Summary: A genus of coccidian protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.

Top Publications

  1. pmc PlasmoDB: a functional genomic database for malaria parasites
    Cristina Aurrecoechea
    Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:D539-43. 2009
  2. pmc Acquired immunity to malaria
    Denise L Doolan
    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, The Bancroft Centre, Post Office Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
    Clin Microbiol Rev 22:13-36, Table of Contents. 2009
  3. pmc Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas
    Weimin Liu
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nature 467:420-5. 2010
  4. pmc African great apes are natural hosts of multiple related malaria species, including Plasmodium falciparum
    Franck Prugnolle
    Laboratoire Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, Unité Mixte de Recherche 2724, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Montpellier, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1458-63. 2010
  5. pmc Wolbachia stimulates immune gene expression and inhibits plasmodium development in Anopheles gambiae
    Zakaria Kambris
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001143. 2010
  6. ncbi A molecular clock for malaria parasites
    Robert E Ricklefs
    Department of Biology, University of Missouri St Louis, One University Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63121 4499, USA
    Science 329:226-9. 2010
  7. pmc Towards high-throughput molecular detection of Plasmodium: new approaches and molecular markers
    Nicolas Steenkeste
    Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Laboratoire d Epidemiologie Moleculaire, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Malar J 8:86. 2009
  8. pmc Imaging of Plasmodium liver stages to drive next-generation antimalarial drug discovery
    Stephan Meister
    Department of Genetics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 334:1372-7. 2011
  9. pmc The STAT pathway mediates late-phase immunity against Plasmodium in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Lalita Gupta
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20892 8130, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:498-507. 2009
  10. ncbi Use of a rapid, single-round, multiplex PCR to detect malarial parasites and identify the species present
    D Padley
    Division of Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms EN6 3QG, UK
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97:131-7. 2003

Detail Information

Publications331 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc PlasmoDB: a functional genomic database for malaria parasites
    Cristina Aurrecoechea
    Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:D539-43. 2009
    PlasmoDB ( is a functional genomic database for Plasmodium spp. that provides a resource for data analysis and visualization in a gene-by-gene or genome-wide scale...
  2. pmc Acquired immunity to malaria
    Denise L Doolan
    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, The Bancroft Centre, Post Office Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia
    Clin Microbiol Rev 22:13-36, Table of Contents. 2009
    Naturally acquired immunity to falciparum malaria protects millions of people routinely exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection from severe disease and death. There is no clear concept about how this protection works...
  3. pmc Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas
    Weimin Liu
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Nature 467:420-5. 2010
    b>Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial...
  4. pmc African great apes are natural hosts of multiple related malaria species, including Plasmodium falciparum
    Franck Prugnolle
    Laboratoire Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, Unité Mixte de Recherche 2724, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Montpellier, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1458-63. 2010
    b>Plasmodium reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, was until very recently the only known close relative of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria...
  5. pmc Wolbachia stimulates immune gene expression and inhibits plasmodium development in Anopheles gambiae
    Zakaria Kambris
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001143. 2010
    ..Highly significant reductions in Plasmodium infection intensity were observed in the wMelPop-infected cohort, and using gene knockdown, evidence for the ..
  6. ncbi A molecular clock for malaria parasites
    Robert E Ricklefs
    Department of Biology, University of Missouri St Louis, One University Boulevard, St Louis, MO 63121 4499, USA
    Science 329:226-9. 2010
    ..sister taxa of human pathogens, but the timing of host-switching events, including the human malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, remains controversial...
  7. pmc Towards high-throughput molecular detection of Plasmodium: new approaches and molecular markers
    Nicolas Steenkeste
    Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Laboratoire d Epidemiologie Moleculaire, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Malar J 8:86. 2009
    ..But sensitive diagnosis tools enabling to deal with a large number of samples are needed. The molecular detection approach offers a much higher sensitivity, and the flexibility to be automated and upgraded...
  8. pmc Imaging of Plasmodium liver stages to drive next-generation antimalarial drug discovery
    Stephan Meister
    Department of Genetics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 334:1372-7. 2011
    ..we identified an imidazolopiperazine scaffold series that was highly enriched among compounds active against Plasmodium liver stages...
  9. pmc The STAT pathway mediates late-phase immunity against Plasmodium in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Lalita Gupta
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20892 8130, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:498-507. 2009
    ..AgSTAT-A silencing reduces the number of early Plasmodium oocysts in the midgut, but nevertheless enhances the overall infection by increasing oocyst survival...
  10. ncbi Use of a rapid, single-round, multiplex PCR to detect malarial parasites and identify the species present
    D Padley
    Division of Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms EN6 3QG, UK
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97:131-7. 2003
    A new, rapid assay, based on a single-round, multiplex PCR, can be used to detect Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae or P. ovale in human blood...
  11. pmc Detection of four Plasmodium species in blood from humans by 18S rRNA gene subunit-based and species-specific real-time PCR assays
    Mathieu Rougemont
    Institute of Microbiology, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Clin Microbiol 42:5636-43. 2004
    ..One set of generic primers targeting a highly conserved region of the 18S rRNA gene of the genus Plasmodium was designed; the primer set was polymorphic enough internally to design four species-specific probes for P...
  12. pmc Anopheles gambiae PGRPLC-mediated defense against bacteria modulates infections with malaria parasites
    Stephan Meister
    Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000542. 2009
    ..response modulates mosquito infection intensities with malaria parasites, both the rodent model parasite, Plasmodium berghei, and field isolates of the human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum...
  13. pmc Multiplexed real-time PCR assay for discrimination of Plasmodium species with improved sensitivity for mixed infections
    Sandra E Shokoples
    Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 47:975-80. 2009
    ..for the identification of species causing low-level and mixed infections and for the discrimination of Plasmodium species other than Plasmodium falciparum...
  14. ncbi Moving in and renovating: exporting proteins from Plasmodium into host erythrocytes
    Daniel E Goldberg
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:617-21. 2010
    ..In addition, this export pathway provides potentially useful targets for the development of inhibitors to interfere with functions that are vital for the virulence and survival programmes of the parasite...
  15. ncbi Two mosquito LRR proteins function as complement control factors in the TEP1-mediated killing of Plasmodium
    Malou Fraiture
    UPR 9022 CNRS, AVENIR group Inserm, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France
    Cell Host Microbe 5:273-84. 2009
    b>Plasmodium development within Anopheles mosquitoes is a vulnerable step in the parasite transmission cycle, and targeting this step represents a promising strategy for malaria control...
  16. pmc Adaptive divergence between incipient species of Anopheles gambiae increases resistance to Plasmodium
    Bradley J White
    Eck Institute for Global Health, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:244-9. 2011
    ..between this TEP1 variant and resistance to both rodent malaria and the native human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum...
  17. pmc Sub-microscopic malaria cases and mixed malaria infection in a remote area of high malaria endemicity in Rattanakiri province, Cambodia: implication for malaria elimination
    Nicolas Steenkeste
    Unité d Epidémiologie Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
    Malar J 9:108. 2010
    ..Similarly, mixed infections and interactions between Plasmodium species may be missed...
  18. pmc The Apicomplexan AP2 family: integral factors regulating Plasmodium development
    Heather J Painter
    Department of Molecular Biology and Lewis Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 176:1-7. 2011
    Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium and involves infection of multiple hosts and cell types during the course of an infection...
  19. pmc Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites
    Anthony Moody
    Department of Clinical Parasitology, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, University Collge Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Microbiol Rev 15:66-78. 2002
    ..abundant in all asexual and sexual stages of the parasite and are currently centered on detection of HRP-2 from Plasmodium falciparum and parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase or Plasmodium aldolase from the parasite glycolytic ..
  20. pmc High-throughput pooling and real-time PCR-based strategy for malaria detection
    Steve M Taylor
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:512-9. 2010
    ..Using a real-time PCR assay that detects all Plasmodium species, microscopy-positive samples were amplified individually; the microscopy-negative samples were amplified ..
  21. pmc The origin of malignant malaria
    Stephen M Rich
    Laboratory of Medical Zoology, Division of Entomology PSIS, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14902-7. 2009
    b>Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malignant malaria, is among the most severe human infectious diseases. The closest known relative of P...
  22. ncbi A new PCR assay for simultaneous studies of Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus from avian blood
    Olof Hellgren
    Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE 22362 Lund, Sweden
    J Parasitol 90:797-802. 2004
    ..time, enables simultaneous typing of species from the 3 most common avian blood parasite genera (Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon)...
  23. ncbi Parasite adaptations to within-host competition
    Nicole Mideo
    Department of Biology, Queen s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
    Trends Parasitol 25:261-8. 2009
    ..A better understanding of parasite adaptations to competitive interactions will have important public health implications...
  24. pmc The biology of sexual development of Plasmodium: the design and implementation of transmission-blocking strategies
    Robert E Sinden
    The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
    Malar J 11:70. 2012
    A meeting to discuss the latest developments in the biology of sexual development of Plasmodium and transmission-control was held April 5-6, 2011, in Bethesda, MD...
  25. pmc PCR as a confirmatory technique for laboratory diagnosis of malaria
    Stephanie P Johnston
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, M S F 36, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Department of Health and Human Services, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30341 3724, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1087-9. 2006
    ..a nested PCR assay and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood films for detection and identification of Plasmodium spp. in blood specimens...
  26. pmc Comparison of diagnostic methods for the detection and quantification of the four sympatric Plasmodium species in field samples from Papua New Guinea
    Anna Rosanas-Urgell
    Papua New Guinea Insitute of Medical Research, Madang 511, Papua New Guinea
    Malar J 9:361. 2010
    Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium infections is essential for malaria morbidity and mortality reduction in tropical areas...
  27. ncbi Plasmodium sensitivity to artemisinins: magic bullets hit elusive targets
    Xavier C Ding
    Centre suisse de recherches scientifiques en Côte d Ivoire, 01 BP 1303, Abidjan 01, Cote d Ivoire
    Trends Parasitol 27:73-81. 2011
    ..Similarly, no definite genetic determinant of Plasmodium sensitivity to artemisinins has been identified so far...
  28. pmc The contribution of Plasmodium chabaudi to our understanding of malaria
    Robin Stephens
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0435, USA
    Trends Parasitol 28:73-82. 2012
    ..We outline here the parallels between the Plasmodium chabaudi mouse model of malaria and human malaria. We will highlight the contribution of P...
  29. ncbi Primaquine therapy for malaria
    J Kevin Baird
    US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1336-45. 2004
    ..The risk of relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria without primaquine therapy ranged from 5% to 80% or more, depending largely upon geographic ..
  30. ncbi A new nested polymerase chain reaction method very efficient in detecting Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections from avian blood
    J Waldenstrom
    Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    J Parasitol 90:191-4. 2004
    ..some existing assays and show, by sequence-based data, that the higher detection rate is mainly due to superior detection of Plasmodium spp. infections, which often are of low intensity and, therefore, hard to detect with other methods.
  31. pmc A plethora of Plasmodium species in wild apes: a source of human infection?
    Julian C Rayner
    Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK
    Trends Parasitol 27:222-9. 2011
    Recent studies of captive and wild-living apes in Africa have uncovered evidence of numerous new Plasmodium species, one of which was identified as the immediate precursor of human Plasmodium falciparum...
  32. ncbi Avian malaria parasites share congeneric mosquito vectors
    M Kimura
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    J Parasitol 96:144-51. 2010
    ..birds and abundant in the northeastern United States, were naturally infected in the field with identical avian Plasmodium spp. lineages...
  33. pmc A new malaria agent in African hominids
    Benjamin Ollomo
    Unité des Maladies Virales Emergentes, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, Franceville, Gabon
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000446. 2009
    b>Plasmodium falciparum is the major human malaria agent responsible for 200 to 300 million infections and one to three million deaths annually, mainly among African infants...
  34. ncbi Review on global co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes
    S Manguin
    Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, Laboratoire d Immuno Physiopathologie Virale et Moléculaire, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Montpellier 1, Bat D, 15 Ave Charles Flahault, Montpellier 34093, France
    Infect Genet Evol 10:159-77. 2010
    ..This review presents the most recent available information on the co-transmission of human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles mosquitoes...
  35. pmc Giemsa-stained thick blood films as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR
    Lieselotte Cnops
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Malar J 9:370. 2010
    This study describes the use of thick blood films (TBF) as specimens for DNA amplification with the Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR that was recently validated on whole blood samples.
  36. pmc The binding of the circumsporozoite protein to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans is required for plasmodium sporozoite attachment to target cells
    C Pinzon-Ortiz
    Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10010, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:26784-91. 2001
  37. ncbi Intracellular parasite invasion strategies
    L D Sibley
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 304:248-53. 2004
    ..Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.
  38. pmc Update on rapid diagnostic testing for malaria
    Clinton K Murray
    Infectious Disease Service, Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:97-110. 2008
    ..This review highlights RDTs, including challenges in assessing their performance, internationally available RDTs, their effectiveness in various health care settings, and the selection of RDTs for different health care systems...
  39. pmc Malarial proteases and host cell egress: an 'emerging' cascade
    Michael J Blackman
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK
    Cell Microbiol 10:1925-34. 2008
    ..Egress of Plasmodium blood-stage merozoites, liver-stage merozoites and mosquito midgut sporozoites relies on protease activity, so ..
  40. ncbi On the specificity of avian blood parasites: revealing specific and generalist relationships between haemosporidians and biting midges
    Josué Martínez-de la Puente
    Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Ecol 20:3275-87. 2011 species) from a locality of central Spain were individually examined for the presence of Haemoproteus and Plasmodium parasites by sequencing a fragment of cytochrome B...
  41. ncbi Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis in asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers in Sumba island, Indonesia
    Hana Shimizu
    Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    J Hum Genet 50:420-4. 2005
    ..100 males and 110 females, aged 6-17 years, in Sumba island, Indonesia, to survey for the presence of Plasmodium parasites, G6PD activity and the Band3Delta 27 mutation. Presence of P. falciparum and/or P...
  42. pmc Discovery of Plasmodium modulators by genome-wide analysis of circulating hemocytes in Anopheles gambiae
    Sofia B Pinto
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21270-5. 2009
    ..We assess, via an RNAi screen, the roles in development of Plasmodium berghei of 63 genes expressed in hemocytes and provide a molecular comparison of the transcriptome of these ..
  43. ncbi Thermal constraints to the sporogonic development and altitudinal distribution of avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in Hawai'i
    Dennis A Lapointe
    USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Kilauea Field Station, Hawai i National Park, Hawai i 96718, USA
    J Parasitol 96:318-24. 2010
    ..Introduced mosquito-borne disease, in particular the avian malaria Plasmodium relictum , has been incriminated as a leading cause of extinction during the 20th century and a major limiting ..
  44. pmc Asymptomatic carriage of plasmodium in urban Dakar: the risk of malaria should not be underestimated
    Abdoulaye Diallo
    UMR 216 Mère et Enfant face aux infections tropicales, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e31100. 2012
    The objective of this study was to measure the rate of asymptomatic carriage of plasmodium in the Dakar region two years after the implementation of new strategies in clinical malaria management.
  45. pmc Timing the origin of human malarias: the lemur puzzle
    M Andreina Pacheco
    Center for Evolutionary Medicine and Informatics, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 11:299. 2011
    ..Previous studies on the mitochondrial genome concluded that Plasmodium in primates, including those parasitic to humans, radiated relatively recently during a process where host ..
  46. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of malaria prevalence and parasitaemia in a wild bird population
    Sarah C L Knowles
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 20:1062-76. 2011
    Avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) and other blood parasitic infections of birds constitute increasingly popular model systems in ecological and evolutionary host-parasite studies...
  47. ncbi Regulation of immunity to Plasmodium: implications from mouse models for blood stage malaria vaccine design
    Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
    Exp Parasitol 126:406-14. 2010
    Malaria, a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, remains a serious healthcare problem in developing countries worldwide...
  48. pmc Heterogeneities and consequences of Plasmodium species and hookworm coinfection: a population based study in Uganda
    Rachel L Pullan
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 203:406-17. 2011
    ..In this study, we investigate spatial and household heterogeneities, predictors, and consequences of Plasmodium species and hookworm coinfection in rural communities in Uganda.
  49. pmc Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (CareStart Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test) for the diagnosis of malaria in a reference setting
    Jessica Maltha
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences FHML, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Malar J 9:171. 2010
    ..The present retrospective study evaluated the CareStart Malaria HRP-2/pLDH (Pf/pan) Combo Test targeting the Plasmodium falciparum specific antigen histidine-rich protein (HRP-2) and the pan-Plasmodium antigen lactate dehydrogenase (..
  50. ncbi Alternative polymerase chain reaction method to identify Plasmodium species in human blood samples: the semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR (SnM-PCR)
    J M Rubio
    Animal Taxonomy Department, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:S199-204. 2002
    A simplified protocol for the identification of Plasmodium species by semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) in human blood samples is compared with microscopical examination of thin and thick blood films in 2 field ..
  51. pmc Reliable enumeration of malaria parasites in thick blood films using digital image analysis
    John A Frean
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, P Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Malar J 8:218. 2009
    ..Digital image analysis provides an opportunity to improve performance of parasite density quantitation...
  52. ncbi Evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for malaria diagnosis in patients from Vietnam and in returned travellers
    Thi Kim Duy Vo
    Universite de la Mediterranee, EA 864, IFR 48, Marseille, France University of Hue, 20 Le Loi, Hue, Vietnam
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:422-8. 2007
    ..We have developed a new real-time PCR with specific genes in each Plasmodium species present only in one copy to identify the four pathogenic Plasmodium spp. for humans...
  53. pmc Molecular epidemiology of malaria
    David J Conway
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:188-204. 2007
    ..manipulation is now effectively combined with in vitro culture assays on the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and with in vivo analysis of rodent and monkey malaria parasites in their laboratory hosts...
  54. pmc The major yolk protein vitellogenin interferes with the anti-plasmodium response in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
    Martin K Rono
    INSERM, U963, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS Biol 8:e1000434. 2010
    ..On traversing the mosquito midgut epithelium, invading Plasmodium ookinetes are met with a potent innate immune response predominantly controlled by mosquito blood cells...
  55. pmc Development of a highly sensitive genus-specific quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of plasmodium by amplifying RNA and DNA of the 18S rRNA genes
    Edwin Kamau
    Division of Malaria Vaccine Development, Center for Molecular Diagnostics and Genomic Studies, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2946-53. 2011
    ..sensitive genus-specific quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for detection of Plasmodium has been developed...
  56. pmc Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery
    Laurent Dembele
    Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, UMR S945, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e18162. 2011
    Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite...
  57. ncbi Plasmodium gene regulation: far more to factor in
    Manuel Llinas
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, 246 Carl Icahn Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Trends Parasitol 24:551-6. 2008
    ..This mostly has been due to the lack of defined transcriptional regulators in Plasmodium parasites...
  58. ncbi An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes
    Ernst Jan Scholte
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Post Office Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands
    Science 308:1641-2. 2005
    ..An entomological inoculation rate model suggests that implementation of this vector control method, even at the observed moderate coverage during a field study in Tanzania, would significantly reduce malaria transmission intensity...
  59. ncbi A three-genome phylogeny of malaria parasites (Plasmodium and closely related genera): evolution of life-history traits and host switches
    Ellen S Martinsen
    Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 47:261-73. 2008
    ..We recovered the first well resolved large phylogeny of Plasmodium and related haemosporidian parasites using sequence data for four genes from the parasites' three genomes by ..
  60. pmc Mitochondrial DNA targets increase sensitivity of malaria detection using loop-mediated isothermal amplification
    Spencer D Polley
    Department of Clinical Parasitology, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London Hospitals University College NHS Foundation Trust, Mortimer Market, Capper Street, London WC1E 6JB, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 48:2866-71. 2010
    ..of blood samples and LAMP have targeted the parasite small-subunit rRNA gene, with a resultant sensitivity for Plasmodium falciparum of around 100 parasites per microl...
  61. ncbi The genome of model malaria parasites, and comparative genomics
    Jane Carlton
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Curr Issues Mol Biol 7:23-37. 2005
    ..has recently come of age with the completion of the whole genome sequences of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and a rodent malaria model, Plasmodium yoelii yoelii...
  62. ncbi The role of programmed cell death in Plasmodium-mosquito interactions
    Hilary Hurd
    Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
    Int J Parasitol 34:1459-72. 2004
    ..Zygotes and ookinetes of Plasmodium berghei have been shown to die by programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the midgut lumen of the vector Anopheles ..
  63. ncbi Diversity in mitochondrial metabolic pathways in parasitic protists Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium
    Tatsushi Mogi
    Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Parasitol Int 59:305-12. 2010
    ..They have remodeled mitochondrial carbon and energy metabolism through reductive evolution. Plasmodium lacks mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase and H(+)-translocating NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I, NDH1)...
  64. ncbi The reliability of diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis and management of malaria in the absence of a gold standard
    L B Ochola
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, KEMRI, Kilifi, Kenya
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:582-8. 2006
    ..7%) and specificity (99.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas. The acridine orange test was more sensitive (97...
  65. pmc Anopheles gambiae pathogen susceptibility: the intersection of genetics, immunity and ecology
    Christian Mitri
    Institut Pasteur, Unit of Insect Vector Genetics and Genomics, Department of Parasitology and Mycology, CNRS Unit of Hosts, Vectors and Pathogens URA3012, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, Paris 75015, France
    Curr Opin Microbiol 15:285-91. 2012
    ..Comparison is made between functional studies using Plasmodium or fungus, and we call attention to the limitations of generalizing gene phenotypes from experiments done in a ..
  66. ncbi A toolbox to study liver stage malaria
    Miguel Prudêncio
    Unidade de Malaria, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Av Prof Egas Moniz, 1649 028 Lisboa, Portugal
    Trends Parasitol 27:565-74. 2011
    The first obligatory phase of mammalian infection by Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, occurs in the liver of the host. This stage of Plasmodium infection bears enormous potential for anti-malarial intervention...
  67. ncbi The multifaceted mosquito anti-Plasmodium response
    Eric Marois
    INSERM U963, CNRS UPR9022, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
    Curr Opin Microbiol 14:429-35. 2011
    b>Plasmodium development within its mosquito vector is an essential step in malaria transmission, as illustrated in world regions where malaria was successfully eradicated via vector control...
  68. ncbi No TRAP, no invasion
    Belinda J Morahan
    Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Trends Parasitol 25:77-84. 2009
    ..The thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) from Plasmodium plays such a part during sporozoite invasion by linking to actin through its cytoplasmic tail while binding to ..
  69. ncbi Plasmodium differentiation in the mosquito
    R E Sinden
    Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    Parassitologia 41:139-48. 1999
    ..The potential exploitation of these interactions as possible mechanisms for intervention will be discussed...
  70. pmc Clues to evolution of the SERA multigene family in 18 Plasmodium species
    Nobuko Arisue
    Department of Molecular Protozoology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e17775. 2011
    SERA gene sequences were newly determined from 11 primate Plasmodium species including two human parasites, P. ovale and P. malariae, and the evolutionary history of SERA genes was analyzed together with 7 known species...
  71. ncbi Whole parasite vaccination approaches for prevention of malaria infection
    Noah S Butler
    Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Trends Immunol 33:247-54. 2012
    Malaria is caused by complex protozoan Plasmodium parasites that have foiled efforts to develop a protective vaccine...
  72. pmc Detection of four Plasmodium species by genus- and species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification for clinical diagnosis
    Eun Taek Han
    Cell Free Science and Technology Research Center, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790 8577, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2521-8. 2007
    ..acid amplification method, was developed for the clinical detection of four species of human malaria parasites: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale...
  73. pmc Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase: a promising target for novel anti-malarial chemotherapy
    Margaret A Phillips
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 6001 Forest Park Rd, Dallas, Texas 75390 9041, USA
    Infect Disord Drug Targets 10:226-39. 2010
    ..The completion of the Plasmodium falciparum genome and a growing understanding of parasite biology are fueling the search for novel drug targets...
  74. ncbi Programmed cell death in trypanosomatids and other unicellular organisms
    Alain Debrabant
    Laboratory of Bacterial, Parasitic and Unconventional Agents, Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, OBRR, CBER, US FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Int J Parasitol 33:257-67. 2003
    ..Further characterisation of the PCD pathway in the unicellular parasites could provide information regarding their pathogenesis, which could be exploited to target new drugs to limit their growth and treat the disease they cause...
  75. ncbi Protein export in Plasmodium parasites: from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuolar export machine
    Brendan S Crabb
    Burnet Institute, Melbourne 3004, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 40:509-13. 2010 re-modelling of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and mediating the export of a major virulence protein known as Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), and in metabolic processes such as nutrient uptake and ..
  76. ncbi Dynamics of parasitemia of malaria parasites in a naturally and experimentally infected migratory songbird, the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus
    Pavel Zehtindjiev
    Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boulevard, Tzar Osvoboditel 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
    Exp Parasitol 119:99-110. 2008
    Little is known about the development of infection of malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium in wild birds...
  77. pmc Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes
    Matthew T Aliota
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e963. 2011
    ..Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively ..
  78. ncbi Seasonal variation in Plasmodium prevalence in a population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus
    Catherine L Cosgrove
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Anim Ecol 77:540-8. 2008
    ..2. We examined seasonal variation in Plasmodium infection in a blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus population over 3 years using sensitive molecular diagnostic ..
  79. ncbi Malaria transmission by Anopheles punctulatus in the highlands of Irian Jaya, Indonesia
    M J Bangs
    U S Naval Medical Research Unit No 2, APO AP 96520 8132, USA
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90:29-38. 1996
    ..were positive when tested for malaria circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by ELISA: nine (45% of positives) for Plasmodium vivax-210, six (30%) for Plasmodium falciparum, three (15%) for P. vivax-247 and two (10%) for P. malariae...
  80. pmc Evolution of apoptosis-like programmed cell death in unicellular protozoan parasites
    Szymon Kaczanowski
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa Pawinskiego 5A 02 106, Poland
    Parasit Vectors 4:44. 2011
    ..PCD) has recently been described in multiple taxa of unicellular protists, including the protozoan parasites Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania...
  81. ncbi A non-radiolabelled ferriprotoporphyrin IX biomineralisation inhibition test for the high throughput screening of antimalarial compounds
    E Deharo
    Institut de Recherche pour le Développement I R D, No 5290, Av Hernando Siles CP 9214 La Paz, Bolivia
    Exp Parasitol 100:252-6. 2002
    ..We found that methylene blue, thionine (IC(50) 38 and 87microM, respectively), and an extract of plants that contains quinoline derivatives, inhibited the biomineralisation of FP regardless of their intrinsic colour...
  82. ncbi Malaria
    Lynne S Garcia
    LSG and Associates, Santa Monica, CA 90402 2908, USA
    Clin Lab Med 30:93-129. 2010
    ..More than 300 to 500 million individuals worldwide are infected with Plasmodium spp, and 1.5 to 2.7 million people a year, most of whom are children, die from the infection...
  83. pmc Three different Plasmodium species show similar patterns of clinical tolerance of malaria infection
    Ivo Muller
    Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland
    Malar J 8:158. 2009
    ..For Plasmodium falciparum the density of parasitaemia that can be tolerated is low in the youngest children, but reaches a ..
  84. pmc Malaria vector surveillance in Ganghwa-do, a malaria-endemic area in the Republic of Korea
    Sung Suck Oh
    Department of Microbiology, Incheon Research Institute for Public Health and Environment, Incheon, Korea
    Korean J Parasitol 48:35-41. 2010
    ..From our study, it can be concluded that An. sinensis, which was the predominant vector species and confirmed as sporozoite-infected, plays an important role in malaria transmission in Ganghwa-do...
  85. ncbi Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, with remarks on species identity of haemosporidian lineages deposited in GenBank
    Gediminas Valkiunas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, Vilnius LT 08412, Lithuania
    Parasitol Res 102:1185-93. 2008
    Numerous lineages of avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium have been deposited in GenBank. However, only 11 morphospecies of Plasmodium have been linked to these lineages...
  86. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Plasmodium based on the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase
    Lukasz Kedzierski
    Department of Microbiology, PO Box 53, Monash University, 3800 Vic, Australia
    Infect Genet Evol 1:297-301. 2002
    Phylogenetic studies of the genus Plasmodium have been performed using sequences of the nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid genes...
  87. ncbi Saturation and base composition bias explain phylogenomic conflict in Plasmodium
    Liliana M Davalos
    Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 5192, USA
    Genomics 91:433-42. 2008
    Despite recent genome-based advances in understanding Plasmodium molecular evolution and its relationship to disease mechanisms and potential drug development, the phylogenetics of the group is currently limited to single-gene analyses...
  88. ncbi Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare
    Jessica C Kissinger
    Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou FIOCRUZ Avenida Augusto de Lima 1715, Barro Preto, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30190 002, Brazil
    J Parasitol 88:769-73. 2002
    b>Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare is a widely distributed parasite that primarily infects chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). All species of Novyella are characterized by very small schizonts, which in the case of P...
  89. ncbi Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein promotes the development of the liver stages of the parasite
    Agam Prasad Singh
    Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Cell 131:492-504. 2007
    The liver stages of malaria are clinically silent but have a central role in the Plasmodium life cycle...
  90. ncbi A phylogenetic comparison of gene trees constructed from plastid, mitochondrial and genomic DNA of Plasmodium species
    D Rathore
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive MSC 0425, Bethesda, MD 20892-0425, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 114:89-94. 2001
    Gene trees of Plasmodium species have been reported for the nuclear encoded genes (e.g. the Small Subunit rRNA) and a mitochondrial encoded gene, cytochrome b...
  91. ncbi Cell invasion by the vertebrate stages of Plasmodium
    P Sinnis
    Dept of Medical and Molecular Parasitology, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016, USA
    Trends Microbiol 5:52-8. 1997
    Protozoans of the genus Plasmodium are the causative agents of malaria; they have a complex life cycle involving vertebrate and arthropod hosts and have three distinct invasive stages...
  92. ncbi The pir multigene family of Plasmodium: antigenic variation and beyond
    Deirdre Cunningham
    Division of Parasitology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 170:65-73. 2010
    ..families are present on the telomeric and sub-telomeric regions of most chromosomes of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium. The largest gene family identified so far is the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) multigene gene family and ..
  93. ncbi Novel molecular targets for antimalarial chemotherapy
    Snehasis Jana
    Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Division, Ranbaxy Research Laboratories, Plot 18, Sector 20, Udyog Vihar, Industrial Area, Gurgaon, Haryana 122015, India
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:4-10. 2007
    ..This review discusses novel molecular targets of the malaria parasite available to the drug discovery scientist...
  94. ncbi Diversity and natural selection in Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein gene
    Jennifer Cole-Tobian
    Center for Global Health and Diseases at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Veteran s Affairs Medical Center, 2109 Adelbert Rd, Rm W137, Cleveland, OH 44106 4983, USA
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 127:121-32. 2003
    The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) binds to the Duffy blood group antigen on the surface of erythrocytes and is essential for invasion. Natural immunity develops to this protein making it an important vaccine candidate...
  95. ncbi Rapid diagnostic tests for the home-based management of malaria, in a high-transmission area
    M L Willcox
    Antenna Technologies, Rue de Neuchâtel 29, 1201 Geneva, Switzerland
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 103:3-16. 2009
    ..In older patients, use of the RDT did not reduce costs. The question remains whether either of the strategies investigated can be made affordable for the affected population...
  96. ncbi Plasmodium sporozoite motility is modulated by the turnover of discrete adhesion sites
    Sylvia Münter
    Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Host Microbe 6:551-62. 2009
    ..Further, we show that the essential sporozoite surface protein TRAP is critical for the regulated formation and rupture of adhesion sites but is dispensable for retrograde capping...
  97. ncbi Malaria - an overview
    Renu Tuteja
    Malaria Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India
    FEBS J 274:4670-9. 2007
    Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These parasites have a complex life cycle in their mosquito vector and vertebrate hosts...
  98. ncbi Malaria vectors of Papua New Guinea
    R D Cooper
    Australian Army Malaria Institute, Gallipoli Barracks, Enoggera, Qld 4052, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 39:1495-501. 2009
    ..A total of 22,970mosquitoes were individually assessed using a Plasmodium sporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify Plasmodiumfalciparum, Plasmodiumvivax and ..
  99. pmc Improved prediction of malaria degradomes by supervised learning with SVM and profile kernel
    Rui Kuang
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA corrected
    Genetica 136:189-209. 2009
    ..Our analysis demonstrates that an abundant and complex repertoire is conserved in five Plasmodium parasite species...
  100. ncbi Antagonistic effects of a Mhc class I allele on malaria-infected house sparrows
    Claire Loiseau
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, CNRS UMR 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Bat A, 7eme etage, 7, quai St Bernard, Case 237, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Ecol Lett 11:258-65. 2008
    ..We found that one Mhc class I allele was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in the risk to be infected with a Plasmodium strain, but with a 6.4-fold reduction in the risk to harbour a Haemoproteus strain...
  101. ncbi Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. as infection source for malaria vector mosquitoes in the Brazilian Amazon
    Fabiana Piovesan Alves
    Centro de Pesquisa em Medicina Tropical, BR 364 Km 4, 5, 78910 210, Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil
    J Med Entomol 42:777-9. 2005
    We have described the existence of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in native Amazon populations. Most of them had low parasitemias, detected only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...

Research Grants79

  1. CFI Pathogen Inactivation Technology
    Trevor P Castor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition to viruses, bacteria and parasites such as Babesia spp. and Plasmodium spp. are major threats of spreading diseases through transfusion...
  2. Vaccine Development for Falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women and Their Offspring
    Ian C Michelow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The objective of this proposal is to identify conserved Plasmodium falciparum antigens that are uniquely recognized by IgG antibodies in venous blood obtained at delivery from ..
  3. Integrated Microfluidic Platform for Point-of-Care Serodiagnostics
    Xiaowu Liang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for non-biodefense targets including: Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia, Plasmodium falciparum, Human papillomavirus, and Herpes simplex virus...
  4. Genomics of Antiviral Responses of Anopheles gambiae Against O'nyong-nyong Virus
    Young S Hong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..An. gambiae is a major vector for human malaria Plasmodium falciparum in Africa, but it is also a natural vector for O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) transmission...
  5. Latin American Center for Malaria Research and Control
    ..We hypothesize that circulating Plasmodium populations and their dynamics modulate the clinical manifestations and immune responses in the affected ..
  6. Nitric Oxide Restoration &Heme Detoxification as Adjunctive Therapies for Cerebr
    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major complication of infection by Plasmodium falciparum. It affects mainly children under 5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa and shows a high mortality rate even when anti- malarial treatment is administered...
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..pathways in Toxoplasma gondii and related apicomplexan parasites, including Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis, and Plasmodium. The long-term goal will be focused on developing better and more efficacious antiparasitic drugs for these ..
  8. Impacts of surface receptors [Toll like receptor (TLRs) and Fc gamma receptors (F
    Collins Ouma; Fiscal Year: 2012 the most common clinical manifestation of severe malaria in infants and young children living in holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission areas...
  9. Cerebral Malaria: Mechanisms of disease and neurological salvage
    Mahalia S Desruisseaux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Cerebral malaria is a form of severe malaria caused mainly by Plasmodium falciparum in humans...
  10. Programming of Protective CD8 T-Cell Memory by Live and Adjuvanted Subunit Vaccin
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is emerging consensus that vaccines against complex pathogens like HIV, M. tuberculosis, and Plasmodium will require both antibodies and CD8 T cells...
  11. A Systems Biology Approach to the Model Apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii
    William J Sullivan Jr; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These obligate intracellular parasites include Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium species and Cryptosporidium...
  12. Insulin, IGF and Insulin Signaling: effects on Anopheles lifespan and immunity
    MICHAEL ALLEN RIEHLE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and in turn aging? 2) Does the midgut ISC affect signaling in other tissues? 3) Do changes to the ISC affect Plasmodium falciparum development? Finally, we will examine the impact of physiological levels of exogenous human insulin ..
  13. Malaria and the safety of iron interventions: absorption and NTBI
    Gary M Brittenham; Fiscal Year: 2012
    This research will determine the effects of acute infection with Plasmodium falciparum on the absorption, pharmacokinetics and metabolism of iron from iron supplements and other Iron preparations in women of childbearing age...
  14. Development of Small Antimicrobial Peptide Mimics as Drug-Resistant and Susceptib
    Richard W Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum has become a major problem...
  15. Molecular epidemiology of drug resistance and population genetic structure of Pla
    Fangli Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and the tropical Hainan Island of China, malaria has been the most endemic with high transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax...
  16. Malaria vaccines modified with TLR agonist adjuvant
    Elizabeth H Nardin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A number of subunit vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium parasite have recently undergone Phase I - III clinical trials...
  17. Pathogen-Specific Regulation of Protein Assembly
    ALLEN BERNARD REITZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, during the course of this work we will also examine possible extension beyond Y. enterocolitica to Plasmodium falciparum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and Toxoplasma gondii...
  18. A semi field trial test on efficacy of transgenic antimalarial biocontrol fungi
    Raymond J St Leger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Burkina Faso with very high densities of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (up to 200 bites/person/night) and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates around 3%...
  19. Human T Cell Immunology of Plasmodium Vivax Malaria
    Anthony P Cannella; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Malaria, caused by four Plasmodium species transmitted between humans and Anopheles mosquitoes, continues to be a major global public health problem...
  20. Development of a Chloroquine Replacement Drug
    MICHAEL KEVIN RISCOE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..And the situation is worsening due to the emergence and spread of strains of Plasmodium parasites that harbor resistance to multiple drugs including: the quinolines - chloroquine, quinine, and ..
  21. The role of Histidine rich protein II in cerebral malaria
    Priya Pal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Human malaria is caused by five species of the Plasmodium parasite;of these P. falciparum is the deadliest and the only species which causes cerebral malaria...
  22. Role of Protective and Pathogenic B cells in Modulating Pediatric Severe Malaria
    Tom Were; Fiscal Year: 2013 the most common clinical manifestation of severe malaria in infants and young children living in holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission areas...
  23. The role of the interaction between the C-terminal domain of RNA pol II and a his
    Uchechi E Ukaegbu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..domain of RNA pol II and a histone methyltransferase in mediating epigenetic memory in malaria virulence genes Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most acute and severe form of human malaria...
  24. Arginine, Nitric Oxide, and Severe Malaria
    JOE BRICE WEINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..NO has antimicrobial effects in vitro against a wide variety of organisms including Plasmodium falciparum, and it can modulate endothelial function (reduction of cell adhesion molecule expression and ..
  25. Infectious Disease Genomics and Bioinformatics Training in Brazil
    Jessica C Kissinger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These organisms include: Plasmodium sp., Trypanosoma cruzi. Toxoplasma gondii, Schistosoma mansoni. Anopheles, Blomphalaria and Humans...
  26. Identification of G6PD inhibitors for the development of novel antimalarial drugs
    Lars Bode; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Tropical malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is responsible for up to three million deaths each year...
  27. Pilot studies of the molecular epidemiology of drug-resistant malaria in Myanmar
    Christopher V Plowe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The World Health Organization (WHO) is coordinating an aggressive effort to contain artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia before it spreads from its recent site of emergence in Western Cambodia...
    AUDREY RAGAN ODOM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan pathogen that causes the deadliest form of malaria. Malaria has a tremendous impact on human health worldwide, causing nearly one million deaths per year...
  29. Gamete membrane adhesion and fusion during fertilization
    William J Snell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..present in sponges;cnidarians;several insects;higher plants;and many devastating pathogenic protists, including Plasmodium. Furthermore, we have also uncovered a molecular mechanism for a membrane block to polyspermy, demonstrating ..
  30. Malaria treatment outcomes and pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women
    MYAING MYAING NYUNT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..drug recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum...
  31. Purine Pathways and Inhibitor Design in Plasmodium
    Vern L Schramm; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of death from malaria, taking the lives of over a million children and causing clinical illness in 300 to 500 million people each year...
  32. The role of the terminal complement pathway in experimental cerebral malaria.
    Theresa N Ramos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the complement system in the development and pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) using the Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) model system [3, 5, 6]...
  33. A cell-based HTS for delayed death inhibitors of the malarial parasite plastid
    DAVID FIDOCK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Plasmodium falciparum, an Apicomplexan parasite and the causal agent of severe malaria, causes disease in over 500 million individuals and kills over one million children yearly...
  34. Determinants of growth and fitness in drug resistant malaria parasites
    Michael T Ferdig; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, continues to devastate human health...
  35. Plasmodium vivax recombinant CS protein vaccine for malaria
    B Kim Lee Sim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plasmodium vivax recombinant CS protein vaccine Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is responsible for hundreds of millions of malaria cases annually, as many cases of malaria in travelers as P...
  36. P.falciparum var gene diversity and malaria control
    KAREN PATRICIA DAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is enormous with up to a million deaths per annum and billions of infections that persist for many months in the human population...
  38. Functional genomic analysis of host determinants of malaria infection
    Elizabeth Egan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..widely available in endemic areas, their utility is compromised by the rapid development of drug resistance by Plasmodium falciparum parasites...
  39. Attenuated malaria sporozoite vaccine using a P. falciparum blood-stage auxotroph
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that targets the asymptomatic sporozoite (SPZ) and liver stages of the most lethal human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), would be an ideal tool to prevent malaria infection, disease and transmission...
  40. T Cell Immunity in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma
    Ann M Moormann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Epidemiologic studies of eBL indicate a strong association with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections early in childhood...
  41. Identification of serine hydrolases involved in Plasmodium host cell invasion
    Brooke Anderson-White; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plasmodium falciparum is the parasite responsible for malaria, a disease that continues to devastate all tropical regions of the world...
  42. Chemokines in Zambian children with Cerebral Malaria
    Monique F Stins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral malaria (CM) is a clinical syndrome associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection that is associated with a high mortality of up to 30%, particular in children...
  43. Var gene regulation and antigenic variation in malaria
    Kirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent responsible for the most severe form of human malaria, a disease that kills more than a million people a year, mostly young children in Africa...
  44. The Plasmodium 2TM and PHIST protein families
    Thomas J Templeton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, possesses a broad repertoire of proteins that are proposed to be trafficked to the erythrocyte cytoplasm or surface, based upon the presence within ..
  45. A Heterologous Expression System for Apicomplexa Genes
    JOSE A FERNANDEZ ROBLEDO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The apicomplexan Plasmodium falciparum is the ethiological agent of Malaria and can cause high mortality and morbidity in endemic areas...
  46. Neuropathology of severe malaria in Thailand: MRI studies
    Gary M Brittenham; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Worldwide, the most important parasitic disease infecting the central nervous system of humans is Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
  47. Manipulation of stem cell activity and cell death by intracellular bacteria
    Horacio M Frydman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathogens to infect mosquitoes, including Dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile Virus, and both chicken and human plasmodium. Nevertheless, very little is known about the mechanistic basis for Wolbachia-insect host interactions, limiting ..
  48. Innate Immune Activation in Malaria
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Malaria remains a major cause of illness and death worldwide. Plasmodium vivax malaria is an especially important cause of morbidity in South America...
  49. Predicting naturally acquired humoral immunity against malaria
    PHILIP LOUIS FELGNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..People living in areas of intense Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) transmission develop resistance to the symptoms of malaria after repeated exposures to Pf ..
  50. Analysis of novel in vivo derived Plasmodium falciparum transcriptional profiles
    JOHANNA PATRICIA DAILY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ABSTRACT Infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum leads to widely different clinical conditions in children [unreadable]ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to coma and death...
  51. Innate Immune Activation in Malaria
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..project is to identify the molecular mechanisms of systemic inflammation and fever in individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum...
  52. Malaria transmission potential of the Anopheles punctutatus species complex
    Lisa Reimer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, information regarding the inherent physiological ability of these vectors to maintain and transmit Plasmodium is scarce...
  53. Multi-stage multi-antigen Vaccine for interrupting Malaria Transmission
    B Kim Lee Sim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..development is based on the observation that immunization via bites of irradiated mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) provides high-level protection...
  54. How do you build a parasite?
    John Murray; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..forms only two parasites at a time, making studies on the morphology of replication much more tractable than in Plasmodium or Eimeria species, and (2) a wide range of cell biological and molecular genetic tools are now available for T...
  55. Multi-ligand merozoite invasion blocking malaria vaccine
    B Kim Lee Sim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) results in more than 250 million clinical cases, and nearly one million deaths annually...
  56. Regulation of Plasmodium falciparum transcription
    Manuel Llinas; Fiscal Year: 2013 understand the molecular mechanisms involved in transcriptional regulation in the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum...
  57. Microparticles, a new player in cerebral malaria pathogenesis
    VALERY MADELEINE COMBES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..brain barrier (BBB), we observed that MPs are potent activators of monocytes and facilitate the adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized RBCs (Pf-pRBCs) to human brain endothelial cell (HBEC) monolayers in vitro by adhering to ..
  58. Ecology of African Highland Malaria
    Guiyun Yan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Since the late 1980s, a series of Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemics have occurred in the highlands of African countries...
  59. Oral Immunization Against Malaria with Recombinant Adenoviruses
    GARY W KETNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recombinant vaccine candidates will express pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum antigens that induce protective immunity in primates: circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) and liver ..
  60. Regulatory B cells in the liver
    Susan K Bliss; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, chronic and persistent infection of the liver with pathogens such as Plasmodium and hepatitis viruses is a common and significant source of human morbidity and mortality...
  61. Vaccination with purified, cryopreserved, infectious Plasmodium vivax sporozoites
    STEPHEN LEV HOFFMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is the 2nd most important human malaria parasite, causing >80 million cases annually...
  62. Identification of vaccine candidates against severe malaria
    Andrew V Oleinikov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Plasmodium falciparum parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE) adhere to the host endothelium and to red blood cells...
  63. Plasmodium Genus and P. falciparum - P. vivax FISH Assays
    Jyotsna Shah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Plasmodium Genus Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (P-Genus FISH) assay targeted to ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a method that detects all the species of malaria on an air-dried blood smear...
  64. Role of chemokines in astro-neuronal activation in cerebral malaria
    Monique Stins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..NARRATIVE Malaria is a disease resulting from infection with the Plasmodium parasite and carries a clinical burden of up to 200 million episodes in Africa alone...
  65. Lyophilization of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine
    Stephen Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..When attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) are administered by bite of infected mosquitoes >90% of human volunteers are ..
    CHRISTOPHER PLOWE; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..7 million deaths in Africa each year. In vitro resistance to the antifolates in Plasmodium falciparum is caused by point mutations in the enzymes targeted by these drugs, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) ..
    Jonathan Berman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The emergence of in vivo resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria to standard antimalarial drugs is a major and growing threat to public health in Africa, Asia, and Latin America...
  68. SP resistance markers & falciparum malaria transmission
    Fabian Mendez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a major threat to global public health and new strategies are needed to deter spread of resistance to available and forthcoming antimalarial drugs...
  69. Improving Production of Attenuated Malaria Sporozoite Vaccines through Genetic Mo
    Peter Billingsley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Sanaria's goal is to develop and commercialize a >90% protective attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) vaccine for two primary markets with potential annual revenues >$1 billion, ..
  70. Molecular epidemiology of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
    Thomas Egwang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..poses a considerable public health burden and the problem is exacerbated by the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains...
  71. Indirect aminoacylation in the Plasmodium apicoplast
    MALCOLM JOHN GARDNER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 300-500 million cases of malaria and 1.3 million deaths every year...
    Myron Levine; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Salmonella typhi and Shigella live vectors, to develop a mucosally administered multivalent vaccine to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
  73. Genetic polymorphism and diversity of Plasmodium vivax malaria
    Dyann Wirth; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Out of the 4 species that cause malaria in humans Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent species outside tropical Africa. Although rarely fatal, P...
  74. Plasmodium vivax recombinant CS protein vaccine
    B Sim; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is the second most common cause of malaria in humans, being responsible for an estimated 70-100 million cases annually. Outside the African continent Pv is the most widely distributed malaria parasite...
  75. Novel Linear Peptide Universal Malaria Vaccines
    Alberto Moreno; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..objective of this project is to evaluate the potential of synthetic linear peptide chimeras (LPCs) containing Plasmodium universal T cell epitopes and immunodominant B cell epitopes as effective malaria vaccine components...
    THEODORE TARASCHI; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The replication and control of DNA repair in Plasmodium falciparum are likely to have a number of differences from the mammalian cell...
  77. Molecular Mechanisms of Plasmodium Falciparum Adherence to the Human Placenta
    Susan J Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PM is defined as (1) the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in the maternal blood spaces of the placenta, and (2) the ..
  78. Molecular determinants of P. falciparum resistance to ACTs in Nigeria.
    Christian T Happi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The rapid development and spread of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a serious global health problem and has contributed to increased mortality and morbidity caused by malaria...
  79. New Plasmodium Strategies to Modulate Inflammation
    Ana Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Plasmodium blood-stage infection is characterized by an acute host inflammatory response with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to the pathology of the disease...