leishmania

Summary

Summary: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives
    P Desjeux
    Department of Control, Prevention and Elimination CDS CPE, Cluster of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization WHO, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27:305-18. 2004
  2. ncbi Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host-pathogen interface
    Paul Kaye
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology and Hull York Medical School, University of York, Wentworth Way, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:604-15. 2011
  3. pmc Chromosome and gene copy number variation allow major structural change between species and strains of Leishmania
    Matthew B Rogers
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 21:2129-42. 2011
  4. ncbi Leishmaniasis
    B L Herwaldt
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Lancet 354:1191-9. 1999
  5. pmc Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes induce and are killed by neutrophil extracellular traps
    Anderson B Guimarães-Costa
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco I, 21941 902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6748-53. 2009
  6. pmc The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years
    Jorge Alvar
    Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:334-59, table of contents. 2008
  7. pmc Differential microbicidal effects of human histone proteins H2A and H2B on Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes
    Yingwei Wang
    College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 100193
    Infect Immun 79:1124-33. 2011
  8. pmc Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e313. 2008
  9. ncbi The Leishmania donovani complex: genotypes of five metabolic enzymes (ICD, ME, MPI, G6PDH, and FH), new targets for multilocus sequence typing
    Eva Zemanova
    Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences and Faculty of Biology, University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice, Budweis, Czech Republic
    Int J Parasitol 37:149-60. 2007
  10. ncbi Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans
    Anne Laure Bañuls
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR CNRS IRD 2724, Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, IRD Montpellier, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Adv Parasitol 64:1-109. 2007

Detail Information

Publications336 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives
    P Desjeux
    Department of Control, Prevention and Elimination CDS CPE, Cluster of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization WHO, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27:305-18. 2004
    ..The newly available control tools should allow a scaling up of control activities in priority areas. In anthroponotic foci, the feasibility of getting a strong impact on mortality, morbidity and transmission, is high...
  2. ncbi Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host-pathogen interface
    Paul Kaye
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology and Hull York Medical School, University of York, Wentworth Way, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:604-15. 2011
    b>Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sandflies and give rise to a range of diseases (collectively known as leishmaniases) that affect over 150 million people worldwide...
  3. pmc Chromosome and gene copy number variation allow major structural change between species and strains of Leishmania
    Matthew B Rogers
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 21:2129-42. 2011
    b>Leishmania parasites cause a spectrum of clinical pathology in humans ranging from disfiguring cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis...
  4. ncbi Leishmaniasis
    B L Herwaldt
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Lancet 354:1191-9. 1999
    In 1903, Leishman and Donovan separately described the protozoan now called Leishmania donovani in splenic tissue from patients in India with the life-threatening disease now called visceral leishmaniasis...
  5. pmc Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes induce and are killed by neutrophil extracellular traps
    Anderson B Guimarães-Costa
    Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof Paulo de Goes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco I, 21941 902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6748-53. 2009
    ..Inoculation of the protozoan Leishmania into the mammalian skin causes local inflammation with neutrophil recruitment...
  6. pmc The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years
    Jorge Alvar
    Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:334-59, table of contents. 2008
    To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe...
  7. pmc Differential microbicidal effects of human histone proteins H2A and H2B on Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes
    Yingwei Wang
    College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China 100193
    Infect Immun 79:1124-33. 2011
    ..histone proteins can act as antimicrobial peptides in host defense against extracellular bacteria, fungi, and Leishmania promastigotes...
  8. pmc Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e313. 2008
    ....
  9. ncbi The Leishmania donovani complex: genotypes of five metabolic enzymes (ICD, ME, MPI, G6PDH, and FH), new targets for multilocus sequence typing
    Eva Zemanova
    Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences and Faculty of Biology, University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice, Budweis, Czech Republic
    Int J Parasitol 37:149-60. 2007
    Flagellates of the Leishmania donovani complex are causative agents of human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. The complex is comprised of L...
  10. ncbi Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans
    Anne Laure Bañuls
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR CNRS IRD 2724, Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, IRD Montpellier, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Adv Parasitol 64:1-109. 2007
    Leishmaniases remain a major public health problem today despite the vast amount of research conducted on Leishmania pathogens. The biological model is genetically and ecologically complex...
  11. ncbi Leishmaniasis--current chemotherapy and recent advances in the search for novel drugs
    Simon L Croft
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 19:502-8. 2003
  12. pmc Transmission of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies
    Paul A Bates
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Int J Parasitol 37:1097-106. 2007
    ..Here, our current understanding of the mechanisms that Leishmania parasites use to ensure their transmission from sand fly vectors by bite is reviewed...
  13. ncbi The leishmaniases as emerging and reemerging zoonoses
    R W Ashford
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, L3 5QA, Liverpool, UK
    Int J Parasitol 30:1269-81. 2000
    The 20 or so species of Leishmania which have been recorded as human infections are all either zoonotic, or have recent zoonotic origins...
  14. pmc Leishmaniasis: current status of vaccine development
    E Handman
    Infection and Immunity Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville 3050, Australia
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:229-43. 2001
    ..The availability, in the near future, of the DNA sequences of the human and Leishmania genomes will extend the vaccine program...
  15. ncbi Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoa
    David Sacks
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:1041-7. 2002
    ..In addition, there is growing evidence that protozoan pathogens modify the antigen-presenting and immunoregulatory functions of dendritic cells, a process that facilitates their evasion of both innate and adaptive immunity...
  16. ncbi T helper (h)1/Th2 and Leishmania: paradox rather than paradigm
    James Alexander
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The Todd Wing, John Arbuthnott Building, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Immunol Lett 99:17-23. 2005
    Studies on Leishmania major have been largely responsible for the characterisation of the Th1/Th2 paradigm of healing/non-healing associated with intracellular infection...
  17. ncbi The kinetoplastid chemotherapy revisited: current drugs, recent advances and future perspectives
    E Castillo
    Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University CEU Cardenal Herrera, Edificio Seminario s n, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    Curr Med Chem 17:4027-51. 2010
    Leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid parasites Leishmania spp, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively, are among the most important parasitic diseases, affecting millions ..
  18. ncbi Phylogeny of Leishmania species based on the heat-shock protein 70 gene
    Jorge Fraga
    Parasitology Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri, La Havana, Cuba
    Infect Genet Evol 10:238-45. 2010
    ..In spite of the frequent use of New World Leishmania species identification on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the hsp70 gene, it ..
  19. pmc Drug resistance in leishmaniasis
    Simon L Croft
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, 1 place Saint Gervais, CH 1201 Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:111-26. 2006
    ..and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, ..
  20. pmc Epidemiological study of the association between anti-Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva antibodies and development of delayed-type hypersensitivity to Leishmania antigen
    Dorlene M C Aquino
    Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Sao Luis, Maranhao, Brazil
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:825-7. 2010
    ..responses to anti-Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva antibodies may be related to delayed-type hypersensitivity to Leishmania antigen...
  21. ncbi Leishmania-macrophage interactions: insights into the redox biology
    Tim Van Assche
    Laboratory of Microbiology Parasitology, and Hygiene, University of Antwerp, B 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:337-51. 2011
    ..Although Leishmania species are susceptible in vitro to exogenous superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and ..
  22. pmc Leishmania-induced inactivation of the macrophage transcription factor AP-1 is mediated by the parasite metalloprotease GP63
    Irazu Contreras
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001148. 2010
    b>Leishmania parasites have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to subvert macrophage immune responses by altering the host cell signal transduction machinery, including inhibition of JAK/STAT signalling and other transcription factors such as ..
  23. ncbi Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in trypanosomes and leishmanias
    Christine Clayton
    Zentrum für Molekualre Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 156:93-101. 2007
    ..Thus the regulation of gene expression is post-transcriptional. We here discuss recent results concerning the enzymes required for mRNA degradation, and components of the translation initiation machinery, and how both are regulated...
  24. ncbi Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral disease?
    Diane McMahon-Pratt
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Immunol Rev 201:206-24. 2004
    Parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania have provided a useful perspective for immunologists in terms of host defense mechanisms critical for the resolution of infection caused by intracellular pathogens...
  25. pmc Subversion mechanisms by which Leishmania parasites can escape the host immune response: a signaling point of view
    Martin Olivier
    Centre for the Study of Host Resistance at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:293-305. 2005
    The obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania must survive the antimicrobial activities of its host cell, the macrophage, and prevent activation of an effective immune response...
  26. pmc Up-regulation of Th1-type responses in mucosal leishmaniasis patients
    Olivia Bacellar
    Serviço de Imunologia do Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
    Infect Immun 70:6734-40. 2002
    The cytokine profile produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to leishmania antigens and the ability of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) to modulate the immune response were ..
  27. pmc Immunity to distinct sand fly salivary proteins primes the anti-Leishmania immune response towards protection or exacerbation of disease
    Fabiano Oliveira
    Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e226. 2008
    b>Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects biologically active salivary components that favorably change the environment at the feeding site...
  28. ncbi The immune response to Leishmania: mechanisms of parasite control and evasion
    C Bogdan
    Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Int J Parasitol 28:121-34. 1998
    After transmission of Leishmania parasites by sandflies, disease manifestation of the infection requires mechanisms which allow the parasites to replicate in the mammalian host and to resist, at least initially, its innate and acquired ..
  29. ncbi The major surface protease (MSP or GP63) of Leishmania sp. Biosynthesis, regulation of expression, and function
    Chaoqun Yao
    VA Medical Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 132:1-16. 2003
    b>Leishmania sp. are digenetic protozoa that cause an estimated 1.5-2 million new cases of leishmaniasis per year worldwide. Among the molecular factors that contribute to Leishmania sp...
  30. ncbi Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis
    Rhea N Coler
    The Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia Street, Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Trends Parasitol 21:244-9. 2005
    Several species of Leishmania cause human diseases that range from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  31. pmc Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease
    Christopher S Peacock
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 39:839-47. 2007
    b>Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Here we report the sequencing of the genomes of two species of Leishmania: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis...
  32. ncbi The molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Trypanosoma cruzi and parallel research on Leishmania: looking back and to the future
    M A Miles
    Pathogen Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK
    Parasitology 136:1509-28. 2009
    ..Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are global agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, fatal and disfiguring diseases...
  33. ncbi Expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10 and TGF-beta in lymph nodes associates with parasite load and clinical form of disease in dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi
    Cintia F Alves
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 128:349-58. 2009
    ..and parasite burdens, as determined by real-time PCR, in the lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi...
  34. ncbi Immunopathogenesis of infection with the visceralizing Leishmania species
    Mary E Wilson
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, The VA Medical Center, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Microb Pathog 38:147-60. 2005
    ..With some overlap, visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are usually caused by different species of Leishmania. This review focuses on host responses to infection with the species that cause visceral leishmaniasis, as they ..
  35. ncbi Immunopathogenic competences of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis in American cutaneous leishmaniasis
    F T Silveira
    Parasitology Department, Evandro Chagas Institute Surveillance Secretary of Health, Ministry of Health, 66090 000, Belem, Pará State, Brazil
    Parasite Immunol 31:423-31. 2009
    The immunopathogenic competences of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amazonensis were reviewed in the light of more recent features found in the clinical and immunopathological spectrum of American cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  36. ncbi Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease: lessons from mouse models of leishmaniasis
    Marie Lipoldová
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fleming nám 2, 166 37 Prague, Czech Republic
    Nat Rev Genet 7:294-305. 2006
    ..Several of these QTLs probably also influence susceptibility to other infections, indicating that their characterization will contribute to our understanding of susceptibility to infectious disease in general...
  37. pmc "Everything you always wanted to know about sex (but were afraid to ask)" in Leishmania after two decades of laboratory and field analyses
    Virginie Rougeron
    Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, IRD CNRS UM1 UMR 2724, Montpellier, France
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001004. 2010
    ..biology and in evolutionary genetics since 1990, the debate on the population structure and reproductive mode of Leishmania is far from being settled and therefore deserves further investigation...
  38. pmc Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama
    Jorge Azpurua
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Republica de Panama
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e627. 2010
    ..Here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both Leishmania and a microbe that can potentially serve in vector population control, the cytoplasmically transmitted ..
  39. pmc Type I IFN receptor regulates neutrophil functions and innate immunity to Leishmania parasites
    Lijun Xin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1070, USA
    J Immunol 184:7047-56. 2010
    ..IFNAR-/-) mice developed attenuated lesions and reduced Ag-specific immune responses following infection with Leishmania amazonensis parasites...
  40. ncbi Molecular approaches for a better understanding of the epidemiology and population genetics of Leishmania
    G Schonian
    Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Dorotheenstrasse 96, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Parasitology 138:405-25. 2011
    ..Several molecular markers resolving genetic differences between Leishmania parasites at species and strain levels have been developed to address key epidemiological and population genetic ..
  41. ncbi Treatment failure in children in a randomized clinical trial with 10 and 20 days of meglumine antimonate for cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania viannia species
    R Palacios
    Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Medicas, Cali, Colombia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:187-93. 2001
    ..Pathogenicity of infection and pharmacokinetics may affect the treatment response in children. New therapeutic alternatives should be evaluated in trials that include children and women...
  42. pmc Genome sequencing of the lizard parasite Leishmania tarentolae reveals loss of genes associated to the intracellular stage of human pathogenic species
    Frederic Raymond
    Infectious Disease Research Centre, CHUL Research Centre CHUQ, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
    Nucleic Acids Res 40:1131-47. 2012
    The Leishmania tarentolae Parrot-TarII strain genome sequence was resolved to an average 16-fold mean coverage by next-generation DNA sequencing technologies...
  43. pmc Leishmania donovani p36(LACK) DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic but not protective against experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    P C Melby
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 3900, USA
    Infect Immun 69:4719-25. 2001
    The acquisition of immunity following subclinical or resolved infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani suggests that vaccination could prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  44. ncbi Influence of Leishmania (Viannia) species on the response to antimonial treatment in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis
    Jorge Arevalo
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru, and Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Department of Community Medicine, Switzerland
    J Infect Dis 195:1846-51. 2007
    ..There are, however, reports of the occurrence of treatment failure with these drugs. Few studies in Latin America have compared the response to SbV treatment in ATL caused by different Leishmania species.
  45. pmc Antimony uptake systems in the protozoan parasite Leishmania and accumulation differences in antimony-resistant parasites
    Christian Brochu
    Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie du Centre de Recherche du CHUL and Division de Microbiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:3073-9. 2003
    ..In this study, we have quantified the accumulation of Sb(V) and Sb(III) in Leishmania by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
  46. pmc Phenotypic features of circulating leucocytes as immunological markers for clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi
    A B Reis
    Laboratorio de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Departamento de Análises Clínicas Escola de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Clin Exp Immunol 146:303-11. 2006
    ..density on the phenotypic profile of peripheral blood leucocytes in 40 Brazilian dogs naturally infected by Leishmania chagasi...
  47. ncbi The role of host genetics in leishmaniasis
    Anuratha Sakthianandeswaren
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
    Trends Parasitol 25:383-91. 2009
    ..This review summarizes recent advances in the identification of genetic loci involved in the host response to Leishmania spp. in the mouse model and in the human situation.
  48. ncbi Advantages of real-time PCR assay for diagnosis and monitoring of canine leishmaniosis
    O Francino
    Servei Veterinari de Genètica Molecular, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 137:214-21. 2006
    ..The dynamic range of detection of Leishmania DNA was established in 7 logs and the limit of detection is 0.001 parasites in the PCR reaction...
  49. ncbi Differential properties of CBA/J mononuclear phagocytes recovered from an inflammatory site and probed with two different species of Leishmania
    Ivana Nunes Gomes
    Laboratorio de Patologia e Biologia Celular, CPqGM, FIOCRUZ BA, R Valdemar Falcão, 121 Brotas Salvador, BA 40295 001, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 5:251-60. 2003
    While CBA/J mice fail to be permissive to Leishmania amazonensis-driven pathogenic processes, they heal easily following Leishmania major infection...
  50. ncbi Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Ifeoma Okwor
    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, CA
    Hum Vaccin 5:291-301. 2009
    ..This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known...
  51. ncbi Identification of the most abundant secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of Leishmania chagasi
    Jesus G Valenzuela
    Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Room 2E 22C, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    J Exp Biol 207:3717-29. 2004
    ..vertebrate host immune response to salivary proteins and protection to parasite infection, these proteins are promising markers for vector exposure and attractive targets for vaccine development to control Leishmania chagasi infection.
  52. ncbi Dendritic cells as host cells for the promastigote and amastigote stages of Leishmania amazonensis: the role of opsonins in parasite uptake and dendritic cell maturation
    Eric Prina
    Unité d Immunophysiologie et Parasitisme Intracellulaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    J Cell Sci 117:315-25. 2004
    In their mammalian hosts, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites that mainly reside in macrophages...
  53. ncbi Retooling Leishmania metabolism: from sand fly gut to human macrophage
    Doron Rosenzweig
    Faculty of Biology, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
    FASEB J 22:590-602. 2008
    ..b>Leishmania donovani extracellular promastigotes reside in a glucose-rich, slightly alkaline environment in the sand fly ..
  54. pmc Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: current status and future applications
    Richard Reithinger
    Clinical Trials Area, Westat, 1441 W Montgomery Ave, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:21-5. 2007
  55. ncbi Life in vacuoles--nutrient acquisition by Leishmania amastigotes
    R J Burchmore
    Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Infection and Immunity, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Int J Parasitol 31:1311-20. 2001
    b>Leishmania have a digenetic life cycle, involving a motile, extracellular stage (promastigote) which parasitises the alimentary tract of a sandfly vector...
  56. ncbi Leishmaniasis impact and treatment access
    M den Boer
    Leishmaniasis Control Programme, WHO IDM Av Appia, Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1471-7. 2011
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first publication that addresses the major issues associated with poor access to drugs for leishmaniasis and that outlines a number of feasible and practical solutions...
  57. pmc TLR1/2 activation during heterologous prime-boost vaccination (DNA-MVA) enhances CD8+ T Cell responses providing protection against Leishmania (Viannia)
    Asha Jayakumar
    Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1204. 2011
    b>Leishmania (Viannia) parasites present particular challenges, as human and murine immune responses to infection are distinct from other Leishmania species, indicating a unique interaction with the host...
  58. pmc A screen against Leishmania intracellular amastigotes: comparison to a promastigote screen and identification of a host cell-specific hit
    Géraldine De Muylder
    Department of Pathology, Sandler Center for Drug Discovery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1253. 2011
    ..In order to streamline efforts for the design of productive drug screens against Leishmania, we compared the efficiency of two screening methods, one targeting the free living and easily cultured ..
  59. pmc Efficient capture of infected neutrophils by dendritic cells in the skin inhibits the early anti-leishmania response
    Flavia L Ribeiro-Gomes
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002536. 2012
    ..mice have shown that neutrophils are the predominant recruited and infected cells during the earliest stage of Leishmania major infection in the skin, and that neutrophil depletion promotes host resistance to sand fly transmitted ..
  60. pmc Leishmania promotes its own virulence by inducing expression of the host immune inhibitory ligand CD200
    Mauro Cortez
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:463-71. 2011
    b>Leishmania parasites infect macrophages, cells normally involved in innate defense against pathogens...
  61. ncbi Leishmania taxonomy up for promotion?
    Gert Van der Auwera
    Trends Parasitol 27:49-50. 2011
  62. ncbi Metabolic pathways required for the intracellular survival of Leishmania
    Malcolm J McConville
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Annu Rev Microbiol 65:543-61. 2011
    b>Leishmania spp. are sandfly-transmitted parasitic protozoa that cause a spectrum of important diseases and lifelong chronic infections in humans...
  63. ncbi Phylogenic analysis of the genus Leishmania by cytochrome b gene sequencing
    Yutaka Asato
    Division of Dermatology, Unit of Organ oriented Medicine, University of the Ryukyu, 207 Uehara, Nishihara cho, Okinawa 903 0215, Japan
    Exp Parasitol 121:352-61. 2009
    ..that cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene analysis is an effective method for classifying several isolates of the genus Leishmania; hence, we have further applied this method to other Leishmania species in an effort to enhance the accuracy of ..
  64. pmc Leishmania-specific surface antigens show sub-genus sequence variation and immune recognition
    Daniel P Depledge
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology, Hull York Medical School, University of York, York, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e829. 2010
    ..the plasma membrane in infective extracellular (metacyclic) and intracellular (amastigote) stages of Old World Leishmania species...
  65. ncbi Macrophage killing of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes requires both nitric oxide and superoxide
    Rami M Mukbel
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:669-75. 2007
    The requirements for effective and efficient intracellular killing of Leishmania amazonensis by activated macrophages are unknown. Despite resistance to the arginase inhibitor LOHA by intracellular L...
  66. ncbi Apoptotic mimicry by an obligate intracellular parasite downregulates macrophage microbicidal activity
    J M de Freitas Balanco
    , , , Brazil
    Curr Biol 11:1870-3. 2001
    ..b>Leishmania spp are able to evade the killing activity of phagocytes and establish themselves as obligate intracellular ..
  67. ncbi TGF-beta-associated enhanced susceptibility to leishmaniasis following intramuscular vaccination of mice with Leishmania amazonensis antigens
    Roberta Olmo Pinheiro
    Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949 900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 7:1317-23. 2005
    b>Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis are the main causal agents of anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and hyperergic mucosal leishmaniasis in man, respectively...
  68. ncbi Isotype patterns of immunoglobulins: hallmarks for clinical status and tissue parasite density in Brazilian dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi
    Alexandre B Reis
    Laboratorio de Imunologia Celular e Molecular, Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 112:102-16. 2006
    ..To further characterize and upgrade the background on this issue, herein, we have evaluated, in Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi naturally infected dogs, the relationship between tissue parasitism (skin, bone marrow, ..
  69. ncbi Improvements in transfection efficiency and tests of RNA interference (RNAi) approaches in the protozoan parasite Leishmania
    Kelly A Robinson
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 128:217-28. 2003
    ..reverse genetics applications in eukaryotic microbes which are asexual diploids, such as the protozoan parasite Leishmania. RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been successful in many species, including the related parasite ..
  70. pmc Effect of elatol, isolated from red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea, on Leishmania amazonensis
    Adriana Oliveira dos Santos
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Microbiologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445, Km 380, CEP 86051 990, Campus Universitario, Londrina, Parana, Brazil
    Mar Drugs 8:2733-43. 2010
    ..Our studies indicated that elatol is a potent antiproliferative agent against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms, and may have important advantages for the development of new anti-leishamanial chemotherapies...
  71. pmc Antileishmanial high-throughput drug screening reveals drug candidates with new scaffolds
    Jair L Siqueira-Neto
    Center for Neglected Diseases Drug Discovery CND3, Institut Pasteur Korea, Seongnam si, Gyeonggi Do, South Korea
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e675. 2010
    ..implementation of an automated high-throughput viability screening assay for the discovery of new drugs against Leishmania. Assay validation was done with Leishmania promastigote forms, including the screening of 4,000 compounds with ..
  72. ncbi PCR diagnosis and characterization of Leishmania in local and imported clinical samples
    Gabriele Schonian
    Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Humboldt University, Charite, Berlin, Germany
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 47:349-58. 2003
    ..ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively, was determined using human and dog blood seeded with Leishmania promastigotes...
  73. ncbi Species discrimination and phylogenetic inference of 17 Chinese Leishmania isolates based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences
    Bin Bin Yang
    Department of Parasitology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan, China
    Parasitol Res 107:1049-65. 2010
    Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread disease, caused by protozoan flagellates of the genus Leishmania. This disease still remains endemic in China, especially in the west and northwest frontier regions...
  74. ncbi Immunity to Leishmania and the rational search for vaccines against canine leishmaniasis
    Alexandre B Reis
    Laboratorio de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
    Trends Parasitol 26:341-9. 2010
    The control of infection by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) in dogs is essential to stop the current spread of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis...
  75. ncbi The Leishmania-macrophage interaction: a metabolic perspective
    Thomas Naderer
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Cell Microbiol 10:301-8. 2008
    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania exhibit a pronounced tropism for macrophages although they have the capacity to infect a variety of other phagocytic and non-phagocytic mammalian cells...
  76. ncbi Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) associates with NADPH oxidase and is required for phagocytosis of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes by macrophages
    Celio X C Santos
    Vascular Biology Laboratory, Heart Institute InCor, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, CEP 05403 000 São Paulo, Brazil
    J Leukoc Biol 86:989-98. 2009
    ..the role of PDI in in vitro infection of J774 macrophages by amastigote and promastigote forms of the protozoan Leishmania chagasi and assessed whether PDI associates with the macrophage NADPH oxidase complex...
  77. pmc A lipophosphoglycan-independent development of Leishmania in permissive sand flies
    Jitka Myskova
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Prague 2, Czech Republic
    Microbes Infect 9:317-24. 2007
    ..Two sand fly species, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti, display remarkable specificity for Leishmania parasites they transmit in nature, but many others are broadly permissive to the development of different ..
  78. pmc Real-time in vivo green fluorescent protein imaging of a murine leishmaniasis model as a new tool for Leishmania vaccine and drug discovery
    Sanjay R Mehta
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1764-70. 2008
    b>Leishmania species are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that cause a broad spectrum of clinical diseases in mammalian hosts...
  79. pmc In vitro sensitivity testing of Leishmania clinical field isolates: preconditioning of promastigotes enhances infectivity for macrophage host cells
    Raquel Inocêncio da Luz
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, Antwerp University, Antwerp, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:5197-203. 2009
    ..Several conditions for optimization of the in vitro metacyclogenesis and cell infectivity of Leishmania donovani, L. guyanensis, and L...
  80. pmc Control of parasitophorous vacuole expansion by LYST/Beige restricts the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis
    Jude Wilson
    Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000179. 2008
    The intracellular protozoan Leishmania replicates in parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) that share many features with late endosomes/lysosomes. L...
  81. ncbi Phenyl substitution of furamidine markedly potentiates its anti-parasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis
    E M De Souza
    Lab Biologia Celular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, 21045 900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:593-600. 2004
    ..phenyl-substituted analog DB569 on two kinetoplastid haemoflagellates Trypanosomatidae: Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (L) amazonensis...
  82. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis - current therapeutic modalities
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:345-52. 2006
    ..VL) include the alarming increase in antimonial unresponsiveness especially in Bihar, India and relapses in HIV-Leishmania co-infected patients...
  83. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of antimony resistance in Leishmania
    Shyam Sundar
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, UP India
    J Med Microbiol 56:143-53. 2007
    ..A multiplicity of resistance mechanisms have been described in resistant Leishmania mutants developed in vitro by stepwise increases of the concentration of either antimony [Sb(III)] or the ..
  84. ncbi Immune privilege in sites of chronic infection: Leishmania and regulatory T cells
    Nathan Peters
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    Immunol Rev 213:159-79. 2006
    b>Leishmania are digenetic protozoan parasites that are inoculated into the skin by vector sand flies, are taken up by macrophages, and produce a spectrum of chronic diseases in their natural reservoir and susceptible human hosts...
  85. ncbi Living in a phagolysosome; metabolism of Leishmania amastigotes
    Malcolm J McConville
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Trends Parasitol 23:368-75. 2007
    b>Leishmania amastigotes primarily proliferate within macrophages in the mammalian host...
  86. ncbi Bioluminescent Leishmania expressing luciferase for rapid and high throughput screening of drugs acting on amastigote-harbouring macrophages and for quantitative real-time monitoring of parasitism features in living mice
    Thierry Lang
    Unité d Immunophysiologie et Parasitisme Intracellulaire, Departement de Parasitologie, Institut Pasteur, rue 25 du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Cell Microbiol 7:383-92. 2005
    In this study, we have established conditions for generating Leishmania amazonensis recombinants stably expressing the firefly luciferase gene...
  87. pmc Phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism in Leishmania
    Kai Zhang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 170:55-64. 2010
    ..In Leishmania, the composition, metabolism, and function of PLs and SLs differ significantly from those in mammalian cells...
  88. ncbi Advances and perspectives in Leishmania cell based drug-screening procedures
    D Sereno
    IRD, UR008 Pathogénie des Trypanosomatidés, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Parasitol Int 56:3-7. 2007
    ..The ability to select transgenic Leishmania expressing reporter proteins, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the luciferase, opened up new ..
  89. ncbi Leishmania vaccines: progress and problems
    L Kedzierski
    Infection and Immunity Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville 3050, Melbourne, Australia
    Parasitology 133:S87-112. 2006
    b>Leishmania are protozoan parasites spread by a sandfly insect vector and causing a spectrum of diseases collectively known as leishmaniasis...
  90. pmc Leishmania sand fly interaction: progress and challenges
    Paul A Bates
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Microbiol 11:340-4. 2008
    Complex interactions occurs between Leishmania parasites and their sand fly vectors...
  91. ncbi Insect vectors of Leishmania: distribution, physiology and their control
    Umakant Sharma
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    J Vector Borne Dis 45:255-72. 2008
    ..The article also underlines the importance of synthetic pheromones which can be used in near future for the control of these vectors...
  92. ncbi Leishmune vaccine blocks the transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis: absence of Leishmania parasites in blood, skin and lymph nodes of vaccinated exposed dogs
    F S Nogueira
    Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, UNESP Botucatu Distrito Rubião Jr s n Botucatu SP CEP 18600 000, Brazil
    Vaccine 23:4805-10. 2005
    ..It contains the Fucose-Mannose-ligand (FML) antigen of Leishmania donovani...
  93. ncbi Central carbon metabolism of Leishmania parasites
    Eleanor C Saunders
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, 30 Flemington Rd, Parkville, 3010, Victoria, Australia
    Parasitology 137:1303-13. 2010
    b>Leishmania spp. are sandfly-transmitted protozoa parasites that cause a spectrum of diseases in humans...
  94. pmc Fibronectin binding and proteolytic degradation by Leishmania and effects on macrophage activation
    Manjusha M Kulkarni
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Center for Microbial Interface Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Infect Immun 76:1738-47. 2008
    Infection by vector-borne protozoa of the genus Leishmania occurs by the deposition of parasites within the skin of the mammalian host, where they eventually bind to and are phagocytized by Mphis...
  95. pmc Identification and enzymatic activities of four protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) isoforms of Leishmania amazonensis
    B X Hong
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Medical Research Building 3 142B, Galveston, TX 77555 1070, USA
    Parasitol Res 102:437-46. 2008
    b>Leishmania parasites primarily infect cells of macrophage lineage and can cause leishmaniasis in the skin, mucosal, and visceral organs, depending on both host- and parasite-derived factors...
  96. ncbi The antileishmanial activity assessment of unusual flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata
    Michelle F Muzitano
    Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941 590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Phytochemistry 67:2071-7. 2006
    ..The three flavonoids were tested separately against Leishmania amazonenis amastigotes in comparison with quercitrin, quercetin and afzelin...
  97. pmc Culture-independent species typing of neotropical Leishmania for clinical validation of a PCR-based assay targeting heat shock protein 70 genes
    Lineth Garcia
    Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Molecular Parasitology, Antwerp, Belgium
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2294-7. 2004
    ..fragment length polymorphism analysis of heat shock protein 70 genes discriminates most neotropical Leishmania species, as well as Trypanosoma cruzi...
  98. pmc The transferome of metabolic genes explored: analysis of the horizontal transfer of enzyme encoding genes in unicellular eukaryotes
    John W Whitaker
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS2 9JT, UK
    Genome Biol 10:R36. 2009
    ..Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes...
  99. pmc Leishmania salvage and remodelling of host sphingolipids in amastigote survival and acidocalcisome biogenesis
    Kai Zhang
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Box 8230, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Mol Microbiol 55:1566-78. 2005
    Sphingolipids (SLs) play essential roles in most eukaryotes, but in the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania major their functions differ significantly...
  100. ncbi Purine and pyrimidine metabolism in Leishmania
    Nicola S Carter
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, Oregon 97239 3098, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 625:141-54. 2008
    ..Unlike their mammalian and insect hosts, Leishmania lack the metabolic machinery to make purine nucleotides de novo and must rely on their host for preformed ..
  101. ncbi Towards an unbiased metabolic profiling of protozoan parasites: optimisation of a Leishmania sampling protocol for HILIC-orbitrap analysis
    Ruben t'Kindt
    Department of Parasitology, Unit of Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Anal Bioanal Chem 398:2059-69. 2010
    Comparative metabolomics of Leishmania species requires the simultaneous identification and quantification of a large number of intracellular metabolites...

Research Grants73

  1. Killed But Metabolically Active Leishmania: a novel protozoan vaccine technology
    Noah Craft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The insect-borne protozoa Leishmania causes death and morbidity in millions of humans living in and traveling to the developing world...
  2. ANALYSIS OF TRYPANOSOME MRNA SYNTHESIS BY GENE TRANSFER
    Vivian Bellofatto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In South Asia, South America, and the Middle-East, a closely related group of parasites, the Leishmania, cause debilitating and often fatal Leishmaniasis...
  3. The Role of Glycolipids and CD1 in the Immunology of Leishmania Infection
    Laurence U Buxbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Worldwide 12 million people are infected with the single-celled parasite Leishmania, with 2 million new cases each year, and 350 million people at risk...
  4. RNA polymerase II transcription in trypanosomes
    ARTHUR GUNZL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The trypanosomatid parasites Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. cause the major human diseases African Sleeping Sickness, Chagas'disease, and Leishmaniasis, respectively...
  5. Polyamine Metabolism in Leishmania
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..offers an experimental paradigm to further validate key components of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis...
  6. DC-SIGN Inhibitors for the Treatment of HIV Infection
    ALLEN BERNARD REITZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DC- SIGN has been shown to bind to a number of viruses, mycobacteria, and the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Specifically, DC-SIGN has been identified as the dendritic cell receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-..
  7. Treating cutaneous leishmaniasis by radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy
    Abhay R Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania include cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  8. Toward suicidal automation of porphyric Leishmania for photodynamic vaccination
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania spp...
  9. P. papatasi midgut molecules: gene function and assessing TBV candidates
    JOSE MARCELO contact RAMALHO ORTIGAO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A strong relationship exists between sand flies and Leishmania such that, in nature, only certain species of sand flies are able to transmit certain species of Leishmania...
  10. International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12, 13 and 14)
    Louis M Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..as a forum for researchers of other neglected pathogens in AIDS patients including the kinetoplastid flagellates Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi...
  11. GLYCOSYLATION MUTANTS OF LEISHMANIA
    Salvatore J Turco; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a major health problem to humans and is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Depending on the species, Leishmania-induced pathology ranges from self-healing, cutaneous lesions to fatal, ..
  12. Base J and transcription termination in Leishmania
    PETER JOHN MYLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania parasites infect humans worldwide, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality...
  13. Role of mucin-type O-glycosylation in Trypanosoma cruzi biology
    Christopher M West; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..be obtained by targeted gene replacement, the three TcOGNT homologs will be expressed alone or in combination in Leishmania tarentolae, a related non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, and T...
  14. Regulation of a Novel Trypanosome RNA Binding Protein by Arginine Methylation
    Kaylen Lott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Kinetoplastids, including Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania spp., collectively infect approximately 20 million people and cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year...
  15. PATHOGENIC MECHANISMS OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania parasites can persist for decades in infected humans, but the mechanisms responsible for their persistence and disease pathogenesis are not entirely clear...
  16. Controlling Th2 immunity by tuning CXCL13 dependent DC migration in lymph nodes
    Frances E Lund; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..T cells, particularly IFN[unreadable]-producing Th1 cells, provide protection to intracellular pathogens like Leishmania major...
  17. Characterization of CCR5-like Molecules in Leishmania
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania infection can cause a broad spectrum of leishmaniases in humans...
  18. Genetic Analysis of Purine Metabolism in Leishmania donovani
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this competing continuation application offers an interdisciplinary dissection of the purine salvage pathway of Leishmania donovani, the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis. L...
  19. Development of novel therapeutics for a neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis
    ABHAY R contact SATOSKAR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Transmitted by sand fly vectors, Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites that cause a wide range of diseases, including cutaneous (CL), ..
  20. Chagas Disease Confirmatory Assay
    Andrew Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We propose to develop a confirmatory immunoblot assay for Chagas'disease and Leishmania antibodies, based on a combination of native and recombinant antigens, which will meet this critical need...
  21. Translational partitioning of the SL RNA
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Undermethylated substrate SL RNA is trafficked intracellularly prior to trans-splicing in Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania tarentolae, introducing potential competitors into the cytosol for translation initiation factors...
  22. Photo-inactivation of Leishmania for safe and effective delivery of surrogate vac
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania spp. is innately endowed with exceptionally favorable attributes for exploitation as a potential universal vaccine carrier...
  23. Confirmatory Immunoblot Test for Chagas'Disease
    ANDREW E LEVIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cruzi antibodies and differentiation from cross-reactive pathogens including Leishmania. This assay has shown extremely high sensitivity and specificity in preliminary studies...
  24. Pathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
    Roberto Docampo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The contractile vacuole is present in free-living protists and also in Leishmania spp., but has not been described in T. brucei, while acidocalcisomes are present in all trypanosomatids...
  25. Fifth World Congress of Leishmaniasis 2013
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application requests support for trainees and junior faculty to attend the 5th World Congress of Leishmania and Leishmaniasis (WL5) to be held in Brazil in May 2013...
  26. A role for microRNAs in global changes in gene expression induced by Leishmania
    MARY EDYTHE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Leishmania spp. protozoa have a profound effect on the host cell that they invade...
  27. Chemokines and regulation of T cell responses during infection
    Abhay Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..CXCR3 ligands (CXCR3Ls), particularly CXCL9 (Mig) and CXCL10 (IP-10) are produced in high levels during Leishmania infection but their role in mediating protective immunity against leishmaniasis is poorly defined...
  28. Targeting Entry Pathways in Leishmaniasis
    DAWN MARIE WETZEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..award is to obtain the necessary training to become an independent investigator in the molecular pathogenesis of Leishmania infection. I am a pediatric infectious diseases fellow who earned a Ph.D...
  29. Nucleoside hydrolase Inhibitors from natural products for Leishmania
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..provided by applicant): Our goal is to identify novel drugs for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of Leishmania by blocking nucleoside hydrolase (NH) activity of this parasite...
  30. Discovery of 4-aminoquinoline therapeutics for visceral leishmaniasis
    Peter C Melby; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New drugs are desperately needed to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a tropical disease cause by the protozoan Leishmania donovani...
  31. A transfollicular nanovaccine against leishmaniasis
    PAIMAN PETER GHOROGHCHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Annually, 2 million people are infected with Leishmania species and 270,000 will die. Leishmaniasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting the U.S...
  32. Identification of a Parasite-Specific, Lipid-Metabolic Pathway Essential for Leis
    Kai Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Leishmania parasites cause a spectrum of devastating diseases in humans known as leishmaniasis. Current drug treatments are inadequate, often toxic, and no safe vaccine is available...
  33. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in West Africa: the Parasite, Vector and Disease
    Seydou Doumbia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, studies have consistently shown that sand fly saliva generally enhances infectivity of Leishmania parasites in a naive host while an adaptive immune response to whole saliva or a distinct salivary protein ..
  34. Defining modes of helper T cell motility within inflamed tissues
    Michael Glen Overstreet; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..signaling through surface receptors (such as integrins), these observations have relevance in a model of Leishmania major, in which our previous data has suggests that there are functional alterations to T cells in the locally ..
  35. Regulation of Leishmania-Associated Macrophage Activities by MicroRNAs
    Joel W Graff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Macrophages are a major site of leishmania parasite replication. Macrophages can adopt a range of polarized phenotypes...
  36. Purine Nucleoside/Nucleobase Transporters in Leishmania
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This project will probe the role of purine nucleoside and nucleobase transporters (NTs) in the biology of Leishmania parasites...
  37. Structural Requirements for Sterol 14alpha-Demethylases
    Galina I Lepesheva; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have not been studied in great detail and we have begun a detailed analysis of CYP51 in trypanosomes and leishmania, including whether it can serve as a drug target for killing these organisms which cause more than one hundred ..
  38. Homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells in aging
    David A Hildeman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..g., herpes viruses), bacterial (e.g., Mycobacteria) or parasitic (e.g., Leishmania, persist for the lifetime of the host...
  39. Leishmaniasis Drug Development Using an Evolutionary Design Strategy
    Roger G Linington; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Caused by over twenty species of intracellular parasite from the genus Leishmania, leishmaniasis can present itself in a number of different clinical manifestations...
  40. Mechanistic and structural studies of eukaryotic UDP-galactopyranose mutases
    Pablo Sobrado; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..results in severely attenuated virulence of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, suggesting UGM as a promising drug design target...
  41. Properties of Mouse of Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
    Svetlana Mojsov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..we are positioned to approach three intertwined aims: 1) to direct Th1 type protective immunity to the parasite Leishmania Major;2) to expand antigen- specific T reg by targeting the self antigen, myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein, ..
  42. Kinetoplastid SL RNA biogenesis
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This proposal outlines experiments that detail the maturation pathway of the SL RNA common to Leishmania tarentolae and Trypanosoma brucei at the level of individual proteins and interacting complexes, and probe the ..
  43. Small RNAs and their role in trypanosome biology
    Elisabetta Ullu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Second, we have identified the RNAi genes in Leishmania braziliensis and in collaboration with Steve Beverley have demonstrated that the RNAi pathway is operational...
  44. Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Henry W Murray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our proposed work in a model of Leishmania donovani (Ld) infection will fill in these gaps, laying the groundwork for future interventions to employ with ..
  45. Role of B cells in the Cell-Mediated Immune Response to Leishmania amazonensis
    Katherine Nicole Gibson Corley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..C3HeB/FeJ (C3H) mice infected with Leishmania major develop a CD4+ TH1 response and resolve infection, while infection with Leishmania amazonensis stimulates ..
  46. IL-12 AS AN IMMUNOPOTENTIATOR IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Phillip A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Studies of the immune responses in humans and mice following Leishmania infection have provided an understanding of many of the cells and cytokines that contribute to the control of ..
  47. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and miltefosine mode of action in Leishmania
    Rachel Zufferey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania species cause important human diseases termed leishmaniasis that affects more than twelve million patients worldwide, and thus, represents a major health problem...
  48. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF FLAGELLAR DYNEINS
    David R Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..organisms, including those that afflict Homo sapiens as disease causing organisms, such as Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, Giardia and Naegleria...
  49. Selective inhibition of tRNA synthetases from pathogenic protozoa
    WILHELMUS G J HOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on essential proteins from three major global pathogenic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species...
  50. Structures and selective inhibition of tRNA synthetases from pathogenic protozoa
    WILHELMUS HOL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..on essential proteins from three major global pathogenic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species...
  51. ICBG: "Training, Conservation and Drug Discovery using Panamanian Microorganisms
    William H Gerwick; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..therapeutic areas: Cancer, Central Nervous System biology, Agriculture, and Tropical diseases (malaria, leishmania and Chagas'disease), 4) Utilize an integrated approach of taxonomy, computer databases, and LC-MS data to ..
  52. Ribosome profiling of Trypanosoma brucei
    Marilyn Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..trypanosomatid pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas'disease) and numerous Leishmania species (which cause a diverse spectrum of visceral, mucocutaneous, and cutaneous disease), cause even more ..
  53. Flagellar targeting and sensory function of a glucose transporter in L. mexicana.
    KHOA DANG TRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While several proteins that are preferentially targeted to the flagellar membrane have been identified in Leishmania and the related trypanosomes (Piper et al...
  54. STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF PROTEIN PRENYLTRANSFERASES
    Lorena S Beese; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..promise for treatment of parasitics infections including malaria, Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, Leishmania and fungal infections such as Candida albicans, which can be life-threatening in immuno-compromised patients ..
  55. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF LEISHMANIA PANAMENSIS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This application focuses on trypanosomatid protozoa of the genus Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis...
  56. Selective Inhibitors of the Hexose Transporter from African Trypansomes
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This assay employs a glucose transporter null mutant of the related parasite Leishmania mexicana that has been complemented with either the gene encoding THT1 or the gene for a major human glucose ..
  57. A Novel MAPK family in T. gondii
    Tyler J Curiel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..MAPK homologues with structural features of MAPK1-Tg were identified in genomic databases for Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma. We hypothesize that parasite MAPKs represent novel, broad spectrum drug development target...
  58. LEISHMANIA ANTIGENS DEFINED BY HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSES
    STEVEN GREGORY REED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diseases caused by Leishmania parasites are global in scope, affecting more than 15 million individuals. The parasites Leishmania infantum and L...
  59. L. major infection: Natural history and determinants of resistance
    Afif Ben Salah; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and clinical description of disease and transmission dynamics to improve the understanding of natural history of Leishmania (L.)major infection and its determinants. The specific aims are to: 1. Elucidate epidemetric parameters of L...
  60. Inhibitors of Trypanosomatid Phosphoglycerate Mutase and Phosphoglycerate Kinase
    MALCOLM DOUGLAS WALKINSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cruzi and Leishmania species)...
  61. Validation of a new VL vaccine candidate in dogs that significantly protects mice
    Antonio Campos-Neto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We combined RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry and categorized three distinct Leishmania infantum proteins presumably produced in parasite infected organs (liver/spleen/bone marrow) and excreted in the ..
  62. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF LEISHMANIA
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Parasites of the trypanosomatid protozoan genus Leishmania are responsible for a spectrum of tropical diseases that afflict more than 10 million people worldwide, and depending on the specific species ..
  63. DRUG RESISTANCE AND PTERIDINE METABOLISM IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in humans and is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Depending on the species, Leishmania-induced pathology ranges from self-healing, cutaneous lesions to fatal, ..
  64. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The treatments for leishmania infections are inadequate because of the toxicity of currently available drugs and because of the need to ..
  65. The role of sand fly saliva in visceralization of Leishmania parasites
    Gregory Lanzaro; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to examine the affects of the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis on the development of visceral disease caused by Leishmania chagasi...
  66. SRP RNA level as a determinant of leishmanial parasitism of macrophages
    Gautam Chaudhuri; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania is a group of parasitic protozoa that infect human macrophages and thrive inside the hostile environment of the phagolysosomes of these cells...
  67. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PURINE METABOLISM IN LEISHMANIA DONO
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..dissection of the hypoxanthine-guanine[unreadable] phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) enzyme from Leishmania donovani, an[unreadable] enzyme that renders an important, if not essential, nutritional function[unreadable] ..
  68. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania are typanosomatid protozoans that are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies causing leishmaniasis...
  69. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM DHFR AS A CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TARGET
    Richard Nelson; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..and the available inhibitors (pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, proguanil) bind poorly to some protozoan DHFRs (Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Eimeria) and very well to others (Plasmodium) with corresponding variation in effectiveness as ..
  70. New drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Leishmania are typanosomatid protozoans that are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies causing leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis and affects 12 million people in 88 countries, of which 72 are considered developing countries...
  71. A novel vaccine against Leishmania
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2005
    b>Leishmania are typanosomatid protozoans that are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies causing leishmaniasis...
  72. NITRIC OXIDE INHIBITOR AND LEISHMANIA PATHOGENESIS
    MARION CHAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Current studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite are crucial for elimination of the Leishmania parasites...
  73. Intervenable Host Leishmania (Viannia) Interactions
    DIANE MCMAHON PRATT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dermal leishmaniasis is widely distributed throughout Latin America, where Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus predominate...