Genomes and Genes
Summary: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Publications269 found, 100 shown here
- Bayes estimation of species divergence times and ancestral population sizes using DNA sequences from multiple lociBruce Rannala
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada
Genetics 164:1645-56. 2003..Our estimates, however, are affected by model assumptions as well as data quality. We suggest that reliable estimates have yet to await more data and more realistic models...
- A new malaria agent in African hominidsBenjamin Ollomo
Unité des Maladies Virales Emergentes, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, Franceville, Gabon
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000446. 2009..The risk of transfer and emergence of this new species in humans must be now seriously considered given that it was found in two chimpanzees living in contact with humans and its close relatedness to the most virulent agent of malaria...
- Genetic analyses from ancient DNASvante Paabo
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D 04013 Leipzig, Germany
Annu Rev Genet 38:645-79. 2004..We also highlight some significant results and areas of promising future research...
- Widespread genomic signatures of natural selection in hominid evolutionGraham McVicker
Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
PLoS Genet 5:e1000471. 2009..Our analyses reveal a dominant role for selection in shaping genomic diversity and divergence patterns, clarify hominid evolution, and provide a baseline for investigating specific selective events...
- Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humansMichael P Richards
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16034-9. 2009..As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe...
- Demographic history and genetic differentiation in apesAnne Fischer
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Curr Biol 16:1133-8. 2006..Finally, we find that the extent of genetic differentiation among "subspecies" of chimpanzees and orangutans is comparable to that seen among human populations, calling the validity of the "subspecies" concept in apes into question...
- Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil homininsRobert S Scott
1 Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA 2 These authors contributed equally to this work
Nature 436:693-5. 2005..africanus. This suggests that A. africanus ate more tough foods and P. robustus consumed more hard and brittle items, but that both had variable and overlapping diets...
- Principles for the virtual reconstruction of hominin craniaPhilipp Gunz
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
J Hum Evol 57:48-62. 2009..While there will typically be shape differences among equally plausible reconstructions, these different estimates might still support a single conclusion...
- Hominin dispersal into the Nefud Desert and Middle palaeolithic settlement along the Jubbah Palaeolake, Northern ArabiaMichael D Petraglia
School of Archaeology, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 7:e49840. 2012..Comparative inter-regional analysis of core technology indicates morphological similarities with the Levantine Tabun C assemblage, associated with human fossils controversially identified as either Neanderthals or Homo sapiens...
- The prehistory of the Arabian peninsula: deserts, dispersals, and demographyHuw S Groucutt
School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, UK
Evol Anthropol 21:113-25. 2012..Debates continue on the respective roles of regional hominin extinctions and population continuity, with the latter suggesting adaptation to arid conditions...
- The biology of the colonizing apeJonathan C K Wells
Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Am J Phys Anthropol . 2007..We propose that the concept of hominins as "colonizing apes" offers a novel unified model for interpreting the suite of traits characteristic of our genus...
- Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human originsCourtney C Babbitt
Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Proc Biol Sci 278:961-9. 2011..Finally, we propose some ways in which new technologies can help identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in metabolic and morphological differences between humans and non-human primates...
- Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishmentErik Trinkaus
Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1267-71. 2011..They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans...
- Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier homininsC Dean
Evolutionary Anatomy Unit, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Nature 414:628-31. 2001..These times were shorter than those in modern humans. It therefore seems likely that truly modern dental development emerged relatively late in human evolution...
- The prehistory of handedness: archaeological data and comparative ethologyNatalie T Uomini
School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, UK
J Hum Evol 57:411-9. 2009..When primatology meets palaeoanthropology, the evidence suggests species-level right-handedness may have emerged through the social transmission of increasingly complex, bimanually differentiated, tool using activities...
- Morphological evolution through integration: a quantitative study of cranial integration in Homo, Pan, Gorilla and PongoNandini Singh
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany
J Hum Evol 62:155-64. 2012..Thus, despite having very distinct morphologies the way in which the face, basicranium and cranial vault covary is shared among these taxa. These results imply that the pattern of cranial integration among hominoids is conserved...
- An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from AfricaS C Anton
Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
J Hum Evol 43:773-85. 2002..erectus facilitated by changes in ecosystem structure during the Plio-Pleistocene...
- Wild great apes as sentinels and sources of infectious diseaseS Calvignac-Spencer
Emerging Zoonoses, Robert Koch Institut, Berlin, Germany
Clin Microbiol Infect 18:521-7. 2012..Linking non-invasive diagnostic data with observational health data from great apes habituated to human presence is a promising approach for the discovery of pathogens of high relevance for humans...
- Is Homo heidelbergensis a distinct species? New insight on the Mauer mandibleAurélien Mounier
Unité d Anthropologie Adaptabilité Bioculturelle, UMR 6578, CNRS, Universite de la Mediterranee, EFS, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, Marseille, France
J Hum Evol 56:219-46. 2009..neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. However, the results of this study fail to entirely discount the hypothesis that considers H. heidelbergensis as a chronospecies leading to the Neandertals...
- Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, EthiopiaShannon P McPherron
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, DeutscherPlatz 6, Leipzig 04103, Germany
Nature 466:857-60. 2010..Our discovery extends by approximately 800,000 years the antiquity of stone tools and of stone-tool-assisted consumption of ungulates by hominins; furthermore, this behaviour can now be attributed to Australopithecus afarensis...
- Removal of deaminated cytosines and detection of in vivo methylation in ancient DNAAdrian W Briggs
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Nucleic Acids Res 38:e87. 2010..In addition, our results demonstrate that Neandertal DNA retains in vivo patterns of CpG methylation, potentially allowing future studies of gene inactivation and imprinting in ancient organisms...
- The metabolic cost of walking in humans, chimpanzees, and early homininsHerman Pontzer
Washington University, Department of Anthropology, St Louis, MO 63130, USA
J Hum Evol 56:43-54. 2009..This supports the hypothesis that locomotor energy economy was an important evolutionary pressure on hominin bipedalism...
- The feeding biomechanics and dietary ecology of Australopithecus africanusDavid S Strait
Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:2124-9. 2009..Our analysis reconciles apparent discrepancies between dietary reconstructions based on biomechanics, tooth morphology, and dental microwear...
- Using genetic evidence to evaluate four palaeoanthropological hypotheses for the timing of Neanderthal and modern human originsPhillip Endicott
Départment Hommes, Natures, sociétés, Musée de l Homme, Paris, France
J Hum Evol 59:87-95. 2010..These results suggest that a reappraisal of key elements in the Pleistocene hominin fossil record may now be required...
- Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: the origin of NeandertalsJ J Hublin
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16022-7. 2009....
- The evolution of human skin colorationN G Jablonski
Department of Anthropology, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118 4599, USA
J Hum Evol 39:57-106. 2000..Skin pigmentation levels have changed more than once in human evolution. Because of this, skin coloration is of no value in determining phylogenetic relationships among modern human groups...
- Human and ape molecular clocks and constraints on paleontological hypothesesR L Stauffer
Department of Biology and Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
J Hered 92:469-74. 2001..3 +/- 1.3 million years ago (orangutan, 33 genes), and 14.9 +/- 2.0 million years ago (gibbon, 27 genes). Based on these molecular constraints, we find that several proposed phylogenies of fossil hominoid taxa are unlikely to be correct...
- Comparative and familial analysis of handedness in great apesWilliam D Hopkins
Department of Psychology, Berry College and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Psychol Bull 132:538-59. 2006..Overall, the proportion of right handedness is lower in great apes compared with humans, and various methodological and theoretical explanations for this discrepancy are discussed...
- Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodental characters: the role of fossil taxaDavid S Strait
Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY, 12222, USA
J Hum Evol 47:399-452. 2004..garhi is either the sister taxon or direct ancestor of the genus Homo. Phylogenetic relationships indicate that Australopithecus is paraphyletic. Thus, A. anamensis and A. garhi should be allocated to new genera...
- Early evidence of the genus Homo in East AsiaR X Zhu
Paleomagnetism and Geochronology Laboratory SKL LE, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
J Hum Evol 55:1075-85. 2008..The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia...
- Nuts, nut cracking, and pitted stones at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, IsraelNaama Goren-Inbar
Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2455-60. 2002..The evidence also sheds light on the structure of the community: ethnographic analogies suggest that mixedgender groups may have been active on the shores of paleoLake Hula...
- The diets of early homininsPeter S Ungar
Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Science 334:190-3. 2011..g., seeds and nuts) consumption dates to millions of years after the appearance of the earliest probable hominins, and there are no consistent trends in diet change among these species through time...
- An Early Pleistocene hominin mandible from Atapuerca-TD6, SpainE Carbonell
Area de Prehistoria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Plaza Imperial Tarraco 1, 43005 Tarragona, Spain
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5674-8. 2005..This evidence reinforces the taxonomic identity of H. antecessor and is consistent with the hypothesis of a close relationship between this species and Homo sapiens...
- Hand preferences for coordinated bimanual actions in 777 great apes: implications for the evolution of handedness in homininsWilliam D Hopkins
Department of Psychology, Agnes Scott College, 141 E College Avenue, Decatur, GA 30030, USA
J Hum Evol 60:605-11. 2011....
- Systematic blade production at late Lower Paleolithic (400-200 kyr) Qesem Cave, IsraelRon Shimelmitz
Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
J Hum Evol 61:458-79. 2011..Furthermore, this well-organized serial manufacture of cutting implements mainly for butchering might indicates that a significant change in human behavior had taken place by the late Lower Paleolithic period...
- Dental evidence on the hominin dispersals during the PleistoceneM Martinón-Torres
Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, Avenida de la Paz 28, 09004 Burgos, Spain
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13279-82. 2007..We propose that the genetic impact of Asia in the colonization of Europe during the Early and Middle Pleistocene was stronger than that of Africa...
- Strong reproductive isolation between humans and Neanderthals inferred from observed patterns of introgressionMathias Currat
Anthropology, Genetics, and Peopling History Laboratory, Anthropology Unit, Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, 1227 Geneva, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:15129-34. 2011..This hypothesis could be tested because it predicts that different components of Neanderthal ancestry should be present in Europeans and in Asians...
- Fossils, feet and the evolution of human bipedal locomotionW E H Harcourt-Smith
Division of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York 10024, USA
J Anat 204:403-16. 2004....
- Laetoli footprints preserve earliest direct evidence of human-like bipedal biomechanicsDavid A Raichlen
School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e9769. 2010..Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma...
- Archaic lineages in the history of modern humansD Labuda
Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1C5, Canada
Genetics 156:799-808. 2000..Genetic admixture involving archaic lineages appears therefore to have occurred within Africa rather than outside this continent, explaining greater diversity of sub-Saharan populations observed in a variety of genetic systems...
- Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South AfricaFrancesco Berna
Department of Archaeology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E1215-20. 2012..0 Ma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the earliest secure evidence for burning in an archaeological context...
- Possible brucellosis in an early hominin skeleton from sterkfontein, South AfricaRuggero D'Anastasio
Department of Human Movement Sciences, Section of Anthropology, State University G d Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
PLoS ONE 4:e6439. 2009..Now with the hypothesis of brucellosis in A. africanus, we may have evidence of occasional meat eating directly linked to a fossil hominin...
- Early hominid stone tool production and technical skill 2.34 Myr ago in West Turkana, KenyaH Roche
CNRS, Préhistoire et Technologie, MAE boite 3, Nanterre, France
Nature 399:57-60. 1999..We can thus demonstrate greater cognitive capacity and motor skill than previously assumed for early hominids, and highlight the diversity of Pliocene technical behaviour...
- Paleobiological implications of the Ardipithecus ramidus dentitionGen Suwa
University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 0033 Japan
Science 326:94-9. 2009..The canine/lower third premolar complex indicates a reduction of canine size and honing capacity early in hominid evolution, possibly driven by selection targeted on the male upper canine...
- New estimates of tooth mark and percussion mark frequencies at the FLK Zinj site: the carnivore-hominid-carnivore hypothesis falsifiedM Dominguez-Rodrigo
Departamento de Prehistoria, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid, Spain
J Hum Evol 50:170-94. 2006....
- Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolutionYohannes Haile-Selassie
Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1 Wade Oval Drive, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Science 303:1503-5. 2004..kadabba. It is therefore premature to posit extensive late Miocene hominid diversity on the basis of currently available samples...
- A new species of great ape from the late Miocene epoch in EthiopiaGen Suwa
The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
Nature 448:921-4. 2007..The combined evidence suggests that Chororapithecus may be a basal member of the gorilla clade, and that the latter exhibited some amount of adaptive and phyletic diversity at around 10-11 Myr ago...
- Tool-composite reuse in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): archaeologically invisible steps in the technological evolution of early hominins?Susana Carvalho
Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Anim Cogn 12:S103-14. 2009....
- Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategiesKaren L Steudel-Numbers
Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
J Hum Evol 56:355-60. 2009..Variations in the efficiency of human locomotion appear to be similar to those of terrestrial quadrupeds...
- Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groupsCarles Lalueza-Fox
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:250-3. 2011..These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior...
- Human-like external function of the foot, and fully upright gait, confirmed in the 3.66 million year old Laetoli hominin footprints by topographic statistics, experimental footprint-formation and computer simulationRobin H Crompton
Institute of Aging and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
J R Soc Interface 9:707-19. 2012..66 Mya. This finding provides strong support to those previous studies which have interpreted the G-1 prints as generally modern in aspect...
- Taphonomic perspectives on hominid site use and foraging strategies during Bed II times at Olduvai Gorge, TanzaniaCharles P Egeland
Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA
J Hum Evol 55:1031-52. 2008....
- Anthropology: the earliest toothless hominin skullDavid Lordkipanidze
Georgian State Museum, Tbilisi 0105, Georgia
Nature 434:717-8. 2005..This specimen not only represents the earliest case of severe masticatory impairment in the hominin fossil record to be discovered so far, but also raises questions about alternative subsistence strategies in early Homo...
- Global genetic variation at OAS1 provides evidence of archaic admixture in Melanesian populationsFernando L Mendez
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, USA
Mol Biol Evol 29:1513-20. 2012....
- Surprisingly rapid growth in NeanderthalsFernando V Ramirez Rozzi
UPR 2147, Dyamique de l Evolution Humaine, CNRS, 44, rue de l Amiral Mouchez, 75014 Paris, France
Nature 428:936-9. 2004..This autapomorphy in growth is an evolutionary reversal, and points strongly to a specific distinction between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis...
- A closer look at Neanderthal postcanine dental morphology: the mandibular dentitionShara E Bailey
Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 5192, USA
Anat Rec 269:148-56. 2002..Interestingly, these characters are not observed in the Mauer mandible, which some have claimed to be a member of a chronospecies that is a unique ancestor to Neanderthals...
- Spatial organization of hominin activities at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, IsraelNira Alperson-Afil
Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
Science 326:1677-80. 2009..The diversity of human activities and the distinctive patterning with which they are organized implies advanced organizational skills of the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov hominins...
- BC200 RNA: a neural RNA polymerase III product encoded by a monomeric Alu elementJ A Martignetti
Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:11563-7. 1993..Our data on conserved features of the active BC200 alpha gene suggest that its RNA product has been "exapted" into a function of the primate brain and provides a selective advantage to the species...
- Evolution of middle-late Pleistocene human cranio-facial form: a 3-D approachKaterina Harvati
Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology and Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoecology, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Rümelinstr 23, 72070 Tübingen, Baden Württenberg, Germany
J Hum Evol 59:445-64. 2010....
- On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in EuropeWil Roebroeks
Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:5209-14. 2011..The increase in the number of sites with good evidence of fire throughout the Late Pleistocene shows that European Neandertals had fire management not unlike that documented for Upper Paleolithic groups...
- The mammalian fauna associated with an archaic hominin skullcap and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South AfricaRichard G Klein
Program in Human Biology, Stanford University, Building 80, Inner Quad, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
J Hum Evol 52:164-86. 2007..Together with limited observations from other sites, Elandsfontein and Duinefontein provisionally suggest that Acheulean-age hominins obtained few large mammals, whether by hunting or scavenging...
- Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400-200 kya at Qesem Cave, IsraelMary C Stiner
School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 0030, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13207-12. 2009..The results from Qesem Cave raise new hypotheses about possible differences in the mechanics of meat sharing between the late Lower Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic...
- At the end of the 14C time scale--the Middle to Upper Paleolithic record of western EurasiaOlaf Jöris
Forschungsbereich Altsteinzeit des Römisch Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Schloss Monrepos, D 56567 Neuwied, Germany
J Hum Evol 55:782-802. 2008..33.0/32.5-29.2 ka 14C BP. Taken together, the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition appears to be a cumulative process involving the acquisition of different elements of "behavioral modernity" through several "stages of innovation."..
- Functional ecology and evolution of hominoid molar enamel thickness: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbiiErin R Vogel
Department of Anthropology, 1156 High Street, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064, United States
J Hum Evol 55:60-74. 2008..These data, which are among the first reported for hominoid primates, fill an important empirical void for evaluating the mechanical plausibility of putative hominin food objects...
- Three-dimensional molar enamel distribution and thickness in Australopithecus and ParanthropusA J Olejniczak
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany
Biol Lett 4:406-10. 2008..The three-dimensional distribution of enamel thickness shows different patterns among species, and is more useful for the interpretation of functional adaptations than single summary measures of enamel thickness...
- Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact on early African Homo sapiensC Leigh Broadhurst
US Department of Agriculture, Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 131:653-73. 2002....
- Molar microwear in Praeanthropus afarensis: evidence for dietary stasis through time and under diverse paleoecological conditionsFrederick E Grine
Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, NY 11794, USA
J Hum Evol 51:297-319. 2006....
- Who made the Aurignacian and other early Upper Paleolithic industries?Shara E Bailey
Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA
J Hum Evol 57:11-26. 2009..These results provide some of the strongest evidence that anatomically modern humans made the Aurignacian and other (non-Châtelperronian) early Upper Paleolithic industries...
- BAGE genes generated by juxtacentromeric reshuffling in the Hominidae lineage are under selective pressureMyriam Ruault
Institut de Genetique Humaine, CNRS UPR 1142, 141, rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier, France
Genomics 81:391-9. 2003..Our data strongly suggest that BAGE proteins have a function and that juxtacentromeric regions, whose plasticity is now largely proved, are not a simple junkyard of gene fragments, but may be the birth site of novel genes...
- 40Ar/(39)Ar dating of the Kapthurin Formation, Baringo, KenyaAlan L Deino
Berkeley Geochronology Center, 2455 Ridge Road, Berkeley, CA 94709, USA
J Hum Evol 42:185-210. 2002..The presence of blades and red ochre at this depth is important as blades signify a high degree of technical competence and red ochre suggests symbolic behavior...
- Variations in molar enamel thickness among primatesR P Shellis
MRC Dental Group Dental School, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS1 2LY, U K
J Hum Evol 35:507-22. 1998..These results may be relevant to considerations of hominoid evolution...
- Molar microwear textures and the diets of Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensisPeter S Ungar
Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Old Main 330, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:3345-54. 2010....
- The great divides: Ardipithecus ramidus reveals the postcrania of our last common ancestors with African apesC Owen Lovejoy
Department of Anthropology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 0001, USA
Science 326:100-6. 2009..The specialized locomotor anatomies and behaviors of chimpanzees and gorillas therefore constitute poor models for the origin and evolution of human bipedality...
- Middle Paleolithic assemblages from the Indian subcontinent before and after the Toba super-eruptionMichael Petraglia
Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK
Science 317:114-6. 2007..Broad continuity of Middle Paleolithic technology across the YTT event suggests that hominins persisted regionally across this major eruptive event...
- Alu elements and hominid phylogeneticsAbdel Halim Salem
Department of Biological Sciences, Biological Computation and Visualization Center, Louisiana State University, 202 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:12787-91. 2003..of Alu Ye5 elements and elements from several other subfamilies reveals high levels of support for monophyly of Hominidae, tribe Hominini and subtribe Hominina...
- The 'human revolution' in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo)Graeme Barker
McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3ER, UK
J Hum Evol 52:243-61. 2007..The Niah evidence demonstrates the sophisticated nature of the subsistence behavior developed by modern humans to exploit the tropical environments that they encountered in Southeast Asia, including rainforest...
- Hominin life history: reconstruction and evolutionShannen L Robson
Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
J Anat 212:394-425. 2008..At least one extinct hominin subclade, Paranthropus, has a pattern of dental life history-related variables that most likely set it apart from the life histories of both modern humans and chimpanzees...
- 2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, EthiopiaSileshi Semaw
CRAFT Research Center, 419 N Indiana Avenue, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
J Hum Evol 45:169-77. 2003
- The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with NeandertalsJohannes Krause
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Curr Biol 17:1908-12. 2007..Thus, these results illustrate the usefulness of retrieving direct genetic information from ancient remains for understanding recent human evolution...
- The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behaviorS Mcbrearty
Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
J Hum Evol 39:453-563. 2000..If on anatomical and behavioral grounds H. helmei is sunk into H. sapiens, the origin of our species is linked with the appearance of Middle Stone Age technology at 250-300 ka...
- Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branchesS K S Thorpe
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Science 316:1328-31. 2007..Human bipedalism is thus less an innovation than an exploitation of a locomotor behavior retained from the common great ape ancestor...
- Timing the origin of New World monkeysCarlos G Schrago
Laboratorio Biodiversidade Molecular, Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Mol Biol Evol 20:1620-5. 2003..Our estimate for the origin of New World monkeys is in agreement with the hypothesis of a transatlantic journey from Africa to South America, as suggested by the fossil record...
- From the ape's dilemma to the weanling's dilemma: early weaning and its evolutionary contextG E Kennedy
Department of Anthropology, University of Calfornia, Los Angeles, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
J Hum Evol 48:123-45. 2005..The increased acquisition of meat ca. 2.6 Ma had significant effects on the later course of human evolution and may have initiated the origin of the genus Homo...
- The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern SiberiaJohannes Krause
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Nature 464:894-7. 2010..The stratigraphy of the cave where the bone was found suggests that the Denisova hominin lived close in time and space with Neanderthals as well as with modern humans...
- Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, EthiopiaY Haile-Selassie
Department of Integrative Biology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkkeley 94720, USA
Nature 412:178-81. 2001..These new findings raise additional questions about the claimed hominid status of Orrorin tugenensis, recently described from Kenya and dated to approximately 6 Myr...
- A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergenceH H Chou
Glycobiology Program, Divisions of Hematology Oncology and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:11751-6. 1998..Also, the expression of Neu5Gc previously reported in human fetuses and tumors as well as the traces detected in some normal adult humans must be mediated by an alternate pathway...
- The first hominin of EuropeEudald Carbonell
Institut Català de Paleoecologia humana i Evolució Social, Area de Prehistoria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Placa Imperial Tarraco 1, 43005 Tarragona, Spain
Nature 452:465-9. 2008....
- Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial AfricaPeter D Walsh
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Guyot Hall, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
Nature 422:611-4. 2003..Without aggressive investments in law enforcement, protected area management and Ebola prevention, the next decade will see our closest relatives pushed to the brink of extinction...
- Late survival of Neanderthals at the southernmost extreme of EuropeClive Finlayson
The Gibraltar Museum, 18 20 Bomb House Lane, Gibraltar
Nature 443:850-3. 2006..Our results show that the Neanderthals survived in isolated refuges well after the arrival of modern humans in Europe...
- Excavation protocol of bone remains for Neandertal DNA analysis in El Sidrón Cave (Asturias, Spain)Javier Fortea
Area de Prehistoria, Departamento de Historia, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
J Hum Evol 55:353-7. 2008
- The DNA binding parvulin Par17 is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix by a recently evolved prepeptide uniquely present in HominidaeDaniel Kessler
Department of Structural and Medicinal Biochemistry, Center for Medical Biotechnology ZMB, University of Duisburg Essen, 45117 Essen, Germany
BMC Biol 5:37. 2007..The recently identified parvulin Par17 contains an additional N-terminal domain whose occurrence and function was the focus of the present study...
- Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestorsM F Teaford
Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13506-11. 2000....
- On the phylogenetic position of the pre-Neandertal specimen from Reilingen, GermanyD Dean
Department of Neurological Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
J Hum Evol 34:485-508. 1998..Biache 1), which present greater platycephaly, a reduced mastoid process, an enlarged juxtamastoid eminence, and true "en-bombe" (parieto-occipital form), and Weichsel Stage 4 "Neandertals" (sensu stricto, i.e., "classic" Neandertals)...
- Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestorR H Crompton
School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Liverpool, Sherrington Buildings, Ashton Street, Liverpool L69 3GE, UK
J Anat 212:501-43. 2008..Derivation of habitual terrestrial bipedality from arboreal hand-assisted bipedality requires fewer transitions, and is also kinematically and kinetically more parsimonious...
- Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humansDan Mishmar
Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics, University of California, Irvine, 92697 3940, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:171-6. 2003..From these analyses we conclude that selection may have played a role in shaping human regional mtDNA variation and that one of the selective influences was climate...
- Early Pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar ages for Bapang Formation hominins, Central Jawa, IndonesiaR Larick
URS Corporation, 100 California Street, Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94111-4529, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4866-71. 2001..The chronological sequence of (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages follows stratigraphic order across the southeast quadrant. An intermediate level yielding four nearly complete crania has an age of about 1.25 Ma...
- The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolutionL Luca Cavalli-Sforza
Department of Genetics, Stanford Medical School, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5120, USA
Nat Genet 33:266-75. 2003..The advances in our understanding of the evolutionary history of humans attests to the advantages of multidisciplinary research...
- Effects of brain and facial size on basicranial form in human and primate evolutionMarkus Bastir
Paleoanthropology Group, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C J G Abascal, 2, Madrid, Spain
J Hum Evol 58:424-31. 2010..To better address the multifactorial nature of basicranial flexion, future studies should focus on the underlying factors influencing facial size evolution in hominins...
- Sphenoid shortening and the evolution of modern human cranial shapeD E Lieberman
Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 0270, USA
Nature 393:158-62. 1998..sapiens...
- The evolution of human reproduction: a primatological perspectiveRobert D Martin
Department of Anthropology, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 2496, USA
Am J Phys Anthropol . 2007..Nevertheless, the "natural" lactation period of humans is probably about 3 years, fitting the expectation in comparison to other hominoids...
- Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, EthiopiaTim D White
Department of Integrative Biology and Laboratory for Human Evolutionary Studies, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3160, USA
Nature 423:742-7. 2003..They therefore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa...
- Inequality, social capital and health in BolivaWilliam Leonard; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Evolution of vertebrate sensory genesJianzhi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010..These studies will also help understand human smell and taste variations and disorders. ..
- NEURAL MECHANISMS OF SIZE PERCEPTIONJohn Allman; Fiscal Year: 2001..Finally, we will map the extent of the surrounding non-CRF by masking parts of the visual contextual display while measuring the responses to different sized stimuli presented within the CRF. ..
- Population structure in whole-genome disease scansDavid Reich; Fiscal Year: 2008..We believe our new techniques will provide near-optimal power, and will be computationally efficient. We intend to make all these tools publicly available for the scientific community. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Simulation algorithms for genome-wide data and application to admixed dataJeffrey Wall; Fiscal Year: 2009..This work will also help us determine the marker density and sample size needed for future association studies. ..
- Building a Latino admixture map & pilot study to find Type 2 Diabetes riskDavid Reich; Fiscal Year: 2007..The study will also enable larger admixture mapping studies with many thousands of patients with Type 2 Diabetes, which we would like to pursue both in U.S. Latino and in Latin American populations. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- RNA-Seq studies of Gene Expression in Cells and Networks in FI and ACC in AutismBarbara J Wold; Fiscal Year: 2010..We propose to use laser micro-dissection to investigate gene expression in specific neuronal and non-neuronal populations in the cortical areas of interest in the autism-A, autism-B and control groups. ..
- Associating genetic variation to resistance to severe malaria in East AfricaDavid Reich; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- A Whole Genome Admixture Scan for Multiple SclerosisDavid Reich; Fiscal Year: 2008..We will then move to a targeted haplotype-based association study in the most interesting regions to clone new genes associated with MS. ..
- Evolution of BMP Genes 2 and 4 in ArchosaursCHRIS ORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2007..Aim three is to elucidate the evolution of bmp2 and bmp4 coding regions. This project will be the first large scale examination of non-avian reptile genome structure and evolution. ..
- UW Genome Center Large-scale Sequencing ProgramMaynard Olson; Fiscal Year: 2006..Other capabilities of the UWGC such as its automated finishing capacity will be made available to the NHGRI network on an as-needed basis. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CHROMOSOME 13Q NEOCENTROMERE FORMATIONPETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2007..Investigation of human centromere structure, function and formation will greatly facilitate the construction of artificial human chromosomes for use as autonomous gene expression vectors. ..
- Low dose digital X-rays for mammographic screeningChristopher Vaughan; Fiscal Year: 2006..During the last 6 months of the project in phase 2, we will conduct a limited clinical trial of 20 patients, focusing on comfort, breast coverage and diagnostic equivalence. ..
- E coli-based vectors for BAC delivery to mammalian cellsPETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Transcriptional and genic basis of incipient speciationChung I Wu; Fiscal Year: 2008..We expect to identify a number of candidate "speciation genes,* and will carry out precise gene replacement (Rong and Golic 2000; Greenberg et al. 2003) to confirm their effects on the mating behavior. ..
- The Genetic and Genomic Study of MicroRNA in Bipolar and SchizophreniaRichard A Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2010..These findings will potentially enhance our understanding of the miRNA genes and their potential roles in etiology of BD and SZ. Development of new diagnoses and treatments may result. ..
- 1/5: Elucidating the Genetic Architecture of Autism by Deep Genomic SequencingRichard A Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- MicroRNA evolution and species divergence in DrosophilaChung I Wu; Fiscal Year: 2010..A survey of the scope of microRNA repertoire and their rise and fall through evolution will be useful for understanding their roles in regulating the normal and aberrant phenotypes in human populations. ..
- Draft Sequence of the Rat GenomeRichard Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2002..Finishing the rat sequence will be speeded by the development of a BAC minimum-tiling path across >95% of the genuine. ..
- Xenograft-like rejection of tumors in a-gal glycolipidsURI GALILI GALILI; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will study this treatment in a unique mouse model that simulates the pertinent human immunological parameters. Success in the studies in the mouse model will enable us to apply this treatment to cancer patients. ..
- Multiscale Analysis of Neuronal MorphologyPatrick Hof; Fiscal Year: 2009..Such studies will provide crucial insight into general mechanisms of memory induction and maintenance that underlie normal cognitive function, its dysfunction in diseased states, and potential mechanisms for its restoration. ..
- The repetitive DNA structure of the human genomePETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2009..The studies proposed in this application will facilitate both computational and biological approaches to genomics and provide a unique analysis of a large and relatively neglected portion of our DNA sequence. ..
- Functions of Double-stranded RNA Binding ProteinsMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2008..3. Protein complexes formed by NF90 isoforms and the changes brought about by viral infection, interferon treatment, and cell cycle block. 4. The functions of NF90 isoforms during infection with adenovirus and HIV. ..
- LYSOSOME BIOGENESIS IN NORMAL AND TUMOR CELLSPhilip Stahl; Fiscal Year: 2006..The goal of the present proposal is to set a solid foundation for future study by clarifying the role of Rin 1 in endocytic trafficking and signaling. ..
- REGULATION OF HIV1 GENE EXPRESSION BY TAT AND TARMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2001..In addition, we propose to identify and study factor(s) responsible for potentiating Tat's ability to stimulate HIV-1 directed transcription in a cell-free system. ..
- LEARNING DISABILITIES IN ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICSDAVID GEARY; Fiscal Year: 2003....
- MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF OLD WORLD MONKEY HOST SPECIESCaro Beth Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- METHODS FOR SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMSMaynard Olson; Fiscal Year: 2001..We will evaluate a scoring technology (TDI) that has the potential to be arrayed. And we will develop software to facilitate the process of cSNP discovery, marker creation, and TDI scoring. ..
- PREVENTING ANTI-GAL PRODUCTION AGAINST XENOGRAFTSUri Galili; Fiscal Year: 2003..Success in these studies will help in planning effective treatments for preventing anti-Gal response in primate xenografts recipients. | ..
- SEQUENCING THE RAT GENOMERichard Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2003..The new sequence comparison methods will be appropriate for both finished and draft sequence studies. ..
- Integrated LC/MS/MS SystemMichael Mathews; Fiscal Year: 2002..The addition of the integrated ThermoFinnigan LCQ DECA-10000/LC Packings Ultimate LC/MC/MS system will complement our existing MALDI-TOF instrument, permitting the facility to cover most of our mass spectrometry needs. ..
- E. COLI BASED VECTORS FOR GENE DELIVERY TO HUMAN CELLSPETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2002..These studies propose to develop E. coli-based HAC vectors for human gene therapy that encompass novel approaches for gene delivery, accurate gene expression, and mitotic stability. ..
- Sequencing, assembly and annotation of a second Drosoph*Richard Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2002..pseudoobscura genes are fully represented. Two innovations for computer analysis of large sequence data sets will be explored. The per read cost for this work will be less than $1.80. ..
- EXPRESSION & FUNCTION OF MACROPHAGE MANNOSE RECEPTORSPhilip Stahl; Fiscal Year: 2003..The overall goal of this project is to identify the molecular components of the MR signaling pathway as a means of delineating the role of the MR, and other family members, in host defense and innate immunity. ..
- MECHANISMS OF ENZYMIC AND HYDRIDE TRANSFERSGregory Petsko; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- Mathematical Development in Learning Diasbled ChildrenDAVID GEARY; Fiscal Year: 2003..g., working memory) that underlie MD children's developmental delays and deficits in these competencies. ..
- INCREASE/gp120 IMMUNOGENICITY/LINKED ALPHA-GAL EPITOPESUri Galili; Fiscal Year: 2005..We will then also collaborate with a group studying immune responses in monkeys to determine the efficacy of this vaccine in a primate model. ..
- A 13q32 BAC Microarray for chromosome function analysisPETER WARBURTON; Fiscal Year: 2004..The development of these types of high-density genomic microarrays will be a major step towards understanding the genomic organization and role of non-protein coding functional DNA elements in our cells. ..
- Mitochondrial-nuclear gene co-evolution and adaptationCaro Beth Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2005..Furthermore, information about which proteins, or parts of proteins, have undergone recent positive selection may help define targets for intervention in certain human mitochondrial diseases. ..
- Sensory Transduction in the Vomeronasal SystemEmily Liman; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Center for the Study of Natural Genetic VariationMaynard Olson; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Sequencing the Chimpanzee Y ChromosomeJennifer Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2005..However, because of several unique challenges posed by the Y chromosome, a dedicated effort will be required to obtain a complete and accurate sequence of this distinctive region of the chimpanzee genome. ..
- Gene Amplification and Deletion in Pancreatic CancerJonathan R Pollack; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Comparative Functional Genomics of Drosophila ObesityAndrew Clark; Fiscal Year: 2009..which particular genes and pathways are most relevant to variation in fat storage homeostasis, and by developing a systems biology approach to make inferences from data that span cellular, endocrine, and whole-organism attributes ..
- Inferring Multiple-SNP Disease Association with DNA Resequence DataRasmus Nielsen; Fiscal Year: 2010..These methods will also be extended to include prior information about molecular mechanisms of gene function, where available, as well as environmental contributions to disease risk. ..
- Endothelial Cell in Progressive Renal DiseaseRichard Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- TBC1D3: A HOMINOID-SPECIFIC GENE THAT REGULATES GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALINGPhilip D Stahl; Fiscal Year: 2010..TBC1D3 may serve as a model for developing an understanding of the function of human-specific genes in regulating complex signaling pathways. ..
- TRAINING IN COGNITIVE AND COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCEMichael Arbib; Fiscal Year: 2002..The plan for the postdoctoral position focuses on permitting a student trained in psychology or linguistics to gain additional expertise related to cognitive and computational neuroscience. ..
- Three-Dimensional Dynamic Bone HistomorphometryCHRISTOPHER HERNANDEZ; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND PHAGOSOME MEMBRANE TRAFFICPhilip Stahl; Fiscal Year: 2003..We will determine the effects of IFNgamma treatment on vesicular traffic into and out of LM phagosomes using GFP-Rab5, GFP-Rab7 and GFP-Rab11. ..
- Carcinogenesis: Effects of Diet Deficient in Methyl DonorsShi Huang; Fiscal Year: 2007..The new understanding that will emerge from these studies will help clarify the role of nutrient metabolism in carcinogenesis. The results may have important public health implications. ..
- POLYMORPHISM/DIVERGENCE IN DROSOPHILA PATHOGEN DEFENSESAndrew Clark; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Dimension Reduction Approaches for Genome-wide Association TestingAndrew Clark; Fiscal Year: 2008..Of particular interest will be the tuning model parameters to optimize the balance of false positive and false negative inferences. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE HUMAN CRANIOFACIAL COMPLEXRICHARD SHERWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2008..The proposed study of the genetic architecture of the craniofacial complex will provide information critical in characterizing the genetic underpinnings to normal craniofacial development and morphology. ..
- Genetic Architecture of the Baboon Craniofacial ComplexRICHARD SHERWOOD; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable]..