euglenida

Summary

Summary: A group of unicellular flagellates of ancient eukaryotic lineage with unclear taxonomy. Classification differs depending on what characteristics are used. Some authorities consider them to be an order of PROTOZOA. For others, they are classed as ALGAE due to the presence of CHLOROPLASTS in some genera. However, the origin of the chloroplasts is in dispute and they are missing from many of the genera. Euglenida lack a CELL WALL but are covered by a proteinaceous flexible coat, the pellicle, that allows the cell to change shape.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Did trypanosomatid parasites have photosynthetic ancestors?
    Brian S Leander
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Trends Microbiol 12:251-8. 2004
  2. ncbi Trypanosomatid biology and euglenozoan evolution: new insights and shifting paradigms revealed through genome sequencing
    Michael L Ginger
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Protist 156:377-92. 2005
  3. ncbi The complete chloroplast genome of the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans: evidence for independent origins of chlorarachniophyte and euglenid secondary endosymbionts
    Matthew B Rogers
    Botany Department, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 24:54-62. 2007
  4. ncbi Ectobiotic and endobiotic bacteria associated with Eutreptiella sp. isolated from Long Island Sound
    Rita C Kuo
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340, USA
    Protist 164:60-74. 2013
  5. ncbi Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rRNA secondary structure
    Birger Marin
    Botanisches Institut, Lehrstuhl I, Universitat zu Koln, Gyrhofstr 15, D 50931 Köln, Germany
    Protist 154:99-145. 2003
  6. ncbi Complete gene map of the plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic euglenoid flagellate Astasia longa
    G Gockel
    Botanisches Institut der Universitat Bonn, Germany
    Protist 151:347-51. 2000
  7. ncbi Systematics of primary osmotrophic euglenids: a molecular approach to the phylogeny of Distigma and Astasia (Euglenozoa)
    Ingo Busse
    Universitat Bielefeld, Fakultat fur Biologie, Postfach 100 131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:617-24. 2003
  8. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of phagotrophic, photomorphic and osmotrophic euglenoids by using the nuclear 18S rDNA sequence
    A N Müllner
    Vienna University, Department of Higher Plant Systematics and Evolution, Austria
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:783-91. 2001
  9. pmc The plastid genome of Eutreptiella provides a window into the process of secondary endosymbiosis of plastid in euglenids
    Stepánka Hrdá
    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Parasitology, Prague, Czech Republic
    PLoS ONE 7:e33746. 2012
  10. pmc Eukaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer gives rise to genome mosaicism in euglenids
    Shinichiro Maruyama
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Japan
    BMC Evol Biol 11:105. 2011

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications98

  1. ncbi Did trypanosomatid parasites have photosynthetic ancestors?
    Brian S Leander
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    Trends Microbiol 12:251-8. 2004
    ..Ultrastructural evidence suggests that chloroplasts arose relatively recently within a specific subgroup of euglenids and that trypanosomatids are not secondarily non-photosynthetic (plastids-recent hypothesis)...
  2. ncbi Trypanosomatid biology and euglenozoan evolution: new insights and shifting paradigms revealed through genome sequencing
    Michael L Ginger
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    Protist 156:377-92. 2005
  3. ncbi The complete chloroplast genome of the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans: evidence for independent origins of chlorarachniophyte and euglenid secondary endosymbionts
    Matthew B Rogers
    Botany Department, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 24:54-62. 2007
    ..The B. natans plastid is thus not closely related to that of Euglena, which suggests that plastids originated independently in these 2 groups and the Cabozoa hypothesis is false...
  4. ncbi Ectobiotic and endobiotic bacteria associated with Eutreptiella sp. isolated from Long Island Sound
    Rita C Kuo
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340, USA
    Protist 164:60-74. 2013
    ..Our study reveals a diverse microbiome associated with this euglenoid alga, offering a system for studying the roles of algae-bacteria associations...
  5. ncbi Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rRNA secondary structure
    Birger Marin
    Botanisches Institut, Lehrstuhl I, Universitat zu Koln, Gyrhofstr 15, D 50931 Köln, Germany
    Protist 154:99-145. 2003
    ..The sister clade of Phacus s. str. (mixed Euglena/Lepocinclis-clade) was identified as Lepocinclis Perty (emended)...
  6. ncbi Complete gene map of the plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic euglenoid flagellate Astasia longa
    G Gockel
    Botanisches Institut der Universitat Bonn, Germany
    Protist 151:347-51. 2000
    ..Transcripts of a number of genes were detected by Northern hybridisation. The ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit protein has been identified by immunoblotting...
  7. ncbi Systematics of primary osmotrophic euglenids: a molecular approach to the phylogeny of Distigma and Astasia (Euglenozoa)
    Ingo Busse
    Universitat Bielefeld, Fakultat fur Biologie, Postfach 100 131, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:617-24. 2003
    ..curvatum group are transferred into the new subgenus Parvonema...
  8. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of phagotrophic, photomorphic and osmotrophic euglenoids by using the nuclear 18S rDNA sequence
    A N Müllner
    Vienna University, Department of Higher Plant Systematics and Evolution, Austria
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:783-91. 2001
    ..Concerning the phagotrophic mode of nutrition, the data suggest that the feeding apparatus arose multiple times...
  9. pmc The plastid genome of Eutreptiella provides a window into the process of secondary endosymbiosis of plastid in euglenids
    Stepánka Hrdá
    Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Parasitology, Prague, Czech Republic
    PLoS ONE 7:e33746. 2012
    ..Our results show that the early secondary plastid of euglenids was much more susceptible to gene losses and endosymbiotic gene transfers than the established plastid, which is surprisingly resistant to changes in gene content...
  10. pmc Eukaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer gives rise to genome mosaicism in euglenids
    Shinichiro Maruyama
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Japan
    BMC Evol Biol 11:105. 2011
    ..However, the impact of endosymbiosis on the euglenophyte nuclear genome is not fully understood due to its complex nature as a 'hybrid' of a non-photosynthetic host cell and a secondary endosymbiont...
  11. ncbi The chloroplast genomes of the green algae Pyramimonas, Monomastix, and Pycnococcus shed new light on the evolutionary history of prasinophytes and the origin of the secondary chloroplasts of euglenids
    Monique Turmel
    Departement de Biochimie et de Microbiologie, Universite Laval, Québec Québec, Canada
    Mol Biol Evol 26:631-48. 2009
    ....
  12. ncbi A molecular study of euglenoid phylogeny using small subunit rDNA
    E W Linton
    Rutgers University, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Nelson Biological Laboratories, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 8082, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 46:217-23. 1999
    ..Additionally, the genus Euglena appears to be paraphyletic, with osmotrophic taxa, such as Astasia and Khawkinea, diverging independently within the clade containing the photosynthetic genus Euglena...
  13. ncbi Phylogenetic position and inter-relationships of the osmotrophic euglenids based on SSU rDNA data, with emphasis on the Rhabdomonadales (Euglenozoa)
    A Preisfeld
    Fakultat fur Biologie, Pflanzenmorphologie und Feinbau der Zelle, Universitat Bielefeld, Germany
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:751-8. 2001
    ..The inter-relationship of the three distinct euglenozoan taxa (euglenids, kinetoplastids and diplonemids) could not be convincingly resolved by this study...
  14. ncbi Evolution of distorted pellicle patterns in rigid photosynthetic euglenids (phacus dujardin)
    Heather J Esson
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z4
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 57:19-32. 2010
    ..Clustered patterns of pellicle strips in Phacus do not appear to be adaptively significant themselves; they evolved in association with the origin of cell flattening and cell rigidity, which may be adaptations to a planktonic lifestyle...
  15. ncbi Origin and fate of chloroplasts in the Euglenoida
    Birger Marin
    Protist 155:13-4. 2004
  16. ncbi Evolution of the chloroplast genome in photosynthetic euglenoids: a comparison of Eutreptia viridis and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta)
    Krystle E Wiegert
    Michigan State University, Department of Plant Biology, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Protist 163:832-43. 2012
    ..Further comparisons with the plastid genomes of closely related green algal taxa have provided additional support for the hypothesis that a Pyramimonas-like alga was the euglenoid chloroplast donor via secondary endosymbiosis...
  17. ncbi Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree
    T Cavalier-Smith
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 124, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 46:347-66. 1999
    ....
  18. ncbi Reconstructing euglenoid evolutionary relationships using three genes: nuclear SSU and LSU, and chloroplast SSU rDNA sequences and the description of Euglenaria gen. nov. (Euglenophyta)
    Eric W Linton
    Central Michigan University, Department of Biology, Mt Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
    Protist 161:603-19. 2010
    ..The monophyly of the remaining genera was supported by Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses. Combining datasets resolved the relationships among ten genera of photosynthetic euglenoids...
  19. ncbi A new divergent type of eukaryotic methionine adenosyltransferase is present in multiple distantly related secondary algal lineages
    Gabino F Sanchez-Perez
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada B3H 1X5
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 55:374-81. 2008
    ..We suggest a tentative model in which the origin of MATX is connected with the progression of secondary endosymbiosis...
  20. ncbi Phylogeny of phagotrophic euglenids (Euglenozoa) as inferred from hsp90 gene sequences
    Susana A Breglia
    Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Botany, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 54:86-92. 2007
    ..cantuscygni deviates from the currently accepted apomorphy-based definition of the kinetoplastid clade and highlights the necessity of detailed studies addressing the molecular nature of the euglenid and diplonemid mitochondrial genome...
  21. ncbi Triosephosphate isomerase genes in two trophic modes of euglenoids (euglenophyceae) and their phylogenetic analysis
    Gui Ling Sun
    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 55:170-7. 2008
    ..Therefore, either tim convergent evolution or lateral gene transfer (more probably) might have occurred between euglenoids and rhodophytes after the divergence of euglenoids with kinetoplastids...
  22. ncbi Description of Rhynchopus euleeides n. sp. (Diplonemea), a free-living marine euglenozoan
    Joannie Roy
    Centre Robert Cedergren, Bioinformatics and Genomics, Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1J4
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 54:137-45. 2007
    ..Morphological synapomorphies confirm the affiliation of the species with the genus Rhynchopus (Diplonemea, Euglenozoa). We discuss the characters that distinguish Rhynchopus from Diplonema corroborating the validity of the two genera...
  23. ncbi Protein phylogenies robustly resolve the deep-level relationships within Euglenozoa
    Alastair G B Simpson
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Halifax, Canada NS B3H 4J1
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 30:201-12. 2004
    ..The protein analyses also suggest that bodonids are paraphyletic, with trypanosomatids grouping with 'clade 2' and 'clade 3' bodonids to the exclusion of 'clade 1' bodonids...
  24. ncbi A maturase-encoding group III twintron is conserved in deeply rooted euglenoid species: are group III introns the chicken or the egg?
    N A Doetsch
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85721, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 15:76-86. 1998
    ....
  25. ncbi Characterization of trans-splicing in Euglenoids
    C Frantz
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes du CNRS, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France
    Curr Genet 37:349-55. 2000
    ..Phylogeny based on 5S rRNA sequences suggests that the species which have, or have had, chloroplasts (E. gracilis, P. curvicauda, C. acus) diverged early from the others...
  26. ncbi Comparative morphology of the euglenid pellicle. II. Diversity of strip substructure
    B S Leander
    Center for Advanced Ultrastructural Research, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 48:202-17. 2001
    ..Two strips of different morphology formed the repeating pellicular unit or doublet in four taxa. These doublets evolved convergently at least three times and may provide insights into developmental patterns of the cytoskeleton...
  27. ncbi Comparative morphology of the euglenid pellicle. I. Patterns of strips and pores
    B S Leander
    Center for Advanced Ultrastructural Research, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 47:469-79. 2000
    ..The patterns of pores may not only have phylogenetical and taxonomical value but may provide morphological markers for following strip maturation during cytoskeletal reproduction...
  28. ncbi A model for the morphogenesis of strip reduction patterns in phototrophic euglenids: evidence for heterochrony in pellicle evolution
    H J Esson
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 3529 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Evol Dev 8:378-88. 2006
    ..This process of whorl morphogenesis during asexual reproduction is consistent with known variation in pellicle strip patterns and suggests that heterochrony played a major role in the ultrastructural evolution of phototrophic euglenids...
  29. pmc Unique mitochondrial genome structure in diplonemids, the sister group of kinetoplastids
    William Marande
    Universite de Montreal, Robert Cedergren Centre for Bioinformatics and Genomics, Department of Biochemistry, 2900 Boulevard Edouard Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1137-46. 2005
    ..Taken together, the mitochondrial gene/genome structure of Diplonema is not only different from that of kinetoplastids but unique among eukaryotes as a whole...
  30. ncbi Toxicity of dimethoate on primary productivity of a lentic aquatic ecosystem: a microcosm approach
    R H Ratageri
    Environmental Biology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of Botany, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, India
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 76:373-80. 2006
  31. pmc A split and rearranged nuclear gene encoding the iron-sulfur subunit of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase in Euglenozoa
    Ryan Mr Gawryluk
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada
    BMC Res Notes 2:16. 2009
    ..Our results pose questions about the origin and timing of this novel gene arrangement and the structure and function of euglenozoan SdhB...
  32. pmc Sulfate assimilation in eukaryotes: fusions, relocations and lateral transfers
    Nicola J Patron
    School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    BMC Evol Biol 8:39. 2008
    ....
  33. ncbi Chromalveolates and the evolution of plastids by secondary endosymbiosis
    Patrick J Keeling
    Department of Botany, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 56:1-8. 2009
    ..Collectively, these data are most easily reconciled with a single origin of the chromalveolate plastids, although the phylogeny of chromalveolate host lineages (and potentially Rhizaria) remain to be reconciled with this plastid data...
  34. ncbi Temperature-dependent structural variability of RNAs: spliced leader RNAs and their evolutionary history
    Manja Marz
    Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Leipzig, Härtelstrasse 16 18, D 04107 Leipzig, Germany
    J Bioinform Comput Biol 8:1-17. 2010
    ..temperatures and considering energetically similar secondary structures, we observe striking similarities among Euglenida, Kinetoplastida, Dinophyceae, Cnidaria, Rotifera, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, and Tunicata that cannot be ..
  35. ncbi An updated view of kinetoplastid phylogeny using environmental sequences and a closer outgroup: proposal for a new classification of the class Kinetoplastea
    David Moreira
    UMR CNRS 8079, Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 360, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
    Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54:1861-75. 2004
    ..The classification of the species formerly included in the genus Bodo is also revised, with the amendment of this genus and the genus Parabodo and the creation of a new genus, Neobodo...
  36. ncbi Ultrastructure, life cycle and molecular phylogenetic position of a novel marine sand-dwelling cercozoan: Clautriavia biflagellata n. sp
    Chitchai Chantangsi
    Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Protist 161:133-47. 2010
    ....
  37. pmc Widespread positive selection in the photosynthetic Rubisco enzyme
    Maxim V Kapralov
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    BMC Evol Biol 7:73. 2007
    ..The purpose of our study was to evaluate how common is positive selection in Rubisco among the phototrophs and where in the Rubisco structure does positive selection occur...
  38. ncbi Macroevolution of complex cytoskeletal systems in euglenids
    Brian S Leander
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Departments of Botany and Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Bioessays 29:987-1000. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi [Potentially toxic and harmful phytoflagellates from the Mexican Pacific coasts]
    Ernesto Bravo-Sierra
    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Laboratorio de Diversidad y Ecología de Fitoplancton Marino, UNAM, Mexico, D F Apdo Postal 70 30504510, Mexico
    Rev Biol Trop 52:5-16. 2004
    ..The phyla Euglenophyta, Heterokontophyta and Haptophyta were found. They occur as plankton in oceanic and shallow coastal waters...
  40. ncbi Reconciling the bizarre inheritance of microtubules in complex (euglenid) microeukaryotes
    Naoji Yubuki
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Protoplasma 249:859-69. 2012
    ..The Euglenida is a very diverse group of single-celled eukaryotes unified by a complex cell surface called the "pellicle", ..
  41. ncbi Ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic position of Neometanema parovale sp. nov. (Neometanema gen. nov.), a Marine phagotrophic euglenid with skidding motility
    Won Je Lee
    Department of Urban Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Korea Electronic address
    Protist 165:452-72. 2014
    ..The skidding species in Heteronema are transferred to Neometanema gen. nov. (along with most species of Metanema Klebs, 1893), with KM051 described as Neometanema parovale sp. nov...
  42. pmc Cascades of convergent evolution: the corresponding evolutionary histories of euglenozoans and dinoflagellates
    Julius Lukes
    Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, and Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9963-70. 2009
    ....
  43. ncbi Morphological and molecular characterisation of Notosolenus urceolatus Larsen and Patterson 1990, a member of an understudied deep-branching euglenid group (petalomonads)
    Won Je Lee
    Department of Urban Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, 631 701, Korea
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 61:463-79. 2014
    ..urceolatus and P. cantuscygni (for example) are general for petalomonads. ..
  44. pmc Phylogenetic affiliation of SSU rRNA genes generated by massively parallel sequencing: new insights into the freshwater protist diversity
    Najwa Taib
    Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire Microorganismes Génome et Environnement, BP 10448, Clermont Ferrand, France
    PLoS ONE 8:e58950. 2013
    ..More precisely, new putative clades belonging to Mamiellophyceae, Foraminifera, Dictyochophyceae and Euglenida were detected...
  45. pmc Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Calkinsia aureus: cellular identity of a novel clade of deep-sea euglenozoans with epibiotic bacteria
    Naoji Yubuki
    Department of Botany and Zoology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    BMC Microbiol 9:16. 2009
    ..Improved understanding of these lineages is expected to shed considerable light onto the ultrastructure of prokaryote-eukaryote symbioses and the associated cellular innovations found within the Euglenozoa and beyond...
  46. ncbi Tracing patterns of chloroplast evolution in euglenoids: contributions from Colacium vesiculosum and Strombomonas acuminata (Euglenophyta)
    Krystle E Wiegert
    Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, 612 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:214-21. 2013
    ..Overall, the chloroplast genomes of these five species show an evolutionary trend toward increased intron number, a decrease in gene density, and substantial rearrangement of gene clusters...
  47. ncbi Ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic position of Heteronema scaphurum: a eukaryovorous euglenid with a cytoproct
    Susana A Breglia
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:107-20. 2013
    ..were eliminated in the form of faecal pellets; a cytoproct has not been reported in any other member of the Euglenida. Heteronema scaphurum also had a novel predatory mode of feeding...
  48. ncbi Encapsulation dehydration colligative cryoprotective strategies and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers to verify the identity and genetic stability of euglenoids following cryopreservation
    Keith Harding
    Plant Conservation Group, University of Abertay Dundee
    Cryo Letters 31:460-72. 2010
    ..AFLP changes were detected in cryoprotective treatments following LN exposure. Successive stages of the dehydration and desiccation treatments did not accumulate AFLP changes indicating these are random events...
  49. ncbi Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) from a eutrophic reservoir in Central Mexico
    Gloria Garduño Solórzano
    Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, UNAM Av de los Barrios No 1, Col Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla de Baz, Estado de Mexico, 54090
    J Environ Biol 32:463-71. 2011
    ....
  50. pmc Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida)
    Aika Yamaguchi
    The Department of Botany and Zoology, Beaty Biodiversity Research Center and Museum, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd, Vancouver, British ColumbiaV6T 1Z4, Canada
    BMC Evol Biol 12:29. 2012
    ..occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition...
  51. pmc Plant-like traits associated with metabolism of Trypanosoma parasites
    Veronique Hannaert
    Research Unit for Tropical Diseases and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology and Universite catholique de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1067-71. 2003
    ..They belong to the order of the Kinetoplastida and form, together with the Euglenida, the phylum Euglenozoa...
  52. pmc Evidence for transitional stages in the evolution of euglenid group II introns and twintrons in the Monomorphina aenigmatica plastid genome
    Jean Francois Pombert
    Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS ONE 7:e53433. 2012
    ..This late emergence was recently corroborated by the plastid genome sequences of the two basal euglenids, Eutreptiella gymnastica and Eutreptia viridis, which were found to contain fewer introns...
  53. ncbi Comparing the tolerance limits of selected bacterial and protozoan species to nickel in wastewater systems
    I Kamika
    Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Arcadia Campus, P Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
    Sci Total Environ 410:172-81. 2011
    ..The tolerance limit of all isolates was significantly dependent on the pH and the temperature. The study suggests that these isolates can be used for the bioremediation of nickel in industrial wastewater systems...
  54. ncbi Combining molecular data with classical morphology for uncultured phagotrophic euglenids (Excavata): a single-cell approach
    Gordon Lax
    Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schrödinger Straβe 14, 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:615-25. 2013
    ..Our experimental protocol provides a useful starting point for future analyses on euglenid biodiversity (including environmental sequence surveys), and their evolution and systematics. ..
  55. pmc Transcriptomic study reveals widespread spliced leader trans-splicing, short 5'-UTRs and potential complex carbon fixation mechanisms in the euglenoid Alga Eutreptiella sp
    Rita C Kuo
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e60826. 2013
    ..This first large-scale transcriptomic dataset for a euglenoid uncovers many potential novel genes and overall offers a valuable genetic resource for research on euglenoid algae...
  56. pmc Reverse engineering the euglenoid movement
    Marino Arroyo
    Laboratori de Càlcul Numèric, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya BarcelonaTech, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:17874-9. 2012
    ..Our results suggest new quantitative experiments, provide insight into the evolutionary history of euglenids, and suggest that the pellicle may serve as a model for engineered active surfaces with applications in microfluidics...
  57. ncbi Gene fragmentation: a key to mitochondrial genome evolution in Euglenozoa?
    Pavel Flegontov
    Biology Centre, Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, and Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia, 37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
    Curr Genet 57:225-32. 2011
    ....
  58. ncbi Parasites from farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus) and rheas (Rhea americana) in Europe
    F Ponce Gordo
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Pza Ramón y Cajal s n, Ciudad Universitaria s n, 28040, Madrid, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 107:137-60. 2002
    ..Eimeria sp. and/or Isospora sp., Entamoeba sp. of the one-nucleate and of the eight-nucleate mature cyst groups, Endolimax sp., Iodamoeba sp., Monocercomonas sp., Retortamonas sp., Giardia sp., Blastocystis sp. and euglenids)...
  59. ncbi Bacterivory by heterotrophic flagellates: community structure and feeding strategies
    Jens Boenigk
    Institute of Limnology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Mondsee
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:465-80. 2002
    ....
  60. ncbi Did trypanosomatid parasites contain a eukaryotic alga-derived plastid in their evolutionary past?
    Andrzej Bodył
    Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Taxonomy, Zoological Institute, University of Wrocław, Wrocław, Poland
    J Parasitol 96:465-75. 2010
    ..It is also possible that ancestors of the Trypanosomatidae initially possessed a primary plastid that later was replaced by a secondary or tertiary plastid...
  61. ncbi Ribosomal RNA genes in Euglena gracilis mitochondrial DNA: fragmented genes in a seemingly fragmented genome
    David F Spencer
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 1X5, Canada
    Mol Genet Genomics 285:19-31. 2011
    ....
  62. ncbi Plant-like proteins in protozoa, metazoa and fungi imply universal plastid endosymbiosis
    Shu Yuan
    College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, China
    Riv Biol 103:71-87. 2010
    ..Plastid endosymbiosis is a more general process than we originally thought, and may happen more than one time in one species...
  63. ncbi A single primer pair gives a specific ortholog amplicon in a wide range of Cyanobacteria and plastid-bearing organisms: applicability in inventory of reference material from collections and phylogenetic analysis
    E M Del Campo
    Department of Plant Biology, University of Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 57:1323-8. 2010
    ..capable of amplifying a broad range of organisms: Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta, Chlorarachniophyta, Cryptophyta, Euglenida, Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, Stramenopiles and Streptophyta including plants...
  64. ncbi Phylogenetic position of Rhynchopus sp. and Diplonema ambulator as indicated by analyses of euglenozoan small subunit ribosomal DNA
    I Busse
    Fakultat fur Biologie, Universitat Bielefeld, Postfach 100 131, 33501, Bielefeld, Germany
    Gene 284:83-91. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi When, how and why glycolysis became compartmentalised in the Kinetoplastea. A new look at an ancient organelle
    Melisa Gualdrón-López
    Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 74, postal box B1 74 01, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Int J Parasitol 42:1-20. 2012
    ..and have recently also been detected in a representative of the Diplonemida, but they are absent from the Euglenida. Glycosomes therefore probably originated in a free-living, common ancestor of the Kinetoplastea and Diplonemida...
  66. ncbi Trends in the evolution of the euglenid pellicle
    B S Leander
    Center for Ultrastructural Research, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA
    Evolution 55:2215-35. 2001
    ....
  67. ncbi Astasin, a novel cytotoxic carbohydrate-conjugated ergosterol from the colorless euglenoid, Astasia longa
    K Kaya
    Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1255:201-4. 1995
    ..0 micrograms astasin/ml medium, and the cell growth was inhibited completely and 50% of the initial cells was killed at 10.0 micrograms astasin/ml medium...
  68. ncbi The Glu-modification of alpha-tubulin in the feeding apparatus of the primitive flagellate Entosiphon sulcatum is only apparent after detergent treatment
    W Mütze
    Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Lehrstuhl für Zellmorphologie, Bochum, Germany
    Z Naturforsch C 53:125-34. 1998
    ....
  69. ncbi Trans-splicing and cis-splicing in the colourless Euglenoid, Entosiphon sulcatum
    C Ebel
    Friedrich Miescher Institut, P O Box 2543, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    Curr Genet 35:542-50. 1999
    ..sulcatum beta-tubulin gene has the intron borders GU-AG, typical of spliceosome-matured introns which have not yet been found in E. gracilis. The probable origins of trans- and cis-mechanisms in Euglenoids are discussed...
  70. ncbi Snow algae of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, and High Atlas mountains of Morocco
    B Duval
    Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA
    Int Microbiol 2:39-42. 1999
    ..This is the first report of snow algae from the Sierra Nevada mountains of Spain and from the Afro-alpine environment...
  71. ncbi Effects of hypergravity on the photosynthetic flagellate, Euglena gracilis
    M Lebert
    Institut fur Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie der Friedrich Alexander Universitat, Erlangen
    J Plant Physiol 150:153-9. 1997
    ..At high accelerations the cells became exclusively positive gravitactic. The obtained results are discussed on the basis of the current model explaining gravitaxis...
  72. ncbi Behavioral mutants of Euglena gracilis: functional and spectroscopic characterization
    M Lebert
    Institut fur Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Friedrich Alexander Universitat, Erlangen, Germany
    J Plant Physiol 151:188-95. 1997
    ..gracilis, as well as strain FB were both negative and positive gravitactic at all culture ages tested. This result confirmed the hypothesis that the paraxonemal body is not directly involved in graviperception...
  73. ncbi Physiological characterization of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis and Astasia longa studied on sounding rocket flights
    P R Richter
    Institut fur Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie der Friedrich Alexander Universitat, Erlangen, Germany
    Adv Space Res 27:983-8. 2001
    ..Changes in the membrane potential and the cAMP concentration are most likely subsequent elements in a signal transduction chain, which results in reorientation strokes of the flagellum...
  74. ncbi The microbial community of Ophrydium versatile colonies: endosymbionts, residents, and tenants
    B Duval
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003, USA
    Symbiosis 18:181-210. 1995
    ..The growth habit in the photic zone and loose level of individuation of macroscopic Ophrydium masses are interpretable as extant analogs of certain Ediacaran biota: colonial protists in the Vendian fossil record...
  75. pmc A possible role for short introns in the acquisition of stroma-targeting peptides in the flagellate Euglena gracilis
    Matej Vesteg
    Institute of Cell Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, Bratislava, Slovakia
    DNA Res 17:223-31. 2010
    ..Thus introns and exon-shuffling could have had an important role in the acquisition of chloroplast targeting signals in E. gracilis. The results are consistent with a late origin of photosynthetic euglenids...
  76. ncbi Calcium is involved in the gravitactic orientation in colorless flagellates
    P Richter
    Institut fur Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Friedrich Alexander Universitat, Erlangen, Germany
    J Plant Physiol 158:689-97. 2001
    ..The results strongly reemphasize the working model of gravitaxis which is based on the activation of mechano-sensitive ion channels as one of the primary events in signal perception...
  77. ncbi Food vacuole contents in the ciliate, Balantidium jocularum (Balantididae), a symbiont in the intestine of the surgeonfish, Naso tonganus (Acanthuridae)
    J Norman Grim
    Department of Biological Sciences, Box 5640, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, USA
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:269-74. 2006
    ..The results argue for non-selective ingestion of food and selective digestion; hence, somewhat inefficient food processing...
  78. ncbi Performance evaluation of a simple wastewater treatment system comprised by UASB reactor, shallow polishing ponds and coarse rock filter
    Marcos Von Sperling
    Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Av do Contorno 842 7 andar, 30110 060, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
    Water Sci Technol 58:1313-9. 2008
    ..The system is completely unmechanized and has a relatively small total hydraulic retention time (less than 13 days), compared with most natural treatment processes. No sludge removal from the ponds and filter has been necessary so far...
  79. ncbi Michajlowastasia nom. nov. for the parasitic euglenoid genus Parastasia Michajłow, 1972 (Euglenozoa: Euglenoidina: Astasiidae)
    Frank Thorsten Krell
    Department of Zoology, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, 2001 Colorado Boulevard, Denver, CO 80205 5798, USA
    Syst Parasitol 71:49-52. 2008
    ..A new name, Michajlowastasia nom. nov., is introduced as a replacement name for the pre-occupied euglenoid genus name Parastasia Michajłow, 1972 (nec Westwood, 1841). Eighteen species-group names are referred to this new generic name...
  80. pmc Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a marine interstitial tetraflagellate with putative endosymbionts: Auranticordis quadriverberis n. gen. et sp. (Cercozoa)
    Chitchai Chantangsi
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
    BMC Microbiol 8:123. 2008
    ..Improved knowledge of cercozoan diversity is expected to help resolve major branches in the tree of eukaryotes and demonstrate important cellular innovations for understanding eukaryote evolution...
  81. ncbi Macroevolution via secondary endosymbiosis: a Neo-Goldschmidtian view of unicellular hopeful monsters and Darwin's primordial intermediate form
    U Kutschera
    Institute of Biology, University of Kassel, Heinrich Plett Strasse 40, 34109, Kassel, Germany
    Theory Biosci 127:277-89. 2008
    ....
  82. ncbi Cellular polyamines of phototrophs and heterotrophs belonging to the lower eukaryotic phyla Cercozoa, Euglenozoa, Heterokonta and Metamonada
    Koei Hamana
    School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan
    J Gen Appl Microbiol 54:135-40. 2008
  83. pmc Origins of a cyanobacterial 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in plastid-lacking eukaryotes
    Shinichiro Maruyama
    Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113 0033, Japan
    BMC Evol Biol 8:151. 2008
    ....
  84. ncbi Species diversity of heterotrophic flagellates in White Sea littoral sites
    Denis Victorovich Tikhonenkov
    Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, Yaroslavskaya obl 152 742, Russia
    Eur J Protistol 42:191-200. 2006
    ..sampling effort" is well fitted by equation S=21.17N(0.50) and unsaturated, which indicates that more intensive investigations of the heterotrophic flagellates in the White Sea should be expected to reveal more species...
  85. ncbi Unusual mitochondrial genome structures throughout the Euglenozoa
    Joannie Roy
    Centre Robert Cedergren, Bioinformatics and Genomics, Departement de Biochimie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3 T 1J4
    Protist 158:385-96. 2007
    ..e., Kinetoplastea, Euglenida and Diplonemea...
  86. ncbi Correlating toxicities of organic compounds to select protozoa using the Abraham model
    Kaci R Bowen
    Department of Chemistry, P O Box 305070, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 5070, USA
    Sci Total Environ 369:109-18. 2006
    ....
  87. ncbi Algal community used for assessment of water quality of Haranbaree dam and Mosam river of Maharashtra
    S N Nandan
    PG Department of Botany, S S V P S s L K Dr P R Ghogrey Science College, Dhule 424 005, India
    J Environ Biol 26:223-7. 2005
    ..Out of 34 pollution tolerant genera, 27 genera and 33 genera were observed at the dam and river sites respectively. In present study 22 pollution tolerant species are observed at dam and river sites...
  88. ncbi Physiological parameters of gravitaxis in the flagellate Euglena gracilis obtained during a parabolic flight campaign
    Peter R Richter
    Institut fur Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Friedrich Alexander Universitat, Erlangen, Germany
    J Plant Physiol 159:181-90. 2002
    ..8 x g(n), a weak repolarization in microgravity followed by a rapid repolarization in the subsequent 1 x g(n) phase. The results show good coincidence with observations of recent terrestrial and space experiments...
  89. ncbi Complex array of endobionts in Petalomonas sphagnophila, a large heterotrophic euglenid protist from Sphagnum-dominated peatlands
    Eunsoo Kim
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
    ISME J 4:1108-20. 2010
    ..Our study adds significantly to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic protist-bacterial associations in nature...
  90. pmc The endosymbiotic origin, diversification and fate of plastids
    Patrick J Keeling
    Botany Department, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of British Columbia, 3529 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:729-48. 2010
    ..The many twists and turns of plastid evolution each represent major evolutionary transitions, and each offers a glimpse into how genomes evolve and how cells integrate through gene transfers and protein trafficking...
  91. ncbi [Various characteristics of the evolution of endoparasites]
    W Michajłow
    Instytut Parazytologii im W Stefańskiego PAN, Warszawa
    Wiad Parazytol 37:317-20. 1991
    ..These changes can be significantly limited, as well. Phylogenetic changes of Euglenida--intestinal parasites of Copepoda--are considerably limited, even in comparison with the scale of changes of ..
  92. ncbi Discovery of a group I intron in the SSU rDNA of Ploeotia costata (Euglenozoa)
    Ingo Busse
    Fakultat fur Biologie, Universitat Bielefeld, Universitatsstr 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
    Protist 154:57-69. 2003
    ..S516. Nevertheless, degenerated ORFs with His-Cys box motifs in closely related intron sequences indicate that homing may have occurred during evolution of the investigated intron group...
  93. ncbi On the origin of chloroplasts, import mechanisms of chloroplast-targeted proteins, and loss of photosynthetic ability - review
    M Vesteg
    Institute of Cell Biology, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia
    Folia Microbiol (Praha) 54:303-21. 2009
    ..Nevertheless, some eukaryotes could have lost chloroplast compartment completely...
  94. ncbi Babesia bovis: a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of plastid-encoded genes supports green algal origin of apicoplasts
    Audrey O T Lau
    Program in Genomics, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, School for Global Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 7040, USA
    Exp Parasitol 123:236-43. 2009
    ..The results also substantiate earlier findings that plastids found in Heterokonts such as Odontella and Thalassiosira were derived from a separate secondary endosymbiotic event likely originating from a red algal lineage...
  95. pmc Maturation of the unusual single-cysteine (XXXCH) mitochondrial c-type cytochromes found in trypanosomatids must occur through a novel biogenesis pathway
    James W A Allen
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
    Biochem J 383:537-42. 2004
    ..Our genomic and biochemical studies provide very persuasive evidence that the trypanosomatid mitochondrial cytochromes c are matured by a novel biogenesis system...
  96. pmc Distribution and phylogeny of EFL and EF-1alpha in Euglenozoa suggest ancestral co-occurrence followed by differential loss
    Gillian H Gile
    Department of Botany, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e5162. 2009
    ..However, differential loss may play a role in EFL evolution, and this possibility has been less widely discussed...
  97. ncbi Dinoflagellate, Euglenid, or Cercomonad? The ultrastructure and molecular phylogenetic position of Protaspis grandis n. sp
    Mona Hoppenrath
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Departments of Botany and Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Eukaryot Microbiol 53:327-42. 2006
    ..Problems within the genus Cryothecomonas are highlighted as well, and the missing data needed to resolve ambiguities between the two genera are clarified...
  98. pmc Photoreceptor for curling behavior in Peranema trichophorum and evolution of eukaryotic rhodopsins
    Jureepan Saranak
    Physics Department, Syracuse University, 201 Physics Building, Syracuse, NY 13244 1130, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 4:1605-12. 2005
    ..This property seems universal among the Euglenozoa, Plant, and Fungus kingdom rhodopsins. The rhodopsins of animals have yet to be studied in this respect. The photoresponse appears to be mediated by Ca2+ influx...