Genomes and Genes
Summary: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Publications271 found, 100 shown here
- Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequenceAylwyn Scally
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK
Nature 483:169-75. 2012..The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution...
- Drive against hotspot motifs in primates implicates the PRDM9 gene in meiotic recombinationSimon Myers
Department of Statistics, Oxford University, 1 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3TG, UK
Science 327:876-9. 2010..The involvement of PRDM9, which causes histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, implies that there is a common mechanism for recombination hotspots in eukaryotes but raises questions about what forces have driven such rapid change...
- Estimate of the mutation rate per nucleotide in humansM W Nachman
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Genetics 156:297-304. 2000..This high rate is difficult to reconcile with multiplicative fitness effects of individual mutations and suggests that synergistic epistasis among harmful mutations may be common...
- Sex-specific and lineage-specific alternative splicing in primatesRan Blekhman
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Genome Res 20:180-9. 2010....
- A fine-scale chimpanzee genetic map from population sequencingAdam Auton
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK
Science 336:193-8. 2012..to construct a fine-scale genetic map from high-throughput sequence data from 10 Western chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus...
- Worldwide human relationships inferred from genome-wide patterns of variationJun Z Li
Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5120, USA
Science 319:1100-4. 2008..This data set allows the most comprehensive characterization to date of human genetic variation...
- Assessing the evolutionary impact of amino acid mutations in the human genomeAdam R Boyko
Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
PLoS Genet 4:e1000083. 2008....
- Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillasWeimin Liu
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
Nature 467:420-5. 2010..specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan ..
- A genome-wide study of DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in multiple human and chimpanzee tissuesAthma A Pai
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS Genet 7:e1001316. 2011..In particular, we estimate that, in the tissues we studied, inter-species differences in promoter methylation might underlie as much as 12%-18% of differences in gene expression levels between humans and chimpanzees...
- Recent de novo origin of human protein-coding genesDavid G Knowles
Smurfit Institute of Genetics, University of Dublin, Trinity College, Ireland
Genome Res 19:1752-9. 2009..We estimate that 0.075% of human genes may have originated through this mechanism leading to a total expectation of 18 such cases in a genome of 24,000 protein-coding genes...
- On the diversity of malaria parasites in African apes and the origin of Plasmodium falciparum from BonobosSabrina Krief
UMR 7206 USM 104, Eco anthropologie et Ethnobiologie, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000765. 2010..parasites in blood samples from 18 of 91 individuals of the genus Pan, including six chimpanzees (three Pan troglodytes troglodytes, three Pan t. schweinfurthii) and twelve bonobos (Pan paniscus)...
- African great apes are natural hosts of multiple related malaria species, including Plasmodium falciparumFranck Prugnolle
Laboratoire Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, Unité Mixte de Recherche 2724, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Montpellier, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1458-63. 2010..falciparum, a species previously considered as strictly human specific. The continuously increasing contacts between humans and primate populations raise concerns about further reciprocal host transfers of these pathogens...
- Origins of HIV and the AIDS pandemicPaul M Sharp
Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 1:a006841. 2011..Tracing the genetic changes that occurred as SIVs crossed from monkeys to apes and from apes to humans provides a new framework to examine the requirements of successful host switches and to gauge future zoonotic risk...
- The impact of recombination on nucleotide substitutions in the human genomeLaurent Duret
Laboratoire de Biometrie et Biologie Evolutive, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France
PLoS Genet 4:e1000071. 2008..Our results also shed light on variations in the rate of crossover relative to non-crossover events, along chromosomes and according to sex, and also on the conservation of hotspot density between human and chimp...
- Sperm methylation profiles reveal features of epigenetic inheritance and evolution in primatesAntoine Molaro
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA
Cell 146:1029-41. 2011..Thus, the features that determine DNA methylation patterns differ between male germ cells and somatic cells, and elements of these features have diverged between humans and chimpanzees...
- Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1Brandon F Keele
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
Science 313:523-6. 2006..simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) thus far identified only in captive members of the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes...
- Bayes estimation of species divergence times and ancestral population sizes using DNA sequences from multiple lociBruce Rannala
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
Genetics 164:1645-56. 2003..Our estimates, however, are affected by model assumptions as well as data quality. We suggest that reliable estimates have yet to await more data and more realistic models...
- Copy number variation and evolution in humans and chimpanzeesGeorge H Perry
School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA
Genome Res 18:1698-710. 2008..In particular, duplications and deletions of genes with inflammatory response and cell proliferation functions may have been fixed by positive selection and involved in the adaptive phenotypic differentiation of humans and chimpanzees...
- The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analysesJody Hey
Department of Genetics, Rutgers University, USA
Mol Biol Evol 27:921-33. 2010....
- Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlifeEric M Leroy
Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR034, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
Science 303:387-90. 2004..Surveillance of animal mortality may help to predict and prevent human Ebola outbreaks...
- Hybrid origin of SIV in chimpanzeesElizabeth Bailes
University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG72UH, UK
Science 300:1713. 2003
- Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene contentJennifer F Hughes
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
Nature 463:536-9. 2010..Although genetic decay may be the principal dynamic in the evolution of newly emergent Y chromosomes, wholesale renovation is the paramount theme in the continuing evolution of chimpanzee, human and perhaps other older MSYs...
- Transcriptional neoteny in the human brainMehmet Somel
Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5743-8. 2009..This delay is not uniform across the human transcriptome but affects a specific subset of genes that play a potential role in neural development...
- Promoter regions of many neural- and nutrition-related genes have experienced positive selection during human evolutionRalph Haygood
Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
Nat Genet 39:1140-4. 2007....
- The genome-wide determinants of human and chimpanzee microsatellite evolutionYogeshwar D Kelkar
Department of Biology, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Genome Res 18:30-8. 2008..Finally, our regression models explain approximately 90% of variation in microsatellite mutability and can generate useful predictions for the studies of human diseases, forensics, and conservation genetics...
- A genome-wide analysis of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome distinguishes two distinct classes of promotersSerge Saxonov
Biomedical Informatics Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1412-7. 2006....
- The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomesKay PrÃ¼fer
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Nature 486:527-31. 2012Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus)...
- Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzee with AIDS related symptomsLucie Etienne
UMR145, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD and Université Montpellier 1, Montpellier, France
Retrovirology 8:4. 2011..on the impact of SIV on local ape populations are only available for Eastern African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii), and no data exist for Central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), the natural ..
- Evolutionary history of chimpanzees inferred from complete mitochondrial genomesAdam Bjork
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, USA
Mol Biol Evol 28:615-23. 2011Investigations into the evolutionary history of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, have produced inconsistent results due to differences in the types of molecular data considered, the model assumptions employed, and the quantity and ..
- The origin of malignant malariaStephen M Rich
Laboratory of Medical Zoology, Division of Entomology PSIS, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:14902-7. 2009..reichenowi. More recently, mutations in the dominant invasion receptor EBA 175 in the P. falciparum lineage provided the parasite with preference for the overabundant Neu5Ac precursor, accounting for its extreme human pathogenicity...
- Gene regulation in primates evolves under tissue-specific selection pressuresRan Blekhman
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
PLoS Genet 4:e1000271. 2008..These observations are consistent with the notion that adaptive circumscribed changes in gene regulation have fewer deleterious pleiotropic effects compared with changes at the protein sequence level...
- Patterns of positive selection in six Mammalian genomesCarolin Kosiol
Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
PLoS Genet 4:e1000144. 2008..This study provides additional evidence for widespread positive selection in mammalian evolution and new genome-wide insights into the functional implications of positive selection...
- Targeted investigation of the Neandertal genome by array-based sequence captureHernán A Burbano
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Science 328:723-5. 2010..By generating the sequence of one Neandertal and 50 present-day humans at these positions, we have identified 88 amino acid substitutions that have become fixed in humans since our divergence from the Neandertals...
- Incomplete lineage sorting patterns among human, chimpanzee, and orangutan suggest recent orangutan speciation and widespread selectionAsger Hobolth
Bioinformatics Research Center, Aarhus University, DK 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Genome Res 21:349-56. 2011..Finally, we find the broad-scale recombination rate to be conserved through the complete ape phylogeny...
- Ecological adaptation determines functional mammalian olfactory subgenomesSara Hayden
UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science and UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield Dublin 4, Ireland
Genome Res 20:1-9. 2010....
- A fresh look at the origin of Plasmodium falciparum, the most malignant malaria agentFranck Prugnolle
Laboratoire MIVEGEC UM1 CNRS IRD, Montpellier, France
PLoS Pathog 7:e1001283. 2011..falciparum. We also discuss the perspectives these new discoveries open...
- Conservation and evolution of gene coexpression networks in human and chimpanzee brainsMichael C Oldham
Interdepartmental Program for Neuroscience, Program in Neurogenetics, and Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 6814, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17973-8. 2006..Our results provide insights into the molecular bases of primate brain organization and demonstrate the general utility of weighted gene coexpression network analysis...
- Human-specific transcriptional regulation of CNS development genes by FOXP2Genevieve Konopka
Program in Neurogenetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
Nature 462:213-7. 2009..Because FOXP2 has an important role in speech and language in humans, the identified targets may have a critical function in the development and evolution of language circuitry in humans...
- An initial map of insertion and deletion (INDEL) variation in the human genomeRyan E Mills
Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Genome Res 16:1182-90. 2006..All INDELs in this study have been deposited into dbSNP and have been integrated into maps of human genetic variation that are available to the research community...
- The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individualJun Wang
Beijing Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518000, China
Nature 456:60-5. 2008..These variations were considered for their potential biological impact. Our sequence data and analyses demonstrate the potential usefulness of next-generation sequencing technologies for personal genomics...
- CD8(+) T cells mediate viral clearance and disease pathogenesis during acute hepatitis B virus infectionRobert Thimme
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Virol 77:68-76. 2003....
- Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virusS Cooper
Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5400, USA
Immunity 10:439-49. 1999..Every specificity shown during acute hepatitis persisted in normal liver tissue more than 1 yr after resolution. These results suggest that CD8+CTL are better correlated with protection against HCV infection than antibodies...
- Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apesSophie Köndgen
Robert Koch Institut, Nordufer 20, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
Curr Biol 18:260-4. 2008..These observations illustrate the challenge of maximizing the benefit of research and tourism to great apes while minimizing the negative side effects...
- A new malaria agent in African hominidsBenjamin Ollomo
Unité des Maladies Virales Emergentes, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, Franceville, Gabon
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000446. 2009..This new species has been isolated in two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) kept as pets by villagers in Gabon (Africa)...
- Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) respond to nonvisible sets after one-by-one addition and removal of itemsMichael J Beran
Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur, GA, USA
J Comp Psychol 118:25-36. 2004Two chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) made numerousness judgments of nonvisible sets of items...
- A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apesCeline Becquet
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
Genome Res 17:1505-19. 2007..Similarly, Eastern and Western gorillas and Sumatran and Bornean orangutans appear to have experienced gene flow since their splits approximately 90 and over 250 Kya, respectively...
- Cryptic variation in the human mutation rateAlan Hodgkinson
Centre for the Study of Evolution, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom
PLoS Biol 7:e1000027. 2009..We conclude that there is substantial variation in the mutation that has, until now, been hidden from view...
- Widespread genomic signatures of natural selection in hominid evolutionGraham McVicker
Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
PLoS Genet 5:e1000471. 2009..Our analyses reveal a dominant role for selection in shaping genomic diversity and divergence patterns, clarify hominid evolution, and provide a baseline for investigating specific selective events...
- Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus)P A Morin
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Inselstrasse 22, Leipzig 04103, Germany
Mol Ecol 10:1835-44. 2001..Repetition of results remains extensive for analysis of microsatellite amplifications beginning from low starting amounts of DNA, but is reduced for those with higher DNA content...
- Copy number variation analysis in the great apes reveals species-specific patterns of structural variationElodie Gazave
Institute of Evolutionary Biology UPF CSIC, PRBB, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Genome Res 21:1626-39. 2011..Finally, we identified a number of interesting genomic regions that present high-frequency CNVs in all great apes, while containing only very rare or even pathogenic structural variants in humans...
- Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative cultureL G Dean
Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, Queen s Terrace, St Andrews, Fife, UK
Science 335:1114-8. 2012....
- Summation and numerousness judgments of sequentially presented sets of items by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)M J Beran
Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Decatur 30034, USA
J Comp Psychol 115:181-91. 2001Summation and numerousness judgments by 2 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were investigated when 2 quantities of M&Ms were presented sequentially, and the quantities were never viewed in their totality...
- Quantity judgments of auditory and visual stimuli by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)Michael J Beran
Language Research Center, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA
J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:23-9. 2012..Here, three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) chose between two sets of food items when they only heard each item fall into different containers rather ..
- A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzeesRasmus Nielsen
Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
PLoS Biol 3:e170. 2005..The polymorphism analysis further supports the presence of positive selection in these genes by showing an excess of high-frequency derived nonsynonymous mutations...
- Species-specific activity of HIV-1 Vpu and positive selection of tetherin transmembrane domain variantsMatthew W McNatt
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000300. 2009....
- Reacquisition of Nef-mediated tetherin antagonism in a single in vivo passage of HIV-1 through its original chimpanzee hostNicola Götz
Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Cell Host Microbe 12:373-80. 2012..Our data demonstrate that primate lentiviruses can reacquire lost accessory gene functions during a single in vivo passage and suggest that other functional constraints keep Nef ready to regain antitetherin activity...
- A geometric morphometric analysis of heterochrony in the cranium of chimpanzees and bonobosDaniel E Lieberman
Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
J Hum Evol 52:647-62. 2007..comparing the ontogeny of cranial shape in cross-sectional samples of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using both internal and external 3D landmarks digitized from CT scans...
- Differences in the cognitive skills of bonobos and chimpanzeesEsther Herrmann
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
PLoS ONE 5:e12438. 2010..These species differences support the role of ecological and socio-ecological pressures in shaping cognitive skills over relatively short periods of evolutionary time...
- Different evolutionary fates of recently integrated human and chimpanzee LINE-1 retrotransposonsJungnam Lee
Department of Biological Sciences, Biological Computation and Visualization Center, Center for BioModular Multi Scale Systems, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Gene 390:18-27. 2007..Therefore, the chimpanzee genome constitutes an excellent model in which to analyze the evolutionary dynamics of L1 retrotransposons...
- Making inferences about the location of hidden food: social dog, causal apeJuliane Bräuer
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
J Comp Psychol 120:38-47. 2006..This result is discussed in terms of apes' adaptations for complex, extractive foraging and dogs' adaptations, during the domestication process, for cooperative communication with humans...
- Chimpanzees recruit the best collaboratorsAlicia P Melis
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, D 04103, Germany
Science 311:1297-300. 2006....
- Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzeesFelix Warneken
Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Science 311:1301-3. 2006..This requires both an understanding of others' goals and an altruistic motivation to help. In addition, we demonstrate similar though less robust skills and motivations in three young chimpanzees...
- Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in AfricaLinda Duval
Laboratoire de Biologie fonctionnelle des protozoaires, USM 504, Museum national d histoire naturelle, Paris, France
PLoS ONE 4:e5520. 2009..In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools...
- Demographic history and genetic differentiation in apesAnne Fischer
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Curr Biol 16:1133-8. 2006..Finally, we find that the extent of genetic differentiation among "subspecies" of chimpanzees and orangutans is comparable to that seen among human populations, calling the validity of the "subspecies" concept in apes into question...
- Single-nucleotide mutation rate increases close to insertions/deletions in eukaryotesDacheng Tian
State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Nature 455:105-8. 2008..The consistency of these patterns within and between species suggests that indel-associated substitution is a general mutational mechanism...
- The influence of CCL3L1 gene-containing segmental duplications on HIV-1/AIDS susceptibilityEnrique Gonzalez
Veterans Administration Research Center for AIDS and HIV 1 Infection, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, and Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
Science 307:1434-40. 2005....
- Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens)Victoria Horner
Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9JU, UK
Anim Cogn 8:164-81. 2005....
- Evolution at two levels: on genes and formSean B Carroll
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
PLoS Biol 3:e245. 2005
- Development of stone tool use by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)N Inoue-Nakamura
Department of Psychology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Nishinomiya, Japan
J Comp Psychol 111:159-73. 1997..Although infant chimpanzees at the age of 2.5 years already acquired basic actions necessary for nut cracking, they did not combine the actions in an appropriate sequence to perform actual nut cracking...
- Impact of replication timing on non-CpG and CpG substitution rates in mammalian genomesChun Long Chen
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Allée de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Genome Res 20:447-57. 2010..Similar results are observed in the mouse, which indicates that replication timing is a main factor affecting nucleotide substitution dynamics at non-CpG sites and constitutes a major neutral process driving mammalian genome evolution...
- Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Evolution of the human lifespan and diseases of aging: roles of infection, inflammation, and nutritionCaleb E Finch
Davis School of Gerontology and the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1718-24. 2010..Apolipoprotein E alleles are proposed as a prototype of pleiotropic genes, which influence immune responses, arterial and Alzheimer's disease, and brain development...
- QuadBase: genome-wide database of G4 DNA--occurrence and conservation in human, chimpanzee, mouse and rat promoters and 146 microbesVinod Kumar Yadav
G N Ramachandran Knowledge Centre for Genome Informatics and Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, CSIR, New Delhi 110 007, India
Nucleic Acids Res 36:D381-5. 2008..e. stem, loop size, etc. 'Pattern Finder' tool can search for motifs in any given sequence. QuadBase is freely available to users from non-profit organization at http://quadbase.igib.res.in/...
- Biased clustered substitutions in the human genome: the footprints of male-driven biased gene conversionTimothy R Dreszer
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
Genome Res 17:1420-30. 2007..These observations support the hypothesis that biased gene conversion (BGC), specifically in the male germline, played a significant role in the evolution of the human genome...
- Novel antimalarial compounds isolated in a survey of self-medicative behavior of wild chimpanzees in UgandaSabrina Krief
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3196-9. 2004..A greater understanding of the role of secondary compounds in the primate diet may be helpful in recovering naturally occurring compounds of medicinal significance for human medicine...
- Chimpanzee right-handedness reconsidered: Evaluating the evidence with funnel plotsA Richard Palmer
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
Am J Phys Anthropol 118:191-9. 2002..Funnel plots, and the more refined statistical tests they suggest, confirm that the current evidence for population-level right-handedness in chimpanzees remains equivocal...
- Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolutionW M Brown
J Mol Evol 18:225-39. 1982....
- A simian replication-defective adenoviral recombinant vaccine to HIV-1 gagJulie C Fitzgerald
The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Immunol 170:1416-22. 2003..However, the response elicited by the AdHu5 vaccine is greatly attenuated in AdHu5 preimmune animals...
- Human-specific transcriptional networks in the brainGenevieve Konopka
Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Neuron 75:601-17. 2012..These data demonstrate that transcriptional networks have undergone evolutionary remodeling even within a given brain region, providing a window through which to view the foundation of uniquely human cognitive capacities...
- Stress reduction through consolation in chimpanzeesOrlaith N Fraser
Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Parsons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:8557-62. 2008..Chimpanzees may thus respond to distressed valuable partners by consoling them, thereby reducing their stress levels, especially in the absence of reconciliation...
- A serological survey of Ebola virus infection in central African nonhuman primatesE M Leroy
Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR034, Franceville, Gabon
J Infect Dis 190:1895-9. 2004..They also suggest that future Ebola outbreaks may occur anywhere in the central African forest region...
- Sequence variability of a human pseudogeneR Martinez-Arias
Unitat de Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Genome Res 11:1071-85. 2001..In a deeper timeframe, phylogenetic analysis showed that the duplication event that created psGBA could be dated at approximately 27 million years ago, in agreement with previous estimates...
- Detection and genetic characterization of enteroviruses circulating among wild populations of chimpanzees in Cameroon: relationship with human and simian enterovirusesHeli Harvala
Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh EH9 1QH, United Kingdom
J Virol 85:4480-6. 2011....
- Eastern chimpanzees, but not bonobos, represent a simian immunodeficiency virus reservoirYingying Li
Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
J Virol 86:10776-91. 2012Chimpanzees in west central Africa (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) are endemically infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVcpzPtt) that have crossed the species barrier to humans and gorillas on at least five occasions, ..
- Female contributions to the peaceful nature of bonobo societyTakeshi Furuichi
Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Evol Anthropol 20:131-42. 2011Although chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are closely related, females of the two species show surprisingly large differences in many behavioral aspects...
- Hotspots of biased nucleotide substitutions in human genesJonas Berglund
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
PLoS Biol 7:e26. 2009..This process can lead to accelerated evolution in coding sequences and excess amino acid replacement substitutions, thereby generating significant results for tests of positive selection...
- Image scoring in great apesYvan I Russell
British Academy Centenary Research Project, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
Behav Processes 78:108-11. 2008..Chimpanzees (n=17) spent significantly more time at the 'nice' window compared to 'nasty'. Also, preference for 'nasty' declined as trials progressed. Results for other apes were not significant...
- Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolutionKevin E Langergraber
Department of Anthropology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15716-21. 2012..This suggests that molecular divergence dates may not be in conflict with the attribution of 6- to 7-million-y-old fossils to the human lineage and 400,000-y-old fossils to the Neanderthal lineage...
- Bonobos fall within the genomic variation of chimpanzeesAnne Fischer
Max Plank Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
PLoS ONE 6:e21605. 2011....
- Evidence from Cameroon reveals differences in the genetic structure and histories of chimpanzee populationsMary Katherine Gonder
Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4766-71. 2011The history of the genus Pan is a topic of enduring interest. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often divided into subspecies, but the population structure and genetic history of chimpanzees across Africa remain unclear...
- To what extent does living in a group mean living with kin?D Lukas
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig 04103, Germany
Mol Ecol 14:2181-96. 2005..Our study therefore suggests that interactions among larger number of individuals may not be primarily driven by kin relationships...
- Comparison of fine-scale recombination rates in humans and chimpanzeesWendy Winckler
Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 2622, USA
Science 308:107-11. 2005..Thus, local patterns of recombination rate have evolved rapidly, in a manner disproportionate to the change in DNA sequence...
- Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) consolation: third-party identity as a window on possible functionTeresa Romero
Living Links Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University
J Comp Psychol 124:278-86. 2010..and their corresponding postconflict periods in two outdoor-housed groups of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
- On the psychology of cooperation in humans and other primates: combining the natural history and experimental evidence of prosocialityAdrian V Jaeggi
Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:2723-35. 2010..We discuss ultimate explanations for these derived features, in particular the adoption of cooperative breeding as well as concern for reputation and costly signalling during human evolution...
- Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferencesStephanie Braccini
Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom
J Hum Evol 58:234-41. 2010..We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use...
- Context dependence, ancestral misidentification, and spurious signatures of natural selectionRyan D Hernandez
Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, NY, USA
Mol Biol Evol 24:1792-800. 2007..By constructing a novel model of the context-dependent mutation process, we can correct polymorphism data for the effect of ancestral misidentification using a single outgroup...
- Maintenance of self-imposed delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)Michael J Beran
Language Research Center, Georgia State University, Decatur 30034, USA
J Gen Psychol 129:49-66. 2002..forgo an immediate, less preferred reward for a future, more preferred reward, was examined in 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and 1 orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)...
- Malaria parasite sequences from chimpanzee support the co-speciation hypothesis for the origin of virulent human malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)Austin L Hughes
Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:135-43. 2010..falciparum showed that the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) malaria parasites, assigned by Rich et al. (2009) to P. reichenowi, constitute a paraphyletic assemblage...
- Bayesian inference of the demographic history of chimpanzeesDaniel Wegmann
Department of Biology, Computational and Molecular Population Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Mol Biol Evol 27:1425-35. 2010....
- Potent neutralization of anthrax edema toxin by a humanized monoclonal antibody that competes with calmodulin for edema factor bindingZhaochun Chen
Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13487-92. 2009..05-0.12 nM) was 50- to 130-fold higher than that reported for EF-CaM. This anti-EF neutralizing mAb could potentially be used alone or with an anti-PA mAb in the emergency prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax infection...
- Heterochrony and geometric morphometrics: a comparison of cranial growth in Pan paniscus versus Pan troglodytesPhilipp Mitteroecker
Institute for Anthropology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A 1091 Vienna, Austria
Evol Dev 7:244-58. 2005..a geometric morphometric approach to these issues using adult and subadult crania of 48 Pan paniscus and 47 Pan troglodytes specimens...
- A comparison of resting-state brain activity in humans and chimpanzeesJames K Rilling
Department of Anthropology, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Division of Psychobiology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17146-51. 2007..Our results raise the possibility that the resting state of chimpanzees involves emotionally laden episodic memory retrieval and some level of mental self-projection, albeit in the absence of language and conceptual processing...
- ESTABLISHMENT/MAINTENANCE OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH COLONYThomas J Rowell; Fiscal Year: 2011..The biomedical and behavioral research community has long recognized the importance of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as an animal model...
- Chimpanzee Biomedical Research Program Limited Competition (U42)M Babette Fontenot; Fiscal Year: 2013..The biomedical and behavioral research community has long recognized the importance of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as an animal model...
- The MHC of wild chimpanzees: genetic variation, disease and reproductive successEMILY ELIZABETH WROBLEWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2012..The study will 1) Characterize the MHC genetic variation in the chimpanzee population (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania;2) Examine the correlation between MHC genotype and health ..
- Evolution and Ancestral Functions of a Human MHC Class I Pseudogene, HLA-YANA S GOYOS; Fiscal Year: 2012..class I gene in chimpanzee named Patr-AL because it was most like MHC-A and was identified in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes A-like)...
- Studying the evolution of gene regulation at the protein level in primatesGEORGE HERBERT PERRY; Fiscal Year: 2010..expression levels in multiple primate species, (ii) use this platform for comparisons of human, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) liver, kidney, heart, lung and testis tissues, and (iii) examine ratios ..
- Macrostructural and Microstructural Analysis of the Primate Corpus CallosumKIMBERLEY ANN PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2010..In this application, we will examine the topography of the CC in two divergent primate species - chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) - that have independently evolved several behavioral and anatomical ..
- Conference Support: NHP Models of AgingJoseph Kemnitz; Fiscal Year: 2001..Saimiri sciureus), cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), baboons (Papio hamadryas), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). A working dinner will be held on the evening of May 31...
- Y CHROMOSOME EVOLUTION AND MODERN HUMAN ORIGINSMichael Hammer; Fiscal Year: 1999..five kilobases of Y-specific single-copy DNA will be sequenced from 16 humans and four species of great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus)...
- ESTABLISHMENT OF A CHIMPANZEE BREEDING/RESEARCH PROGRAMThomas Rowell; Fiscal Year: 2000Biomedical and behavioral scientists consider the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) essential to investigations directed at important human health problems because the chimpanzee and human share evolutionary similarities in immune system, ..
- ENDOCRINOLOGY AND BEHAVIORMIKE JURKE; Fiscal Year: 1999..in the literature on social and reproductive behavior of our closest relatives: the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus)...
- CHIMERIC VIRUS PRIMATE MODEL OF HEPATITIS CSTANLEY LEMON; Fiscal Year: 2005..The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the only animal species permissive for infection with this virus...
- EXPANSION OF CHIMPANZEE HOLDING FACILITIESThomas Rowell; Fiscal Year: 1999..of Southwestern Louisiana New Iberia Research Center (USL-NIRC) currently maintains 246 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) through support by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes and the National Center for ..
- HCV SPECIFIC T CELL RESPONSESChristopher Walker; Fiscal Year: 2003..The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the only animal model for studying mechanisms of protective immunity against HCV...
- CALCULATED RECIPROCITY IN CHIMPANZEESFrans De Waal; Fiscal Year: 1993..A previous study of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) suggested food- sharing as a promising dependent variable in this species...
- NEUROBIOLOGY OF HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION IN PRIMATESWilliam Hopkins; Fiscal Year: 2007..The overall studies will contribute to our understanding of factors that influence individual and species differences in the expression of hemispheric specialization. ..
- Resolution of Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections in ChimpanzeesRobert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2008..Our long-term objective is to apply our understanding of the resolution of acute HBV infection to the development of effective new immunotherapies for chronic HBV infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- GBV-B: A SMALL PRIMATE MODEL FOR HEPATITIS C INFECTIONRobert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Gene Expression Analyses During IFN Antiviral TherapyRobert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2005..These data will help determine why interferon therapy is often unsuccessful for chronic HCV infections and provide cellular targets for future therapies. ..
- Mechanisms of vocal communicationMarc D Hauser; Fiscal Year: 2005..Results from this project will set the stage for future research on the underlying neurobiological circuitry and the extent to which it is homologous with humans. ..
- GENETICS OF SPECIATION IN DROSOPHILAEMANUEL HEY; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Genetic Epidemiology of Adult Brain Cancer: A Follow-up StudyJianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Sequencing the Chimpanzee Y ChromosomeJennifer Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2005..However, because of several unique challenges posed by the Y chromosome, a dedicated effort will be required to obtain a complete and accurate sequence of this distinctive region of the chimpanzee genome. ..
- Center for the Study of Natural Genetic VariationMaynard Olson; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- UW Genome Center Large-scale Sequencing ProgramMaynard Olson; Fiscal Year: 2006..Other capabilities of the UWGC such as its automated finishing capacity will be made available to the NHGRI network on an as-needed basis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- DNA Methylation as an Epigenetic Host Factor in HIV/AIDSJianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Evolutionary Conserved Sequences in the Human GenomeKelly Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Genetic Association in Austism DisorderKelly Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2004..The identification of autism-associated genetic markers will allow the development of diagnostic tools to identify individuals with high risk of developing autism, and could ultimately lead to therapeutic breakthroughs. ..
- Re-engineering the MEGA software packageSudhir Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2009..These core software enhancements will contribute to the longevity of MEGA for use in molecular evolution, bioinformatics, functional genomics, computational biology, and basic biomedicine applications. ..
- Evolution of vertebrate sensory genesJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will also help understand human smell and taste variations and disorders. ..
- METHODS FOR SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMSMaynard Olson; Fiscal Year: 2001..We will evaluate a scoring technology (TDI) that has the potential to be arrayed. And we will develop software to facilitate the process of cSNP discovery, marker creation, and TDI scoring. ..
- PROPHYLACTIC & THERPEUTIC DNA IMMUNIZATION AGAINST HCVAlfred Prince; Fiscal Year: 2003..The immunogenicity of HCV genes presented as fusion proteins with ubiquitin and secreting and non-secreting HCV gene-containing plasmids will be compared. ..
- Large-Scale Low-Cost Genotyping for the Haplotype MapKelly Frazer; Fiscal Year: 2004..e. 2.25 million SNPs in 270 samples, plus 15 duplicates and 3 blanks) within one year, at the cost and quality specified by the HapMap Project, is well within our capacity. ..
- Methylphenidate & gene expression in the rat brain.JOAN BAIZER; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Combination DNA and Attenuated Virus Vaccine for SIVFrancis Novembre; Fiscal Year: 2002..Additionally, these studies will allow a comparison to other DNA-based strategies currently being utilized at the Yerkes Center. ..
- Mechanisms and clinical effects of microchimerism in transfused trauma patientsMICHAEL PAUL BUSCH; Fiscal Year: 2010..TA-MC also offers an opportunity to better understand, and potentially exploit, injury-induced tolerance for future therapeutic purposes. ..
- The Emergence of HIV: A Molecular Archeology ApproachMichael Worobey; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- CANCER VACCINES TO HPV-16 ASSOCIATED TUMORHildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2001..In case the applicant's hypothesis is correct, data gathered within the realm of this application will serve as the basis for a clinical Phase I trial. ..
- HCV Alternate Reading Frame Protein in HIV/HCV Co-infectAndrea Branch; Fiscal Year: 2007..The yeast two-hybrid system will identify human proteins that bind ARFPs. These studies will identify new targets for therapeutics and vaccine development. ..
- WITHIN-SPECIES VARIATIONS IN VISUAL CAPACITYGERALD JACOBS; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MicroRNA evolution and species divergence in DrosophilaChung I Wu; Fiscal Year: 2010..A survey of the scope of microRNA repertoire and their rise and fall through evolution will be useful for understanding their roles in regulating the normal and aberrant phenotypes in human populations. ..
- Oral Vaccine to Inhalation RabiesHildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2006..In aim 2, the AdC68rab.gp vaccine will be tested in a non-human primate rabies virus challenge model. ..
- Comparison of CYP2 Genes Across Mammal SpeciesSusan Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Reduced Interneuronal Space in Schizophrenic BrainsManuel Casanova; Fiscal Year: 2005..If our preliminary findings are corroborated, the smaller than normal minicolumns will demonstrate a reorganization of brain circuitry most probably defined during development. ..
- Prime-boost regimens for adenoviral vaccines to HIV-1Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- EXPLORING NUCLEAR-MITOCHONDRIAL DNA INTERACTIONSCARLOS MORAES; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will also study some physical and biochemical properties of oocyte mitochondria and test if these specific features are optimized for mitochondrial maintenance in the egg. ..
- NUCLEOTIDE DONORS AFFECTING GLYCOSYLATION PATHWAYSAjit Varki; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- CANCER VACCINE TO P53Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Normal Human and Schizophrenic BrainManuel Casanova; Fiscal Year: 2004..Another possible outcome is that the number of minicolumns in the temporal lobe may differ without a concomitant change in the structural reorganization. ..
- Germline epimutation of hMLH1 as a factor in HNPCCDavid Martin; Fiscal Year: 2006..They may also produce the first clear evidence that epigenetic silencing can be inherited to produce a familial disorder such as HNPCC. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- HIV-1 Vaccine-Induced CD8+ Memory CellsHildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2003..The role of the two different memory CD8+ T cell populations in limiting propagation of the vaccinia gag recombinant virus will be tested by adoptive transfer experiments. ..
- E1-deleted adenoviral vectors for oral immunizationHildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2004..In aim 4, we will determine the tropism of the simian and human Ad recombinants upon oral application emphasizing localization of and cytokine production by transduced antigen presenting cells (APCs). ..
- Search for a Hypertensive Renal Failure GeneMICHAEL JENSEN SEAMAN; Fiscal Year: 2004..As it is believed that the mechanisms of renal disease onset and progression are the same or similar in humans as in rats, this work may ultimately lead to a better understanding of ESRD in humans. ..
- SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHYEdward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003..It is anticipated that the proposed studies will provide valuable information which will improve our understanding of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. ..
- Diet, Epigenetic Events, And Cancer PreventionDavid Martin; Fiscal Year: 2009..3. Investigate effects of methyl donor supplementation on CpG methylation of the A-vy allele We will use bisulphite allelic sequencing to obtain a detailed picture of the methylation status of the allele in mice bred for Aims 1 and 2. ..
- SEQUENCE SELECTION AND PERSISTENCE OF HEPATITIS CStuart Ray; Fiscal Year: 2003..This application is efficient and has a high likelihood of success because it makes use of a well-characterized cohort, for which years of clinical and virologic data have already been assembled. ..
- Mouse Models of Mitochondrial EncephalomyopathiesCARLOS MORAES; Fiscal Year: 2009..We expect these studies to provide evidence that specific defects in the OXPHOS can manifest as distinct phenotypic alterations. ..
- Simulation algorithms for genome-wide data and application to admixed dataJeffrey Wall; Fiscal Year: 2009..This work will also help us determine the marker density and sample size needed for future association studies. ..
- OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION IN CELL GROWTH AND DEATHCARLOS TORRES MORAES; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- HEPADNAVIRUS INFECTIONS AND LIVER CANCERWilliam Mason; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- NEURAL CONTROL OF A MOTOR PROGRAMJames Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2002..We will also continue genetic screens to identify additional potential targets. ..