Summary: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young. It includes three major groups: placentals and marsupials, which are viviparous, and monotremes, which are oviparous. (Dorland, 28th ed.)

Top Publications

  1. pmc MicroRNA targeting specificity in mammals: determinants beyond seed pairing
    Andrew Grimson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Mol Cell 27:91-105. 2007
  2. pmc Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals
    Mitchell Guttman
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 458:223-7. 2009
  3. doi Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification
    Robert W Meredith
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Science 334:521-4. 2011
  4. pmc Protein arginine methylation in mammals: who, what, and why
    Mark T Bedford
    The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, P O Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
    Mol Cell 33:1-13. 2009
  5. pmc Coexistence of quiescent and active adult stem cells in mammals
    Linheng Li
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research SIMR, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Science 327:542-5. 2010
  6. ncbi Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals
    J M Friedman
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 395:763-70. 1998
  7. pmc A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals conserved features of stem cell pluripotency in planarians and mammals
    Roselyne M Labbé
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Stem Cells 30:1734-45. 2012
  8. pmc Mop3 is an essential component of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals
    M K Bunger
    The McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Cell 103:1009-17. 2000
  9. ncbi Coordination of circadian timing in mammals
    Steven M Reppert
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB 728, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nature 418:935-41. 2002
  10. pmc Distribution and intensity of constraint in mammalian genomic sequence
    Gregory M Cooper
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Genome Res 15:901-13. 2005

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications309 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc MicroRNA targeting specificity in mammals: determinants beyond seed pairing
    Andrew Grimson
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Mol Cell 27:91-105. 2007
    ..Because it predicts site efficacy without recourse to evolutionary conservation, the model also identifies effective nonconserved sites and siRNA off-targets...
  2. pmc Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals
    Mitchell Guttman
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 458:223-7. 2009
    ..Together, these results define a unique collection of functional lincRNAs that are highly conserved and implicated in diverse biological processes...
  3. doi Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification
    Robert W Meredith
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Science 334:521-4. 2011
    ..By contrast, diversification analyses provide no support for the hypothesis concerning the delayed rise of present-day mammals during the Eocene Period.
  4. pmc Protein arginine methylation in mammals: who, what, and why
    Mark T Bedford
    The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, P O Box 389, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
    Mol Cell 33:1-13. 2009
    ..Physiological roles for protein arginine methylation have been established in signal transduction, mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, DNA repair, and protein translocation...
  5. pmc Coexistence of quiescent and active adult stem cells in mammals
    Linheng Li
    Stowers Institute for Medical Research SIMR, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
    Science 327:542-5. 2010
    ..Here, we summarize these findings and propose that quiescent and active stem cell populations have separate but cooperative functional roles...
  6. ncbi Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals
    J M Friedman
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 395:763-70. 1998
    ..Leptin also signals nutritional status to several other physiological systems and modulates their function. Here we review the role of leptin in the control of body weight and its relevance to the pathogenesis of obesity...
  7. pmc A comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals conserved features of stem cell pluripotency in planarians and mammals
    Roselyne M Labbé
    The Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Stem Cells 30:1734-45. 2012
    ..These results provide insights into which genes comprised the ancestral circuitry underlying the control of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency...
  8. pmc Mop3 is an essential component of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals
    M K Bunger
    The McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Cell 103:1009-17. 2000
    ..These results provide genetic evidence that MOP3 is the bona fide heterodimeric partner of mCLOCK. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that MOP3 is a nonredundant and essential component of the circadian pacemaker in mammals.
  9. ncbi Coordination of circadian timing in mammals
    Steven M Reppert
    Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB 728, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nature 418:935-41. 2002
    ..However, these independent rhythms are tamed by a master clock in the brain, which coordinates tissue-specific rhythms according to light input it receives from the outside world...
  10. pmc Distribution and intensity of constraint in mammalian genomic sequence
    Gregory M Cooper
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Genome Res 15:901-13. 2005
    ..We anticipate that GERP and the types of analyses it facilitates will provide further insights and improved annotation for the human genome as mammalian genome sequence data become richer...
  11. pmc Parallel signatures of sequence evolution among hearing genes in echolocating mammals: an emerging model of genetic convergence
    K T J Davies
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
    Heredity (Edinb) 108:480-9. 2012
    ..hearing genes, we have examined Tmc1 and Pjvk, both of which are associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in mammals. These genes were amplified and sequenced from a number of mammalian species, including echolocating and non-..
  12. doi COPII and the regulation of protein sorting in mammals
    Giulia Zanetti
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nat Cell Biol 14:20-8. 2012
    ..In this review we cover aspects of mammalian COPII-mediated regulation of secretion, in particular related to the function of COPII paralogues, the spatial organization of cargo export and the role of accessory proteins...
  13. pmc Extrathymic generation of regulatory T cells in placental mammals mitigates maternal-fetal conflict
    Robert M Samstein
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 150:29-38. 2012
    ..sequence 1 (CNS1), essential for pTreg but dispensable for tTreg cell generation, is present only in placental mammals. CNS1 is largely composed of mammalian-wide interspersed repeats (MIR) that have undergone retrotransposition ..
  14. pmc Elucidation of a universal size-control mechanism in Drosophila and mammals
    Jixin Dong
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell 130:1120-33. 2007
    ..These results uncover a universal size-control mechanism in metazoan...
  15. pmc A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals
    Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
    Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 478:476-82. 2011
    ..Overlap with disease-associated variants indicates that our findings will be relevant for studies of human biology, health and disease...
  16. ncbi Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals
    W J Murphy
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Nature 409:614-8. 2001
    The precise hierarchy of ancient divergence events that led to the present assemblage of modern placental mammals has been an area of controversy among morphologists, palaeontologists and molecular evolutionists...
  17. doi Meiotic recombination in mammals: localization and regulation
    Frederic Baudat
    Institute of Human Genetics, Unité Propre de Recherche 1142, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier, France
    Nat Rev Genet 14:794-806. 2013
    ..Recent findings have highlighted an unexpected molecular control of the distribution of meiotic DSBs in mammals by a rapidly evolving gene, PR domain-containing 9 (PRDM9), and genome-wide analyses have facilitated the ..
  18. doi Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals
    Diego Cortez
    1 Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland 2 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nature 508:488-93. 2014
    Y chromosomes underlie sex determination in mammals, but their repeat-rich nature has hampered sequencing and associated evolutionary studies...
  19. ncbi Female development in mammals is regulated by Wnt-4 signalling
    S Vainio
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, The Biolabs, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 397:405-9. 1999
    ..Wnt-4 may also be required for maintenance of the female germ line. Thus, the establishment of sexual dimorphism is under the control of both local and systemic signals...
  20. pmc Patterns of positive selection in six Mammalian genomes
    Carolin Kosiol
    Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000144. 2008
    Genome-wide scans for positively selected genes (PSGs) in mammals have provided insight into the dynamics of genome evolution, the genetic basis of differences between species, and the functions of individual genes...
  21. pmc Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals
    Jennifer A Mohawk
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 9111, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 35:445-62. 2012
    The circadian system of mammals is composed of a hierarchy of oscillators that function at the cellular, tissue, and systems levels...
  22. doi The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates
    Michael Hoffmann
    IUCN SSC Species Survival Commission, c o United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK
    Science 330:1503-9. 2010
    ..of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to extinction each year...
  23. doi Female competition and its evolutionary consequences in mammals
    Paula Stockley
    Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, School of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston, UK
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86:341-66. 2011
    ..Here, we review evidence that female mammals compete for both resources and mates in order to secure reproductive benefits...
  24. ncbi Fatty acid elongases in mammals: their regulation and roles in metabolism
    Andreas Jakobsson
    The Wenner Gren Institute, The Arrhenius Laboratories F3, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    Prog Lipid Res 45:237-49. 2006
    ..elongases), which are believed to perform the first, regulatory, step (condensation) in the elongation cycle in mammals. The family of enzymes consists of at least six members in mouse and human, believed to carry out substrate-..
  25. ncbi Phylogeny and metabolic scaling in mammals
    Isabella Capellini
    Evolutionary Anthropology Research Group, Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Dawson Building, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
    Ecology 91:2783-93. 2010
    ..models to estimate allometric slopes for both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and field metabolic rate (FMR) in mammals. Metabolic rate scaling conformed to no single theoretical prediction, but varied significantly among ..
  26. doi A survey of tissue-specific genomic imprinting in mammals
    Adam R Prickett
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King s College London, 8th Floor Tower Wing, Guy s Hospital, London, SE1 9RT, UK
    Mol Genet Genomics 287:621-30. 2012
    In mammals, most somatic cells contain two copies of each autosomal gene, one inherited from each parent. When a gene is expressed, both parental alleles are usually transcribed...
  27. pmc A quantitative atlas of polyadenylation in five mammals
    Adnan Derti
    Department of Informatics IT, Merck and Co, Inc, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genome Res 22:1173-83. 2012
    ..These quantitative maps of polyA usage in evolutionarily and functionally related samples constitute a resource for understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying alternative polyadenylation...
  28. pmc Confirming the phylogeny of mammals by use of large comparative sequence data sets
    Arjun B Prasad
    Genome Technology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1795-808. 2008
    ..To explore these issues and to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among mammals, we have analyzed a large data set of over 60 megabase pairs (Mb) of high-quality genomic sequence, which we ..
  29. ncbi Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype
    Olivier Jaillon
    UMR 8030 Genoscope, CNRS and Université d Evry, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, 91057 Evry Cedex, France
    Nature 431:946-57. 2004
    ..shows that whole-genome duplication occurred in the teleost fish lineage, subsequent to its divergence from mammals. The analysis also makes it possible to infer the basic structure of the ancestral bony vertebrate genome, which ..
  30. pmc Adaptive evolution of young gene duplicates in mammals
    Mira V Han
    School of Informatics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Genome Res 19:859-67. 2009
    ..The results are also in agreement with the classical model of evolution by gene duplication, supporting a common role for neofunctionalization in the long-term maintenance of gene duplicates...
  31. pmc Non-CpG methylation is prevalent in embryonic stem cells and may be mediated by DNA methyltransferase 3a
    B H Ramsahoye
    Department of Hematology, Western General Hospital, EH4 2XU Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5237-42. 2000
    ..Analysis of genomic methylation in transgenic Drosophila expressing Dnmt3a reveals that Dnmt3a is predominantly a CpG methylase but also is able to induce methylation at CpA and at CpT...
  32. pmc Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny
    William J Murphy
    Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
    Genome Res 17:413-21. 2007
    The phylogeny of placental mammals is a critical framework for choosing future genome sequencing targets and for resolving the ancestral mammalian genome at the nucleotide level...
  33. pmc The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals
    Jessica Alföldi
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 477:587-91. 2011
    ..Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds, but not for non-avian reptiles...
  34. ncbi Advances in molecular biology of hibernation in mammals
    Matthew T Andrews
    Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1035 Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
    Bioessays 29:431-40. 2007
    ..9 degrees C. Not only can hibernating mammals survive these physiological extremes, but they also return to a normothermic state of activity without ..
  35. pmc BAC TransgeneOmics: a high-throughput method for exploration of protein function in mammals
    Ina Poser
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstrasse 108, D 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Nat Methods 5:409-15. 2008
    ..The same high-throughput approach will be generally applicable to other model systems...
  36. ncbi The proliferative ventricular zone in adult vertebrates: a comparative study using reptiles, birds, and mammals
    Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo
    Departamento de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Brain Res Bull 57:765-75. 2002
    ..Here we review the organization and cellular composition of the ventricular wall of reptiles, birds, and mammals in an effort to identify differences and commonalities among these vertebrate classes...
  37. pmc Heterochromatin is refractory to gamma-H2AX modification in yeast and mammals
    Jung Ae Kim
    Rosenstiel Center and Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454, USA
    J Cell Biol 178:209-18. 2007
    ..In yeast, we see a high level of constitutive gamma-H2AX in telomere regions in the absence of any exogenous DNA damage, suggesting that yeast chromosome ends are transiently detected as DSBs...
  38. ncbi Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species
    Marcel Cardillo
    Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
    Science 309:1239-41. 2005
    ..In a broad-scale analysis of extinction risk in mammals, we find two additional patterns in the size selectivity of extinction risk...
  39. pmc Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals
    Dorothee Grimm
    Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3142-7. 2004
    ..The induction of a spirochetal virulence factor preceding the time and host in which it is required demonstrates a developmental sequence for transmission of this arthropod-borne pathogen...
  40. ncbi The delayed rise of present-day mammals
    Olaf R P Bininda-Emonds
    Lehrstuhl für Tierzucht, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising Weihenstephan, Germany
    Nature 446:507-12. 2007
    ..eliminating non-avian dinosaurs and most of the existing fauna, trigger the evolutionary radiation of present-day mammals? Here we construct, date and analyse a species-level phylogeny of nearly all extant Mammalia to bring a new ..
  41. doi The status of the world's land and marine mammals: diversity, threat, and knowledge
    Jan Schipper
    International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN Species Programme, IUCN, 28 Rue Mauverney, 1196 Gland, Switzerland
    Science 322:225-30. 2008
    ..Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the conservation status and distribution of the world's mammals. Data, compiled by 1700+ experts, cover all 5487 species, including marine mammals...
  42. pmc Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes
    Masayuki Horie
    Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases BIKEN, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nature 463:84-7. 2010
  43. ncbi Genomic imprinting: parental influence on the genome
    W Reik
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, Developmental Genetics Programme, Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 2:21-32. 2001
    ..Imprinting is a particularly important genetic mechanism in mammals, and is thought to influence the transfer of nutrients to the fetus and the newborn from the mother...
  44. ncbi Global biodiversity conservation priorities
    T M Brooks
    Conservation International, 1919 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA
    Science 313:58-61. 2006
    ..We hope this synthesis improves understanding of these prioritization approaches and that it results in more efficient allocation of geographically flexible conservation funding...
  45. pmc Harmonics of circadian gene transcription in mammals
    Michael E Hughes
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000442. 2009
  46. pmc Two-stepping through time: mammals and viruses
    Nicholas R Meyerson
    Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:286-94. 2011
    ..We review these data and suggest a modified arms race model where the evolutionary possibilities of viruses are relatively constrained. Such a model could allow more accurate forecasting of virus evolution...
  47. pmc Repeated horizontal transfer of a DNA transposon in mammals and other tetrapods
    John K Pace
    Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, P O Box 19498, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17023-8. 2008
    ..SPIN elements were undetectable in other species represented in the sequence databases, including 19 other mammals with draft whole-genome assemblies...
  48. pmc Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating
    Björn M Hallström
    Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Division of Evolutionary Molecular Systematics, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
    Mol Biol Evol 27:2804-16. 2010
    ..amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero...
  49. ncbi Use of axenic animals in studying the adaptation of mammals to their commensal intestinal microbiota
    Karen Smith
    Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Semin Immunol 19:59-69. 2007
  50. pmc Evolution of mammals and their gut microbes
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 320:1647-51. 2008
    b>Mammals are metagenomic in that they are composed of not only their own gene complements but also those of all of their associated microbes...
  51. ncbi Transcriptional disruption by the L1 retrotransposon and implications for mammalian transcriptomes
    Jeffrey S Han
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics and High Throughput Biology Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nature 429:268-74. 2004
    ..Bioinformatic data are consistent with the hypothesis that L1 can serve as an evolutionary fine-tuner of the human transcriptome...
  52. ncbi Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulates mtDNA copy number in mammals
    Mats I Ekstrand
    Department of Medical Nutrition, Karolinska Instititutet, Novum, S 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Hum Mol Genet 13:935-44. 2004 experimentally dissociate mtDNA copy number regulation from mtDNA expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals in vivo...
  53. pmc Detection of nonneutral substitution rates on mammalian phylogenies
    Katherine S Pollard
    Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA
    Genome Res 20:110-21. 2010
    ..We also describe new "Conservation" tracks in the UCSC Genome Browser that display both phyloP and phastCons scores for genome-wide alignments of 44 vertebrate species...
  54. doi Mechanisms of sound localization in mammals
    Benedikt Grothe
    Division of Neurobiology, Department of Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet, Munich, Germany
    Physiol Rev 90:983-1012. 2010
  55. pmc Mutation rates in mammalian genomes
    Sudhir Kumar
    Department of Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 1501, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:803-8. 2002
    ..Currently, mutation rate is thought to vary many fold among genes within a genome and among lineages in mammals. We have conducted a computational analysis of 5,669 genes (17,208 sequences) from species representing major ..
  56. pmc Uptake of the anticancer drug cisplatin mediated by the copper transporter Ctr1 in yeast and mammals
    Seiko Ishida
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143 0448, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14298-302. 2002
    ..We propose that cisplatin uptake is mediated by the copper transporter Ctr1p in yeast and mammals. The link between Ctr1p and cisplatin transport may explain some cases of cisplatin resistance in humans and ..
  57. pmc Evidence for selection on synonymous mutations affecting stability of mRNA secondary structure in mammals
    J V Chamary
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Genome Biol 6:R75. 2005
    In mammals, contrary to what is usually assumed, recent evidence suggests that synonymous mutations may not be selectively neutral. This position has proven contentious, not least because of the absence of a viable mechanism...
  58. pmc Ultraconserved elements are novel phylogenomic markers that resolve placental mammal phylogeny when combined with species-tree analysis
    John E McCormack
    Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
    Genome Res 22:746-54. 2012
    ..of independent loci, we show that this class of marker is useful for recovering deep-level phylogeny in placental mammals. In broad outline, our phylogeny agrees with recent phylogenomic studies of mammals, including several formerly ..
  59. pmc Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the laurasiatherian mammals
    Xuming Zhou
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China
    Syst Biol 61:150-64. 2012
    Although great progress has been made in resolving the relationships of placental mammals, the position of several clades in Laurasiatheria remain controversial...
  60. doi On the relationship between hypsodonty and feeding ecology in ungulate mammals, and its utility in palaeoecology
    John Damuth
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, 93106, USA
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 86:733-58. 2011
    ..Extant grazing ungulates (hoofed mammals) have hypsodont teeth (a derived condition), and so extinct hypsodont forms have usually been presumed to have ..
  61. doi The ventilatory response to hypoxia in mammals: mechanisms, measurement, and analysis
    Luc J Teppema
    Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Physiol Rev 90:675-754. 2010
    The respiratory response to hypoxia in mammals develops from an inhibition of breathing movements in utero into a sustained increase in ventilation in the adult...
  62. doi The positive correlation between dN/dS and dS in mammals is due to runs of adjacent substitutions
    Nina Stoletzki
    Centre for Study of Evolution, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Evol 28:1371-80. 2011
    ..Genuine adjacent substitutions may be due to mutation or selection...
  63. doi Genome evolution in Reptilia, the sister group of mammals
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 11:239-64. 2010
    The genomes of birds and nonavian reptiles (Reptilia) are critical for understanding genome evolution in mammals and amniotes generally...
  64. doi The evolutionary dynamics of autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons in the lizard Anolis carolinensis shows more similarity to fish than mammals
    Peter A Novick
    Department of Biology, Queens College, The City University of New York, NY, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 26:1811-22. 2009
    ..the low diversity and high copy number of mammalian L1 elements, suggesting a fundamental difference in the way mammals and nonmammalian vertebrates interact with their genomic parasites...
  65. doi Understanding transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the gametes in mammals
    Lucia Daxinger
    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia
    Nat Rev Genet 13:153-62. 2012
    ..Interestingly, many cases of epigenetic inheritance seem to involve repeat sequences...
  66. pmc Nitric oxide synthases in mammals
    R G Knowles
    Wellcome Research Laboratories, Langley Court, Beckenham, U K
    Biochem J 298:249-58. 1994
  67. ncbi Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history
    A Purvis
    Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK
    Science 288:328-30. 2000
    ..We estimate that the prospective extra loss of mammalian evolutionary history alone would be equivalent to losing a monotypic phylum...
  68. ncbi Mammalian housekeeping genes evolve more slowly than tissue-specific genes
    Liqing Zhang
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 21:236-9. 2004
    ..Therefore, the stronger selective constraints on housekeeping genes are not due to a lower degree of genetic redundancy...
  69. doi A molecular switch for photoperiod responsiveness in mammals
    Hugues Dardente
    Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zoology Building, Tillydrone Avenue, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK
    Curr Biol 20:2193-8. 2010
    ..In mammals and birds, photoperiodic responses depend crucially on expression of thyrotrophin β subunit RNA (TSHβ) in the ..
  70. pmc Sex, subdivision, and domestic dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I in southern Ecuador
    Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga
    Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e915. 2010
    ..However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma...
  71. ncbi Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution
    Zhe Xi Luo
    Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Nature 450:1011-9. 2007
    Evolution of the earliest mammals shows successive episodes of diversification. Lineage-splitting in Mesozoic mammals is coupled with many independent evolutionary experiments and ecological specializations...
  72. pmc Regulation of spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal in mammals
    Jon M Oatley
    Department of Animal Sciences, Center for Reproductive Biology and Health, College of Agricultural Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 24:263-86. 2008
    ..Together, these molecules are part of a robust gene network controlling SSC fate decisions that may parallel the regulatory networks in other adult stem cell populations...
  73. pmc Genome-wide determination of RNA stability reveals hundreds of short-lived noncoding transcripts in mammals
    Hidenori Tani
    Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2 11 16 Yayoi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, Japan
    Genome Res 22:947-56. 2012
    ..We propose that the strategy of monitoring RNA half-life will provide a powerful tool for investigating hitherto functionally uncharacterized regulatory RNAs...
  74. doi Adaptive radiation of multituberculate mammals before the extinction of dinosaurs
    Gregory P Wilson
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 1800, USA
    Nature 483:457-60. 2012
    ..Prior to that event and for the first two-thirds of their evolutionary history, mammals were mostly confined to roles as generalized, small-bodied, nocturnal insectivores, presumably under selection ..
  75. pmc Natural hybridization generates mammalian lineage with species characteristics
    Peter A Larsen
    Department of Biological Sciences and Museum, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:11447-52. 2010
    ..Examples of natural hybridization leading to speciation in mammals are exceedingly rare...
  76. ncbi Parasites as a viability cost of sexual selection in natural populations of mammals
    Sarah L Moore
    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK
    Science 297:2015-8. 2002
    Sexual selection in mammals has resulted in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD), with males usually being the larger sex...
  77. ncbi Intracellular signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus: the unfolded protein response in yeast and mammals
    C Patil
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:349-55. 2001
    ..Recent results reveal that the output of the mammalian UPR reaches beyond transcriptional regulation of secretory pathway components to control of general translation, the cell cycle and programmed cell death...
  78. pmc OrthoMaM: a database of orthologous genomic markers for placental mammal phylogenetics
    Vincent Ranwez
    Universite Montpellier 2, CC064, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
    BMC Evol Biol 7:241. 2007
    ..Genomic data now provide the opportunity to select new markers that are potentially relevant for further resolving branches of the mammalian phylogenetic tree at various taxonomic levels...
  79. pmc Epigenetic mechanisms in mammals
    J K Kim
    New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA 01938, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 66:596-612. 2009
    DNA and histone methylation are linked and subjected to mitotic inheritance in mammals. Yet how methylation is propagated and maintained between successive cell divisions is not fully understood...
  80. pmc Diseases of humans and their domestic mammals: pathogen characteristics, host range and the risk of emergence
    S Cleaveland
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:991-9. 2001
    ..disease emergence were analysed by constructing a database of disease-causing pathogens of humans and domestic mammals. The database consisted of 1415 pathogens causing disease in humans, 616 in livestock and 374 in domestic ..
  81. doi Impact of a century of climate change on small-mammal communities in Yosemite National Park, USA
    Craig Moritz
    Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 322:261-4. 2008
    ..Elevational replacement among congeners changed because species' responses were idiosyncratic. Though some high-elevation species are threatened, protection of elevation gradients allows other species to respond via migration...
  82. ncbi Dating divergences in the Fungal Tree of Life: review and new analyses
    John W Taylor
    Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3102, USA
    Mycologia 98:838-49. 2006
    ..The estimate for the age of the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota split was 1808000000 y ago when calibrated assuming that mammals and birds diverged 300000000 y ago, 1489000000 y ago when calibrated assuming that the 400000000 y old fungal ..
  83. pmc Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny
    Nick J B Isaac
    Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 2:e296. 2007
    ..The results suggest that global conservation priorities may have to be reassessed in order to prevent a disproportionately large amount of mammalian evolutionary history becoming extinct in the near future...
  84. doi Molecular coevolution of kisspeptins and their receptors from fish to mammals
    Haet Nim Um
    Laboratory of G Protein Coupled Receptors, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1200:67-74. 2010
    ..Together, kisspeptin and GPR54 provide an excellent model for understanding molecular coevolution of the peptide ligand and GPCR pairs...
  85. ncbi Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals
    O Madsen
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Nature 409:610-4. 2001
    Higher level relationships among placental mammals, as well as the historical biogeography and morphological diversification of this group, remain unclear...
  86. ncbi Abeta-fiber nociceptive primary afferent neurons: a review of incidence and properties in relation to other afferent A-fiber neurons in mammals
    Laiche Djouhri
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, United Kingdom
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 46:131-45. 2004
    ..It is important that the existence of Abeta nociceptors is recognised, because assumptions that fast conducting, large diameter afferents are always low threshold mechanoreceptors might lead/have led to misinterpretations of data...
  87. doi Convergence of calls as animals form social bonds, active compensation for noisy communication channels, and the evolution of vocal learning in mammals
    Peter L Tyack
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
    J Comp Psychol 122:319-31. 2008
    The classic evidence for vocal production learning involves imitation of novel, often anthropogenic sounds. Among mammals, this has been reported for dolphins, elephants, harbor seals, and humans...
  88. pmc The Friedreich's ataxia protein frataxin modulates DNA base excision repair in prokaryotes and mammals
    Rene Thierbach
    Department of Food Toxicology and Replacement Complementary Methods to Animal Testing, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany
    Biochem J 432:165-72. 2010
    ..These findings indicate that frataxin modulates DNA-repair mechanisms probably due to its impact on ISC-dependent repair proteins, linking mitochondrial dysfunction to DNA repair and tumour initiation...
  89. ncbi Physiology of diving of birds and mammals
    P J Butler
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    Physiol Rev 77:837-99. 1997
    This review concentrates on the physiological responses, and their control, in freely diving birds and mammals that enable them to remain submerged and sometimes quite active for extended periods of time...
  90. doi Adult neurogenesis in mammals--a theme with many variations
    Luca Bonfanti
    Neuroscience Institute Cavalieri Ottolenghi NICO, Regione Gonzole 10 10043 Orbassano TO, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 34:930-50. 2011
    ..differences among mammalian species, reflecting the remarkable diversity in brain anatomy and function of mammals. As a mechanism of brain plasticity, adult neurogenesis might also differ due to behavioural specialization or ..
  91. ncbi Vitamin C. Biosynthesis, recycling and degradation in mammals
    Carole L Linster
    Universite Catholique de Louvain, Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology, Brussels, Belgium
    FEBS J 274:1-22. 2007
    ..The degradation of vitamin C in mammals is initiated by the hydrolysis of dehydroascorbate to 2,3-diketo-l-gulonate, which is spontaneously degraded to ..
  92. pmc Deadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals
    S K Hooker
    Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, Fife, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 279:1041-50. 2012
    ..The basic pathology and cause are relatively well known to human divers. Breath-hold diving marine mammals were thought to be relatively immune to DCS owing to multiple anatomical, physiological and behavioural ..
  93. doi How can female germline stem cells contribute to the physiological neo-oogenesis in mammals and why menopause occurs?
    Antonin Bukovsky
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tennessee College of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, Tennessee 37920, USA
    Microsc Microanal 17:498-505. 2011
    ..suggests that females of lower vertebrates have a better opportunity to provide healthy offspring compared to mammals with oocytes subjected to environmental threats for up to several decades...
  94. pmc Characterization of intron loss events in mammals
    Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington
    Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A4, Canada
    Genome Res 17:23-32. 2007
    ..Our results in mammals show that intron gain has not been a factor in the evolution of gene structure during the past 95 Myr and has ..
  95. ncbi Peptidoglycan detection by mammals and flies
    Catherine Chaput
    Department of Cellular Microbiology, Max Planck Institute, Chariteplatz 1, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Microbes Infect 9:637-47. 2007
    ..The host exploits the peptidoglycan particular composition and uniqueness to bacteria for specific bacterial recognition. Insects and mammals accomplish this via receptors such as PGRP and Nod proteins.
  96. pmc Evolution from XIST-independent to XIST-controlled X-chromosome inactivation: epigenetic modifications in distantly related mammals
    Julie Chaumeil
    Comparative Genomics Group, Evolution Ecology and Genetics, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    PLoS ONE 6:e19040. 2011
    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the transcriptional silencing of one X in female mammals, balancing expression of X genes between females (XX) and males (XY)...
  97. ncbi Synonymous and nonsynonymous rate variation in nuclear genes of mammals
    Z Yang
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 94720 3140, USA
    J Mol Evol 46:409-18. 1998
    ..The likelihood approach is preferable, even for pairwise sequence comparison, because more realistic models about the mutation and substitution processes can be incorporated in the analysis...
  98. pmc Update on animal models of diabetic retinopathy: from molecular approaches to mice and higher mammals
    Remya Robinson
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
    Dis Model Mech 5:444-56. 2012
  99. doi Stress-sensing mechanisms in the unfolded protein response: similarities and differences between yeast and mammals
    Kenji Kohno
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916 5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630 0192 Japan
    J Biochem 147:27-33. 2010
    ..Higher eukaryotes have evolved two other sensors, PERK and ATF6. This review focuses on the current progress in our understanding of stress-sensing mechanisms, in particular, the similarities and differences between yeast and mammals.
  100. doi Aquaporin water channels in mammals
    Kenichi Ishibashi
    Department of Medical Physiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2 522 1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204 8588, Japan
    Clin Exp Nephrol 13:107-17. 2009
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on all mammalian AQPs and hopefully will stimulate future research in both clinical and basic fields...
  101. ncbi The DNA methyltransferases of mammals
    T H Bestor
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 701 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 9:2395-402. 2000

Research Grants76

  1. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  2. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These tools will be made publicly available, including a friendly graphical user interface and visualization. ..
  3. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    Junying Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..No Abstract provided ..
  4. NIH Director's Pioneer Award
    ERICH JARVIS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and associated brain pathways of the few rare groups that have vocal learning - four groups of distantly related mammals (humans, cetaceans, elephants, and bats) and three groups of distantly related birds (parrots, hummingbirds, and ..
  5. Optimization of DNA Repair by Abh8
    Lauren Endres; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The DDR is a broad cellular response involving a network of proteins that are highly conserved between yeast and mammals [4]...
  6. Targeting Galectin-3 with novel drugs for treatment of eczema
    Fu Tong Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..They are evolutionarily highly conserved (found in nematodes and mammals), and some show wide tissue distribution, while others are more selectively expressed by tissue...
  7. Role of SAMe on UBC9 and sumolyation in liver cancer and alcoholic liver injury
    Maria Lauda Tomasi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In mammals two MAT genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, encode for two catalytic subunits of MAT, 11 and 12, respectively...
  8. Structure and function of urea transporters
    Ming Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: In mammals, urea transporters are expressed in a wide array of organs, such as kidney, brain, heart, liver, ear, and testis, ..
    Melanie H Cobb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..screens to identify proteins required for development and survival, and that affect growth in flies, worms, and mammals. WNK1 is essential for embryonic development in mice...
  10. Functional Genomics of the Mitochondrial Proteome
    Dennis R Winge; Fiscal Year: 2011, we have identified a subset of mitochondrial proteins of unknown function that are conserved from yeast to mammals. We hypothesize that evolutionary conservation provides powerful evidence for a critical roles for these poorly ..
    Adrian R Krainer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..NMD degrades mature mRNAs with a premature termination codon (PTC). In mammals, the difference between premature and normal PTCs is established in relation to their position and distance from ..
  12. Controlling Radiation Injury by TLR5 Agonists
    Andrei V Gudkov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The toxicity of ionizing radiation (IR) in mammals is largely due to damage to the most radiosensitive tissues, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the hematopoietic (HP) system...
  13. Bi-functional Therapeutics for Allergy-BFTA
    Swey Shen Chen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ii) Due to the evolutionary distance of jellyfish from the mammals, immunogenicity of GFP provides necessary helper effect without provoking antibodies reactive to vital mammalian ..
  14. Antiarrhythmic Mechanisms in the Hearts of Hibernating Mammals
    Lai Hua Xie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..our preliminary results demonstrated seasonal variation in the antiarrhythmic properties in hibernating mammals, specifically;the woodchucks (Marmota monax) in winter are more resistant to ischemia-induced VF and SCD than ..
  15. Biology of IGFs in Bone
    Thomas L Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In higher organisms including mammals, the insulin and IGF ligands and their receptors diverged and assumed more circumscribed functions...
  16. Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Zebrafish
    ..In mammals, the Y-chromosome gene SRY initiates an incompletely understood network that directs the gonad to become a testis ..
  17. Sirtuin/FOXO Signaling in the Regulation of Bone Mass
    Stavroula Kousteni; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..protein deacetylases which attenuate stress-induced apoptosis and extend lifespan in flies, worms and mammals. The mammalian homolog SIRT1, deacetylates FOXO1, thus shifting FOXO-dependent responses away from cell death and ..
  18. Adenosine and the Basal Forebrain in the Control of Behavioral State
    Robert E Strecker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..All human life, and indeed the life of all mammals, is shaped by periods of wakefulness and sleep, and thus knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is of great ..
  19. Remote-control mouse-implantable micropumps for establishment of regenerative cap
    JUAN GABRIEL contact SANTIAGO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In adult mammals, muscle stem cells (MuSCs) proliferate less, there is less new muscle produced, and there is more fibrosis, than ..
  20. Human middle-ear imaging, physiology, and biomechanics
    CHARLES RICHARD STEELE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..there is currently a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms of high-frequency middle-ear sound transmission in mammals. The overall goal of this project is to understand the relationships between the morphometry of the middle ear ..
  21. Mechanisms of Heme Transport in Macrophages
    CARINE CARINE WHITE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HRG-1 is conserved in mammals, and studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that both worm and human HRG-1 bind and transport heme...
  22. Integrated signaling of eicosanoids in HSC formation and regeneration
    Trista E North; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a frequent target of chromosomal mutation in human leukemia, is absolutely required for HSC specification in mammals;runx1 expression is conserved in zebrafish, appearing robustly by 36 hours post fertilization (hpf) in the AGM...
  23. Prevention of Inherited Retinal Diseases by Therapeutic Rare Earth Nanoparticles
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The nanoceria are expected to function in humans as they do in other mammals and therefore should preserve vision and prevent blindness in humans.
  24. Role of MicroRNA mi R-33 in Controlling Cholesterol/Lipid Homeostasis
    Anders M Naar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..embedded within intronic sequences in both SREBP-1 and -2 genes in humans, regulate cholesterol homeostasis in mammals in coordination with the SREBP host gene products...
  25. The Somatotropic Axis and Health Aging: A Search for Mechanisms
    Andrzej Bartke; Fiscal Year: 2013 to identify mechanisms responsible for the effects of growth hormone (GH) signaling on aging and longevity in mammals. Studies conducted by the applicants during the last 10 years, together with results obtained in other ..
  26. Biochemical Characterization of Cytochrome b5 Reductase in Candida albicans
    ..has a high pharmacological significance owing to its role in fatty acid elongation, ergosterol (or cholesterol in mammals) biosynthesis, and cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification of xenobiotics...
  27. Analysis of the role of the VRK1 protein kinase in mammalian fertility
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..kinase, which is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals. The VRK1 orthologs in Drosophila and C...
    ROBERT STAFFORD BRIDGES; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Experience Induces a Fundamental Shift in the Neural Regulation of Hormone Secretion and Action in Female Mammals." We propose that this shift in hormone sensitivity is brought about in part by an up-regulation of prolactin ..
  29. Pluripotent stem cell-derived HSCs: improvements and molecular mechanisms
    Patrick Cahan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), largely residing in the bone marrow of adult mammals, are the progenitors of all blood cells, including all myeloid and lymphoid lineages...
    Sridhar Sunderam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current gold standard for sleep analysis in mammals is electroencephalography (EEG) with electromyography (EMG)...
    Vivian Bellofatto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..intriguing differences from the more conserved machineries of other, better- studied eukaryotes (yeast and mammals)...
  32. Regulation of Genomic and Epigenomic Stability at CpG Sites
    Alfonso Bellacosa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Alterations in epigenomic stability occur in cloned mammals as well as in cancer and thus have implications for both stem cell biology and cancer diagnosis/prognosis/..
  33. Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species by Cobalamins
    NICOLA ELIZABETH BRASCH; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cobalamins (Cbl, vitamin B12 derivatives) are essential cofactors in mammals. However, they also have clinical effects that cannot be fully explained solely by their cofactor role...
  34. A Computational Framework for Mapping Long Range Genetic Circuits
    Tolga Tasdizen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and integrate this novel set of software and neurobiologic technologies that will accelerate wiring the brain of mammals. These technologies will provide the critical missing framework necessary for image acquisition, manipulation of ..
  35. Role of Dendritic Ca2+ Transients in Respiratory Rhythm Generation
    Jack L Feldman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We study the generation and regulation of respiratory rhythm in mammals. Breathing is a remarkable behavior in vertebrates that regulates gas exchange to support metabolism...
  36. Developing miRNA diagnostic methods and identifying tumor regulatory networks
    Thomas Tuschl; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2008;Friedman et al., 2009). Several hundred miRNA gene families have been identified in mammals (Landgraf et al...
  37. The unique role of B-Raf in murine cardiac development and postnatal function
    Natasha N Chattergoon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Research Project: The fetal period is a critical stage for heart development. In larger mammals, like the sheep, cardiomyocytes gradually cease dividing and become primarily binucleated (terminal ..
  38. Pharmacological strategies to improve breathing after cervical spinal cord injury
    FRANCIS GOLDER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..investigates functional plasticity of phrenic motoneurons, which innervate the primary inspiratory muscle in mammals - the diaphragm...
  39. Biological Functions of Iron Responsive Elements
    Richard S Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that the IRP1-HIF2[unreadable] regulatory axis is required for the integration of iron and oxygen metabolism in mammals. Consequently, the specific aims are to: 1) determine the tissue-specific roles of IRP1-dependent regulation of ..
  40. Mechanisms of Splicing Regulation During Environmental Stress in Yeast
    Jaclyn C Greimann; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..When any of these processing pathways is incorrectly regulated in mammals, diseases arise such as Retinitis pigmentosa caused by mutation of proteins involved in splicing (Cooper et al...
  41. Regulation of Rhox5 Transcriptional Elongation
    Marcy E Richardson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transcriptional elongation in Neurospora, this is the first suggestion that DNA methylation has this effect in mammals. Together, the data lead to the hypothesis that methylation of the Pp blocks AR recruitment, thereby preventing ..
  42. Regulation of Cardiac Kv Channel Expression
    Edwin S Levitan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A common feature of electrical remodeling seen under a wide variety of pathologic states in many mammals is decreased expression of transient outward current (Ito) channels, which alters heart function and may ..
  43. International Symposium on Proline Metabolism and Human Health
    Donald F Becker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Proline has multifaceted biological and biochemical roles in a variety of organisms from bacteria to mammals. The unique roles of proline metabolism in various organisms include osmolyte protection, protein chaperoning, ..
  44. Multiple Mechanisms of Nasal Chemoreception
    Diego Restrepo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Description (provided by applicant): The nasal cavity in mammals houses distinct chemosensory epithelia including the main olfactory epithelium, the vomeronasal epithelium and the trigeminally innervated respiratory epithelium (so-..
  45. Visualization of ototoxic mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian hair cells
    Shelley A Batts; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Mammals are unable to regenerate lost hair cells resulting in permanent and irreversible hearing ability...
    Jacques Robert; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The evolutionary distance of X. laevis from mammals permits distinguishing species-specific adaptations from more conserved features of the immune system. X...
  47. Adhesion of Leptospira interrogans to Human Cell Surface Receptors
    Jenifer L Coburn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Virtually all species of mammals can serve as carriers, with the Leptospira persisting in the proximal tubules of the kidney and being shed in the ..
  48. Tick-Mammal Interface of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis
    ..sequence the genomes of Ap isolates from humans (from the upper Midwest and Northeast) and 5 from ticks and small mammals collected at Camp Ripley, and determine the differences between them and the sequenced Ap genome to correlate ..
  49. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone: Ancestral Role in Feeding &Sleep Regulation
    Philippe Mourrain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In mammals, melanin-concentrating hormone (hMCH) is a key regulator of feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, and sleep...
  50. Microfluidic-microtiter interface for rapid large-scale screenings of C. elegans
    Adela Ben Yakar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..On the other hand, thanks to their simplicity and large similarities to mammals, the use of small invertebrate animals is of great interest for rapid genome-wide screenings...
  51. Transposons in Female Reproductive Health and Disease
    Zev Williams; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central hypothesis is that replication of transposons in mammals can cause miscarriage and is normally suppressed by piRNA and PIWI proteins...
  52. Mitochondrial function and antifungal photodynamic therapy
    Constantine G Haidaris; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Importantly, each of the three fungal pathways utilizes proteins with no known ortholog in mammals;we will test mutants in each pathway for sensitivity to PDT both in vitro and in vivo...
  53. GILZ Regulation of ENaC
    David Pearce; Fiscal Year: 2012 the kidney distal nephron is essential for fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure regulation in mammals. Aldosterone acts through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to control transcription rates of a group of target ..
  54. Pluripotent Stem Cells: Modeling syncytiotrophoblast development and pathogenesis
    Danny J Schust; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): A placenta allows eutherian mammals to give birth to progeny that are already developmentally advanced...
  55. Phospholipid flip-flop in biogenic membranes
    Anant K Menon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..modifications are essential in eukaryotes;for example, their genetic abrogation causes embryonic lethality in mammals and renders yeast unviable...
  56. Genetic Control of Axial Patterning in Drosophila Eye
    Amit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Most of the genes studied here are highly conserved as they are present in higher mammals including humans, and genetic control of DV patterning is an important event during mammalian eye development...
  57. Inducible recombination and gene expression in specific neurotransmitter systems
    Steven A Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Because of the unique ability to create gene-targeted mice among mammals, mice will be the model organism employed...
  58. Developmental Regulation of Brain and Behavior
    JULI S WADE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..reasons, including one of the largest sex differences in any tractable model system and remarkable similarity to mammals, including humans, in the circuitry regulating social behaviors...
  59. SIRT1 as a regulator of health and lifespan of mammals
    David A Sinclair; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They are found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. In mammals, sirtuins are implicated in mediating many of the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR)...
  60. Dissecting the role of one neuronal RhoGEF amongst many: the Kalirin-7 null mouse
    Richard E Mains; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Mammals also express Trio, a highly homologous, but non- redundant gene. The single Kalirin/Trio gene in Drosophila and C...
  61. Tyrosinase Model Complexes using Imidazole Ligands
    JOHN BRANNON GARY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One especially important enzyme in the class of type-3 copper centers is tyrosinase. In mammals, the enzyme is involved in the biosynthetic pathway for the formation of melanin...
  62. Development of inhibitors of AMP Deaminase Isoform 2 as a Mechanism for Treating
    RICHARD JOSEPH JOHNSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our preliminary data suggests that AMPD2 is the key enzyme that switches mammals from fat utilizing to fat accumulating, and that activation of this pathway results in the inhibition of AMP ..
  63. Chromatin regulation by human SIRT7 in aging-associated cellular programs
    Katrin F Chua; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In mammals, the SIRTUIN gene SIRT7 has multiple links to aging and age-related disease...
    Nicholas Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..addresses the hypothesis that gp96, a heat shock protein that has been implicated in antigen presentation in mammals, is part of an ancestral pathway that is antecedent to, and independent of, the antigen presentation pathway that ..
  65. A Middle Ear Twist: Imaging, Physiology & Biomechanics
    RYAN PATRICK JACKSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..JHF) sound, greater than 10 kHz, to be transduced from middle-ear to cochlea in a group of terrestrial mammals. Anatomical studies indicate that in larger mammals, the malleus may-assume a twisting mode of vibration, rather ..
  66. The role of cannabinoid signaling in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
    MATTHEW SIMON GILL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The endocannabinoid system in mammals plays a role in many physiological functions and is an important therapeutic target...
    Jay Goldberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..type I hair cell and its calyx ending, phylogenetically recent acquisitions, only found in reptiles, birds and mammals. These structures are restricted to central/striolar zones In reptiles and birds...
    Geoffrey Kapler; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Mechanisms that prevent reinitiation from a replication origin in a given S phase are not understood. In mammals, errors in replication control can result in spontaneous amplification of segments of the genome...
    David Crews; Fiscal Year: 1991
    b>Mammals, birds, and reptiles constitute the amniote vertebrates. In all mammals and birds, and in many reptiles, sex is determined at fertilization by genotype (genotypic sex determination or GSD)...
    Abhineet Sheoran; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Type 1 (anthroponotic) is found exclusively in humans, while type 2 (zoonotic) is found in all mammals including humans. C...
  71. Nutritional Ecology of Adult Anopheles gambiae
    WOODBRIDGE FOSTER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Contrary to what is generally understood, adult An. gambiae have two hosts: vascular plants for sugar and mammals for blood...
  72. Reductive Dehalogenation in Mammals by Iodotyrosine Deiodinase
    Steven E Rokita; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Mammals provide a fascinating exception to this general observation...
    CHARLES SIBLEY; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The genetic affinities and evolutionary histories of most of the organisms of Earth, including Man and the other mammals, are uncertain or unknown...
  74. Cochlear Therapy through Magnetic Targeted Drug Delivery
    Richard Kopke; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In birds, but not mammals, supporting cells re-enter the cell cycle, divide and differentiate into new hair cells...
    Harry Dietz; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..cerevisiae, but some aspects of NMRD appear to be significantly different in mammals. In particular, as Dr...
  76. Morphine in Mammals
    MEINHART ZENK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Over the past thirty years, claims have been published on the detection of trace quantities of morphine in mammals. The question of whether this morphine is synthesized de novo or whether it is of dietary origin was not solved ..