Summary: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Publications180 found, 100 shown here
- Abrupt recent shift in delta 13C and delta 15N values in Adélie penguin eggshell in AntarcticaSteven D Emslie
Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11666-9. 2007..Our results support the "krill surplus" hypothesis that predicts excess krill availability in the Southern Ocean after this period of exploitation...
- Spatially integrated assessment reveals widespread changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic PeninsulaHeather J Lynch
640 Life Sciences Building, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
Ecology 93:1367-77. 2012..Aggregating population data at the regional scale also allows us to quantify rates of regional population change in a way not previously possible...
- Microevolution and mega-icebergs in the AntarcticL D Shepherd
Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:16717-22. 2005..The latter is likely to be precipitated by mega-icebergs that act to promote migration among penguin colonies that typically show strong natal return...
- Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic PeninsulaMartin Montes-Hugo
Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
Science 323:1470-3. 2009..Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations...
- Measuring foraging activity in a deep-diving bird: comparing wiggles, oesophageal temperatures and beak-opening angles as proxies of feedingNicolas Hanuise
Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, CEBC CNRS UPR 1934, Villiers en Bois, France
J Exp Biol 213:3874-80. 2010....
- Coexistence of oceanic predators on wintering areas explained by population-scale foraging segregation in space or timeJean Baptiste Thiebot
Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, UPR 1934 du CNRS, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France
Ecology 93:122-30. 2012..Our results highlight parsimonious mechanisms of resource partitioning operating at the population level that may explain how animals from neighboring localities can coexist during the nonbreeding period...
- Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguinC A Bost
Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, UPR 1934 du CNRS, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
Biol Lett 5:473-6. 2009..Such winter information is a crucial step for a better integrative approach for the conservation of this species whose world population is known to be declining...
- Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguinsMichael J Polito
Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e26642. 2011....
- Antennae on transmitters on penguins: balancing energy budgets on the high wireRory P Wilson
Institut für Meereskunde, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
J Exp Biol 207:2649-62. 2004..Suggestions are made as to how antenna-induced drag might be minimized for future studies on marine diving animals...
- Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate changeClaire Saraux
Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
Nature 469:203-6. 2011..In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper-band data should be reconsidered...
- Bacterial diversity associated with ornithogenic soil of the Ross Sea region, AntarcticaJ Aislabie
Landcare Research, Private Bag 3127, Hamilton, New Zealand
Can J Microbiol 55:21-36. 2009..Results of this study indicate that despite relatively high nutrient levels and microbial biomass, bacterial communities of ornithogenic soils were not more diverse than those of mineral soils of the Ross Sea region of Antarctica...
- The phylogeography of Adelie penguin faecal floraJonathan C Banks
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand
Environ Microbiol 11:577-88. 2009..There was little support for a correlation between distance between collection sites and community similarity...
- Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguinsL Alex Kahl
Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
Integr Comp Biol 50:1041-50. 2010....
- Group-specific polymerase chain reaction for DNA-based analysis of species diversity and identity in dietary samplesS N Jarman
Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050, Australia
Mol Ecol 13:1313-22. 2004..These primers, their design and their application to studying prey diversity and identity in predator diet are described...
- Stable isotopes document seasonal changes in trophic niches and winter foraging individual specialization in diving predators from the Southern OceanYves Cherel
Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chizé and UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, F 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
J Anim Ecol 76:826-36. 2007..The findings have a number of implications for understanding the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem and on the demography of these species...
- Are stress hormone levels a good proxy of foraging success? An experiment with king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicusFrederic Angelier
Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 79360, Villiers en Bois, France
J Exp Biol 212:2824-9. 2009....
- Outbreaks of avian cholera in Hope Bay, AntarcticaG A Leotta
Laboratorio de Diagnóstico e Investigaciones Bacteriológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 60 y 118, La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Wildl Dis 42:259-70. 2006..This study reports avian cholera in new bird species, their potential role in the transmission of the disease, and the different responses of these species to the disease...
- Bacterial diversity in Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, guano: molecular and morpho-physiological approachesMarek K Zdanowski
Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02 141 Warsaw, Ustrzycka 10, Poland
FEMS Microbiol Ecol 50:163-73. 2004..The results indicate that the bacterial community in penguin guano is not only one of the richest in Antarctica, but is extremely diverse, both phylogenetically and morpho-physiologically...
- Variability in krill biomass links harvesting and climate warming to penguin population changes in AntarcticaWayne Z Trivelpiece
Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7625-8. 2011....
- Working less to gain more: when breeding quality relates to foraging efficiencyAmélie Lescroël
CEBC CNRS, UPR 1934, 79360 Villiers en Bois, France
Ecology 91:2044-55. 2010..This study is the first to demonstrate the importance of "extrinsic" conditions (in terms of environmental conditions and offspring needs) on the relationship between foraging behavior and individual quality...
- Yolk androgen deposition without an energetic cost for female rockhopper penguins: a compensatory strategy to accelerate brood reduction?Maud Poisbleau
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany
Biol Lett 7:605-7. 2011..Since the B-egg is usually the first to hatch and the only one to produce a fledging chick, we hypothesize that differential yolk androgen deposition may be an adaptive strategy for females to affect brood reduction...
- Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguinsClaire Saraux
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
PLoS ONE 6:e20407. 2011..Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age...
- Molecular sexing of unusually large numbers of Spheniscus magellanicus (Spheniscidae) washed ashore along the Brazilian coast in 2008E C Reis
Laboratório de Genética Marinha, Departamento de Genetica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Genet Mol Res 10:3731-7. 2011..Therefore, this method proved to be effective and sensitive for sex determination of S. magellanicus individuals. Data on sex ratios are useful for understanding the dynamics and ecology of Magellanic penguin populations...
- Ecophysiological response of Adelie penguins facing an experimental increase in breeding constraintsM Beaulieu
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien IPHC, Departement Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie DEPE, UMR 7178 CNRS UDS, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
J Exp Biol 213:33-9. 2010..We propose that this flexible use of ecological niches may allow birds facing increased breeding constraints to avoid chronic stress and to minimize the impact on their body condition...
- Effect of penguin and seal excrement on mercury distribution in sediments from the Ross Sea region, East AntarcticaYaguang Nie
Institute of Polar Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, PR China
Sci Total Environ 433:132-40. 2012..Compared with typical sediments from other sites in Antarctica and the SQGs (sediment quality guidelines), the total amount of Hg in our study area is still not considered to be adversely high...
- Evaluating the impact of handling and logger attachment on foraging parameters and physiology in southern rockhopper penguinsKatrin Ludynia
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
PLoS ONE 7:e50429. 2012..Increased drag may alter their diving behaviour substantially, thus constraining them in their ability to catch prey. Results obtained in this study indicate that data recorded may also not represent their normal dive behaviour...
- Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how Little Penguins maintain body reserves while feeding offspringClaire Saraux
Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
Ecology 92:1909-16. 2011..Inshore seabirds do use dual strategies of alternating short and long trips, but from our data, on a simpler and less flexible way than for offshore birds...
- An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from spacePeter T Fretwell
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
PLoS ONE 7:e33751. 2012..To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research...
- In search of human-associated bacterial pathogens in Antarctic wildlife: report from six penguin colonies regularly visited by touristsJonas Bonnedahl
Department of Molecular Biology, Umea University, Sweden
Ambio 34:430-2. 2005..There is, however, an urgent need to further investigate the situation in areas closer to permanent Antarctic settlements...
- Survival differences and the effect of environmental instability on breeding dispersal in an Adelie penguin meta-populationKatie M Dugger
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 3803, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12375-80. 2010..Contrary to current thought, breeding penguins are not always philopatric. Rather, stressful conditions can significantly increase dispersal rates...
- Adélie penguins and temperature changes in Antarctica: a long-term viewCraig D Millar
Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Integr Zool 7:113-20. 2012..At this time, temperatures were much lower than now. Hence, this species offers unique long-term information, at both the genomic and ecological levels, about how a species has responded to climate change over more than 40 000 years...
- Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an Emperor penguin huddleDaniel P Zitterbart
Department of Physics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
PLoS ONE 6:e20260. 2011..Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses and colloids...
- Elevated hormonal stress response and reduced reproductive output in Yellow-eyed penguins exposed to unregulated tourismUrsula Ellenberg
Department of Zoology, University of Otago, 340 Great King St, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
Gen Comp Endocrinol 152:54-63. 2007..For maintenance of attractive Yellow-eyed penguin-viewing destinations we recommend that tourists stay out of breeding areas and disturbance at penguin landing beaches is reduced...
- Habituation of adult Magellanic penguins to human visitation as expressed through behavior and corticosterone secretionBrian G Walker
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Box 351800, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Conserv Biol 20:146-54. 2006..The physiological differences between tourist-visited and undisturbed groups of Magellanic Penguins emphasize the importance of monitoring the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wildlife at multiple levels...
- What ecological factors can affect albumen corticosterone levels in the clutches of seabirds? Timing of breeding, disturbance and laying order in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)M Poisbleau
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
Gen Comp Endocrinol 162:139-45. 2009..Thus, more work is required to explore the hypotheses of passive versus active transfer to eggs and to understand the adaptive value of contrary effects on the amount and concentration of corticosterone...
- Measuring corticosterone in seabird egg yolk and the presence of high yolk gestagen concentrationsPetra Quillfeldt
Max Planck Institut für Ornithologie, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
Gen Comp Endocrinol 173:11-4. 2011..This was observed for both species. We further found species-specific differences in the actual corticosterone amounts present in the egg yolks...
- Huddling behavior in emperor penguins: Dynamics of huddlingCaroline Gilbert
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Departement Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, UMR 7178, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg Cedex 02, France
Physiol Behav 88:479-88. 2006..This complex social behavior therefore enables all breeders to get a regular and equal access to an environment which allows them to save energy and successfully incubate their eggs during the Antarctic winter...
- Heart rate as a predictor of energy expenditure in undisturbed fasting and incubating penguinsR Groscolas
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Departement d Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, UMR 7178, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg Cedex 02, France
J Exp Biol 213:153-60. 2010..This result suggests that stress induces a disproportionate increase of f(H) vs O(2) consumption, and that the use of EE/f(H) relationships obtained in stressed birds could lead to underestimated EE values...
- Studying seabird diet through genetic analysis of faeces: a case study on macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus)Bruce E Deagle
School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
PLoS ONE 2:e831. 2007..Conventional stomach-content data was also collected, allowing comparison of the approaches...
- Avian malaria (Plasmodium spp) in yellow-eyed penguins: investigating the cause of high seroprevalence but low observed infectionH J W Sturrock
Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
N Z Vet J 55:158-60. 2007..To investigate the cause of a high seroprevalence of antibodies to Plasmodium spp known to cause avian malaria, but extremely low levels of observed infection, in yellow-eyed penguins, Megadyptes antipodes...
- African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odourGregory B Cunningham
Percy FitzPatrick Institute DST NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
J Exp Biol 211:3123-7. 2008..The implication of this work is that the detection of changes in the odour landscape (DMS) may assist penguins in identifying productive areas of the ocean for foraging. At-sea studies are needed to investigate this issue further...
- How accurately can we estimate energetic costs in a marine top predator, the king penguin?Lewis G Halsey
Centre for Ornithology, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
Zoology (Jena) 110:81-92. 2007..Finally, a statistical method to include easy-to-measure morphometric characteristics, which may improve the accuracy of f(H) - V(O2) prediction equations, is explained...
- Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquariumAllison D Tuttle
Department of Research and Veterinary Services, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355, USA
J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:2059-62, 2003. 2005..An inability to isolate virus several weeks after illness suggested successful viral clearance in recovered penguins. To the authors' knowledge, EEE infection in any penguin species has not been reported...
- Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguinsDarren A Talbot
Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
J Physiol 558:123-35. 2004....
- Yolk androgen deposition in rockhopper penguins, a species with reversed hatching asynchronyM Poisbleau
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Schlossallee 2, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany
Gen Comp Endocrinol 170:622-8. 2011..We discuss these results in relation to the chronology of egg formation and the potential effect of the observed differences on embryo development and brood reduction...
- Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian oceanAudrey Jaeger
Centre d Etudes Biologiques de Chize, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Villiers en Bois, France
PLoS ONE 6:e16484. 2011....
- Energy saving processes in huddling emperor penguins: from experiments to theoryCaroline Gilbert
IPHC DEPE, UMR 7178, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg, France
J Exp Biol 211:1-8. 2008..These processes, linked together, explain how huddling emperors save energy and maintain a constant body temperature, which ensures a successful incubation in the midst of the austral winter...
- Stroke rates and diving air volumes of emperor penguins: implications for dive performanceKatsufumi Sato
International Coastal Research Center, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 2 106 1, Akahama, Otsuchi, Iwate, 028 1102, Japan
J Exp Biol 214:2854-63. 2011..This was exemplified by a 27.6 min dive, after which the bird required 6 min before it stood up from a prone position, another 20 min before it began to walk, and 8.4 h before it dived again...
- Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin populationStephanie Jenouvrier
Department of Biology, MS 34, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1844-7. 2009..However, given the future projected increases in GHGs and its effect on Antarctic climate, evolution or migration seem unlikely for such long lived species at the remote southern end of the Earth...
- Heart rate and energetics of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)G Froget
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
J Exp Biol 207:3917-26. 2004..It is suggested that the regional hypothermia that has been recorded in this species during diving bouts may be at least a contributing factor to such hypometabolism...
- Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coastPablo García-Borboroglu
Centro Nacional Patagónico CONICET, Boulevard Brown 3600, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
Mar Pollut Bull 60:1652-7. 2010..The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins...
- Maternal deposition of yolk corticosterone in clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome)Maud Poisbleau
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
Horm Behav 55:500-6. 2009..The adaptive value, if any, of high yolk corticosterone is presently unknown...
- Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate changeJulia A Clarke
Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 8208, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:11545-50. 2007..morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude approximately 14 degrees S) regions during ..
- Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic PeninsulaHugh W Ducklow
School of Marine Science, The College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, USA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:67-94. 2007..The climate/ecological gradients extending along the WAP and the presence of monitoring systems, field stations and long-term research programmes make the region an invaluable observatory of climate change and marine ecosystem response...
- Mercury concentrations in king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) feathers at Crozet Islands (sub-Antarctic): temporal trend between 1966--1974 and 2000--2001Renaud Scheifler
Universite de Franche Comte, Laboratoire de Biologie Environnementale, EA 3184 MR USC INRA, Place Leclerc, 25030 Besancon Cedex, France
Environ Toxicol Chem 24:125-8. 2005..These first results may constitute a basis for further ecotoxicological and/or biomonitoring studies of king penguins in these remote ecosystems...
- Do seasonal changes in metabolic rate facilitate changes in diving behaviour?J A Green
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
J Exp Biol 208:2581-93. 2005....
- The penguin feathers as bioindicator of Antarctica environmental stateR Metcheva
Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bd Tzar Osvoboditel 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
Sci Total Environ 362:259-65. 2006..The concentrations of most of the investigated elements were significantly higher in P. papua than in P. antarctica and this probably could be explained by the different diet and feeding habit of these species...
- Skuas at penguin carcass: patch use and state-dependent leaving decisions in a top-predatorSteffen Hahn
Institute of Ecology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Dornburger Strasse 159, 07743 Jena, Germany
Proc Biol Sci 272:1449-54. 2005..Thus our results provide evidence that under natural conditions, territorial skuas adjust their foraging decision on actual energy requirements, i.e. offspring number and age...
- Emperor penguins adjust swim speed according to the above-water height of ice holes through which they exitKatsufumi Sato
International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 2 106 1 Akahama, Otsuchi, Iwate 028 1102, Japan
J Exp Biol 208:2549-54. 2005....
- Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driverJefferson T Hinke
Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division, Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Oecologia 153:845-55. 2007....
- Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in AntarcticaJohn F Cockrem
Conservation Endocrinology Research Group, Institute of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Zoolog Sci 25:291-8. 2008..The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins...
- Captain Leslie Russell Blake and Aberdeen University's penguin eggMartyn L Gorman
The Zoology Museum, School of Biological Sciences, King s College, The University of Aberdeen, Scotland
Curr Biol 15:R402-5. 2005
- Methane fluxes from tundra soils and snowpack in the maritime AntarcticRenbin Zhu
Institute of Polar Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei City, Anhui Province 230026, PR China
Chemosphere 59:1583-93. 2005....
- Gas actNigel Williams
Curr Biol 18:R6-7. 2008..New research finds that the emperor penguin is able to tolerate extremely low oxygen levels during its dives for food...
- Soil microarthropods in the feathers of Antarctic birdsD A Krivolutsky
Institute of Parasitology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr 33, Moscow, 117071 Russia
Dokl Biol Sci 397:342-5. 2004
- Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global coolingAllan J Baker
Department of Natural History, Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON, Canada
Proc Biol Sci 273:11-7. 2006..Thus, global cooling has had a major impact on penguin evolution, as it has on vertebrates generally. Penguins only reached cooler tropical waters in the Galapagos about 4 mya, and have not crossed the equatorial thermal barrier...
- Are king penguin populations threatened by Southern Ocean warming?Christophe Barbraud
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:E38; author eply E39. 2008
- Green activists enlist penguins to save the worldKatie McGoldrick
Nature 444:978-9. 2006
- Corticosterone in relation to body mass in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) affected by unusual sea ice conditions at Ross Island, AntarcticaJ F Cockrem
Conservation Endocrinology Research Group, Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Gen Comp Endocrinol 149:244-52. 2006..The results indicate that corticosterone and corticosterone responses are elevated in phase III of fasting in the Adelie penguin...
- Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, AntarcticaDavid G Ainley
H T Harvey and Associates, 3150 Almaden Expressway, Suite 145, San Jose, California 95118, USA
Ecology 87:2080-93. 2006..Reduction in the middle-trophic-level prey is expressed in the relaxed grazing pressure on phytoplankton...
- Boom and bust in a polar hot zoneErik Stokstad
Science 315:1522-3. 2007
- Genetic diversity in populations of Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua)A S Dranitsina
National Taras Shevchenko University of Kiev, Faculty of Biology, Kyiv 01033, Prospekt Glushkova 2, Ukraine
Tsitol Genet 40:57-62. 2006..Nei's distances values ranged from 0.0746 to 0.5787 among the populations and species. The obtained results will be used for further estimation of genetic diversity of Gentoo penguins and determination of their taxonomic status...
- Microbiaeratin, a new natural indole alkaloid from a Microbispora aerata strain, isolated from Livingston Island, AntarcticaVeneta Ivanova
The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
Prep Biochem Biotechnol 37:161-8. 2007..The organism was isolated from penguin excrements collected on the Antarctic Livingston Island. The structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments and mass spectrometric investigations...
- Liver and heart mitochondria obtained from Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) offers high resistance to lipid peroxidationMariana Gavazza
Cátedra Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
Acta Biol Hung 59:185-94. 2008..73 and 100.09 +/- 3.07, respectively. Light emission originating from these organelles showed no statistically significant differences and the polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles did not change during the lipid peroxidation process...
- Environmental forcing and Southern Ocean marine predator populations: effects of climate change and variabilityP N Trathan
British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Cambridge, UK
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:2351-65. 2007..Where species occupy different positions in different regional food webs, there is the potential to make predictions about future change scenarios...
- DDT levels in Antarctic penguins present a complex mysteryNaomi Lubick
Environ Sci Technol 42:3909. 2008
- Holocene elephant seal distribution implies warmer-than-present climate in the Ross SeaB L Hall
Climate Change Institute and Department of Earth Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10213-7. 2006..If, as proposed in the literature, the ice shelf survived this period, it would have been exposed to environments substantially warmer than present...
- Aerobic dive limit. What is it and is it always used appropriately?Patrick J Butler
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 145:1-6. 2006..Possible explanations of how some species routinely dive beyond their cADL are also discussed...
- Estimating the rate of oxygen consumption during submersion from the heart rate of diving animalsJ A Green
Dept of Zoology, La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R2028-38. 2007..6 ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) and occasionally lower than that while resting in air (10.3 ml.min(-1).kg(-1))...
- Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?Alexander Schmidt
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7178, Departement d Ecologie, Physiologie, et Ethologie, Universite Henri Poincare, Strasbourg, France
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R608-18. 2006..These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea...
- Pathotypical characterization and molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different hosts in China from 1996 to 2005Zhuo ming Qin
Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China
J Clin Microbiol 46:601-11. 2008....
- Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccineDanelle M Okeson
Center for Conservation and Research, Henry Doorly Zoo, 3701 South Tenth Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68107, USA
J Zoo Wildl Med 38:240-4. 2007..Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species...
- Microfilariae in Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi): genetics, morphology, and prevalenceJane Merkel
University of Missouri St Louis, Department of Biology, 223 Research Building, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St Louis, Missouri 63121, USA
J Parasitol 93:495-503. 2007....
- Leucocytozoon in captive penguinsM A Peirce
Vet Rec 157:819-20. 2005
- Isolation and characterization of Mycoplasma sphenisci sp. nov. from the choana of an aquarium-reared jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus)Salvatore Frasca
Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, Unit 3089, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 3089, USA
J Clin Microbiol 43:2976-9. 2005..Isolation of this mycoplasma expands the known range of species hosting mycoplasmas. The name Mycoplasma sphenisci sp. nov. is proposed for this new species, for which strain UCMJ is the type strain...
- Neuronal storage disease in a group of captive Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti)A Wunschmann
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Avenue, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
Vet Pathol 43:1029-33. 2006..Circumstantial evidence implicates chloroquine therapy as the possible cause of the storage disease...
- Physiological response to feeding in little penguinsJ A Green
Adaptive and Evolutionary Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia
Physiol Biochem Zool 79:1088-97. 2006....
- Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle earJacob Sadé
Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv, Israel
Acta Otolaryngol 128:18-21. 2008..A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles...
- Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguinsJessica U Meir
Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0204, USA
J Exp Biol 211:1169-79. 2008..The classic Scholander-Irving dive response in these emperor penguins contrasts with the absence of true bradycardia in diving ducks, cormorants, and other penguin species...
- The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus)Christiaan Labuschagne
Department of Genetics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa Inqaba Biotechnical Industries Pty Ltd, P O Box 14356, Hatfield 0028, South Africa Electronic address
Gene 534:113-8. 2014..demersus. These results can be subsequently used to provide information for penguin phylogenetic studies and insights into the evolution of genomes...
- Two different avipoxviruses associated with pox disease in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) along the Brazilian coastClaudia Niemeyer
a Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Avian Pathol 42:546-51. 2013....
- Impact of small-scale environmental perturbations on local marine food resources: a case study of a predator, the little penguinYan Ropert-Coudert
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien UMR7178 CNRS, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
Proc Biol Sci 276:4105-9. 2009..Mixed water regimes resulting from storms are currently unusual during the breeding period of these birds, but are expected to become more frequent due to climate change...
- Foraging by deep-diving birds is not constrained by an aerobic diving limit: a model of avian depth-dependent diving metabolic rateErpur Snaer Hansen
Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St Louis, Missouri 63121, USA
Am Nat 163:358-74. 2004..These data suggest that, for both small and large species, deep diving birds rarely if ever exceed tADL(d)...
- Air sac PO2 and oxygen depletion during dives of emperor penguinsT Knower Stockard
Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0204, USA
J Exp Biol 208:2973-80. 2005..These findings are consistent with a low total body metabolic rate during the dive...
- Penguin eggshell membranes reflect homogeneity of mercury in the marine food web surrounding the Antarctic PeninsulaRebecka L Brasso
University of North Carolina Wilmington, Department of Biology and Marine Biology, 601 South College Road, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA
Sci Total Environ 439:165-71. 2012....
- Mutation and evolutionary rates in adélie penguins from the antarcticCraig D Millar
Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
PLoS Genet 4:e1000209. 2008..53 and 1.17). Importantly, the latter rate is not statistically different from our estimate of the mutation rate. These results are in contrast to the view that molecular rates are time dependent...
- A new location-scale test based on a combination of the ideas of Levene and LepageMarkus Neuhauser
Department of Mathematics and Technology, RheinAhrCampus, Koblenz University of Applied Sciences, Remagen, Germany
Biom J 53:525-34. 2011..The new test is illustrated using real data about colony sizes of yellow-eyed penguins and an SAS program to perform the test is freely available...
- Should I stay or should I go? Hormonal control of nest abandonment in a long-lived bird, the Adélie penguinMarion Spée
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien IPHC, Departement d Ecologie, Physiologie, Ethologie DEPE, UMR 7178 CNRS UDS, 23 rue Becquerel, Strasbourg Cedex 2, France
Horm Behav 58:762-8. 2010..We provide insights into time-course changes of the endocrine profile as PIII proceeds and report that reaching proteolytic late fasting is not sufficient to induce nest abandonment in a long-lived bird...
- Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 detected in rockhopper penguins from the Falkland IslandsPatti J Miller
Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA
J Virol 84:11496-504. 2010....
- Application of in-situ hybridization for the detection and identification of avian malaria parasites in paraffin wax-embedded tissues from captive penguinsNora Dinhopl
Institute of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinarplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria
Avian Pathol 40:315-20. 2011..Thus, ISH proved to be a powerful, specific and sensitive tool for unambiguous detection of Plasmodium parasites in paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples...
- Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressorsVincent A Viblanc
Departement Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Universite de Strasbourg, France
BMC Ecol 12:10. 2012..From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data...
- REGULATION OF CYCLOOXGENASE GENES IN DEVELOPING LUNGPhilip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2003..These studies will provide fundamental new information about the regulation of pulmonary PGI/2 synthesis in the perinatal period, and about the roles of E/2 and ERs in vascular biology. ..
- Nitric Oxide in Lung Development and CLDPhilip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2006..These studies will increase our knowledge of the role of NO in CLD and also test three novel, mechanistically-based therapies. ..
- Cholesterol and Endothelial NO SynthasePhilip Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies will provide valuable new information about novel direct actions of HDL and SR-BI in endothelium, thereby expanding our knowledge of the role of HDL in vascular health and disease. ..
- Estrogen Modulation of Endothelial Cell PhenotypePhilip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- CRP, eNOS and Endothelial DysfunctionPhilip W Shaul; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed research program will determine how CRP and its cell surface receptors cause hypertension and insulin resistance. ..