- Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
Stuart P Weisberg
Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003
..Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals...
- Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
..We propose that obesity-related insulin resistance is, at least in part, a chronic inflammatory disease initiated in adipose tissue...
- The orphan nuclear receptor RORgammat directs the differentiation program of proinflammatory IL-17+ T helper cells
Ivaylo I Ivanov
Molecular Pathogenesis Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
Cell 126:1121-33. 2006
..Together, these studies suggest that RORgammat is a key regulator of immune homeostasis and highlight its potential as a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases...
- Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization
Carey N Lumeng
Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
J Clin Invest 117:175-84. 2007
..Thus, diet-induced obesity leads to a shift in the activation state of ATMs from an M2-polarized state in lean animals that may protect adipocytes from inflammation to an M1 proinflammatory state that contributes to insulin resistance...
- Cre reporter strains produced by targeted insertion of EYFP and ECFP into the ROSA26 locus
Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University, New York, USA
BMC Dev Biol 1:4. 2001
- Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization
Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
Nat Immunol 9:847-56. 2008
..Our results indicate that the NALP3 inflammasome senses lysosomal damage as an endogenous 'danger' signal...
- Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member
A C McPherron
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Nature 387:83-90. 1997
..These results suggest that GDF-8 functions specifically as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth...
- A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Suita
Nature 408:740-5. 2000
..The in vivo CpG-DNA-mediated T-helper type-1 response was also abolished in TLR9-/- mice. Thus, vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll-like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA...
- Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties
Molecular Pathogenesis Program, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
Immunity 19:71-82. 2003
..These findings raise the potential for novel therapeutic strategies in inflammatory diseases...
- MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
..These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice...
- Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235 9050, USA
Science 282:2085-8. 1998
..Destructive mutations of Tlr4 predispose to the development of Gram-negative sepsis, leaving most aspects of immune function intact...
- Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain
Ed S Lein
Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA
Nature 445:168-76. 2007
..This highly standardized atlas provides an open, primary data resource for a wide variety of further studies concerning brain organization and function...
- Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3
Cellular Immunology Section, Oral Infection and Immunity Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Exp Med 198:1875-86. 2003
..Finally, in a murine asthma model, coadministration of these TGF-beta-induced suppressor T cells prevented house dust mite-induced allergic pathogenesis in lungs...
- SLAM family receptors distinguish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and reveal endothelial niches for stem cells
Mark J Kiel
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
Cell 121:1109-21. 2005
..Many HSCs were associated with sinusoidal endothelium in spleen and bone marrow, though some HSCs were associated with endosteum. HSCs thus occupy multiple niches, including sinusoidal endothelium in diverse tissues...
- Multifunctional TH1 cells define a correlate of vaccine-mediated protection against Leishmania major
Patricia A Darrah
Cellular Immunology Section, Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nat Med 13:843-50. 2007
- LNA-mediated microRNA silencing in non-human primates
Santaris Pharma, Bøge Allé 3, DK 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
Nature 452:896-9. 2008
- Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
Nature 372:425-32. 1994
..The ob gene product may function as part of a signalling pathway from adipose tissue that acts to regulate the size of the body fat depot...
- Targeted disruption of the MyD88 gene results in loss of IL-1- and IL-18-mediated function
Department of Biochemistry, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan
Immunity 9:143-50. 1998
..Taken together, these results demonstrate that MyD88 is a critical component in the signaling cascade that is mediated by IL-1 receptor as well as IL-18 receptor...
- Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans
Institute of Normal Human Morphology, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
J Lipid Res 46:2347-55. 2005
..These results provide a novel framework for understanding macrophage recruitment, function, and persistence in WAT of obese individuals...
- Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet
Joseph A Baur
Department of Pathology, Paul F Glenn Laboratories for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 444:337-42. 2006
..These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing...
- IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory T(H)17 cells
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 448:484-7. 2007
..We show that an IL-2 cytokine family member, IL-21, cooperates with TGF-beta to induce T(H)17 cells in naive Il6-/- T cells and that IL-21-receptor-deficient T cells are defective in generating a T(H)17 response...
- Osteoblastic cells regulate the haematopoietic stem cell niche
L M Calvi
Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Human Genetics and Molecular Pediatric Disease, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
Nature 425:841-6. 2003
..Niche constituent cells or signalling pathways provide pharmacological targets with therapeutic potential for stem-cell-based therapies...
- OPGL is a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, lymphocyte development and lymph-node organogenesis
Y Y Kong
Amgen Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nature 397:315-23. 1999
..Thus OPGL is a new regulator of lymph-node organogenesis and lymphocyte development and is an essential osteoclast differentiation factor in vivo...
- Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus
Henriette van Praag
Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Nature 415:1030-4. 2002
..Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain...
- Pretreatment of mice with streptomycin provides a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colitis model that allows analysis of both pathogen and host
Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
Infect Immun 71:2839-58. 2003
..Our results demonstrate that streptomycin-pretreated mice offer a unique infection model that allows for the first time to use mutants of both the pathogen and the host to study the molecular mechanisms of enteric salmonellosis...
- Regulatory T cells prevent catastrophic autoimmunity throughout the lifespan of mice
Jeong M Kim
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nat Immunol 8:191-7. 2007
..We suggest that self-reactive T cells are continuously suppressed by T(reg) cells and that when suppression is relieved, self-reactive T cells become activated and facilitate accelerated maturation of dendritic cells...
- The orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator
Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II, University of Geneva, 30, Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH 1211 4, Geneva, Switzerland
Cell 110:251-60. 2002
..While REV-ERBalpha influences the period length and affects the phase-shifting properties of the clock, it is not required for circadian rhythm generation...
- Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours
L A Donehower
Division of Molecular Virology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
Nature 356:215-21. 1992
- CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nature 420:502-7. 2002
- Interleukin-22, a T(H)17 cytokine, mediates IL-23-induced dermal inflammation and acanthosis
Department of Immunology, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Nature 445:648-51. 2007
..IL-22, as an effector cytokine produced by T cells, mediates the crosstalk between the immune system and epithelial cells...
- Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
..These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition...
- IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge
Shabaana A Khader
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
Nat Immunol 8:369-77. 2007
- The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links TH17-cell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins
Division of Molecular Immunology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW71AA, UK
Nature 453:106-9. 2008
..AHR ligands may therefore represent co-factors in the development of autoimmune diseases...
- A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages
Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA
Nature 404:193-7. 2000
- Interleukin-22 mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens
Department of Immunology, Genentech, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Nat Med 14:282-9. 2008
..rodentium infection. Together, our data identify a new innate immune function for IL-22 in regulating early defense mechanisms against A/E bacterial pathogens...
- IL-6 and Stat3 are required for survival of intestinal epithelial cells and development of colitis-associated cancer
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, UCSD School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0723, USA
Cancer Cell 15:103-13. 2009
..Thus, the NF-kappaB-IL-6-Stat3 cascade is an important regulator of the proliferation and survival of tumor-initiating IECs...
- T-cell priming by dendritic cells in lymph nodes occurs in three distinct phases
Thorsten R Mempel
The CBR Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 427:154-9. 2004
- Tumor spectrum analysis in p53-mutant mice
Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
Curr Biol 4:1-7. 1994
..The construction of mouse strains carrying germline mutations of p53 facilitates analysis of the function of p53 in normal cells and tumorigenesis...
- Bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium
Hematopoiesis Section, Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, NHGRI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Nature 410:701-5. 2001
..The developing tissue comprised proliferating myocytes and vascular structures. Our studies indicate that locally delivered bone marrow cells can generate de novo myocardium, ameliorating the outcome of coronary artery disease...
- Inducible gene targeting in mice
Institute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Germany
Science 269:1427-9. 1995
..Deletion was complete in liver and nearly complete in lymphocytes within a few days, whereas partial deletion was obtained in other tissues. This method can be used for the inducible inactivation of any other gene in vivo...
- Dendritic cells induce peripheral T cell unresponsiveness under steady state conditions in vivo
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Exp Med 194:769-79. 2001
..We conclude that in the absence of additional stimuli DCs induce transient antigen-specific T cell activation followed by T cell deletion and unresponsiveness...
- Ly-6Chi monocytes dominate hypercholesterolemia-associated monocytosis and give rise to macrophages in atheromata
Filip K Swirski
Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
J Clin Invest 117:195-205. 2007
..Conversely, the number of Ly-6C(lo) cells remained unaffected. Thus, we believe that Ly-6C(hi) monocytes represent a newly recognized component of the inflammatory response in experimental atherosclerosis...
- Small intestine lamina propria dendritic cells promote de novo generation of Foxp3 T reg cells via retinoic acid
Cheng Ming Sun
Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Exp Med 204:1775-85. 2007
..Together, these data demonstrate that the intestinal immune system has evolved a self-contained strategy to promote T reg cell neoconversion...
- Induction and activation of the transcription factor NFATc1 (NFAT2) integrate RANKL signaling in terminal differentiation of osteoclasts
Department of Immunology, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7 3 1, Bunkyo ku, Japan
Dev Cell 3:889-901. 2002
..Thus, NFATc1 may represent a master switch for regulating terminal differentiation of osteoclasts, functioning downstream of RANKL...
- CD1d-restricted and TCR-mediated activation of valpha14 NKT cells by glycosylceramides
CREST Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation JST, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo, Chiba 260, Japan
Science 278:1626-9. 1997
..Thus, this lymphocyte shares distinct recognition systems with either T or NK cells...
- Bone marrow-derived microglia play a critical role in restricting senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease
Alain R Simard
Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University, 2705 Laurier Boul, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada
Neuron 49:489-502. 2006
..Therapeutic strategies aiming to improve their recruitment could potentially lead to a new powerful tool for the elimination of toxic senile plaques...
- Control of T(reg) and T(H)17 cell differentiation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Francisco J Quintana
Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 453:65-71. 2008
..Thus, AHR regulates both T(reg) and T(H)17 cell differentiation in a ligand-specific fashion, constituting a unique target for therapeutic immunomodulation...
- Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF-alpha function
K T Uysal
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nature 389:610-4. 1997
..These results indicate that TNF-alpha is an important mediator of insulin resistance in obesity through its effects on several important sites of insulin action...
- Weight-reducing effects of the plasma protein encoded by the obese gene
J L Halaas
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockfeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
Science 269:543-6. 1995
..2 to 0.7 percent. These data suggest that the OB protein serves an endocrine function to regulate body fat stores...
- X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) in the mouse
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:1189-92. 1984
..Linkage analysis with four X chromosome loci indicates that mdx maps in the Hq Bpa region of the mouse X chromosome. This gives a gene order of mdx-Tfm-Pgk-1-Ags, the same as for the equivalent genes on the human X chromosome...
- Transposable elements: targets for early nutritional effects on epigenetic gene regulation
Robert A Waterland
Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Mol Cell Biol 23:5293-300. 2003
..These findings suggest that dietary supplementation, long presumed to be purely beneficial, may have unintended deleterious influences on the establishment of epigenetic gene regulation in humans...
- Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states
Michael K Badman
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Cell Metab 5:426-37. 2007
..These findings identify hepatic FGF21 as a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis and identify a physiological role for this hepatic hormone...
- Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment
Irina M Conboy
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA
Nature 433:760-4. 2005
..These results suggest that the age-related decline of progenitor cell activity can be modulated by systemic factors that change with age...
- Toll-like receptor 3 mediates West Nile virus entry into the brain causing lethal encephalitis
Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Nat Med 10:1366-73. 2004
..Collectively, WNV infection leads to a Tlr3-dependent inflammatory response, which is involved in brain penetration of the virus and neuronal injury...
- Subpopulations of mouse blood monocytes differ in maturation stage and inflammatory response
Institute of Experimental Dermatology and Department of Dermatology, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
J Immunol 172:4410-7. 2004
..Taken together, these data identify distinct subpopulations of mouse blood monocytes that differ in maturation stage and capacity to become recruited to inflammatory sites...
- GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain
Institute for Cell Engineering, Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Nature 439:589-93. 2006
- Inactivation of the beta-catenin gene by Wnt1-Cre-mediated deletion results in dramatic brain malformation and failure of craniofacial development
Department of Molecular Embryology, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology, Stuebeweg 51, D 79108 Freiburg, Germany
Development 128:1253-64. 2001
..Our results demonstrate the pivotal role of beta-catenin in morphogenetic processes during brain and craniofacial development...
- Requirement of interleukin 17 receptor signaling for lung CXC chemokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression, neutrophil recruitment, and host defense
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Gene Therapy Program, Section of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
J Exp Med 194:519-27. 2001
..pneumoniae infection. These data support impaired IL-17R signaling as a potential mechanism by which deficiency of CD4 lymphocytes predisposes to bacterial pneumonia...
- Atrogin-1, a muscle-specific F-box protein highly expressed during muscle atrophy
M D Gomes
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:14440-5. 2001
..Atrogin-1 is one of the few examples of an F-box protein or Ub-protein ligase (E3) expressed in a tissue-specific manner and appears to be a critical component in the enhanced proteolysis leading to muscle atrophy in diverse diseases...
- Endocrine regulation of the fasting response by PPARalpha-mediated induction of fibroblast growth factor 21
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Cell Metab 5:415-25. 2007
..These findings demonstrate an unexpected role for the PPARalpha-FGF21 endocrine signaling pathway in regulating diverse metabolic and behavioral aspects of the adaptive response to starvation...
- Regulatory T cell-derived interleukin-10 limits inflammation at environmental interfaces
Yuri P Rubtsov
Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Immunity 28:546-58. 2008
..Furthermore, these mechanisms are likely to be nonredundant, in that a distinct suppressor mechanism most likely plays a prominent and identifiable role at a particular tissue and inflammatory setting...
- Transforming growth factor-beta controls development, homeostasis, and tolerance of T cells by regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms
Ming O Li
Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Immunity 25:455-71. 2006
..This study reveals pleiotropic functions of TGF-beta signaling in T cells that may ensure a diverse and self-tolerant T cell repertoire in vivo...
- PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE real-time reporting of circadian dynamics reveals persistent circadian oscillations in mouse peripheral tissues
Seung Hee Yoo
Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, 2205 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:5339-46. 2004
..These results demonstrate that peripheral tissues express self-sustained, rather than damped, circadian oscillations and suggest the existence of organ-specific synchronizers of circadian rhythms at the cell and tissue level...
- Systemic LPS causes chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration
Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Glia 55:453-62. 2007
..These findings provide valuable insight into the potential pathogenesis and self-propelling nature of Parkinson's disease...
- CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) Th1 cells are the source of IL-10-mediated immune suppression in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis
Charles F Anderson
Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Exp Med 204:285-97. 2007
- A crucial role for interleukin (IL)-1 in the induction of IL-17-producing T cells that mediate autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Immune Regulation Research Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
J Exp Med 203:1685-91. 2006
..Tumor necrosis factor alpha also synergized with IL-23 to enhance IL-17 production, and this was IL-1 dependent. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1 functions upstream of IL-17 to promote pathogenic ThIL-17 cells in EAE...
- MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4
Department of Immunology, Saga Medical School, Saga, Japan
J Exp Med 189:1777-82. 1999
..MD-2 is thus a link between TLR4 and LPS signaling. Identification of this new receptor complex has potential implications for understanding host defense, as well as pathophysiologic, mechanisms...
- The interleukin 23 receptor is essential for the terminal differentiation of interleukin 17-producing effector T helper cells in vivo
Mandy J McGeachy
Schering Plough Biopharma, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
Nat Immunol 10:314-24. 2009
..These defects were associated with less proliferation; consequently, fewer effector T(H)-17 cells were produced in the lymph nodes and hence available to emigrate to the bloodstream and tissues...
- Pten dependence distinguishes haematopoietic stem cells from leukaemia-initiating cells
Omer H Yilmaz
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Life Sciences Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, and Center for Stem Cell Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2216, USA
Nature 441:475-82. 2006
..Mechanistic differences between normal stem cells and cancer stem cells can thus be targeted to deplete cancer stem cells without damaging normal stem cells...
- Antigen-specific T cell sensitization is impaired in IL-17-deficient mice, causing suppression of allergic cellular and humoral responses
Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4 6 1 Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo, Japan
Immunity 17:375-87. 2002
..Our findings indicate that IL-17 plays an important role in activating T cells in allergen-specific T cell-mediated immune responses...
- Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression
G M Lord
Imperial College School of Medicine, Department of Immunology, The Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
Nature 394:897-901. 1998
..Our findings suggest a new role for leptin in linking nutritional status to cognate cellular immune function, and provide a molecular mechanism to account for the immune dysfunction observed in starvation...
- B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus
Michael S Diamond
Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
J Virol 77:2578-86. 2003
..We conclude that antibodies and B cells play a critical early role in the defense against disseminated infection by WNV...
- Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis inducing T-cell anergy
Department of Neurosciences Ophthalmology and Genetics, University of Genoa, Via De Toni 5, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Blood 106:1755-61. 2005
..These data suggest that the immunoregulatory properties of MSCs effectively interfere with the autoimmune attack in the course of EAE inducing an in vivo state of T-cell unresponsiveness occurring within secondary lymphoid organs...
- The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function
Lauren W Collison
Department of Immunology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA
Nature 450:566-9. 2007
..Taken together, these data identify IL-35 as a novel inhibitory cytokine that may be specifically produced by T(reg) cells and is required for maximal suppressive activity...
- A mouse Mecp2-null mutation causes neurological symptoms that mimic Rett syndrome
Wellcome Centre for Cell Biology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Edinburgh, The King s Buildings, Edinburgh, UK
Nat Genet 27:322-6. 2001
- Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice
M A Pelleymounter
Department of Neurobiology, Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA
Science 269:540-3. 1995
..These data suggest that the OB protein regulates body weight and fat deposition through effects on metabolism and appetite...
- Fusion of bone-marrow-derived cells with Purkinje neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0520, USA
Nature 425:968-73. 2003
..These observations provide the first in vivo evidence for cell fusion of BMDCs with neurons and cardiomyocytes, raising the possibility that cell fusion may contribute to the development or maintenance of these key cell types...
- In vivo fate analysis reveals the multipotent and self-renewal capacities of Sox2+ neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus
Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Cell Stem Cell 1:515-28. 2007
..An asymmetric contribution of Sox2+ NSCs may play an important role in maintaining the constant size of the NSC pool and producing newly born neurons during adult neurogenesis...
- Microglia in the adult brain arise from Ly-6ChiCCR2+ monocytes only under defined host conditions
Institute of Neuropathology, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
Nat Neurosci 10:1544-53. 2007
..Our results identify Ly-6C(hi)CCR2(+) monocytes as direct precursors of microglia in the adult brain and establish the importance of local factors in the adult CNS for microglia engraftment...
- Notch-mediated restoration of regenerative potential to aged muscle
Irina M Conboy
Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 5235, USA
Science 302:1575-7. 2003
..Thus, Notch signaling is a key determinant of muscle regenerative potential that declines with age...
- Molecular signature of CD8+ T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection
E John Wherry
Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road Room G211, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Immunity 27:670-84. 2007
..Thus, functional exhaustion is probably due to both active suppression and passive defects in signaling and metabolism. These results provide a framework for designing rational immunotherapies during chronic infections...
- Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells constitutively expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4
Department of Experimental Pathology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
J Exp Med 192:303-10. 2000
..This unique function of CTLA-4 could be exploited to potentiate T cell-mediated immunoregulation, and thereby to induce immunologic tolerance or to control autoimmunity...
- Tie2/angiopoietin-1 signaling regulates hematopoietic stem cell quiescence in the bone marrow niche
Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinano machi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo, 160 8582, Japan
Cell 118:149-61. 2004
..These data suggest that the Tie2/Ang-1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the maintenance of HSCs in a quiescent state in the BM niche...
- Increased inflammatory properties of adipose tissue macrophages recruited during diet-induced obesity
Carey N Lumeng
Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Diabetes 56:16-23. 2007
..In agreement with this, ATMs from obese mice had increased lipid content compared with those from lean mice. These studies demonstrate that recruited ATMs in obese animals represent a subclass of macrophages with unique properties...
- IL-23 is essential for T cell-mediated colitis and promotes inflammation via IL-17 and IL-6
Department of Discovery Research, Schering Plough Biopharma, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
J Clin Invest 116:1310-6. 2006
..This pathway may be responsible for chronic intestinal inflammation as well as other chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases...
- Batf3 deficiency reveals a critical role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in cytotoxic T cell immunity
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Science 322:1097-100. 2008
..Importantly, rejection of highly immunogenic syngeneic tumors was impaired in Batf3-/- mice. These results suggest an important role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells and cross-presentation in responses to viruses and in tumor rejection...
- Abnormal splicing of the leptin receptor in diabetic mice
G H Lee
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
Nature 379:632-5. 1996
..This suggests that the weight-reducing effects of leptin may be mediated by signal transduction through a leptin receptor in the hypothalamus...
- Efficient targeting of protein antigen to the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205 in the steady state leads to antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I products and peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance
Laboratory of Cellular Physiology and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA
J Exp Med 196:1627-38. 2002
..Therefore, DEC-205 provides an efficient receptor-based mechanism for DCs to process proteins for MHC class I presentation in vivo, leading to tolerance in the steady state and immunity after DC maturation...
- Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron
Trude H Flo
Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA
Nature 432:917-21. 2004
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Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Incorporated, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
Cell 83:1263-71. 1995
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Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
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Natalya V Serbina
Infectious Disease Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Immunology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Immunity 19:59-70. 2003
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Laboratory of Genetics, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Neurosci 26:3-11. 2006
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Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Science 292:1728-31. 2001
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University of Edinburgh, Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, King s Buildings West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
Nat Immunol 3:944-50. 2002
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Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Science 301:640-3. 2003
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Department of Cardiovascular Research, Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA
Nature 380:439-42. 1996
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Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Shogoin Kawahara, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
Nat Neurosci 11:1153-61. 2008
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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Nat Med 15:914-20. 2009
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Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Departments of Medicine and Neuroscience, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Science 312:1389-92. 2006
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K P Hoeflich
Ontario Cancer Institute Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada
Nature 406:86-90. 2000
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