- A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes
R Alexander Pyron
Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, 2023 G St NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA
BMC Evol Biol 13:93. 2013
The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale ..
- Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes
Bryan G Fry
Australian Venom Research Unit, Level 8, School of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Nature 439:584-8. 2006
Among extant reptiles only two lineages are known to have evolved venom delivery systems, the advanced snakes and helodermatid lizards (Gila Monster and Beaded Lizard)...
- From genome to "venome": molecular origin and evolution of the snake venom proteome inferred from phylogenetic analysis of toxin sequences and related body proteins
Bryan G Fry
Australian Venom Research Unit, Level 8, School of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 Australia
Genome Res 15:403-20. 2005
..However, this study revealed that the toxin types, where the ancestral protein was extensively cysteine cross-linked, were the ones that flourished into functionally diverse, novel toxin multigene families...
- Resolving the phylogeny of lizards and snakes (Squamata) with extensive sampling of genes and species
John J Wiens
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5245, USA
Biol Lett 8:1043-6. 2012
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial vertebrates...
- Novel transcripts in the maxillary venom glands of advanced snakes
Bryan G Fry
Venom Evolution Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
Toxicon 59:696-708. 2012
..In this study, we applied venom gland transcriptomics to a wide taxonomical diversity of advanced snakes and recovered transcripts encoding three novel protein scaffold types lacking sequence homology to any previously ..
- Comparative sex chromosome genomics in snakes: differentiation, evolutionary strata, and lack of global dosage compensation
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America
PLoS Biol 11:e1001643. 2013
b>Snakes exhibit genetic sex determination, with female heterogametic sex chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females)...
- The phylogeny of advanced snakes (Colubroidea), with discovery of a new subfamily and comparison of support methods for likelihood trees
R Alexander Pyron
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5245, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 58:329-42. 2011
..Our study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Colubroidea to date, and suggests that SHL values may provide a useful complement to bootstrapping for estimating support on likelihood-based trees...
- Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jaime Roig, Valencia, Spain
BMC Genomics 12:259. 2011
..In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects...
- Squeezers and leaf-cutters: differential diversification and degeneration of the venom system in toxicoferan reptiles
Bryan G Fry
Venom Evolution Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia
Mol Cell Proteomics 12:1881-99. 2013
..However, a number of proteins characterized from anguimorph lizards and caenophidian snakes with hemotoxic or neurotoxic activities were recruited in the common toxicoferan ancestor and remain expressed, ..
- Evolution of an arsenal: structural and functional diversification of the venom system in the advanced snakes (Caenophidia)
Bryan G Fry
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Mol Cell Proteomics 7:215-46. 2008
Venom is a key innovation underlying the evolution of advanced snakes (Caenophidia). Despite this, very little is known about venom system structural diversification, toxin recruitment event timings, or toxin molecular evolution...
- Estimating divergence dates and evaluating dating methods using phylogenomic and mitochondrial data in squamate reptiles
Daniel G Mulcahy
Department of Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 65:974-91. 2012
..Here, we generate and assemble an extensive phylogenomic data set for squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) and evaluate two widely used dating methods, penalized likelihood in r8s (r8s-PL) and Bayesian estimation with ..
- Evidence for different origin of sex chromosomes in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes
Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics, Department of Genome Dynamics, Hokkaido University, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0810, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18190-5. 2006
..chicken homologues of the snake Z-linked genes were located on autosomes, suggesting that the sex chromosomes of snakes, mammals, and birds were all derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor...
- The phylogeny of squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians) inferred from nine nuclear protein-coding genes
Department of Biology, Astrobiology Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 5301, USA
C R Biol 328:1000-8. 2005
..and Amphisbaenia, with the latter two joined in Lacertibaenia) and Toxicofera (iguanians, anguimorphs and snakes)...
- Island evolution and systematic revision of Comoran snakes: why and when subspecies still make sense
Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Munchen, Germany
PLoS ONE 7:e42970. 2012
..We studied the molecular phylogeny and morphology of endemic Comoran tree snakes of the genus Lycodryas...
- Higher-level relationships of snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes
Service de systématique moléculaire, Institut de systématique CNRS FR 1541, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 43, rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris, France
C R Biol 325:977-85. 2002
..Extant snakes belong to two lineages: the fossorial Scolecophidia, which feed on small prey on a frequent basis, and the ..
- Snake venomics. Strategy and applications
Juan J Calvete
Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
J Mass Spectrom 42:1405-14. 2007
..The combined strategy allows us to assign unambiguously all the isolated venom toxins representing over 0.05% of the total venom proteins to known protein families. Protocols and applications of snake venomics are reviewed and discussed...
- Constraint shapes convergence in tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels of snakes
Chris R Feldman
Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4556-61. 2012
- Evolution and diversification of the Toxicofera reptile venom system
Bryan G Fry
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3010, Australia
J Proteomics 72:127-36. 2009
- Snakes and cats in the flower bed: fast detection is not specific to pictures of fear-relevant animals
Ottmar V Lipp
School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia
Emotion 4:233-50. 2004
The observation that snakes and spiders are found faster among flowers and mushrooms than vice versa and that this search advantage is independent of set size supports the notion that fear-relevant stimuli are processed preferentially in ..
- Atractaspis aterrima toxins: the first insight into the molecular evolution of venom in side-stabbers
Montreal University, Research Institute in Plant Biology, Montreal Botanical Garden, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Toxins (Basel) 5:1948-64. 2013
..tremendous potential as a bioresource for design and development of therapeutic compounds, some specific groups of snakes, such as the genus Atractaspis, have been completely neglected...
- Local endemism within the Western Ghats-sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot
Biology Department, Unit of Ecology and Systematics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Science 306:479-81. 2004
..Future conservation programs for the subcontinent should take into account such patterns of local endemism at the finest scale at which they may occur...
- Gene rearrangements in snake mitochondrial genomes: highly concerted evolution of control-region-like sequences duplicated and inserted into a tRNA gene cluster
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
Mol Biol Evol 13:1242-54. 1996
..Several other snakes belonging to different families were also found to possess a control-region-like sequence and tRNA(Leu) gene ..
- 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement
Dídac S Fita
Department of Biodiversity Conservation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur ECOSUR, C P 29290, Apto Postal 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6:13. 2010
..practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil...
- Evolutionary origin and development of snake fangs
Freek J Vonk
Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Kaiserstraat 63, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
Nature 454:630-3. 2008
Many advanced snakes use fangs-specialized teeth associated with a venom gland-to introduce venom into prey or attacker...
- Molecular systematics and evolution of Regina and the thamnophiine snakes
M E Alfaro
Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 21:408-23. 2001
b>Snakes of the tribe Thamnophiini represent an ecologically important component of the herpetofauna in a range of habitats across North America...
- Natural phospholipase A(2) myotoxin inhibitor proteins from snakes, mammals and plants
Facultad de Microbiologia, Instituto Clodomiro Picado, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica
Toxicon 42:963-77. 2003
..These proteins have been isolated from both venomous and non-venomous snakes, mammals, and most recently from medicinal plant extracts...
- Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes
Christeine A Ariaratnam
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:725-31. 2009
Of 860 snakes brought to 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka with the patients they had bitten, 762 (89%) were venomous. Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale) were the most numerous and H...
- Of snakes and flowers: does preferential detection of pictures of fear-relevant animals in visual search reflect on fear-relevance?
Ottmar V Lipp
School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, QLD, Australia
Emotion 6:296-308. 2006
Previous research in visual search indicates that animal fear-relevant deviants, snakes/spiders, are found faster among non fear-relevant backgrounds, flowers/mushrooms, than vice versa...
- Detection of novel divergent arenaviruses in boid snakes with inclusion body disease in The Netherlands
Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr Molewaterplein 50, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
J Gen Virol 94:1206-10. 2013
..Now highly divergent arenaviruses have been identified in boid snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD)...
- Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary
Nicholas R Longrich
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:21396-401. 2012
..by a major mass extinction, yet this event is thought to have had little effect on the diversity of lizards and snakes (Squamata)...
- Alpha neurotoxins
Carmel M Barber
Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
Toxicon 66:47-58. 2013
- Vertebral evolution and the diversification of squamate reptiles
Philip J Bergmann
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Evolution 66:1044-58. 2012
- Denmotoxin, a three-finger toxin from the colubrid snake Boiga dendrophila (Mangrove Catsnake) with bird-specific activity
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore
J Biol Chem 281:29030-41. 2006
..Denmotoxin illustrates the relationship between toxin specificity and the primary prey type that constitutes the snake's diet...
- Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
Proc Biol Sci 276:2813-8. 2009
..Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact...
- Genus-level phylogeny of snakes reveals the origins of species richness in Sri Lanka
R Alexander Pyron
Dept of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, 2023 G St, NW, Washington, DC 20052, United States
Mol Phylogenet Evol 66:969-78. 2013
- Rapid detection of visually provocative animals by preschool children and adults
Michael J Penkunas
Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
J Exp Child Psychol 114:522-36. 2013
..Reaction times to detect different target snakes embedded in matrices of lizards were compared with reaction times to detect target lizards embedded in matrices of ..
- Tracing the origins of iguanid lizards and boine snakes of the pacific
Brice P Noonan
Department of Biology, Box 1848, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA
Am Nat 175:61-72. 2010
..Iguanid lizards and boine snakes are ancient Gondwanan lineages whose distribution has been demonstrated to have been influenced by continental ..
- A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America
Nicholas R Longrich
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8109, USA
Nature 488:205-8. 2012
b>Snakes are the most diverse group of lizards, but their origins and early evolution remain poorly understood owing to a lack of transitional forms...
- Indirect effects of large herbivores on snakes in an African savanna
Douglas J McCauley
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
Ecology 87:2657-63. 2006
..vegetative cover, differences in snake density do not appear to be driven by differences in rates of predation on snakes. Instead, snakes appear to be responding numerically to greater abundances of small-mammal prey in areas from ..
- Inflammatory effects of snake venom myotoxic phospholipases A2
C F P Teixeira
Laboratories of Pharmacology, Instituto Butantan, 05503 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Toxicon 42:947-62. 2003
..This work reviews the proinflammatory and nociceptive effects evoked by myotoxic PLA2s and their mechanisms of action...
- Degeneration patterns of the olfactory receptor genes in sea snakes
Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
J Evol Biol 23:302-10. 2010
..Here we show that viviparous sea snakes, which do not rely on a terrestrial environment, have significantly lost ORs compared with their terrestrial ..
- Genetic assimilation and the postcolonization erosion of phenotypic plasticity in island tiger snakes
CNRS à Moulis, France
Curr Biol 19:1932-6. 2009
..Island tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) thus show clear empirical evidence of genetic assimilation, with the elaboration of an ..
- Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes
Gabriel E A Gartner
Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA
Physiol Biochem Zool 83:43-54. 2010
..A previous nonphylogenetic analysis of heart position in snakes-which often assume vertical postures-found the heart located 15%-25% of total body length from the head in ..
- A multi-state Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak associated with frozen vacuum-packed rodents used to feed snakes
C C Fuller
Minnesota Department of Health, Acute Disease Investigation and Control Section, St Paul, MN 55164, USA
Zoonoses Public Health 55:481-7. 2008
..During routine interviews, three of the cases reported attending the same junior high school and two handled snakes in the science classroom...
- Non-homologous sex chromosomes of birds and snakes share repetitive sequences
Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
Chromosome Res 18:787-800. 2010
..Like birds, snakes have a ZZ male/ZW female sex chromosome system, in which the snake Z is a macrochromosome much the same size as ..
- Identification and molecular characterization of 18 paramyxoviruses isolated from snakes
Institute of Zoology, Fishery Biology and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Kaulbachstrasse 37, D 80539, Munich, Germany
Virus Res 80:67-74. 2001
..Regarding the biological properties, the antigenic distance, and particularly the low homology of available sequences, we propose a new genus for the reptilian paramyxoviruses within the Paramyxoviridae...
- Karyotypic evolution in squamate reptiles: comparative gene mapping revealed highly conserved linkage homology between the butterfly lizard (Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, Agamidae, Lacertilia) and the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirg
Department of Genetics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyothin, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Chromosome Res 17:975-86. 2009
..The homology with L. reevesii rubritaeniata microchromosomes were also identified in the distal regions of EQU1p and 1q, indicating the occurrence of telomere-to-telomere fusions of microchromosomes to the p and q arms of EQU1...
- Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains
Lynne A Isbell
Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, 95616, USA
J Hum Evol 51:1-35. 2006
..An alternative hypothesis proposed here posits that snakes were ultimately responsible for these defining primate characteristics...
- The molecular evolutionary tree of lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenians
Departement Systematique et Evolution, UMR 7138, Systématique, Evolution, Adaptation, Case Postale 26, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
C R Biol 332:129-39. 2009
Squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians) number approximately 8200 living species and are a major component of the world's terrestrial vertebrate diversity...
- Venom yields from Australian and some other species of snakes
Peter J Mirtschin
Venom Supplies Pty Ltd, P O Box 547, Tanunda 5352 SA, Australia
Ecotoxicology 15:531-8. 2006
The wet and dry venom yields for most Australian native dangerous snakes and a number of non-Australian species are presented...
- Initiation and patterning of the snake dentition are dependent on Sonic hedgehog signaling
Department of Oral Health Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Dev Biol 319:132-45. 2008
..from the African rock python Python sebae and traced its expression in the species as well as in two other snakes, the closely-related Python regius and the more derived corn snake Elaphe guttata (Colubridae)...
- Short telomeres in hatchling snakes: erythrocyte telomere dynamics and longevity in tropical pythons
School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
PLoS ONE 4:e7493. 2009
..In the present study we explore whether age- and sex-specific telomere dynamics affect life span in a long-lived snake, the water python (Liasis fuscus)...
- Snakes of medical importance in India: is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful?
Ian D Simpson
WHO Snakebite Treatment Group
Wilderness Environ Med 18:2-9. 2007
..For many decades, the concept of the "Big 4" Snakes of Medical Importance has reflected the view that 4 species are responsible for Indian snakebite mortality--the ..
- A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum
Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, A Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires 1405, Argentina
Nature 440:1037-40. 2006
It has commonly been thought that snakes underwent progressive loss of their limbs by gradual diminution of their use...
- Axial patterning in snakes and caecilians: evidence for an alternative interpretation of the Hox code
Joost M Woltering
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, 2333 AL, Leiden, The Netherlands
Dev Biol 332:82-9. 2009
..Our results suggest that the evolution of a deregionalized, snake-like body involved not only alterations in Hox gene cis-regulation but also a different downstream interpretation of the Hox code...
- Detecting the snake in the grass: attention to fear-relevant stimuli by adults and young children
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
Psychol Sci 19:284-9. 2008
b>Snakes are among the most common targets of fears and phobias. In visual detection tasks, adults detect their presence more rapidly than the presence of other kinds of visual stimuli...
- Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
J Exp Psychol Gen 130:466-78. 2001
Participants searched for discrepant fear-relevant pictures (snakes or spiders) in grid-pattern arrays of fear-irrelevant pictures belonging to the same category (flowers or mushrooms) and vice versa...
- Control of segment number in vertebrate embryos
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA
Nature 454:335-9. 2008
..In snake embryos, however, the segmentation clock rate is much faster relative to developmental rate than in other amniotes, leading to a greatly increased number of smaller-sized somites...
- Phylogeny of the Colubroidea (Serpentes): new evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear genes
Osher Foundation Laboratory for Molecular Systematics, California Academy of Sciences, 875 Howard Street, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 37:581-601. 2005
The Colubroidea contains over 85% of all the extant species of snakes and is recognized as monophyletic based on morphological and molecular data...
- Of snakes and faces: an evolutionary perspective on the psychology of fear
Section of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Scand J Psychol 50:543-52. 2009
b>Snakes and faces are unique stimuli because they are deeply grounded in evolutionarily shaped behavior systems...
- Deep history impacts present-day ecology and biodiversity
Laurie J Vitt
Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and Zoology Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73072, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7877-81. 2005
Lizards and snakes putatively arose between the early Jurassic and late Triassic; they diversified worldwide and now occupy many different ecological niches, making them ideal for testing theories on the origin of ecological traits...
- Visual search with biological threat stimuli: accuracy, reaction times, and heart rate changes
University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Emotion 5:349-53. 2005
..The categories were snakes, spiders, flowers, and mushrooms...
- Divergent shell shape as an antipredator adaptation in tropical land snails
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
Am Nat 172:726-32. 2008
..Satsuma caliginosa (Camaenidae: Camaeninae) has apertural variation in regard to the presence of snail-eating snakes. Our experiments demonstrated that the distorted aperture mechanically impeded predation by this gape-limited ..
- The detection of fear-relevant stimuli: are guns noticed as quickly as snakes?
University of Essex, Colchester, UK
Emotion 7:691-6. 2007
..g., snakes, spiders, angry faces)...
- Evidence for an ancient adaptive episode of convergent molecular evolution
Todd A Castoe
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8986-91. 2009
..The relevant sites generally evolved slowly but converged between ancient lineages of snakes and agamids...
- Phylogenetic analysis of reptilian hemoglobins: trees, rates, and divergences
T A Gorr
Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152, Martinsried, Germany
J Mol Evol 47:471-85. 1998
..The occurrence of the alphaD chain in squamates (lizards and snakes only in this study) appears to be a general characteristic of these species...
- Skull shape and feeding strategy in Sphenodon and other Rhynchocephalia (Diapsida: Lepidosauria)
Marc E H Jones
Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Anatomy Building, UCL, University College London, London WCIE 6BT, UK
J Morphol 269:945-66. 2008
..Some of these same trends are apparent during Sphenodon ontogeny where skull growth is allometric and there is evidence for ontogenetic variation in diet...
- Most lay people can correctly identify indigenous venomous snakes
Stephen W Corbett
Department of Emergency Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Am J Emerg Med 23:759-62. 2005
We attempted to determine how accurately members of the public can identify venomous snakes. Six different snakes indigenous to southern California were displayed in cages for 265 people to view at a street fair...
- The Pleistocene serpent Wonambi and the early evolution of snakes
J D Scanlon
Department of Zoology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Nature 403:416-20. 2000
The Madtsoiidae were medium sized to gigantic snakes with a fossil record extending from the mid-Cretaceous to the Pleistocene, and spanning Europe, Africa, Madagascar, South America and Australia...
- Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes
Andrea M Bingham
Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA
Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:1140-4. 2012
..eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts...
- Epidemiology of snakebite in Eshowe, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Leslie Williams Private Hospital Gold Fields Health Services, PO Box 968, Carletonville 2500, South Africa
Toxicon 43:159-66. 2004
..Offending dead venomous snakes included Naja mossambica (Mozambique spitting cobra), Bitis arietans (puff adder), Atractaspis bibronii (stiletto ..
- The phylogeny and classification of caenophidian snakes inferred from seven nuclear protein-coding genes
Department of Biology and NASA Astrobiology Institute, 208 Mueller Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 5301, USA
C R Biol 330:182-7. 2007
More than 80% of the approximately 3000 living species of snakes are placed in the taxon Caenophidia (advanced snakes), a group that includes the families Acrochordidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Atractaspididae, and the paraphyletic '..
- A developmental staging series for the African house snake, Boaedon (Lamprophis) fuliginosus
Scott M Boback
Department of Biology, Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA 17013, USA
Zoology (Jena) 115:38-46. 2012
..As such, B. fuliginosus should be a good model for evolutionary developmental biologists focusing on the craniofacial skeleton, loss of limbs, generational teeth, and venom delivery systems...
- Autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling are necessary for tooth morphogenesis, but not tooth replacement in snakes and lizards (Squamata)
Gregory R Handrigan
Department of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Dev Biol 337:171-86. 2010
Here we study the role of Shh signaling in tooth morphogenesis and successional tooth initiation in snakes and lizards (Squamata)...
- The photoreceptors and visual pigments of the garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis): a microspectrophotometric, scanning electron microscopic and immunocytochemical study
A J Sillman
Section of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California, Davis 95616, USA
J Comp Physiol A 181:89-101. 1997
..This ultraviolet sensitivity might be important in localization of pheromone trails...
- Inclusion body disease in snakes: a review and description of three cases in boa constrictors in Belgium
Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Vet Rec 158:757-60. 2006
..The snakes showed nervous signs, and numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions, which are considered to be ..
- Comparison of ophthalmic measurements obtained via high-frequency ultrasound imaging in four species of snakes
Steven R Hollingsworth
Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Am J Vet Res 68:1111-4. 2007
To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight. Animals-14 clinically normal snakes.
- Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of resting metabolic rate covaries with species-specific metabolic level and body size in spiders and snakes
Douglas S Glazier
Department of Biology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652, USA
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 153:403-7. 2009
..tested using data for intraspecific (ontogenetic) body-mass scaling of resting metabolic rate in spiders and boid snakes. As predicted, in both animal groups b varies mostly between 2/3 and 1, and is significantly negatively related to ..
- PCR-mediated recombination between Cryptosporidium spp. of lizards and snakes
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
J Eukaryot Microbiol 50:563-5. 2003
..serpentis (a gastric parasite) and C. saurophilum (an intestinal parasite), and 6 snakes were concurrently infected with C. serpentis, C...
- The ecological impact of invasive cane toads on tropical snakes: field data do not support laboratory-based predictions
Gregory P Brown
School of Biological Sciences A08, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Ecology 92:422-31. 2011
..A previous study on the impact of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on Australian snakes attempted to predict vulnerability a priori based on the assumptions that any snake species that eats frogs, and ..
- Sequence variation in the Mc1r gene for a group of polymorphic snakes
Christian L Cox
Department of Biology, The University of Texas, Arlington, TX 76010, USA
Gene 513:282-6. 2013
..Our results agree with other studies that have found no role for sequence variation in Mc1r and highlight the importance of comparative data for studying the phenotypic associations of candidate genes...
- Molecular evidence for a terrestrial origin of snakes
NASA Astrobiology Institute and Department of Biology, 208 Mueller Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Proc Biol Sci 271:S226-9. 2004
Biologists have debated the origin of snakes since the nineteenth century. One hypothesis suggests that snakes are most closely related to terrestrial lizards, and reduced their limbs on land...
- Diagnosis of subclinical cryptosporidiosis in captive snakes based on stomach lavage and cloacal sampling
T K Graczyk
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Vet Parasitol 67:143-51. 1996
..lavage and cloacal swab techniques for diagnosis of subclinical cryptosporidiosis were tested in eight captive snakes subclinically infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis. Two feeding regimes were employed...
- Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC(3) profiling in snake
Department of Information and Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Yamanohata, Mizuho cho, Mizuho ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467 8501, Japan
BMC Genomics 13:604. 2012
..and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes...
- Renifer aniarum (Digenea: Reniferidae), an introduced North American parasite in grass snakes Natrix natrix in Calabria, southern Italy
Section of Parasitology, Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00185 Rome, Italy
Dis Aquat Organ 95:233-40. 2011
..aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection...
- Snake phylogeny: evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial genes
Joseph B Slowinski
Department of Herpetology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118 4599, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 24:194-202. 2002
We constructed phylogenies of snakes from the c-mos and cytochrome b genes using conventional phylogenetic methods as well as the relatively new method of Bayesian inference...
- Geographic variation in antisnake tactics: the evolution of scent-mediated behavior in a lizard
S J Downes
Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia
Evolution 55:605-15. 2001
..We used this information to sample lizards from three populations distributed with snakes (sympatric) and three populations that appear never to have been distributed with snakes (allopatric) in each of ..
- Detection of Cryptosporidium species in feces or gastric contents from snakes and lizards as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene
Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
J Vet Diagn Invest 23:430-5. 2011
Cryptosporidiosis is a well-known gastrointestinal disease of snakes and lizards...
- Metabolic turnover rates of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in captive juvenile snakes
Aaron T Fisk
Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 2152, USA
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:319-26. 2009
..rates (m) of delta(15)N and delta(13)C were assessed in different tissues of newly hatched captive-raised corn snakes (Elaphe guttata guttata) fed maintenance diets consisting of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) that varied ..
- The good, the bad and the ugly: Australian snake taxonomists and a history of the taxonomy of Australia's venomous snakes
Department of Pharmacology, Australian Venom Research Unit, School of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010 corrected Australia
Toxicon 48:919-30. 2006
..Although taxonomic research on the elapid snakes of Australia goes back to the late 18th century, in stark contrast to other developed regions of the world (e.g...
- Experimental evidence of an age-specific shift in chemical detection of predators in a lizard
Megan L Head
School of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT
J Chem Ecol 28:541-54. 2002
..heatwolei avoided predator odors more strongly than adults. Juveniles avoided both invertebrate predators and snakes, and the strongest response was toward the funnel web spider, the only ambush predator used in this experiment...
- Response of brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) to mammalian blood: whole blood, serum, and cellular residue
Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309 0345, USA
J Chem Ecol 27:979-84. 2001
..When rat blood was centrifuged at 3,500 rpm for 5 min, separating serum from cellular residue, snakes responded strongly to serum but not to cellular residue.
- Like mother, like daughter: inheritance of nest-site location in snakes
Gregory P Brown
Biological Sciences A08, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
Biol Lett 3:131-3. 2007
..Our field studies on tropical natricine snakes (Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae) show that when they are ready to nest, females return to the sites where their ..
- Molecular evolution of the infrared sensory gene TRPA1 in snakes and implications for functional studies
Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
PLoS ONE 6:e28644. 2011
TRPA1 is a calcium ion channel protein recently identified as the infrared receptor in pit organ-containing snakes. Therefore, understanding the molecular evolution of TRPA1 may help to illuminate the origin of "heat vision" in snakes and ..
- Adaptive evolution and functional redesign of core metabolic proteins in snakes
Todd A Castoe
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States of America
PLoS ONE 3:e2201. 2008
..Adaptive evolutionary episodes in core metabolic proteins are uncommon, and are even more rarely linked to major macroevolutionary shifts...
- Normal oral bacterial flora from some southern African snakes
R S Blaylock
Leslie Williams Memorial Hospital, Carletonville, South Africa
Onderstepoort J Vet Res 68:175-82. 2001
Eighteen snakes representing 11 species were subject to mouth swabbing on 58 occasions. Of these swabs, 52.2% were positive for bacteria. A total of 92 bacterial isolates were cultured, representing 30 species of which 81...
- Historical contingency and animal diets: the origins of egg eating in snakes
Alan De Queiroz
Am Nat 167:684-94. 2006
..We used comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that, in snakes, feeding on squamate (lizard and snake) eggs or bird eggs--items that represent evolutionarily derived and, in ..
- Demographic and phylogeographic histories of two venomous North American snakes of the genus Agkistrodon
Timothy J Guiher
Department of Biology, 6S 143, College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 48:543-53. 2008
..historical demography, and approximate lineage age in two closely related and broadly co-occurring venomous snakes in eastern North America, the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and copperhead (A...
- Phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of two Mediterranean snakes, Malpolon monspessulanus and Hemorrhois hippocrepis (Squamata, Colubridae), using mtDNA sequences
Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, E 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Mol Phylogenet Evol 40:532-46. 2006
..hippocrepis, may have crossed naturally, by "hopping" across the Strait of Gibraltar via temporary islands on the shallowest parts that were exposed during sea-level fall associated with Pleistocene glaciations...
- Branch lengths, support, and congruence: testing the phylogenomic approach with 20 nuclear loci in snakes
John J Wiens
Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 5245, USA
Syst Biol 57:420-31. 2008
..we examine these fundamental relationships quantitatively using a data set of 20 nuclear loci for 50 species of snakes (representing most traditionally recognized families)...
- Venomous snakes of Saudi Arabia and the Middle East: a keynote for travellers
Graduate Studies and Research, October6 University, 6th of October City, Main Center 111, Egypt
Int J Antimicrob Agents 21:164-9. 2003
..A classification of the venomous snakes of this area together with their distribution in the different countries is presented...