vertebrates

Summary

Summary: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The origins of genome complexity
    Michael Lynch
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 302:1401-4. 2003
  2. pmc EnsemblCompara GeneTrees: Complete, duplication-aware phylogenetic trees in vertebrates
    Albert J Vilella
    EMBL EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 19:327-35. 2009
  3. pmc Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes
    Adam Siepel
    Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Genome Res 15:1034-50. 2005
  4. ncbi The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates
    Michael Hoffmann
    IUCN SSC Species Survival Commission, c o United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK
    Science 330:1503-9. 2010
  5. ncbi NeuN, a neuronal specific nuclear protein in vertebrates
    R J Mullen
    Department of Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    Development 116:201-11. 1992
  6. ncbi Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates
    Else K Hoffmann
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Physiol Rev 89:193-277. 2009
  7. ncbi Molecular evolution of a novel hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase enables robust stable gene transfer in vertebrates
    Lajos Mátés
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
    Nat Genet 41:753-61. 2009
  8. ncbi The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype
    Nicholas H Putnam
    Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA
    Nature 453:1064-71. 2008
  9. ncbi Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life
    Francesca D Ciccarelli
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 311:1283-7. 2006
  10. pmc Catalog of microRNA seed polymorphisms in vertebrates
    Minja Zorc
    Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Domzale, Slovenia
    PLoS ONE 7:e30737. 2012

Research Grants

  1. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF POLARITY
    RUTH M STEWARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Systematics of medically important Dermacentor tick vectors
    Dmitry A Apanaskevich; Fiscal Year: 2011
  3. Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Zebrafish
    JOHN HARVEY POSTLETHWAIT; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Integrated signaling of eicosanoids in HSC formation and regeneration
    Trista E North; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Human middle-ear imaging, physiology, and biomechanics
    CHARLES RICHARD STEELE; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Non-coding RNA engineers antibody diversity
    Uttiya Basu; Fiscal Year: 2011
  7. Intracellular Serpin Regulation of Intestinal Cell Necrosis
    GARY ARTHUR SILVERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
  8. Dietary Supplement Creatine for Adolescent Females with SSRI-Resistant Depression
    PERRY FRANKLIN RENSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. IRON REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
    ELIZABETH ANN LEIBOLD; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. Neuropeptide modulation of biogenic amine function and aggression in a crustacean
    Maria A Sosa; Fiscal Year: 2013

Detail Information

Publications266 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The origins of genome complexity
    Michael Lynch
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Science 302:1401-4. 2003
    ..The enormous long-term effective population sizes of prokaryotes may impose a substantial barrier to the evolution of complex genomes and morphologies...
  2. pmc EnsemblCompara GeneTrees: Complete, duplication-aware phylogenetic trees in vertebrates
    Albert J Vilella
    EMBL EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 19:327-35. 2009
    ..All data are made available in a number of formats and will be kept up to date with the Ensembl project...
  3. pmc Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes
    Adam Siepel
    Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
    Genome Res 15:1034-50. 2005
    ..From yeasts to vertebrates, in order of increasing genome size and general biological complexity, increasing fractions of conserved bases ..
  4. ncbi The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates
    Michael Hoffmann
    IUCN SSC Species Survival Commission, c o United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 219 Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK
    Science 330:1503-9. 2010
    ..International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 ..
  5. ncbi NeuN, a neuronal specific nuclear protein in vertebrates
    R J Mullen
    Department of Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132
    Development 116:201-11. 1992
    ..This mAb and the protein recognized by it serve as an excellent marker for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems in both the embryo and adult, and the protein may be important in the determination of neuronal phenotype...
  6. ncbi Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates
    Else K Hoffmann
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Physiol Rev 89:193-277. 2009
    ..A discussion of this issue concludes the review...
  7. ncbi Molecular evolution of a novel hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase enables robust stable gene transfer in vertebrates
    Lajos Mátés
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
    Nat Genet 41:753-61. 2009
    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a promising technology platform for gene transfer in vertebrates; however, its efficiency of gene insertion can be a bottleneck in primary cell types...
  8. ncbi The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype
    Nicholas H Putnam
    Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA
    Nature 453:1064-71. 2008
    ..comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets and vertebrates), and allow not only reconstruction of the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor but also ..
  9. ncbi Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life
    Francesca D Ciccarelli
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69012 Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 311:1283-7. 2006
    ..For example, we place the phylum Acidobacteria as a sister group of delta-Proteobacteria, support a Gram-positive origin of Bacteria, and suggest a thermophilic last universal common ancestor...
  10. pmc Catalog of microRNA seed polymorphisms in vertebrates
    Minja Zorc
    Department of Animal Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Domzale, Slovenia
    PLoS ONE 7:e30737. 2012
    ..In the present study, we developed an online tool for the detection of miRNA polymorphisms (miRNA SNiPer) in vertebrates (http://www.integratomics-time...
  11. ncbi Genome duplication in the teleost fish Tetraodon nigroviridis reveals the early vertebrate proto-karyotype
    Olivier Jaillon
    UMR 8030 Genoscope, CNRS and Université d Evry, 2 rue Gaston Cremieux, 91057 Evry Cedex, France
    Nature 431:946-57. 2004
    ..Comparison with other vertebrates and a urochordate indicates that fish proteins have diverged markedly faster than their mammalian homologues...
  12. pmc Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates
    Michael E Alfaro
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13410-4. 2009
    ..a diversity tree summarizing both evolutionary relationships and species richness of 44 major clades of jawed vertebrates. We identify 9 major changes in the tempo of gnathostome diversification; the most significant of these lies at ..
  13. ncbi Genetics, development and evolution of adaptive pigmentation in vertebrates
    H E Hoekstra
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0116, USA
    Heredity (Edinb) 97:222-34. 2006
    ..served as the focus of many classic studies of naturally occurring phenotypic variation in a wide variety of vertebrates, providing some of the most compelling cases for parallel and convergent evolution...
  14. pmc Polycomb group response elements in Drosophila and vertebrates
    Judith A Kassis
    Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Adv Genet 81:83-118. 2013
    ..In this review, we discuss evidence for PREs in vertebrates and explore similarities and differences between Drosophila and vertebrate PREs.
  15. ncbi Timing of genome duplications relative to the origin of the vertebrates: did cyclostomes diverge before or after?
    Shigehiro Kuraku
    Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan
    Mol Biol Evol 26:47-59. 2009
    ..duplications are thought to have played an important role in the establishment of gene repertoires in vertebrates. These events occurred during chordate evolution after the split of the urochordate and cephalochordate ..
  16. ncbi Natural selection at major histocompatibility complex loci of vertebrates
    A L Hughes
    Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 32:415-35. 1998
    ..d) Introns have been homogenized relative to exons over evolutionary time, suggesting that balancing selection acts to maintain diversity in the latter, in contrast to the former...
  17. pmc Two rounds of whole genome duplication in the ancestral vertebrate
    Paramvir Dehal
    Evolutionary Genomics Department, Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 3:e314. 2005
    ..Our results highlight the potential for these large-scale genomic events to have driven the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage...
  18. ncbi Vertebrate genome evolution and the zebrafish gene map
    J H Postlethwait
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene 97403 1254, USA
    Nat Genet 18:345-9. 1998
    ..Vertebrate ancestors probably had single copies of genes now found in multiple copies in vertebrates and gene maps suggest that this occurred by polyploidization...
  19. pmc Evolutionary transitions in parental care and live bearing in vertebrates
    John D Reynolds
    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357:269-81. 2002
    We provide the first review of phylogenetic transitions in parental care and live bearing for a wide variety of vertebrates. This includes new analyses of both numbers of transitions and transition probabilities...
  20. ncbi Coagulation systems of invertebrates and vertebrates and their roles in innate immunity: the same side of two coins?
    Torsten G Loof
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Innate Immun 3:34-40. 2011
    ..More recent evidence suggests that vertebrates, too, rely on clotting as an immune effector mechanism...
  21. ncbi Olfactory signalling in vertebrates and insects: differences and commonalities
    U Benjamin Kaupp
    Center of Advanced European Studies and Research, Ludwig Erhard Allee 2, Bonn, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:188-200. 2010
    b>Vertebrates and insects have evolved complex repertoires of chemosensory receptors to detect and distinguish odours...
  22. ncbi Pattern formation in the vertebrate neural tube: a sonic hedgehog morphogen-regulated transcriptional network
    Eric Dessaud
    Developmental Neurobiology, National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London, UK
    Development 135:2489-503. 2008
    ..We discuss recent advances in our understanding of these events and highlight unresolved questions...
  23. pmc Highly conserved elements discovered in vertebrates are present in non-syntenic loci of tunicates, act as enhancers and can be transcribed during development
    Remo Sanges
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Evolution, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
    Nucleic Acids Res 41:3600-18. 2013
    ..are conserved in non-syntenic regions between vertebrate and tunicate genomes, while being syntenic among vertebrates. Nevertheless, in all the groups, they are significantly associated with transcription factors showing specific ..
  24. ncbi Structural and functional evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in vertebrates
    K Okubo
    Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 193:3-15. 2008
    ..This review describes an overview of what is currently known about GnRH in vertebrates in the context of its structural and functional evolution...
  25. ncbi Fossils, genes and the evolution of animal limbs
    N Shubin
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Nature 388:639-48. 1997
    ..Although their respective evolutionary histories are unique, vertebrate, insect and other animal appendages are organized by a similar genetic regulatory system that may have been established in a common ancestor...
  26. pmc Reconstruction of the vertebrate ancestral genome reveals dynamic genome reorganization in early vertebrates
    Yoichiro Nakatani
    Department of Computational Biology, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277 0882, Japan
    Genome Res 17:1254-65. 2007
    Although several vertebrate genomes have been sequenced, little is known about the genome evolution of early vertebrates and how large-scale genomic changes such as the two rounds of whole-genome duplications (2R WGD) affected ..
  27. pmc Early evolution of conserved regulatory sequences associated with development in vertebrates
    Gayle K McEwen
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000762. 2009
    ..Although markedly shorter and less well conserved than within jawed vertebrates, identified lamprey CNEs are able to drive specific patterns of expression in zebrafish embryos, which are ..
  28. ncbi Tuning in to the signals: noncoding sequence conservation in vertebrate genomes
    Greg Elgar
    School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK
    Trends Genet 24:344-52. 2008
    ..In vertebrates, the comparison of human and rodent genomes and the comparison of evolutionarily distant genomes, such as human ..
  29. ncbi Vascular regeneration and angiogenic-like sprouting mechanism in a compound ascidian is similar to vertebrates
    Fabio Gasparini
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, Via U Bassi 58 B 35131, Padova, Italy
    Evol Dev 10:591-605. 2008
    ..such as embryogenesis, asexual reproduction, and regeneration, because they are the closest relatives to vertebrates and are the only chordates to reproduce both sexually and asexually...
  30. ncbi Phylogenic outline of the olfactory system in vertebrates
    Kazumi Taniguchi
    School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 73:139-47. 2011
    ..The subdivision of the olfactory system into the main and the vomeronasal olfactory systems may partly be induced by the difference between paraphyletic groups and monophyletic groups in the phylogeny of vertebrates.
  31. pmc microRNAs reveal the interrelationships of hagfish, lampreys, and gnathostomes and the nature of the ancestral vertebrate
    Alysha M Heimberg
    Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19379-83. 2010
    Hagfish and lampreys are the only living representatives of the jawless vertebrates (agnathans), and compared with jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), they provide insight into the embryology, genomics, and body plan of the ancestral ..
  32. ncbi Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates
    Richard Grenyer
    Department of Biology, Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA
    Nature 444:93-6. 2006
    ..Instead, priority areas for biodiversity conservation must be based on high-resolution data from multiple taxa...
  33. ncbi Tissue/planar cell polarity in vertebrates: new insights and new questions
    Yanshu Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Development 134:647-58. 2007
    ..review focuses on the tissue/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and its role in generating spatial patterns in vertebrates. Current evidence suggests that PCP integrates both global and local signals to orient diverse structures with ..
  34. ncbi Adult neurogenesis in non-mammalian vertebrates
    Prisca Chapouton
    Department Zebrafish Neurogenetics, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Developmental Genetics, Neuherberg, Germany
    Bioessays 29:745-57. 2007
    ..Current research mainly focuses on rodents, but we review here recent examination of non-mammalian vertebrates, which demonstrates that bona fide adult neural stem cells exist in these species...
  35. ncbi Mid-Mesozoic flea-like ectoparasites of feathered or haired vertebrates
    Tai Ping Gao
    College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
    Curr Biol 22:732-5. 2012
    ....
  36. pmc Targeted mutation of the talpid3 gene in zebrafish reveals its conserved requirement for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog signalling across the vertebrates
    Jin Ben
    Developmental and Biomedical Genetics Group, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Proteos, 61 Biopolis Drive, Singapore 138673, Republic of Singapore
    Development 138:4969-78. 2011
    ..Our findings underline the importance of the primary cilium for Hh signaling in zebrafish and reveal the conservation of Ta3 function during vertebrate evolution...
  37. ncbi Distribution of central pattern generators for rhythmic motor outputs in the spinal cord of limbed vertebrates
    O Kiehn
    Department of Medical Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 860:110-29. 1998
    ..In this paper we concentrate on spinal CPGs in limbed vertebrates and in particular address the question: Where in the spinal cord, in the longitudinal and transverse planes, ..
  38. ncbi Translational selection frequently overcomes genetic drift in shaping synonymous codon usage patterns in vertebrates
    Aoife Doherty
    Bioinformatics and Molecular Evolution Unit, Department of Biology, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, Co Kildare, Ireland
    Mol Biol Evol 30:2263-7. 2013
    ..To date, detection of translational selection in vertebrates has proven to be a challenging task, obscured by small long-term effective population sizes in larger animals ..
  39. pmc Worlds within worlds: evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiota
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:776-88. 2008
    ....
  40. pmc Transposon-mediated genome manipulation in vertebrates
    Zoltan Ivics
    Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany
    Nat Methods 6:415-22. 2009
    ..Here we provide an overview of transposon-based methods used in vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the mouse system and highlight the most important considerations concerning genetic applications of the transposon systems...
  41. ncbi Signaling from Smo to Ci/Gli: conservation and divergence of Hedgehog pathways from Drosophila to vertebrates
    Danwei Huangfu
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Development 133:3-14. 2006
    ..is evolutionarily conserved, recent studies indicate that fundamental differences exist between Drosophila and vertebrates in the way signals are transduced from the membrane protein Smoothened (Smo) to the Ci/Gli transcription ..
  42. ncbi Evolution of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily in vertebrates
    Michael Dean
    Human Genetics Section, Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 6:123-42. 2005
    ..Most ABC transporters are conserved in all vertebrates, but there are also several examples of recent duplication and gene loss...
  43. ncbi Skeletal muscle formation in vertebrates
    M Buckingham
    Unité de Génétique Moléculaire du Développement, CNRS URA1947, Departement de Biologie Moleculaire, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Cedex 15, Paris, France
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 11:440-8. 2001
    ..The myogenic identity of precursor cells in the adult depends on Pax7, the orthologue of Pax3 which is required for early myogenesis; this finding is of major importance for muscle regeneration and the active field of stem cell research...
  44. pmc Analysis of the vertebrate insulator protein CTCF-binding sites in the human genome
    Tae Hoon Kim
    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093 0653, USA
    Cell 128:1231-45. 2007
    ..In vertebrates, insulator's function requires association with the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a protein that recognizes long ..
  45. ncbi The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins
    Paramvir Dehal
    U S Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA
    Science 298:2157-67. 2002
    ..To illuminate the origins of chordate and vertebrates, we generated a draft of the protein-coding portion of the genome of the most studied ascidian, Ciona ..
  46. ncbi Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates
    Tim Clutton-Brock
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
    Science 296:69-72. 2002
    In cooperatively breeding vertebrates, nonbreeding helpers raise young produced by dominant breeders...
  47. ncbi Phylogenetic performance of mitochondrial protein-coding genes in resolving relationships among vertebrates
    R Zardoya
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook 11794 5245, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 13:933-42. 1996
    ....
  48. pmc The evolution of isochore patterns in vertebrate genomes
    Maria Costantini
    Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Naples, Italy
    BMC Genomics 10:146. 2009
    ..g., between amphibians and mammals); and (v) isochores are tightly linked to a number of basic biological properties, such as gene density, gene expression, replication timing and recombination...
  49. ncbi DNA methylation and structural and functional bimodality of vertebrate promoters
    Navin Elango
    School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 25:1602-8. 2008
    ....
  50. pmc Codon-substitution models for heterogeneous selection pressure at amino acid sites
    Z Yang
    Department of Biology, University College London, London NW1 2HE, United Kingdom
    Genetics 155:431-49. 2000
    ..Genes undergoing positive selection include the beta-globin gene from vertebrates, mitochondrial protein-coding genes from hominoids, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from human influenza virus A, ..
  51. ncbi CpG islands in vertebrate genomes
    M Gardiner-Garden
    Kanematsu Laboratories, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown N S W, Australia
    J Mol Biol 196:261-82. 1987
    ..Possible functions of CpG islands in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression were discussed, and were related to theories for the maintenance of CpG islands as "methylation-free zones" in germline DNA...
  52. ncbi Insufficiency of BUBR1, a mitotic spindle checkpoint regulator, causes impaired ciliogenesis in vertebrates
    Tatsuo Miyamoto
    Department of Genetics and Cell Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734 8553, Japan
    Hum Mol Genet 20:2058-70. 2011
    ....
  53. pmc Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land
    Sarda Sahney
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Biol Lett 6:544-7. 2010
    Tetrapod biodiversity today is great; over the past 400 Myr since vertebrates moved onto land, global tetrapod diversity has risen exponentially, punctuated by losses during major extinctions...
  54. ncbi Motor primitives in vertebrates and invertebrates
    Tamar Flash
    Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 15:660-6. 2005
    In recent years different lines of evidence have led to the idea that motor actions and movements in both vertebrates and invertebrates are composed of elementary building blocks...
  55. ncbi Tunicates and not cephalochordates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates
    Frédéric Delsuc
    Departement de Biochimie, Centre Robert Cedergren, Universite de Montreal, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C3J7, Canada
    Nature 439:965-8. 2006
    Tunicates or urochordates (appendicularians, salps and sea squirts), cephalochordates (lancelets) and vertebrates (including lamprey and hagfish) constitute the three extant groups of chordate animals...
  56. ncbi Early eye development in vertebrates
    R L Chow
    Program in Developmental Biology, The Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17:255-96. 2001
    ..Questions about early eye development first addressed using tissue manipulations remain topical as we try to understand the molecular basis of this process...
  57. pmc Hedgehog secretion and signal transduction in vertebrates
    Kaitlyn E Ryan
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:17905-13. 2012
    ..Although many aspects of the Drosophila Hh pathway are conserved in vertebrates, mechanistic differences between the two species have begun to emerge...
  58. ncbi Duplications of hox gene clusters and the emergence of vertebrates
    Natalia Soshnikova
    Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Sciences III, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Dev Biol 378:194-9. 2013
    ..suggesting that the ancestral HoxA/B cluster was co-opted to help in diversifying the complex organ in vertebrates. Other phenotypic effects observed seem to illustrate the resurgence of ancestral (plesiomorphic) features...
  59. ncbi Sex chromosome evolution in non-mammalian vertebrates
    Manfred Schartl
    Physiologische Chemie I, Biozentrum der Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 14:634-41. 2004
    ..that function downstream of the mammalian master sex-determining gene, Sry, have been found in non-mammalian vertebrates. Although the components of the machinery that determines sex seem to be conserved, their interaction and most ..
  60. ncbi Impact of gene gains, losses and duplication modes on the origin and diversification of vertebrates
    Cristian Canestro
    Departament de Genetica, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 24:83-94. 2013
    The study of the evolutionary origin of vertebrates has been linked to the study of genome duplications since Susumo Ohno suggested that the successful diversification of vertebrate innovations was facilitated by two rounds of whole-..
  61. ncbi Transposable elements as drivers of genomic and biological diversity in vertebrates
    Astrid Böhne
    Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, France
    Chromosome Res 16:203-15. 2008
    ..Taken together, these observations indicate that transposable elements are major drivers of genomic and biological diversity in vertebrates, with possible important roles in speciation and major evolutionary transitions.
  62. ncbi Molecular evolution of multiple forms of kisspeptins and GPR54 receptors in vertebrates
    Yeo Reum Lee
    Laboratory of G Protein Coupled Receptors, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
    Endocrinology 150:2837-46. 2009
    ..These data shed new light on the molecular evolution of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in vertebrates.
  63. pmc MicroRNAs and the advent of vertebrate morphological complexity
    Alysha M Heimberg
    Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2946-50. 2008
    ..vertebrate complexity has been sought in genome duplication events (GDEs) that occurred during the emergence of vertebrates, but evidence beyond coincidence is wanting...
  64. ncbi The genetic and evolutionary basis of colour variation in vertebrates
    Michael Hofreiter
    Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:2591-603. 2010
    Variation in pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in vertebrates. Although mammals show less variation in body pigmentation than other vertebrate groups, the genetics of colour determination and variation is best ..
  65. pmc Extending the aerolysin family: from bacteria to vertebrates
    Pawel Szczesny
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
    PLoS ONE 6:e20349. 2011
    ..Its putative role in the virulence of B. anthracis and its three dimensional model are discussed...
  66. pmc Skin regeneration in adult axolotls: a blueprint for scar-free healing in vertebrates
    Ashley W Seifert
    Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e32875. 2012
    ..Our findings outline a blueprint to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms coordinating scar-free healing that will be useful towards elucidating new regenerative therapies targeting fibrosis and wound repair...
  67. ncbi Evidence for two distinct KiSS genes in non-placental vertebrates that encode kisspeptins with different gonadotropin-releasing activities in fish and mammals
    Alicia Felip
    Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre de la Sal, Ribera de Cabanes, 12595 Castellon, Spain
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 312:61-71. 2009
    ..are the first to provide conclusive evidence for the existence of a second KiSS gene, KiSS-2, in non-placental vertebrates, whose product is likely to play a dominant stimulatory role in the regulation of the gonadotropic axis at ..
  68. pmc Homolonto: generating homology relationships by pairwise alignment of ontologies and application to vertebrate anatomy
    Gilles Parmentier
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Bioinformatics 26:1766-71. 2010
    ..To compare such data between species, we need to establish relations between ontologies describing different species...
  69. ncbi Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates
    J K Bowmaker
    Department of Visual Science, University College London, UK
    Eye (Lond) 12:541-7. 1998
    ....
  70. pmc OrthoDB: the hierarchical catalog of eukaryotic orthologs
    Evgenia V Kriventseva
    Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, 1 rue Michel Servet, Geneva, Switzerland
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:D271-5. 2008
    ..the basis of all-against-all Smith-Waterman sequence comparisons to analyze 58 eukaryotic genomes, focusing on vertebrates, insects and fungi to facilitate further comparative studies. The database is freely available at http://cegg...
  71. pmc Hsp90 is a core centrosomal component and is required at different stages of the centrosome cycle in Drosophila and vertebrates
    B M Lange
    Cell Biology and Cell Biophysics Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 19:1252-62. 2000
    ..is localized at the centrosome throughout the cell cycle at different stages of development in Drosophila and vertebrates. This association between Hsp90 and the centrosome can be observed in purified centrosomes and after treatment ..
  72. ncbi MHC studies in nonmodel vertebrates: what have we learned about natural selection in 15 years?
    L Bernatchez
    Department de Biologie, Universite Laval, Ste Foy, Quebec, Canada
    J Evol Biol 16:363-77. 2003
    ..that positive selection has a determinant role in shaping patterns of nucleotide diversity in MHC genes in all vertebrates studied...
  73. pmc Stripes and belly-spots -- a review of pigment cell morphogenesis in vertebrates
    Robert N Kelsh
    Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 20:90-104. 2009
    ..current understanding of mechanisms underlying the control of pigment cell migration and patterning in diverse vertebrates. The model systems discussed here - chick, mouse, and zebrafish - each provide unique insights into the major ..
  74. pmc Vertebrate innovations
    S M Shimeld
    School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AJ, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:4449-52. 2000
    ..Comparative molecular and developmental data give new insights into the evolutionary origins of these characteristics and the complexity of the vertebrate body...
  75. pmc The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology
    Linda Z Holland
    Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California 92093 0202, USA
    Genome Res 18:1100-11. 2008
    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago...
  76. ncbi Gen(om)e duplications in the evolution of early vertebrates
    A Sidow
    Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 6:715-22. 1996
    ..indicate that two large-scale gene duplications, most likely genome duplications, occurred in ancestors of vertebrates. Relaxed constraints allowed duplicated and thus redundant genes to diverge in a two stage mechanism...
  77. ncbi A common fold mediates vertebrate defense and bacterial attack
    Carlos J Rosado
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
    Science 317:1548-51. 2007
    ..In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-..
  78. pmc Maternal transfer of antibodies in vertebrates: trans-generational effects on offspring immunity
    Dennis Hasselquist
    Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:51-60. 2009
    ..In vertebrates, maternal antibodies (matAb) are transferred from the mother, via the placenta, egg yolk or milk during ..
  79. ncbi Chemical diversity in the sialic acids and related alpha-keto acids: an evolutionary perspective
    Takashi Angata
    Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0687, USA
    Chem Rev 102:439-69. 2002
  80. pmc Early vertebrate whole genome duplications were predated by a period of intense genome rearrangement
    Andrew L Hufton
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, 12169 Berlin, Germany
    Genome Res 18:1582-91. 2008
    ..chordate genome, we have used gene proximity conservation to estimate rates of genome rearrangement throughout vertebrates and some of their invertebrate ancestors...
  81. pmc Gene synteny comparisons between different vertebrates provide new insights into breakage and fusion events during mammalian karyotype evolution
    Claus Kemkemer
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    BMC Evol Biol 9:84. 2009
    ..Gene synteny analysis (E-painting) not only greatly reduces the complexity of comparative genome sequence analysis but also extends its evolutionary reach...
  82. ncbi Gonad morphogenesis in vertebrates: divergent means to a convergent end
    Tony DeFalco
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:457-82. 2009
    ..We also discuss the plasticity of the adult gonad and consider how different genetic and environmental conditions can induce transitions between testis and ovary morphology...
  83. ncbi Structural and functional evolution of the basal ganglia in vertebrates
    A Reiner
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Memphis, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163
    Brain Res Brain Res Rev 28:235-85. 1998
    ....
  84. pmc A multicassette Gateway vector set for high throughput and comparative analyses in ciona and vertebrate embryos
    Agnes Roure
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216 CNRS Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France
    PLoS ONE 2:e916. 2007
    ..Large scale cross-species comparisons of protein function and cis-regulatory sequences may help to understand the emergence of specific traits during evolution...
  85. pmc Dynamic limbic networks and social diversity in vertebrates: from neural context to neuromodulatory patterning
    James L Goodson
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    Front Neuroendocrinol 30:429-41. 2009
    ....
  86. ncbi What brought the adaptive immune system to vertebrates?--The jaw hypothesis and the seahorse
    T Matsunaga
    Department of Immunology, University of Umea, Sweden
    Immunol Rev 166:177-86. 1998
    A hypothesis is discussed that the adaptive immune system of vertebrates evolved in the gastrointestinal regions of primitive jawed fish (placoderms) due to increased localized injuries and infections which were inadvertently brought ..
  87. pmc Asymmetry in the epithalamus of vertebrates
    M L Concha
    Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, UK
    J Anat 199:63-84. 2001
    ..Structural asymmetries in this region are widespread amongst vertebrates and involve differences in size. neuronal organisation, neurochemistry and connectivity...
  88. ncbi Myogenic progenitor cells and skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates
    Margaret Buckingham
    Department of Developmental Biology, CNRS URA2578, Pasteur Institute, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75015 Paris Cedex, France
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 16:525-32. 2006
    ..New approaches that permit the grafting of purified satellite cells demonstrate their capacity for efficient muscle repair and for self-renewal. Regeneration in amphibians is now also shown to involve Pax-positive progenitor cells...
  89. pmc Deeply conserved chordate noncoding sequences preserve genome synteny but do not drive gene duplicate retention
    Andrew L Hufton
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, 14195 Berlin, Germany
    Genome Res 19:2036-51. 2009
    ..This method is powerful enough to identify more than a thousand PCNEs that have been conserved between vertebrates and the basal chordate amphioxus...
  90. ncbi Sororin, a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex, is required for sister chromatid cohesion in vertebrates
    Susannah Rankin
    Systems Biology Department, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 18:185-200. 2005
    ..Based on sequence analysis, this protein has no apparent orthologs outside of the vertebrates. We speculate that the protein, which we have named sororin, regulates the ability of the cohesin complex to ..
  91. pmc Early, H+-V-ATPase-dependent proton flux is necessary for consistent left-right patterning of non-mammalian vertebrates
    Dany S Adams
    The Forsyth Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, and Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 140 The Fenway, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Development 133:1657-71. 2006
    ..Our data implicate H+-V-ATPase activity in patterning the LR axis of vertebrates and reveal mechanisms upstream and downstream of its activity...
  92. ncbi Neural bases of goal-directed locomotion in vertebrates--an overview
    Sten Grillner
    The Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Rev 57:2-12. 2008
    ....
  93. pmc Connecting muscles to tendons: tendons and musculoskeletal development in flies and vertebrates
    Ronen Schweitzer
    Shriners Hospital for Children, Research Division, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    Development 137:2807-17. 2010
    ..systems is the anchoring of the force-generating muscles to the solid support of the organism: the skeleton in vertebrates and the exoskeleton in invertebrates...
  94. ncbi Revisiting the origin of the vertebrate Hox14 by including its relict sarcopterygian members
    Nathalie Feiner
    Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
    J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 316:515-25. 2011
    ..Particularly in vertebrates, their regulation is tightly coordinated by tandem arrays of genes [paralogy groups (PGs)] in four gene ..
  95. pmc Evolution of the Rho family of ras-like GTPases in eukaryotes
    Anthony Boureux
    Centre de Recherche en Biochimie des Macromolécules CNRS, IFR122, 34293 Montpellier, France
    Mol Biol Evol 24:203-16. 2007
    ..In vertebrates, gene duplications and retrotranspositions increased the size of each chordate Rho subfamily, whereas RhoH, the ..
  96. ncbi Using new tools to solve an old problem: the evolution of endothermy in vertebrates
    Roberto F Nespolo
    Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile
    Trends Ecol Evol 26:414-23. 2011
    ..Here, we argue that the evolution of endothermy could now be elucidated based on a joint, and perhaps unprecedented, effort of researchers from the fields of genomics, physiology and evolution...
  97. pmc Differential loss and retention of cytoglobin, myoglobin, and globin-E during the radiation of vertebrates
    Federico G Hoffmann
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA
    Genome Biol Evol 3:588-600. 2011
    ..In contrast to the highly restricted phyletic distribution of GbE, the overwhelming majority of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) possess copies of the related cytoglobin (Cygb) and myoglobin (Mb) genes...
  98. ncbi The protein CTCF is required for the enhancer blocking activity of vertebrate insulators
    A C Bell
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 0540, USA
    Cell 98:387-96. 1999
    ..site for CTCF, a previously identified eleven-zinc finger DNA-binding protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. CTCF sites are present in all of the vertebrate enhancer-blocking elements we have examined...
  99. ncbi The evolution of adaptive immunity in vertebrates
    Masayuki Hirano
    Emory Vaccine Center, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Adv Immunol 109:125-57. 2011
    Approximately 500 million years ago, two types of recombinatorial adaptive immune systems (AISs) arose in vertebrates. The jawed vertebrates diversify their repertoire of immunoglobulin domain-based T and B cell antigen receptors mainly ..
  100. ncbi Regulation of centrosome separation in yeast and vertebrates: common threads
    Hong Hwa Lim
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A STAR, Proteos, 138673 Singapore
    Trends Cell Biol 19:325-33. 2009
    ..Here, we review recent studies that uncover new players and provide a greater understanding of the regulation of centrosome (or SPB) separation...

Research Grants115 found, 100 shown here

  1. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF POLARITY
    RUTH M STEWARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..originally identified in mammalian cells as an apoptosis-associated gene, but our results suggest that also in vertebrates it is associated with cell proliferation...
  2. Systematics of medically important Dermacentor tick vectors
    Dmitry A Apanaskevich; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Ticks are obligate blood-feeders and temporary ectoparasites of terrestrial vertebrates. Among arthropods, ticks are second only to mosquitoes in transmitting pathogens to humans, pets, livestock, ..
  3. Mechanisms of Sex Determination in Zebrafish
    JOHN HARVEY POSTLETHWAIT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In nonmammalian vertebrates, other genes in the network determine sex, and in some species, environmental factors such as temperature or ..
  4. Integrated signaling of eicosanoids in HSC formation and regeneration
    Trista E North; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In vertebrates, definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) produce each of the mature blood cell lineages of an individual ..
  5. Human middle-ear imaging, physiology, and biomechanics
    CHARLES RICHARD STEELE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While it is well accepted that amongst terrestrial vertebrates, the mammalian middle ear is unique in its ability to transmit sounds from the external world to the cochlea ..
  6. Non-coding RNA engineers antibody diversity
    Uttiya Basu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Antibodies are polypeptide complexes produced from B-lymphocytes that are present in the bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign antigens, such as bacteria and viruses...
  7. Intracellular Serpin Regulation of Intestinal Cell Necrosis
    GARY ARTHUR SILVERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ancient, serpinIC anti-peptidase defense system regulates intestinal epithelial cell fitness in higher vertebrates. Conservation of this pathway provides the rationale for eventually developing novel anti- necrosis ..
  8. Dietary Supplement Creatine for Adolescent Females with SSRI-Resistant Depression
    PERRY FRANKLIN RENSHAW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The organic acid creatine is endogenous to all vertebrates, and is known to play a vital role in maintaining ATP supplies in brain and skeletal muscle...
  9. IRON REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
    ELIZABETH ANN LEIBOLD; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..All organisms have therefore developed mechanisms to sense, acquire and store iron. In vertebrates, iron metabolism is controlled by iron-regulatory protein 2 (IRP2)...
  10. Neuropeptide modulation of biogenic amine function and aggression in a crustacean
    Maria A Sosa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evidence linking biogenic amines to behaviors associated with the establishment of social hierarchies in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but the specific mechanisms by which these amines act remain largely unknown...
  11. Role of Dendritic Ca2+ Transients in Respiratory Rhythm Generation
    Jack L Feldman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Breathing is a remarkable behavior in vertebrates that regulates gas exchange to support metabolism...
  12. Biological Functions of Iron Responsive Elements
    Richard S Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In vertebrates, iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) and IRP2 are central regulators of cellular iron metabolism...
  13. PROMOTER SPECIFICITY OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
    David J Stillman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for studies of gene regulation, and since the transcription regulatory machinery is conserved between yeast and vertebrates the insights gained from studies in yeast are generally universal...
  14. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone: Ancestral Role in Feeding &Sleep Regulation
    Philippe Mourrain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurons and is up-regulated upon fasting, suggesting a conservation of MCH2/hMCH regulation and function across vertebrates. However, while mammalian hypothalamus harbors thousands of MCH cells, zebrafish larval and adult brains ..
  15. Developmental Regulation of Brain and Behavior
    JULI S WADE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Sex differences in brain and behavior exist across vertebrates. Several of these models have become powerful tools for elucidating mechanisms regulating development of neural structure and function, ..
  16. Genetic Control of Axial Patterning in Drosophila Eye
    Amit Singh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since the genetic machinery is highly conserved it will be interesting to extrapolate the information to higher vertebrates. These studies will contribute towards understanding the genetic mechanism of early developmental events during ..
  17. Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene Tsc1 in motor neuron patterning
    Onanong Chivatakarn; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In vertebrates, MNs develop in the ventral spinal cord and hindbrain, their cell bodies migrate to specific positions along ..
  18. Genomic approaches to inner ear hair cell regeneration
    Michael Lovett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Mammals cannot regenerate their hair cells. However, birds (and other lower vertebrates) can regenerate these cells...
  19. Presynaptic Mechanisms Regulating the Dopamine Transporter
    JAMES A HARDAWAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genetic screen may reveal genes that both support DA signaling in the nematode and that are conserved in vertebrates, including humans...
  20. Development and Regulation of Cholinergic Synapses
    Andres Villu Maricq; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because many of the gene products important for synaptic transmission are conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, we predict that what we learn from our studies in C...
  21. The regulation and activation of STATs in adipocytes
    Jacqueline M Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Adipocytes are highly specialized cells that play a major role in energy homeostasis in vertebrates. Obesity is the primary disease of fat cells and the most common metabolic disorder in the industrial world...
  22. Biological Functions of Iron Responsive Elements
    Richard S Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In vertebrates, iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) and IRP2 are central regulators of cellular iron metabolism...
  23. Role of exogenous melatonin in skin biology
    Andrzej T Slominski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): It was assumed that in vertebrates melatonin is only produced in the pineal gland and retina...
  24. Targets of a cytidine deaminase required for left-right axis in Xenopus
    Alin Vonica; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The investigator found that APOBEC2, a cytidine deaminase conserved in vertebrates with no previously known function, is required for correct orientation of asymmetric internal organs (left-..
  25. NADPH-Oxidase and SLE Susceptibility
    Swapan K Nath; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5). Follow up bioinformatic and molecular modeling analyses on selected variants show high conservation across vertebrates, implicating potential functional roles and predicting detrimental effects on NADPHO assembly that ultimately ..
  26. Molecular Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Action
    Subba R Palli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Since these hormones are not present in vertebrates, they represent attractive targets for the development of insect control methods...
  27. Identifying the Atoh1 targetome in hair cells with deep sequencing
    Andrew K Groves; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Third, Atoh1 is one of the first genes to be expressed during hair cell regeneration in non-mammalian vertebrates. Finally, ectopic expression of Atoh1 is sufficient to generate new hair cells in some regions of the inner ear ..
  28. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carbon metabolism in vivo
    John D McKinney; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cycle, which is required for metabolism of fatty acid substrates, is widespread among prokaryotes but absent in vertebrates. Previously we reported that isocitrate lyase 1 (ICL1) and 2 (ICL2), which catalyze the first unique reaction ..
  29. Biochemistry and Cell Biology of CHC22 Clathrin
    Frances M Brodsky; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The gene encoding CHC22 is present in humans and other vertebrates but evolved into a pseudogene in mice, so humans, but not mice, express CHC22 clathrin...
  30. A search for genes that regulate allogeneic stem cell competition
    Irving L Weissman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Graft rejection in immune competent vertebrates can utilize both T and NK cell responses to hematopoietic cell transplants [HCT] and tissue grafts...
  31. Symbiotic Rickettsia Species as a Model System for the Study of Folate Biosynthes
    Jianmin Zhong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The sole diet of most ticks is blood from vertebrates, but the sources of B-vitamins for Ixodes pacificus ticks are unknown...
  32. Role of Cofilin and Wnt Signaling in Neural Crest Development
    O apos NEIL WIGGAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However it is not known whether cofilin is involved in Wnt signaling in vertebrates. This proposal aims to identify regulatory mechanisms governing cofilin and actin dynamics during neural crest ..
  33. The Molecular Genetics of Early Neurogenesis
    Ethan Bier; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Drosophila and vertebrates alike, dorsal cells of the CNS form along the border of the BMP producing epidermis and express the Msx1 ..
  34. Regeneration of stereocilia of cochlear hair cells
    David Z Z He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have demonstrated that lost hair cells can be replaced by production of new hair cells in birds and lower vertebrates. Hair cell regeneration is limited in mammals, but there is evidence to suggest that damaged hair cells may ..
  35. The Role of TAF4b in Spermatogonial Stem Cell Maintenance and Self-Renewal
    Eric Gustafson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This new paradigm of germ cell-specific gene regulation is conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates, and may reflect an important mechanism for evolving germ cell-specific modes of gene regulation...
  36. Molecular genetics of epithelium formation in C. elegans
    Stephen E Von Stetina; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pathway that initiates epithelial polarization has been uncovered in many systems, including vertebrates. For example, the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 is sufficient to polarize single human intestine cells in the ..
  37. Defining Estrogenic Regulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Formation and Function
    Trista E North; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Most genes involved in HSC formation are highly conserved across vertebrates, and continue to regulate HSC self-renewal and differentiation in the adult...
  38. Control of developmental timing and body size in Drosophila
    MICHAEL BRENDAN O'CONNOR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..transitions and thereby provide a paradigm for understanding how these processes might be regulated in vertebrates including humans...
  39. Mechanisms of Neural Crest Differentiation during Craniofacial Development
    Vivian M Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One of the most prominent cell types in the craniofacial skeleton of vertebrates arises from a migratory stem cell population called the neural crest...
  40. The role of the primitive choana in amniote craniofacial morphogenesis
    John Abramyan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Despite their persistence in all vertebrates, very little focus has been placed on thi structure...
  41. Definition of an Ancient T cell-like System in Lampreys
    MAX DALE COOPER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..T- and B-like lymphocytes are basic features of the adaptive immune system of both jawless and jawed vertebrates, although jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfish) generate variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) for antigen ..
  42. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BASES FOR RHYTHMIC GNRH RELEASE
    Suzanne M Moenter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Episodic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is required for fertility in all vertebrates of both sexes, and frequency shifts are essential for female reproductive cycles...
  43. Regulation of tubulogenesis in the Drosophila ovary
    Celeste A Berg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Synthesis of the dorsal respiratory appendages by the follicular epithelium resembles primary neurulation in vertebrates. The aberrant rearrangement of cells exhibited by G-protein mutants is similar to the tube-closure defects that ..
  44. Competetive Renewal of MSM: Multiscale Studies of Segmentation in Vertebrates
    Claudio D Stern; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Its emphasis on model and data share ability will promote efficient sharing of resources, tools and models among biomodelers and experimentalists, significantly reducing duplication of effort. ..
  45. Novel Model Systems Link Floridean Starch Metabolism to Lafora Disease
    Matthew S Gentry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..phosphatase in Kingdom Animalia with a carbohydrate binding domain, regulates changes in glycogen metabolism in vertebrates and invertebrates...
  46. Development and Functional Analysis of Components of the Zebrafish Serotonin Sign
    Kenneth N Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Enterochromaffin cells (EC) store about 95% of the serotonin within vertebrates. Mechanical and nutrient stimulation of EC cells results in basal 5-HT secretion into the submucosa...
  47. Analysis of Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish
    ALEJANDRO SANCHEZ ALVARADO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..important transcription factors will be crucial for our understanding of how regeneration is triggered in lower vertebrates. Combined, these two approaches will discover key hair cell regeneration genes and set the stage for a ..
  48. Role of ncRNA Surveillance Complex "RNA Exosome" in Class Switch Recombination an
    Uttiya Basu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Antibodies are polypeptide complexes produced from B-lymphocytes that are present in the bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize various foreign antigens...
  49. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone: Ancestral Role in Feeding & Sleep Regulation
    Philippe Mourrain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..neurons and is up-regulated upon fasting, suggesting a conservation of MCH2/hMCH regulation and function across vertebrates. However, while mammalian hypothalamus harbors thousands of MCH cells, zebrafish larval and adult brains ..
  50. Low-affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptors in the frog Xenopus laevis
    Wade H Powell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..general information about the toxicological and biological functions of this system in humans and other vertebrates. Understanding the differences between frog and human AHRs will also aid risk assessment by refining ..
  51. Using shared mechanisms of morphogenesis to study neural tube defects
    JESSICA LEE SULLIVAN-BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In vertebrates, mutations in approximately 200 genes lead to NTDs, but aside from a few important examples, most NTD genes ..
  52. East African Cichlids: A Natural Model for Dental Regeneration
    RYAN FREDRIC BLOOMQUIST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While we have learned a great deal from this system, in contrast to humans and most other vertebrates, the mouse lacks a successional or replacement set of teeth...
  53. Mechanisms of Sensory Regeneration
    Mark Warchol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In contrast, the ears of nonmammalian vertebrates can quickly regenerate hair cells after injury, and it is of great interest to understand the cellular basis of ..
  54. "Gdf6 gene expression and evolution in vertebrates"
    Douglas Mortlock; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These experiments will provide extensive insights into the conservation of this important signaling pathway gene in different animal models and the role genomic sequences play in normal skeletal patterning. ..
  55. Pre-osteoclast fusion
    Paul R Odgren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both proteins are highly conserved in terrestrial vertebrates. In a model of acute, induced OC differentiation in an osteopetrotic rat model, we present preliminary evidence ..
  56. Mechanism of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Tumor Progression and Metastasis by Par-
    Vivek M Rangnekar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4;also known as PAWR) is a leucine zipper domain protein that is conserved in vertebrates. During the previous funding period, we showed the core effector domain of Par-4 (amino acids 137-195, ..
  57. Reversible phosphorylation in Hedgehog signaling
    ALAN ZHU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the mechanisms of how Hh signaling is precisely modulated by reversible phosphorylation, which will shed light on the role of PP2A as an effective therapeutic agent to prevent or treat Hh-related diseases in vertebrates.
  58. Regulated Retrotransposon Elements in Neuroendocrine System
    Janusz Puc; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The pituitary gland is a critical component of the neuroendocrine system present in all vertebrates, and is essential in the maintenance of homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, growth, and lactation...
  59. Retinal Cell-Fate Determination and Pattern Formation
    Graeme Mardon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the retinal determination (RD) network, which is essential for normal development in both flies and vertebrates. Eya functions both as a transcriptional coactivator and a protein phosphatase while so encodes a homeodomain ..
  60. Gene-Expression Patterns During Hair-Cell Regeneration
    ALBERT JAMES HUDSPETH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The structure, development, and operation of hair cells are conserved throughout the vertebrates. We accordingly anticipate that a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying hair-cell ..
  61. Wnt Signaling in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Specification and Leukemia
    WILSON KENDRICK CLEMENTS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cell-autonomous reception of a Notch signal in cells fated to become HSCs is an established requirement in vertebrates, the Notch signaling events regulated by DeltaC and DeltaD appear to be non-cell-autonomous and therefore ..
  62. Neural substrates for matching hearing to utterance
    Darcy B Kelley; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..influence vocal output could derive from an ancient set of neural connections that have been elaborated in some vertebrates. If so, the forebrain/hindbrain, auditory/vocal system in Xenopus laevis should provide very interesting ..
  63. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and regeneration in colonial chordate
    Irving L Weissman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: In a colonial organism, Botryllus schlosseri, believed to be the link between vertebrates and invertebrates, weekly regeneration of individuals occurs via migration, proliferation, and self renewal by ..
  64. Gene Regulation of Cranial Sensory Placode Development
    SALLY ANN MOODY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..different, powerful animal models will provide the strongest information for conserved gene regulation across vertebrates that will have the most relevance to human craniofacial syndromes...
  65. Oocyte polarity and mRNA localization in Zebrafish
    FLORENCE LOUISE MARLOW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Asymmetry in oocytes is a well-documented and conserved feature among animals including vertebrates and humans...
  66. Regulation of cochlea hair cell differentiation by the Lin28b/let-7 axis
    Erin Golden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While many vertebrates, including birds and reptiles, are able to regenerate damaged hair cells, mammals (including humans) do not ..
  67. Aging and Regeneration in a basal chordate
    Anthony W De Tomaso; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Botryllus belongs to the phylum Tunicata, the sister group to the vertebrates. Besides this close phylogenetic relationship, Botryllus has a number of life history traits which make it an ..
  68. Identification of gene involved in late stage zebrafish craniofacial development
    REBECCA ANN ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The processes of bone formation, shared by all vertebrates, are often affected in human skeletal dysplasias, resulting in significant defects to craniofacial skeletogenesis...
  69. The Tunicate Ciona: A New Model for the Effects of Aging on Tissue Regeneration
    William R Jeffery; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Many vertebrates have robust capacities for tissue regeneration as embryos and juveniles but this power fades during development and aging...
  70. ANALYSIS OF PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN FILAMENTOUS FUNGI
    N Louise Glass; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Similar to other nonself recognition loci, such as the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) in jawed vertebrates, het loci in N. crassa show evidence of balancing selection...
  71. Uncovering mechanisms controlling notochord vacuole and spine morphogenesis
    Michel Bagnat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Abstract In vertebrates the notochord plays critical signaling roles during vertebrate development and acts as a hydrostatic skeleton for the embryo before bone formation...
  72. Basal Ganglia-Thalamic Interactions in Behaving Songbirds During Learning
    JESSE HEYMANN GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The basal ganglia are a set of brain nuclei highly conserved among vertebrates, including humans, critical for motor control and learning...
  73. ERV3 Control of Human Placentation
    NEAL STEWART ROTE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The genome of most vertebrates and some invertebrates has been transformed over millions of years by the integration of infectious retroviruses...
  74. Role of Shh-Hey1/Hey2 and Activin A in Hair Cell Differentiation
    Ana Benito-Gonzalez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While many vertebrates, including birds and reptiles, are able to regenerate damaged hair cells, mammals (including humans) do not ..
  75. Hydra: New Models for Aging Research
    Steven N Austad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Of particular note, a more distant ancestor to the vertebrates, the Cnidaria, have been discovered to contain a large number of obvious humans orthologs that are missing in ..
  76. Mechanisms of Cell Polarity Establishment
    Ian G Macara; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, a Par3-related gene exists in vertebrates, which we discovered and named Par3L...
  77. 2013 Antimicrobial Peptides GRC/GRS
    Gill Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..components of innate immunity used by all metazoans including bacteria, fungi, plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, and mammals including humans...
  78. IDENTIFYING GERMLINE GENES AS TARGETS FOR THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION IN CANCER
    Mary Lou King; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..difficult to isolate germ plasm in sufficient quantities for proten analysis and thus, genetic information in vertebrates has been limited...
  79. Connecting the proteome and transcriptome during regeneration
    Kenro Kusumi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lizards are the most closely related vertebrates to mammals with the ability to regenerate an entire appendage as an adult...
  80. Transcriptional Regulation of Motor Neuron Subtype Development
    MADALYNN LEA ERB; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Motor neuron circuits control respiration, coordinated movement and sympathetic nervous system activity in vertebrates. A promising treatment for motor neuron degenerative diseases is using cell therapies to replace lost motor ..
  81. Sensor Mechanisms of HSF Activation
    Evgeny Nudler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..HSF1 is constitutively expressed in vertebrates as inactive monomer under tight negative regulation...
  82. A protein-directed RNA switch that regulates translation
    Paul L Fox; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also speculate that the VEGF-A switch may represent the founding member of a family of protein-directed RNA switches in vertebrates that integrate physiological or pathological stimuli to control gene expression.
  83. The Role of SWI/SNF Alternative Splicing in Cancer
    ELAINE MARIE OBERLICK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SWI/SNF is an ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodeling complex conserved from yeast to mammals. In flies and vertebrates the complex is involved in development, differentiation, and is essential for the establishment and maintenance ..
  84. Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to Mn-limitation imposed by the host
    THOMAS EVERETT KEHL-FIE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A powerful strategy utilized by vertebrates to combat bacterial pathogens is the sequestration of essential nutrients, a process known as nutritional ..
  85. DORSAL-VENTRAL PATTERN FORMATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH EMBRYO
    Mary C Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..were found to exclusively signal in zebrafish DV patterning, providing an in vivo, physiological assay in vertebrates for BMP heterodimer signaling...
  86. Neuronal regulation of myelination
    ROMAN JENO GIGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In vertebrates, including humans, rapid neuronal communication in the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) is dependent on proper myelination...
  87. The Role of Muller Cells in Visual Pigment Regeneration
    Gabriel H Travis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This result suggests that under daylight conditions, vertebrates (including humans) capture light energy in their retinas to regenerate visual chromophore...
  88. Identifying a transcriptional program that regulates compensatory proliferation
    JOY HART MESERVE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results from these experiments will provide a comprehensive view of compensatory proliferation and will provide candidate genes that may be involved in regeneration and disease in vertebrates.
  89. 2013 Polyamines Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar
    John L Cleveland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the GRC brings together top-notch researchers who study polyamines in several organisms (vertebrates, yeast, plants, protozoa and bacteria) with those assessing therapeutic applications...
  90. Role of molecular recognition in retinal patterning and synaptic organization
    PETER GERARD FUERST; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to ablate mosaic patterning and the first genes shown to mediate isoneuronal and heteroneuronal repulsion in vertebrates. Specific Aims: We propose to use the Dscam and Dscaml1 mutant mouse models to discover mechanisms underpinning ..
  91. Effects of insulin-like signaling, aging, and ubiquinone on C. elegans muscle
    Alfred L Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Additionally, complex I activity in muscle and other tissues declines during aging in vertebrates. These findings led us to hypothesize that mitochondrial activity is a driver of the development of sarcopenia ..
  92. Imaging the struggle for nutrient metal between host and pathogen
    Eric P Skaar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Vertebrates have taken advantage of this requirement by evolving high-affinity metal binding proteins that sequester metals ..
  93. The Genetics and Evolution of Extreme Body Size in Mice from Gough Island
    Bret A Payseur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Island vertebrates are often unusually large or small compared to their mainland relatives...
  94. Behavior-based chemical screening for GABAergic and startle modifying drugs
    David Kokel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unlike larger vertebrates, zebrafish are small enough to be easily arrayed in the individual wells of a 96-well plate along with ..
  95. Molecular Interactions During Neural Crest Formation
    MARTIN IGNACIO GARCIA-CASTRO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This work will illuminate fundamental principles of neural crest formation in higher vertebrates (birds and mammals), and will invigorate human neural crest studies.
  96. Nitrogen Metabolism in Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes
    PATRICIA YOLANDA SCARAFFIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mosquitoes can also use the nitrogen from the amide group of glutamine to produce uric acid as vertebrates do, and more surprisingly, mosquitoes hydrolyze uric acid into urea through the same metabolic pathway that ..
  97. Quasispecies dynamics in arbovirus persistence emergence and fitness
    GREGORY DAVID EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The frequency of contact between mosquitoes and vertebrates varies in time and space...
  98. Mechanism of vertebrate neural tube morphogenesis
    John B Wallingford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The central nervous system of vertebrates develops initially as a flat sheet of cells that will roll up and seal shut to form the hollow neural tube...
  99. Functions of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Axon Guidance and Degeneration.
    FABIENNE POULAIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While appealing, this "sugar code" hypothesis is still theoretial and has not been tested in vertebrates. Moreover, the contribution of the core proteins carrying these specific HS patterns is not known...
  100. Ontogeny of the Phase II cytosolic sulfotransferases and adverse drug reactions
    Ming Cheh Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In humans and other vertebrates, sulfation as mediated by the SULTs is known to play a major role in the detoxification of xenobiotics...
  101. Developing tools for understanding neuromodulation of hypothalamic func
    Su Guo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..factor (CRF) and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are evolutionarily conserved across vertebrates. They control organismal responses to aversive stimuli through regulating circulating neuropeptides and ..