon source in the presence of air or oxygen release acetate, pyruvate, ..
  20. RNA Polymerase III transcription in Leishmania major
    SANTIAGO MARTINEZ CALVILLO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our main objective is to characterize Pol III promoters and transcriptional complexes in Leishmania major Friedlin (LmjF), whose genome sequence has been recently completed...
  21. Leish-111f + MPL-SE vaccine development for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis
    FRANCO PIAZZA; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..and immunogenicity of the Leish-111 f + MPL-SE vaccine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia...
  22. TH1/TH2 IMMUNITY IN YOUNG ADULT AND AGED MICE
    Thomas Forsthuber; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..For example, Th1 immunity is though to be required for controlling Leishmania major infection, while a Th2 response to this agent has pathological effects. The reverse might also be true, e.g...
  23. SECRETED CALCIUM SIGNALING FACTOR FROM LEISHMANIA MAJOR
    Jennifer Morehead; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The objective of this research proposal is to test the hypothesis that Leishmania major-derived secreted factors, possibly processed by the novel serine hydrolase oligopeptidase B, perform ..
  24. Role of T reg in live vaccination against leishmaniasis
    Susana Mendez; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Leishmania major (Lm) is the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), the most widely distributed form of ZCL in the Old World...
  25. FINDING GENES FOR HOST RESPONSE TO LEISHMANIA MAJOR
    Simon Foote; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The ultimate anticipated outcome is a better comprehension of the factors that go in to the regulation of the Th response to L. major with possible spin-off benefits in other diseases. ..
  26. ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
    EDORIS LE FURGEY; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..the role of element-rich intracellular vacuoles in the metabolism of a clinically important protozoan, leishmania major (c) elucidate the mechanisms that maintain ionic homeostasis in cultured cardiac cells; (d) characterize ..
  27. GIF regulation of B cells and CD4 cells
    Katsuji Sugie; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..MIF(GIF)-/- mice show enhanced susceptibility to Leishmania major. These mice are incapable of developing the experimental colitis...
  28. T CELL SUBSETS IN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS
    JAY FARRELL; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Different inbred strains of mice develop either of two divergent patterns of infection with Leishmania major. Most strains develop healing infections whereas certain strains, such as the BALB/c, develop progressive non-healing disease...
  29. STRUCTURE BASED DRUG DESIGN
    Robert Stroud; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Trypanosoma cruz,i Trypanosoma burcei (Chagas' disease); Mycobacterisum tuberculosis (Tuberculosis) and Leishmania major. Inhibitors of TS are to be developed based on 1...
  30. PLANT DIETS OF SANDFLIES AND LEISHMANIA TRANSMISSION
    Yosef Schlein; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Abstract. Zoonotic Leishmania major causes human disease in similar arid regions in many countries including Israel...
  31. Parasitic Infection Alters Quality of Immune Response
    Jean Boyer; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The model we will use is Leishmania major infection in Balb/c mice (there are several other excellent systems, including Schistosoma manosi, that may ..
  32. Toll-like Receptors and the Innate Immune Response
    THOMAS HAWN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The aims of this proposal are to examine the effects of TLR2 in MTh and Leishmania major mouse infection models and to characterize TLR-dependent inflammatory signaling pathways in vitro in ..
  33. EGSi, A Tool for Gene Inactivation in Trypanosomatids
    Reza Salavati; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..for high throughput gene function studies in the two related pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major. RNAi works well in T. brucei but does not inactivate gene expression in many cases...
  34. Chemokine System in DC and Lymphocyte Function
    SEEMA AHUJA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Additionally, there was a block in the Leishmania major infection-induced relocalization of splenic DCs from the marginal zone to the T-cell areas...
  35. Immunoregulation in visceral leishmaniasis
    JAY FARRELL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION: Unlike mice infected with Leishmania major, which exhibit either self-healing or progressive disease, which correlates with the development of dominant Th1 versus Th2 type responses, mice infected with Leishmania ..
  36. CHARACTERIZATION & CLONING OF LEISHMANIA ANTIGENS
    Emanuela Handman; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..functionally important for survival of both the promastigote and amastigote of the protozoan human parasite Leishmania major; (2) that the CD4+ T cell immune response to some of these integral membrane proteins is an important ..
  37. IMMUNE RESPONSE TO LEISHMANIA MAJOR
    Richard Titus; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION (Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract): Following infection with Leishmania major (Lm), there is outgrowth of Th1 cells in mice that resolve the infection, but outgrowth of Th2 cell in mice that succumb to disease...
  38. IL-12 AS AN IMMUNOPOTENTIATOR IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Phillip Scott; Fiscal Year: 2002
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Experimental Leishmania major infections in mice have been used extensively to understand how cell-mediated immunity (CMI) develops, and to specifically define the factors that dictate whether a ..
  39. Immunosuppression and regulatory T cells in aging
    Claire Chougnet; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that these cells are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of latent infection with the parasite Leishmania major in the tissues of its host...
  40. Visualization of Th2 development in vivo
    Deborah Fowell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..uniquely track, in situ, an emerging antigen-specific Th2 response in mice after infection with the parasite Leishmania major. Specific aim 1 (design) seeks to develop a novel whole mount immunohistochemistry approach to visualize ..
  41. CELL MEDIATED HOST DEFENSE IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Joseph Sypek; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..cell populations for further analysis of this defense, T cell clones will be derived from mice with resolving Leishmania major infections...
  42. Comparative Analysis of Editosome in Trypanosomatids
    Reza Salavati; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania major. This will be accomplished by exploiting the information from T...
  43. GAMMA/DELTA T CELLS AND PATHOGEN INDUCED IMMUNE RESPONSE
    Phillip Scott; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  44. Role of Regulatory T cells in Leishmania major infection
    Christopher Karp; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..regulatory T cells (Treg) are essential for the development and maintenance of latent cutaneous infection Leishmania major. Treg rapidly accumulate at sites of infection with Lm, suppressing the ability of the immune response to ..
  45. Gammacell-40 Exactor Research Irradiator
    Phillip Scott; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Each of these will advance our understanding of human diseases. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  46. Initiation Of Immune Responses in Chronic Leishmaniasis
    Phillip Scott; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Taken together, these experiments should provide the foundation for the development of new immunotherapies for chronic leishmaniasis. ..
  47. Vaccine Development in Leishmaniasis
    Phillip Scott; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..However, at present there is no vaccine for human Leishmaniasis. We have discovered that attenuated Leishmania major parasites (called LPG2 KO) can provide outstanding protection against this disease in a mouse model...
  48. HELPER T CELL SUBSETS IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Richard Locksley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: The murine model of Leishmania major infection is an exceptional model for investigations of helper T cells subset differentiation in vivo...
  49. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE GLYCOSOME.
    Marilyn Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Their studies are aimed at understanding glycosomal biogenesis and protein input and the relationship of these processes and the molecules involved to peroxisome biogenesis in the human host. ..
  50. PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN TRYPANOSOMES
    Marilyn Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together these studies will signficantly expand our knowledge of the network of signaling interactions in trypanosomes, with the goal of identifying new drug and vaccine targets. ..
  51. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS VACCINE - MURINE MODEL STUDIES
    DIANE MCMAHON PRATT; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These experiments are directed towards the identification and optimization of effective vaccine candidates and delivery systems for VL. ..
  52. VACCINE DEVELOPMENT IN TUBERCULOSIS
    Antonio Campos Neto; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition to the evaluation of these antigens, we will characterize and clone other vaccine candidates using recently developed approaches for the direct identification of both CD4 and CD8 T cell antigens. ..
  53. Metalloid transporters and drug resistance in Leishmania
    Rita Mukhopadhyay; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..identified the genes for an aquaglyceroporin homologue, LtAQPI and LmAQPI, in Leishmania tarentolae and Leishmania major, respectively...
  54. Nuclease-Resistant Aptamers to Botox and Anthrax Toxins
    John Bruno; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such reagents could also be used in environmental biosensors or diagnostic test kits for detection of BOTOX and anthrax toxins in body fluids or environmental samples. ..
  55. High Throughput Assay for Screening Compounds(RMI)
    James McKerrow; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Computational and informatics capability is in place to acquire, store and cross-reference this data, and provide access to the scientific community through an open-source website. ..
  56. Biology of Host-Parasite Interactions 2008 Gordon Research Conference
    Elisabetta Ullu; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. Nuclease-Resistant Aptamers for Anthrax Opsonization
    John Bruno; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such shielded aptamers could even be used in inhalers to enhance alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. ..
  58. Counterblance in Inflammation
    MARION CHAN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..If feedback mechanisms become a new focus then a groundbreaking paradigm shift would have been made for the development of treatment for arthritis and other inflammation-induced tissue damages. ..
  59. Functional Characterization of Leishmania Transporters
    Scott M Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Overall, this proposal will provide a detailed biochemical and genetic dissection of glucose transporter function and the essential role of these permeases in the parasite life cycle. ..
  60. LEISHMANIA INFECTION IN BALB/C IL4 NEG AND IL4R NEG MICE
    Nancy Noben Trauth; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The prototypic in vivo model used to study Th1/Th2 responses is infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Infection of susceptible BALB/c mice induces strong IL-4 and Th2-associated cytokine responses, but L...
  61. Adaptation of ribozyme technology to Leishmania
    NANCY STURM; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Once the parameters of the technique are established increasingly ambitious experiments can be designed including targeting of the spliced SL or discrete mRNAs. ..
  62. Transcription of protein-coding genes in Leishmania
    PETER JOHN MYLER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this proposal, we will test this hypothesis and build on our current work to further characterize the chromatin-modifying enzymes that are involved in transcription initiation. ..