passeriformes

Summary

Summary: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Seasonal variation in Plasmodium prevalence in a population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus
    Catherine L Cosgrove
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Anim Ecol 77:540-8. 2008
  2. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of malaria prevalence and parasitaemia in a wild bird population
    Sarah C L Knowles
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 20:1062-76. 2011
  3. ncbi Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change in a wild bird population
    Anne Charmantier
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 320:800-3. 2008
  4. ncbi Selection on heritable phenotypic plasticity in a wild bird population
    Daniel H Nussey
    Netherlands Institute of Ecology NIOO KNAW, Post Office Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands
    Science 310:304-6. 2005
  5. ncbi Plasmodium relictum (lineage SGS1) and Plasmodium ashfordi (lineage GRW2): the effects of the co-infection on experimentally infected passerine birds
    Vaidas Palinauskas
    Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, Vilnius 2100, LT 08412, Lithuania
    Exp Parasitol 127:527-33. 2011
  6. ncbi Experimental evidence for density-dependent reproduction in a cooperatively breeding passerine
    Lyanne Brouwer
    Evolutionary Ecology Group, School of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia
    Ecology 90:729-41. 2009
  7. ncbi Plasmodium relictum (lineage P-SGS1): effects on experimentally infected passerine birds
    Vaidas Palinauskas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, Vilnius 2100, LT 08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
    Exp Parasitol 120:372-80. 2008
  8. ncbi Within-population variation in prevalence and lineage distribution of avian malaria in blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus
    Matthew J Wood
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 16:3263-73. 2007
  9. pmc High prevalence and lineage diversity of avian malaria in wild populations of great tits (Parus major) and mosquitoes (Culex pipiens)
    Olivier Glaizot
    Museum of Zoology, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e34964. 2012
  10. ncbi Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48910, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:268-78. 2009

Research Grants

  1. Hippocampal neurogenesis and memory
    VLADIMIR PRAVOSUDOV; Fiscal Year: 2008
  2. Effect of social environment on memory, hippocampal structure and neurogenesis
    VLADIMIR PRAVOSUDOV; Fiscal Year: 2009
  3. The effect of stress on memory and the brain
    VLADIMIR PRAVOSUDOV; Fiscal Year: 2004
  4. Experimental tests of vocal learning in songbirds
    David Lahti; Fiscal Year: 2007
  5. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
  6. INTEGRATING ENERGY STORAGE, HIPPOCAMPUS AND HORMONES
    JEFFREY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2002
  7. Population dynamics of sporogony in Thailand
    JEFFERSON VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
  8. EVOLUTION OF IMMUNE RECOGNITION AND EVASION
    Austin L Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010
  9. Microfilarial enhancement of Dengue transmission
    JEFFERSON VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
  10. WORLD REFERENCE CENTER FOR ARBOVIRUSES
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2002

Detail Information

Publications293 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Seasonal variation in Plasmodium prevalence in a population of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus
    Catherine L Cosgrove
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Anim Ecol 77:540-8. 2008
    ..Studies of host-parasite interactions should consider seasonal variation whenever possible. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of seasonal variation in disease prevalence...
  2. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of malaria prevalence and parasitaemia in a wild bird population
    Sarah C L Knowles
    Department of Zoology, Edward Grey Institute, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 20:1062-76. 2011
    ....
  3. ncbi Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change in a wild bird population
    Anne Charmantier
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Science 320:800-3. 2008
    ..Phenotypic plasticity can thus play a central role in tracking environmental change; understanding the limits of plasticity is an important goal for future research...
  4. ncbi Selection on heritable phenotypic plasticity in a wild bird population
    Daniel H Nussey
    Netherlands Institute of Ecology NIOO KNAW, Post Office Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, Netherlands
    Science 310:304-6. 2005
    ..This temporal trend is concurrent with climate change causing a mismatch between the breeding times of the birds and their caterpillar prey. Continued selection on plasticity can act to alleviate this mismatch...
  5. ncbi Plasmodium relictum (lineage SGS1) and Plasmodium ashfordi (lineage GRW2): the effects of the co-infection on experimentally infected passerine birds
    Vaidas Palinauskas
    Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, Vilnius 2100, LT 08412, Lithuania
    Exp Parasitol 127:527-33. 2011
    ..Mortality was recorded among infected crossbills. We conclude that co-infections of P. relictum and P. ashfordi are highly virulent and act synergetically during primary infections in some but not all passerine birds...
  6. ncbi Experimental evidence for density-dependent reproduction in a cooperatively breeding passerine
    Lyanne Brouwer
    Evolutionary Ecology Group, School of Botany and Zoology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 Australia
    Ecology 90:729-41. 2009
    ..Islands with the highest insect densities also had the highest bird densities and the largest breeding groups. Consequently, we suggest that the density-dependent effect on reproduction is caused by competition for food...
  7. ncbi Plasmodium relictum (lineage P-SGS1): effects on experimentally infected passerine birds
    Vaidas Palinauskas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, Vilnius 2100, LT 08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
    Exp Parasitol 120:372-80. 2008
    ..relictum causes diseases of different severity in different avian hosts; that might have different evolutionary consequences and should be taken in consideration in conservation projects...
  8. ncbi Within-population variation in prevalence and lineage distribution of avian malaria in blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus
    Matthew J Wood
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 16:3263-73. 2007
    ....
  9. pmc High prevalence and lineage diversity of avian malaria in wild populations of great tits (Parus major) and mosquitoes (Culex pipiens)
    Olivier Glaizot
    Museum of Zoology, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e34964. 2012
    ..The results provide evidence for the first time that C. pipiens can act as a natural vector of avian malaria in Europe and yield baseline data for future research on the epidemiology of avian malaria in European countries...
  10. ncbi Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48910, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:268-78. 2009
    ..pipiens became infected from feeding on just a few species of birds, including American robins (35%), blue jays (17%, Cyanocitta cristata), and house finches (15%, Carpodacus mexicanus)...
  11. pmc A first-generation microsatellite-based genetic linkage map of the Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus): insights into avian genome evolution
    Sonja Jaari
    Ecological Genetics Research Unit, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FIN 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Genomics 10:1. 2009
    ..Knowledge of its genome structure and organization is required to advance our understanding of the genetic basis of ecologically important traits in this species, as well as to provide insights into avian genome evolution...
  12. ncbi Testing hypotheses about the sister group of the passeriformes using an independent 30-locus data set
    Ning Wang
    Department of Biology, University of Florida, FL, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 29:737-50. 2012
    ..One such relationship in need of independent evaluation is the position of Passeriformes (perching birds) in avian phylogeny...
  13. ncbi Obtaining mtDNA genomes from next-generation transcriptome sequencing: a case study on the basal Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes) phylogeny
    Benoit Nabholz
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:466-70. 2010
    ..With these sequences, we address the still unresolved basal Passerida relationships (Aves: Passeriformes)...
  14. ncbi Association between DRD4 gene polymorphism and personality variation in great tits: a test across four wild populations
    Peter Korsten
    Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany
    Mol Ecol 19:832-43. 2010
    ..Another important future challenge is the identification of additional loci influencing avian personality traits in the wild...
  15. ncbi How to separate genetic and environmental causes of similarity between relatives
    L E B Kruuk
    Institute of Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    J Evol Biol 20:1890-903. 2007
    ....
  16. ncbi Thermal constraints to the sporogonic development and altitudinal distribution of avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in Hawai'i
    Dennis A Lapointe
    USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Kilauea Field Station, Hawai i National Park, Hawai i 96718, USA
    J Parasitol 96:318-24. 2010
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that avian malaria currently restricts the altitudinal distribution of Hawaiian honeycreeper populations and provide an ecological explanation for the absence of disease at high elevation...
  17. pmc Phylogeography of the Alcippe morrisonia (Aves: Timaliidae): long population history beyond late Pleistocene glaciations
    Gang Song
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 PR, China
    BMC Evol Biol 9:143. 2009
    ..morrisonia to explore its population structure and evolutionary history, in order to gain insight into the effect of geological events on the speciation and diversity of birds endemic in south China...
  18. ncbi Effects of carotenoid availability during laying on reproduction in the blue tit
    Clotilde Biard
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive CNRS UMR 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Case 237, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Oecologia 144:32-44. 2005
    ..In addition, there may be considerable variation in carotenoid availability not only across seasons, but also among different stages of the breeding season...
  19. ncbi Sensitive measure of prevalence and parasitaemia of haemosporidia from European blackbird (Turdus merula) populations: value of PCR-RFLP and quantitative PCR
    S Bentz
    Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France
    Parasitology 133:685-92. 2006
    ..This suggests that previous results obtained by smear screening should be reinterpreted in terms of parasitaemia instead of parasite prevalence...
  20. ncbi Genome-wide SNP detection in the great tit Parus major using high throughput sequencing
    Nikkie E M van Bers
    Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
    Mol Ecol 19:89-99. 2010
    ..The large number of great tit contigs that can be aligned to the zebra finch genome shows that this genome provides a valuable framework for large scale genetics, e.g. QTL mapping or whole genome association studies, in passerines...
  21. ncbi Habitat quality as a predictor of spatial variation in blue tit reproductive performance: a multi-plot analysis in a heterogeneous landscape
    Marcel M Lambrechts
    CEFE CNRS, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293, Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Oecologia 141:555-61. 2004
    ..We suggest that habitats that are optimal for breeding are not necessarily optimal for survival after the breeding season...
  22. ncbi Dispersal, philopatry and intergroup relatedness: fine-scale genetic structure in the white-breasted thrasher, Ramphocinclus brachyurus
    H J Temple
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Mol Ecol 15:3449-58. 2006
    ..This should be taken into account when designating protected areas or selecting sites for habitat restoration...
  23. ncbi Great bowerbirds create theaters with forced perspective when seen by their audience
    John A Endler
    Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University at Waurn Ponds, Geelong VIC, Australia
    Curr Biol 20:1679-84. 2010
    ..Regardless of function, the creation and maintenance of forced visual perspective is clearly important to great bowerbirds and suggests the possibility of a previously unknown dimension of bird cognition...
  24. ncbi Effect of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) on body mass of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
    Gediminas Valkiunas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, LT 08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
    J Parasitol 92:1123-5. 2006
    ..Clinical symptoms of the infection were not recorded. All birds from both groups survived until the end of the experiment...
  25. pmc Urban mockingbirds quickly learn to identify individual humans
    Douglas J Levey
    Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 8525, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8959-62. 2009
    ....
  26. ncbi Dispersal, philopatry, and infidelity: dissecting local genetic structure in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus)
    M C Double
    School of Botany and Zoology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia
    Evolution 59:625-35. 2005
    ....
  27. ncbi Biogeographical patterns and co-occurrence of pathogenic infection across island populations of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii)
    Lewis G Spurgin
    Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk, UK
    Oecologia 168:691-701. 2012
    ....
  28. ncbi Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?
    I Galvan
    Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC, Madrid, Spain
    J Evol Biol 21:133-44. 2008
    ....
  29. ncbi Sexually selected traits predict patterns of species richness in a diverse clade of suboscine birds
    Nathalie Seddon
    Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Am Nat 171:620-31. 2008
    ..This is the first study to reveal correlations between song structure and species diversity, emphasizing the importance of acoustic signals, and within-family analyses, in comparative studies of sexual selection...
  30. pmc Twofold cost of reproduction: an increase in parental effort leads to higher malarial parasitaemia and to a decrease in resistance to oxidative stress
    Philippe Christe
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Biol Sci 279:1142-9. 2012
    ..Our results thus suggest the presence of two proximate and independent mechanisms for the well-documented trade-off between current reproductive effort and parental survival...
  31. ncbi Cognitive ability influences reproductive life history variation in the wild
    Ella F Cole
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Curr Biol 22:1808-12. 2012
    ..Our results are consistent with the idea that variation in cognitive ability is shaped by contrasting effects on different life history traits directly linked to fitness [1, 3]...
  32. pmc Characterization of MHC-I in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) reveals low levels of genetic diversity and trans-population evolution across European populations
    Elske Schut
    Animal Ecology Group Behavioural Ecology and Self Organisation, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Immunogenetics 63:531-42. 2011
    ..We believe that this initial MHC-I characterization in blue tits provides an important step towards understanding the mechanisms shaping MHC-I diversity in natural populations...
  33. ncbi Reduced egg investment can conceal helper effects in cooperatively breeding birds
    A F Russell
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
    Science 317:941-4. 2007
    ..We suggest that failure to consider maternal egg-investment strategies can lead to underestimation of the force of selection acting on helping in avian cooperative breeders...
  34. pmc Morphological shifts of the external flight apparatus across the range of a passerine (Northern Wheatear) with diverging migratory behaviour
    Marc I Förschler
    Institute of Avian Research, Vogelwarte Helgoland, Wilhelmshaven, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e18732. 2011
    ..Our results are congruent with other inter- and intraspecific studies finding similar adaptations for energy-effective flight in relation to migration distance (morphological migratory syndrome)...
  35. pmc The sex-biased brain: sexual dimorphism in gene expression in two species of songbirds
    Sara Naurin
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Ecology Building, S 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    BMC Genomics 12:37. 2011
    ..Studies of gene expression in related species can shed light on the flexibility, or degree of conservation, of the gene expression profiles underlying sexual dimorphism...
  36. ncbi Maternal effects contribute to the superior performance of extra-pair offspring
    Michael J L Magrath
    Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, P O Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    Curr Biol 19:792-7. 2009
    ..Moreover, the overrepresentation of EPO early in the laying order may help explain female extra-pair mating...
  37. ncbi Multi-locus phylogeny of the family Acrocephalidae (Aves: Passeriformes)--the traditional taxonomy overthrown
    Silke Fregin
    Vogelwarte Hiddensee, Zoological Institute and Museum, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 52:866-78. 2009
    ..However, the results also revealed some new constellations, due to better resolution of deeper nodes and the inclusion of more taxa. The taxonomic implications are discussed...
  38. ncbi The origin and diversification of Galapagos mockingbirds
    Brian S Arbogast
    Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 95521, USA
    Evolution 60:370-82. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi Phylogeography of ground tit (Pseudopodoces humilis) based on mtDNA: evidence of past fragmentation on the Tibetan Plateau
    Shu Juan Yang
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 41:257-65. 2006
    ..A significant decrease in body size with decreasing altitude was found, possibly indicating selection for larger-sized birds at higher altitude...
  40. ncbi Climate change and unequal phenological changes across four trophic levels: constraints or adaptations?
    Christiaan Both
    Animal Ecology Group, Center for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands
    J Anim Ecol 78:73-83. 2009
    ..Selection on phenology could thus be both from matches of phenology with higher and lower levels, and quantifying these can shed new light on why some organisms do adjust their phenology to climate change, while others do not...
  41. ncbi Phylogenetic relationships within Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes): a review and a new molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear intron markers
    Ulf S Johansson
    DST NRF Centre of Excellence at the Percy FitzPatrick Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 48:858-76. 2008
    ..Our findings corroborate recent molecular hypotheses, but also identify several hitherto unrecognized relationships...
  42. ncbi How do misassigned paternities affect the estimation of heritability in the wild?
    Anne Charmantier
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Mol Ecol 14:2839-50. 2005
    ..Typical rates of extra-pair paternities in birds (around 20% of offspring) should result in an underestimation of heritability of less than 15% when estimated over a minimum of 100 broods...
  43. pmc Female heterogamety and speciation: reduced introgression of the Z chromosome between two species of nightingales
    Radka Storchova
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Evolution 64:456-71. 2010
    ..This highlights the similarities in the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between organisms with heterogametic males and organisms with heterogametic females during the early stages of speciation...
  44. pmc Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from migratory birds in Switzerland
    Poupon Marie-Angèle
    Institute of Zoology, Emile Argand 11, 2007 Neuchâtel 7, Switzerland
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:976-9. 2006
    ..Among birds infested by infected ticks, 23% (6/26) were infested by B. lusitaniae-infected larvae. Migratory birds appear to be reservoir hosts for B. lusitaniae...
  45. ncbi Malarial parasites decrease reproductive success: an experimental study in a passerine bird
    Alfonso Marzal
    Departamento de Biologia Animal, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071, Badajoz, Spain
    Oecologia 142:541-5. 2005
    ....
  46. ncbi Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds
    Douglas J Levey
    Department of Zoology, University of Florida, Post Office Box 118525, Gainesville, FL 32611 8525, USA
    Science 309:146-8. 2005
    ..Our study shows how models based on easily observed behaviors can be scaled up to predict landscape-level processes...
  47. ncbi Differential responsiveness in brain and behavior to sexually dimorphic long calls in male and female zebra finches
    Sharon M H Gobes
    Behavioural Biology and Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Comp Neurol 516:312-20. 2009
    ..Thus, male and female zebra finches both show a behavioral preference for female calls, but differential neuronal activation in response to sexually dimorphic calls...
  48. ncbi Contemporary evolution of reproductive isolation and phenotypic divergence in sympatry along a migratory divide
    Gregor Rolshausen
    Department of Evolutionary Biology and Animal Ecology, University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 1, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Curr Biol 19:2097-101. 2009
    ..Our study thus illustrates how ecological changes can rapidly drive the contemporary evolution of ecotypes...
  49. ncbi Moult speed affects structural feather ornaments in the blue tit
    M Griggio
    Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology, Vienna, Austria
    J Evol Biol 22:782-92. 2009
    ..The trade-off between fast moulting and structural colour expression may represent a previously unrecognized selective advantage for early-breeding birds...
  50. pmc The blood parasite Haemoproteus reduces survival in a wild bird: a medication experiment
    Josué Martínez de la Puente
    Departamento Ecología Evolutiva, M N C N C S I C, c Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 8006 Madrid, Spain
    Biol Lett 6:663-5. 2010
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evidence showing long-term direct survival costs of chronic Haemoproteus infections in wild birds...
  51. ncbi Cell-mediated immunity predicts the probability of local recruitment in nestling blue tits
    M Cichon
    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University Gronostajowa 7, Krakow, Poland
    J Evol Biol 18:962-6. 2005
    ..Therefore, year-to-year environmental variation and environmental heterogeneity may constrain evolution towards higher immune responsiveness...
  52. ncbi Evidence for sexual selection on structural plumage coloration in female eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis)
    Lynn Siefferman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Alabama 36849, USA
    Evolution 59:1819-28. 2005
    ..These data indicate that structural coloration is dependent on nutritional condition and suggest that sexual selection is acting on structurally based plumage coloration in female eastern bluebirds...
  53. pmc The geographic scale of diversification on islands: genetic and morphological divergence at a very small spatial scale in the Mascarene grey white-eye (Aves: Zosterops borbonicus)
    Borja Milá
    Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E 28006, Spain
    BMC Evol Biol 10:158. 2010
    ....
  54. ncbi Variation in host specificity between species of avian hemosporidian parasites: evidence from parasite morphology and cytochrome B gene sequences
    Asta Krizanauskiene
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, LT 08412 Vilnius, Lithuania
    J Parasitol 92:1319-24. 2006
    ..in birds of 4 families of the Passeriformes within a small geographic area...
  55. ncbi Assortative mating as a mechanism for rapid evolution of a migratory divide
    Stuart Bearhop
    School of Biology and Biochemistry, Medical Biological Centre, Lisburn Road, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast BT6 7BL, UK
    Science 310:502-4. 2005
    ..Temporal segregation of breeding is a way in which subpopulations of vertebrates may become isolated in sympatry...
  56. ncbi Impact of density and environmental factors on population fluctuations in a migratory passerine
    Gilberto Pasinelli
    Swiss Ornithological Institute, CH 6204 Sempach, Switzerland
    J Anim Ecol 80:225-34. 2011
    ..5. This study highlights the importance of jointly investigating density-dependent and density-independent processes to improve our understanding of factors influencing population fluctuations in space and time...
  57. ncbi Negative effects of an introduced bird species on growth and survival in a native bird community
    Leonard A Freed
    Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, 96822, USA
    Curr Biol 19:1736-40. 2009
    ..Exploitative competition for food between native birds and an introduced species requires intensive management to prevent further declines...
  58. pmc Global warming and Bergmann's rule: do central European passerines adjust their body size to rising temperatures?
    Volker Salewski
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany
    Oecologia 162:247-60. 2010
    ..These results suggest that changes in body size may not merely be the result of phenotypic plasticity but may hint at genetically based microevolutionary adaptations...
  59. ncbi MHC class I variation in a natural blue tit population (Cyanistes caeruleus)
    R Wutzler
    Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, 82305 Seewiesen, Germany
    Genetica 140:349-64. 2012
    ..Our results indicate that the described method is suitable to effectively explore the MHC diversity and its ecological impacts in blue tits in future studies...
  60. ncbi Species coexistence and the dynamics of phenotypic evolution in adaptive radiation
    Joseph A Tobias
    1 Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK 2
    Nature 506:359-63. 2014
    ....
  61. pmc Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats
    Russell Greenberg
    Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e40933. 2012
    ..m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size...
  62. ncbi Climate change can alter competitive relationships between resident and migratory birds
    Markus P Ahola
    Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, FI 20014, University of Turku, Finland
    J Anim Ecol 76:1045-52. 2007
    ..On these bases we conclude that climate change has a great potential to alter the competitive balance between these two species...
  63. ncbi The evolution of infidelity in socially monogamous passerines: the strength of direct and indirect selection on extrapair copulation behavior in females
    Goran Arnqvist
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, University of Uppsala, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    Am Nat 165:S26-37. 2005
    ....
  64. pmc Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines
    Anders Odeen
    Department of Animal Ecology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, S 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
    BMC Evol Biol 11:313. 2011
    ..Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution...
  65. ncbi Molecular and morphological evidences place the extinct New Zealand endemic Turnagra capensis in the Oriolidae
    Dario Zuccon
    Dario Zuccon, Molecular Systematics Laboratory, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Box 50007, SE 104 05 Stockholm, Sweden
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 62:414-26. 2012
    ..We show also that the published molecular support to link Turnagra with Ptilonorhynchidae was biased by the use of incorrect genetic data and weak analyses...
  66. ncbi The absence of sex-biased dispersal in the cooperatively breeding grey-crowned babbler
    Caroline J Blackmore
    The Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
    J Anim Ecol 80:69-78. 2011
    ..In fragmented habitat, the dispersal dynamics of this cooperatively breeding species are unlikely to render them particularly vulnerable to genetic consequences such as inbreeding, but may lead to increased group dissolution...
  67. ncbi Interspecific interactions drive cultural co-evolution and acoustic convergence in syntopic species
    Paola Laiolo
    Research Unit of Biodiversity CSIC, UO, PA, University of Oviedo, 33071 Oviedo, Spain
    J Anim Ecol 81:594-604. 2012
    ..Because of their plastic nature, cultural coadaptations may rapidly shift in response to fluctuating social selection, thus propelling dynamic interactions and fine adjustments to the local environment...
  68. ncbi Genetic, morphological, and feather isotope variation of migratory willow warblers show gradual divergence in a ring
    Staffan Bensch
    Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE 22362 Lund, Sweden
    Mol Ecol 18:3087-96. 2009
    ..The trait clines along the ring distribution outside the Scandinavian secondary contact zone thus seem to have been shaped by independent action of selection or drift during the process of postglacial colonization...
  69. ncbi Scale and state dependence of the relationship between personality and dispersal in a great tit population
    John L Quinn
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Anim Ecol 80:918-28. 2011
    ..Future work should aim to understand the differences between dispersal within and between populations and the ways in which personality and state interact to determine the outcome of these processes...
  70. ncbi Limited variation in visual sensitivity among bowerbird species suggests that there is no link between spectral tuning and variation in display colouration
    Brian J Coyle
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Exp Biol 215:1090-105. 2012
    ..Overall, we detected little interspecific variation in bowerbird spectral sensitivity and no association between sensitivity and display diversity, which is consistent with the general trend among avian taxa...
  71. ncbi Factors affecting the relapse of Haemoproteus belopolskyi infections and the parasitaemia of Trypanosoma spp. in a naturally infected European songbird, the blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla
    Gediminas Valkiunas
    Institute of Ecology, Vilnius University, Akademijos 2, 2600 Vilnius, Lithuania
    Parasitol Res 93:218-22. 2004
    ..The relapse of avian Haemoproteus spp. infection and of the parasitaemia of avian Trypanosoma spp. may be related to gonadal hormones, corticosterone and melatonin...
  72. ncbi Avian haematozoan parasites and their associations with mosquitoes across Southwest Pacific Islands
    F Ishtiaq
    Edward Grey Institute, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Mol Ecol 17:4545-55. 2008
    ..Nonetheless, our results raise the possibility of a new transmission pathway and highlight extensive invertebrate host shifts in an insular mosquito-parasite system...
  73. pmc Avian communal roosts as amplification foci for West Nile virus in urban areas in northeastern United States
    Maria A Diuk-Wasser
    Division of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:337-43. 2010
    ..Our results indicate that communal roosts act as late-season amplification foci facilitating transmission to humans because of high infection rates, high abundance, and feeding patterns of enzootic and bridge vectors...
  74. ncbi Phylogeography of the white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis): diversification in North American pine and oak woodlands
    Garth M Spellman
    Marjorie Barrick Museum of Natural History, and School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA
    Mol Ecol 16:1729-40. 2007
    ..Within-clade population structure and demographic history are also discussed...
  75. ncbi Extremely high MHC class I variation in a population of a long-distance migrant, the Scarlet Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus)
    M Promerová
    Department of Population Biology, Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Studenec 122, 675 02 Konesín, Czech Republic
    Immunogenetics 61:451-61. 2009
    ....
  76. ncbi Genetic characterization, distribution and prevalence of avian pox and avian malaria in the Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii) in Macaronesia
    Juan Carlos Illera
    Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group, IPNA, CSIC, C Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, 3, E 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
    Parasitol Res 103:1435-43. 2008
    ....
  77. ncbi The vortex wake of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla L.) measured using high-speed digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV)
    L C Johansson
    Department of Theoretical Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    J Exp Biol 212:3365-76. 2009
    ..Neither did we find support for the hypothesis that the tail should reduce the drag of the bird. The function of the tail during steady flight thus remains unclear and calls for further investigation in future studies...
  78. ncbi Microanatomy of passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)
    Caroline Van Hemert
    US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    J Morphol 273:226-40. 2012
    ....
  79. ncbi Testing the effect of transient Plio-Pleistocene barriers in monsoonal Australo-Papua: did mangrove habitats maintain genetic connectivity in the Black Butcherbird?
    Anna M Kearns
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Mol Ecol 20:5042-59. 2011
    ..Our study offers one of the first multilocus perspectives on the impact of changes in climate and sea level on the population history of widespread species with disjunct ranges in Australia and New Guinea...
  80. pmc Can eggs in a cavity be a female secondary sexual signal? Male nest visits and modelling of egg visual discrimination in blue tits
    Marie Jeanne Holveck
    Centre d Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CEFE CNRS, Montpellier, France
    Biol Lett 6:453-7. 2010
    ..Consequently, we need a better understanding of underlying visual mechanisms in dim-light environments and behavioural discrimination experiments before confirming the signalling potential of eggshell coloration...
  81. ncbi The African warbler genus Hyliota as a lost lineage in the Oscine songbird tree: molecular support for an African origin of the Passerida
    Jérôme Fuchs
    UMR5202, Origine, Structure et Evolution de la Biodiversité, Departement Systematique et Evolution, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:186-97. 2006
    ..Our results, which also include analyses of relationships among other of other atypical songbird genera, lend support to an African origin of the Passerida songbird radiation...
  82. pmc Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers
    Florian T Muijres
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Solvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    J R Soc Interface 9:292-303. 2012
    ..Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive, and the tail may be of importance for flight efficiency and possibly manoeuvrability...
  83. ncbi Rejecting strictly allopatric speciation on a continental island: prolonged postdivergence gene flow between Taiwan (Leucodioptron taewanus, Passeriformes Timaliidae) and Chinese (L. canorum canorum) hwameis
    Jing Wen Li
    Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116 Taiwan
    Mol Ecol 19:494-507. 2010
    ..Here, to evaluate whether a continental island endemic, the Taiwan hwamei (Leucodioptron taewanus, Passeriformes Timaliidae) speciated in strict allopatry, we used weighted-regression-based approximate Bayesian computation (..
  84. ncbi Speciation by distance in a ring species
    Darren E Irwin
    Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Science 307:414-6. 2005
    ..These findings provide the strongest evidence yet for "speciation by force of distance" in the face of ongoing gene flow...
  85. ncbi Benefits associated with escalated begging behaviour of black-billed magpie nestlings overcompensate the associated energetic costs
    David Martín-Gálvez
    Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva y Funcional, Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas CSIC, 04120 Almeria, Spain
    J Exp Biol 214:1463-72. 2011
    ..We discuss the responsibility of inclusive fitness costs and indirect genetic effects for the maintenance of honesty in parent-offspring communication...
  86. ncbi Biogeography of avian blood parasites (Leucocytozoon spp.) in two resident hosts across Europe: phylogeographic structuring or the abundance-occupancy relationship?
    Tania Jenkins
    NERC Centre for Population Biology and Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK
    Mol Ecol 20:3910-20. 2011
    ....
  87. ncbi Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus
    Stephen D Larcombe
    Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
    Naturwissenschaften 97:903-13. 2010
    ..Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary ecology...
  88. ncbi Wing pointedness associated with migratory distance in common-garden and comparative studies of stonechats (Saxicola torquata)
    M W Baldwin
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Andechs, Germany
    J Evol Biol 23:1050-63. 2010
    ..Migration in stonechats may lead to deviations from allometric size changes, suggesting that birds may adapt morphologically to selection pressures created by their own behaviour in response to changing environmental conditions...
  89. ncbi A hybrid zone revisited: molecular and morphological analysis of the maintenance, movement, and evolution of a Great Plains avian (Cardinalidae: Pheucticus) hybrid zone
    R D Mettler
    Department of Biology, Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799, USA
    Mol Ecol 18:3256-67. 2009
    ..Our results suggest low hybrid frequencies, a stable zone location and narrow width, and reduced hybrid fitness over the past 40 years best categorize the grosbeak hybrid zone as a tension zone...
  90. ncbi Mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to Culex sasai (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Tokyo, Japan
    Kyeong Soon Kim
    The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501 1193, Japan
    Parasitol Res 105:1351-7. 2009
    ..This is the first field study on host-feeding habits of C. sasai in relation to the potential role as a vector for avian malaria parasites transmitted in the Japanese wild bird community...
  91. ncbi Eggshell pigmentation pattern in relation to breeding performance of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus
    Juan Jose Sanz
    Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2 E 28006 Madrid, Spain
    J Anim Ecol 78:31-41. 2009
    ..Further investigations are needed to understand the role of calcium availability as possible causal agent of deviant eggs and its relation to the maculation phenomenon...
  92. pmc Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis
    Chuanyin Dai
    Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e29329. 2011
    ..ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory...
  93. pmc Sperm length variation as a predictor of extrapair paternity in passerine birds
    Jan T Lifjeld
    National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    PLoS ONE 5:e13456. 2010
    ..Here we examine how well standardized measures of sperm length variation can predict the rate of extrapair paternity in passerine birds...
  94. ncbi Speciation in the White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis): a multilocus perspective
    Veryl Woody Walstrom
    Center for the Conservation of Biological Resources, Department of Biology, Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD 57799, USA
    Mol Ecol 21:907-20. 2012
    ..carolinensis have occurred in response to the Pleistocene glacial cycles...
  95. pmc Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird
    Debora Arlt
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 3:e3006. 2008
    ..To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated...
  96. ncbi Testing the phenotypic gambit: phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations of colour
    J D Hadfield
    Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Ascot, Berkshire, UK
    J Evol Biol 20:549-57. 2007
    ..For this group of traits, the phenotypic gambit cannot be made and we suggest caution when inferring genetic patterns from phenotypic data, especially for behavioural and life-history traits...
  97. ncbi The effects of dietary carotenoid intake on carotenoid accumulation in the retina of a wild bird, the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)
    Matthew B Toomey
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 4501, USA
    Arch Biochem Biophys 504:161-8. 2010
    ....
  98. ncbi Egg yolk carotenoids in relation to habitat and reproductive investment in the great tit Parus major
    Caroline Isaksson
    Department of Zoology, Goteborg University, Medicinaregatan 18, 413 90 Goteborg, Sweden
    Physiol Biochem Zool 81:112-8. 2008
    ..This highlights the importance of carotenoid identity and composition in future studies of carotenoid physiology, ecology, and signaling...
  99. ncbi Phylogenetic relationships of the African bush-shrikes and helmet-shrikes (Passeriformes: Malaconotidae)
    Jérôme Fuchs
    FRE 2695 Origine, Structure et Evolution de la Biodiversité, Departement Systematique et Evolution, Museum national d histoire naturelle, 55 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 33:428-39. 2004
    ..Monophyly of the genus Chlorophoneus was never recovered, a result that is consistent with morphological data...
  100. ncbi An analysis of pre- and post-hatching maternal effects mediated by carotenoids in the blue tit
    C Biard
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Evolutive, CNRS UMR 7103, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    J Evol Biol 20:326-39. 2007
    ....
  101. ncbi Are lice good proxies for host history? A comparative analysis of the Australian magpie, Gymnorhina tibicen, and two species of feather louse
    A Toon
    School of Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia
    Heredity (Edinb) 101:127-35. 2008
    ..semiannulata showed north-south geographic structuring. It is postulated that this incongruence may be due to ecological habitat differences and/or the dispersal ability of B. semiannulata...

Research Grants19

  1. Hippocampal neurogenesis and memory
    VLADIMIR PRAVOSUDOV; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Memory is an important aspect of mental health and the proposed research will provide new insights into better understanding of human memory disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. Effect of social environment on memory, hippocampal structure and neurogenesis
    VLADIMIR PRAVOSUDOV; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This study will provide important information on the effects of social environment on memory and the hippocampus which, in turn, might help better understand consequences of social disorders for mental health and the brain. ..
  3. The effect of stress on memory and the brain
    VLADIMIR PRAVOSUDOV; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This study will add to our knowledge of the effects of stress on mental health and will help us to understand the evolution and adaptive significance of stress responses. ..
  4. Experimental tests of vocal learning in songbirds
    David Lahti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Evidence suggests that prevalence in other avian species, notably Passeriformes, may have been greatly underestimated...
  6. INTEGRATING ENERGY STORAGE, HIPPOCAMPUS AND HORMONES
    JEFFREY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..An understanding of the adaptive significance of the suite of traits that cycle annually in natural systems will give us a unique insight into this important component of these seasonal disorders. ..
  7. Population dynamics of sporogony in Thailand
    JEFFERSON VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  8. EVOLUTION OF IMMUNE RECOGNITION AND EVASION
    Austin L Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, by increasing our understanding of the population diversity and evolutionary history of human immune system genes, this research will enhance our knowledge of human immune function in health and disease. ..
  9. Microfilarial enhancement of Dengue transmission
    JEFFERSON VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  10. WORLD REFERENCE CENTER FOR ARBOVIRUSES
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Epidemiology of Yellow Fever in the Americas
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Most of the work will be done in laboratories at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Center for Tropical Diseases; but a small portion will be done at the Evandro Chagas Institute in Belem, Brazil. ..
  12. Anitviral Activity of Thioaptamers Against West Nile Virus
    Alan Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. OVERWINTERING AND TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS OF SLE VIRUS
    Alan Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Epidemic-causing potential of this virus will be determined by titre and duration of viremia in chickens. Patterns of distribution of virus variants will be determined by SSCP. ..
  14. West Nile Virus: Epidemiology and Mosquito Competence
    Alan D T Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. during the 2006-2011 transmission seasons;3. Investigate the mechanism of attenuation of neuroinvasiveness of mouse attenuated WNV isolates;4. Correlate WNV phenotype in vertebrate cells with mosquito vector infection. ..
  15. Neural mechanisms of localization dominance
    Brian Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  16. Gene Duplication and Genome Evolution
    Austin Hughes; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..5) Examining the role of transposable elements in duplication of genomic segments by testing for nonrandom association between these elements and putatively duplicated blocks in the yeast genome. ..
  17. Salivary Potentiation of Arboviral Infections
    Stephen Higgs; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This knowledge may contribute towards the development of a mouse model for human dengue infections. ..
  18. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF EPIDEMIC ALPHAVIRUS TRANSMISSION
    Stephen Higgs; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF EIAV PERSISTENCE
    JERALD OAKS; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..These studies will provide insight into HIV persistence in HAART patients, and potentially provide a model that can be used to evaluate strategies for actual elimination of lentiviral infections. ..