Genomes and Genes
computer assisted numerical analysis
Summary: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
Publications242 found, 100 shown here
- Spatiotemporal motion boundary detection and motion boundary velocity estimation for tracking moving objects with a moving camera: a level sets PDEs approach with concurrent camera motion compensationRosario Feghali
INRS EMT, Montreal, QC, Canada
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1473-90. 2004..Velocities on motion boundaries can be estimated from geometrical properties of the motion boundary. Several examples of experimental verification are given using synthetic and real-image sequences...
- Decoupling dynamical systems for pathway identification from metabolic profilesEberhard O Voit
Department of Biometry and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
Bioinformatics 20:1670-81. 2004..The retrieval of this information requires a combination of computational methods and mathematical models, which are typically represented as systems of ordinary differential equations...
- Novel metaheuristic for parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamic biological systemsMaria Rodriguez-Fernandez
Process Engineering Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas C S I C, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Vigo, Spain
BMC Bioinformatics 7:483. 2006..Our goal here was to further reduce the computational effort without loosing robustness...
- Structural information content of networks: graph entropy based on local vertex functionalsMatthias Dehmer
Institute of Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8 10, A 1040 Vienna, Austria
Comput Biol Chem 32:131-8. 2008..In this paper we present numerical results for the graph entropy of chemical graphs and discuss resulting properties...
- Valveless pumping in a fluid-filled closed elastic tube-system: one-dimensional theory with experimental validationJ T Ottesen
Department of Mathematics and Physics, P O Box 260, Roskilde University, Denmark
J Math Biol 46:309-32. 2003..Frequencies at which the mean flow change direction are predicted numerically as well as analytically and the two results are compared...
- Markov random field models for directional field and singularity extraction in fingerprint imagesSarat C Dass
Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1358-67. 2004..The best rates of spurious detection and missed singularities given by the algorithm are 4.9% and 7.1%, respectively, based on the NIST 4 database...
- A regularized curvature flow designed for a selective shape restorationDebora Gil
Computer Vision Center, Barcelona, Spain
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1444-58. 2004..We empirically prove that our approach is the technique that achieves the best compromise between image quality and evolution stabilization...
- Statistical modeling of complex backgrounds for foreground object detectionLiyuan Li
Institute for Infocomm Research I2R, Singapore
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1459-72. 2004..Good results of foreground detection were obtained. Quantitative evaluation and comparison with the existing method show that the proposed method provides much improved results...
- Visual tracking and recognition using appearance-adaptive models in particle filtersShaohua Kevin Zhou
University of Maryland, College Park, USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1491-506. 2004..For recognition purposes, we model the appearance changes between frames and gallery images by constructing the intra- and extrapersonal spaces. Accurate recognition is achieved when confronted by pose and view variations...
- Polygonal and polyhedral contour reconstruction in computed tomographyCharles Soussen
Laboratoire des Signaux et Systèmes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, SUPELEC, Gif sur Yvette, France
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1507-23. 2004..Then, we investigate the 3-D extension that requires technical adaptations. Simulation results illustrate the performance of polygonal and polyhedral reconstruction algorithms in terms of quality and computation time...
- A multiplicative regularization approach for deblurring problemsAria Abubakar
Schlumberger Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT 06877, USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1524-32. 2004..Numerical testing shows that the proposed algorithm works effectively and efficiently in various practical applications...
- Unsupervised learning of a finite mixture model based on the Dirichlet distribution and its applicationNizar Bouguila
Departement d informatique, Universite de Sherbrooke, QC, Canada
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1533-43. 2004....
- Efficient computation of the Hutchinson metric between digitized imagesVassileios Drakopoulos
Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, Theoretical Informatics, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis 157 84, Athens, Greece
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1581-8. 2004..To test the performance of our method, we apply it to compare pairs of fractal objects, as well as to compare real-world images with the corresponding reconstructed ones...
- Dense motion estimation using regularization constraints on local parametric modelsIoannis Patras
Intelligent Sensory Information Systems Group, Computer Science Institute, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:1432-43. 2004..Experimental results show that the proposed method deals successfully with motions large in magnitude, motion discontinuities, and produces accurate piecewise-smooth motion fields...
- Contour-based object tracking with occlusion handling in video acquired using mobile camerasAlper Yilmaz
School of Computer Science, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1531-6. 2004..Shape priors consist of shape level sets and are used to recover the missing object regions during occlusion. We demonstrate the performance of our method on real sequences with and without object occlusions...
- Multivariate image analysis in biomedicineTim W Nattkemper
Applied Neuroinformatics Group, Faculty of Technology, Bielefeld University, P O Box 100131, D 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
J Biomed Inform 37:380-91. 2004..The paper concludes with summarizing open problems in MVI analysis and remarks upon the future development of biomedical MVI analysis...
- Effects of classifier structures and training regimes on integrated segmentation and recognition of handwritten numeral stringsCheng lin Liu
Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd, 1 280 Higashi Koigakubo, Kokubunji shi, Tokyo 185 8601, Japan
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1395-407. 2004..The best results were obtained using a support vector classifier, but the neural classifiers and discriminative density models show better trade-off between accuracy and computational overhead...
- Image distortion analysis using polynomial series expansionPaul M Baggenstoss
Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI 02841, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1438-51. 2004..The approach is based on a polynomial series expansion using matrix powers of linear transformation matrices. The technique has applications in pattern recognition in the presence of distortions...
- Statistical region mergingRichard Nock
Universite Antilles Guyane, Département Scientifique Inter facultaire GRIMAAG Lab, B P 7209, 97278 Schoelcher, Martinique, France
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1452-8. 2004..Experiments on gray-level and color images, obtained with a short readily available C-code, display the quality of the segmentations obtained...
- Robust adaptive-scale parametric model estimation for computer visionHanzi Wang
Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1459-74. 2004..We also apply ASSC to two fundamental computer vision tasks: range image segmentation and robust fundamental matrix estimation. Experiments show very promising results...
- Effective multiresolution arc segmentation: algorithms and performance evaluationJiqiang Song
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N T, Hong Kong SAR, P R China
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1491-506. 2004..The evaluation result demonstrates the stable performance and the significant improvement on processing large arcs/circles of the MAS method...
- A flexible similarity measure for 3D shapes recognitionAntonio Adán
Departamento de I E E y Automática, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1507-20. 2004..Finally, we show the applicability of our method presenting experimentation for recognition on noise and occlusion conditions in complex scenes...
- Depth estimation and image restoration using defocused stereo pairsA N Rajagopalan
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1521-5. 2004....
- A statistical model for contours in imagesFrancois Destrempes
Département d informatique et de recherche opérationnelle, C P 6128, Succ Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3C 3J7
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:626-38. 2004....
- A POCS-based graph matching algorithmBarend J van Wyk
French South African Technical Institute in Electronics, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1526-30. 2004..Results indicate that the presented algorithm is robust and compares favorably to other well-known algorithms...
- A simple approach for point-based object capturing and renderingMiguel Sainz
School of Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine 92697, USA
IEEE Comput Graph Appl 24:24-33. 2004
- Image-based rendering of range data with estimated depth uncertaintyChristian Hofsetz
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil
IEEE Comput Graph Appl 24:34-42. 2004
- Thresholding in edge detection: a statistical approachRishi R Rakesh
American Express, Gurgaon, India
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:927-36. 2004..However, the values of the input parameters providing the appreciable results in the proposed detector are found to be more stable than other edge detectors and possess statistical interpretation...
- A model-based method for the computation of fingerprints' orientation fieldJie Zhou
Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
IEEE Trans Image Process 13:821-35. 2004..A further experiment shows that the performance of a whole fingerprint recognition system can be improved by applying this algorithm instead of previous orientation estimation methods...
- Analytical form for a Bayesian wavelet estimator of images using the Bessel K form densitiesJalal M Fadili
Image Processing Group GREYC CNRS UMR 6072 ENSICAEN 6, 14050 Caen, France
IEEE Trans Image Process 14:231-40. 2005..Finally, a comparative study is carried out to show the effectiveness of our denoiser which clearly outperforms the classical shrinkage or thresholding wavelet-based techniques...
- Flattening maps for the visualization of multibranched vesselsLei Zhu
Schools of Biomedical and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
IEEE Trans Med Imaging 24:191-8. 2005..This approach employs the theory of optimal mass transport. Furthermore, a new way of extracting center lines for vessel fly-throughs is provided...
- Reflectance from images: a model-based approach for human facesMartin Fuchs
Max Planck Institut für Informatik, Stuhlsatzenhausweg 85, 66123 Saarbrucken, Germany
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 11:296-305. 2005..For each of the surface points, the diffuse component of the BRDF is locally refined, which provides high detail. We present results for multiple analytical BRDF models, rendered at novel orientations and lighting conditions...
- Learning from examples in the small sample case: face expression recognitionGuodong Guo
Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 35:477-88. 2005..Finally, each algorithm is analyzed and a new categorization of these algorithms is given, especially for learning from examples in the small sample case...
- Kernel pooled local subspaces for classificationPeng Zhang
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 35:489-502. 2005..The experimental results using several data sets demonstrate the effectiveness and performance superiority of the kernel-pooled subspace method over competing methods such as KPCA and GDA in some classification problems...
- Self-organizing maps for learning the edit costs in graph matchingMichel Neuhaus
Department of Computer Science, University of Bern, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 35:503-14. 2005..The learning procedure is demonstrated on two different applications involving line drawing graphs and graphs representing diatoms, respectively...
- Robust fusion of uncertain informationHaifeng Chen
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 35:578-86. 2005..The robust data fusion algorithm was successfully applied to two computer vision problems: estimating the multiple affine transformations, and range image segmentation...
- Bayesian algorithms for simultaneous structure from motion estimation of multiple independently moving objectsGang Qian
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 14:94-109. 2005..Both algorithms have been tested on synthetic and real-image sequences. Improved results have been achieved...
- Statistical processing of large image sequencesF Khellah
Department of Computer Science, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
IEEE Trans Image Process 14:80-93. 2005..Our approach provides an efficient, stable, positive-definite model which is consistent with the given correlation structure. Thus, the methods of this paper may find application in modeling and single-frame estimation...
- Tensor voting for image correction by global and local intensity alignmentJiaya Jia
Department of Computer Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 27:36-50. 2005....
- A noniterative greedy algorithm for multiframe point correspondenceKhurram Shafique
School of Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Computer Science Bldg No 54, 4000 Central Florida Blvd Orlando, FL 32816, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 27:51-65. 2005..Experiments with real and synthetic data over a wide range of scenarios and system parameters are presented to validate the claims about the performance of the proposed algorithm...
- Iconic memory-based omnidirectional route panorama navigationYasushi Yagi
The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8 1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567 0047 Japan
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 27:78-87. 2005....
- An information fusion framework for robust shape trackingXiang Sean Zhou
Integrated Data Systems Department, Siemens Corporate Research, 755 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 27:115-29. 2005..Due to the complete treatment of heteroscedastic uncertainties, the strong model adaptation, and the coupled tracking of double-contours, robust performance is observed even on the most challenging cases...
- Separating reflection components based on chromaticity and noise analysisRobby T Tan
Department of Computer Science, The University of Tokyo, 3rd Dept Ikeuchi Laboratory, 4 6 1 Komba, Meguro ku, Tokyo 153 8505, Japan
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1373-9. 2004..Unlike existing methods, the proposed method can separate the reflection components robustly for any kind of surface roughness and light direction...
- Automatic construction of active appearance models as an image coding problemSimon Baker
The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1380-4. 2004..In this paper, we repose the problem as an energy-minimizing image coding problem and propose an efficient gradient-descent algorithm to solve it...
- Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in videoSohail Nadimi
Center for Research in Intelligent Systems, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1079-87. 2004..These results show that our approach is robust to widely different background and foreground materials, and illuminations...
- Approximating filtered scale-variant signalsAlan Conrad Bovik
Laboratory for Image and Video Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 1084, USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 14:23-35. 2005..Finally, we find application of the developed theory to defoveation of images, deblurring of shift-variant blurs, and shift-variant edge detection...
- Conditional filters for image sequence-based tracking--application to point trackingElise Arnaud
IRISA, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes, France
IEEE Trans Image Process 14:63-79. 2005..These conditional trackers significantly improve results in some general situations. In particular, they allow for dealing with noisy sequences, abrupt changes of trajectories, occlusions, and cluttered background...
- Comments on "fundamental limits of reconstruction-based superresolution algorithms under local translation"Liwei Wang
Center for Information Sciences School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 28:846; discussion 847. 2006..Fundamental limits of reconstruction-based superresolution were proposed in . In this note, we point out that their proof is incomplete...
- Principal geodesic analysis for the study of nonlinear statistics of shapeP Thomas Fletcher
Medical Image Display and Analysis Group, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
IEEE Trans Med Imaging 23:995-1005. 2004..We demonstrate its use in describing the variability of medially-defined anatomical objects. Results of applying this framework on a population of hippocampi in a schizophrenia study are presented...
- Affine invariant features from the trace transformMaria Petrou
School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:30-44. 2004..We demonstrate the usefulness of the constructed image descriptors in retrieving images from an image database and compare it with relevant state-of-the-art object retrieval methods...
- The image foresting transform: theory, algorithms, and applicationsAlexandre X Falcao
Institute of Computing, University of Campinas, Av Albert Einstein, 1251, CEP 13084 851, Campinas, SP, Brasil
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:19-29. 2004..We also discuss implementation issues and illustrate the use of the IFT in a few applications...
- The use of force histograms for affine-invariant relative position descriptionPascal Matsakis
Department of Computing and Information Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON NIG 2W1, Canada
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1-18. 2004..If they are not, the affinity that best approximates the unknown transformation can be retrieved, and the quality of the approximation assessed...
- Fast k-nearest neighbor classification using cluster-based treesBin Zhang
Departments of Human Genetics and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 7088, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:525-8. 2004..The algorithm is evaluated through extensive experiments over standard NIST and MNIST databases...
- An eigenspace projection clustering method for inexact graph matchingTerry Caelli
Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2H1
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:515-9. 2004..Shock graph-based shape matching is used to illustrate the model and a more objective method for evaluating the approach using random graphs is explored with encouraging results...
- Multiple light source detectionChristos Savvas Bouganis
EEE Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BT, UK
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:509-14. 2004..The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust and that it gives substantially improved accuracy...
- Layered motion segmentation and depth ordering by tracking edgesPaul Smith
Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:479-94. 2004..The results from over 30 sequences (demonstrating both two and three motions) are presented and discussed...
- Investigating Hidden Markov Models' capabilities in 2D shape classificationManuele Bicego
Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita di Verona, Ca Vignal 2, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:281-6. 2004..The results of tests on different data sets show that the proposed system is able to accurately classify objects that were translated, rotated, occluded, or deformed by shearing, also in the presence of noise...
- Estimating degradation model parameters using neighborhood pattern distributions: an optimization approachTapas Kanungo
IBM Almanden Research Center, San Jose, CA 95120, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:520-4. 2004..We use the p-value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test as the measure of similarity between the two neighborhood pattern distributions. We show results of our algorithm on degraded document images...
- Stereo reconstruction from multiperspective panoramasYin Li
Computer Science Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:45-62. 2004..Experiments show that our algorithms are capable of producing comparable high quality depth maps which can be used for applications such as view interpolation...
- Smart nonlinear diffusion: a probabilistic approachYufang Bao
Radiology Department, University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:63-72. 2004..Substantiating examples in image enhancement and segmentation are provided...
- Learning to detect objects in images via a sparse, part-based representationShivani Agarwal
Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 201 N Goodwin Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:1475-90. 2004..A secondary focus of this paper is to highlight these issues and to develop rigorous evaluation standards for the object detection problem. A critical evaluation of our approach under the proposed standards is presented...
- Fundamental limits of reconstruction-based superresolution algorithms under local translationZhouchen Lin
Microsoft Research, Asia, 5th Floor, Sigma Building, Zhichun Road No 49, Haidian District, Beijing, 100080, P R China
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:83-97. 2004..Moreover, we determine the number of low-resolution images that are sufficient to achieve the limit. Both real and synthetic experiments are carried out to verify our analysis...
- Online handwritten script recognitionAnoop M Namboodiri
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:124-30. 2004..The classification accuracy improves to 95 percent as the number of words in the test sample is increased to five, and to 95.5 percent for complete text lines consisting of an average of seven words...
- Reactive control of zoom while fixating using perspective and affine camerasBen Tordoff
Active Vision Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 26:98-112. 2004..The various ways are compared and the best used on real imagery captured from an active camera fitted with a controllable zoom lens in both look-move and continuous operation...
- Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy childrenMarcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo
Departamento de Diagnóstico Oral, Laboratório de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 45:249-57. 2003..The whole-cell protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE associated with computer-assisted numerical analysis may provide additional criteria for the taxonomic and epidemiological studies of C. albicans...
- The search for synonyms among streptomycetes by using SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins. Emendation of the species Streptomyces aurantiacus, Streptomyces cacaoi subsp. cacaoi, Streptomyces caeruleus and Streptomyces violaceusB Lanoot
BCCM LMG Bacteria Collection, Gent, Belgium
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:823-9. 2002....
- Multisensor image registration via implicit similarityYosi Keller
Department of Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8283, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 28:794-801. 2006..The scheme is especially suitable when one of the images is of considerably better quality than the other (noise, blur, etc.). We demonstrate these properties via experiments on real multisensor image sets...
- GrouseFlocks: steerable exploration of graph hierarchy spaceDaniel Archambault
Department of Computer Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 14:900-13. 2008..These selections can be made manually or based on patterns in the attribute data provided with the graph. It provides feedback to the user within seconds, allowing interactive exploration of this space...
- Effects of geometric head model perturbations on the EEG forward and inverse problemsNicolas von Ellenrieder
Laboratorio de Electrónica Industrial, Control e Instrumentación, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 53:421-9. 2006..Thus, the results suggest that an extremely detailed model of the head may be unnecessary when solving the EEG inverse problem...
- An extension of the Beretta-Kuang model of viral diseasesIvo Siekmann
Institut fur Umweltsystemforschung, Universitat Osnabruck, Germany
Math Biosci Eng 5:549-65. 2008..The extended model keeps the structure of the original model. This makes it possible to estimate the growth parameters of the viruses for a given parametrisation of the Beretta-Kuang model...
- A discovery of new features of gastropod local field potentials by application of wavelet toolsAtsuko Schütt
Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0240, USA
J Neurosci Methods 119:89-104. 2002..They can also characterize a change in the neuroelectrical state in terms of entropy...
- Optimization and validation of a rapid high-resolution T1-w 3D FLASH water excitation MRI sequence for the quantitative assessment of articular cartilage volume and thicknessC Glaser
Institut fur Klinische Radiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universität München Marchioninistr 15, D 81377 Munich, Germany
Magn Reson Imaging 19:177-85. 2001..The reduced acquisition time (50% of FS) enables routine clinical application and thus may contribute to a broader assessment of osteoarthritis...
- Application of Taguchi robust design method to SAW mass sensing deviceDer Ho Wu
Microsystems Simulation and Design Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu Hsiang, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC 91207
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 52:2403-10. 2005..The simulation results for the resonant frequency and wave mode analysis are all shown to be in good agreement with the values predicted theoretically...
- An incremental approach to genetic-algorithms-based classificationSheng Uei Guan
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 35:227-39. 2005..Possible applications for continuous incremental training and feature selection are also discussed...
- A mathematical model for quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosaJ D Dockery
Department of Mathematics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59718, USA
Bull Math Biol 63:95-116. 2001..Using this model we show that quorum sensing works because of a biochemical switch between two stable steady solutions, one with low levels of autoinducer and one with high levels of autoinducer...
- Grasping Weber's illusion: the effect of receptor density differences on grasping and matchingHelen A Anema
Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Cogn Neuropsychol 25:951-67. 2008..We suggest that the larger grip aperture when grasping objects on the arm were due to an increase in safety margin as a response to greater uncertainty about the object dimensions due to reduced receptor density...
- Wheezing Lung Sounds Analysis with adaptive local trigonometric transformE Ademovic
Laboratoire des Signaux et Systèmes, CNRS Univ Paris Sud and GdR PRC ISIS, ESE, Gif sur Yvette, France
Technol Health Care 6:41-51. 1998..This analysis provides an optimal representation of the signal in the time-frequency domain with a lattice which is adapted in time. In our work, the parameterization of the ALTD is studied for the detection of wheezing phenomena...
- Cardiac mechanoenergetics replicated by cross-bridge modelM Vendelin
Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn Technical University, Estonia
Ann Biomed Eng 28:629-40. 2000..e., cross bridges that detach without hydrolyzing ATP molecule, is relatively small and (2) ATP consumption rate profile within a beat and the amount of the passenger cross bridges depend on the contraction protocol...
- An optimal nonlinear extension of linear filters based on distributed arithmeticDavid Akopian
Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 14:616-23. 2005..Different versions of these filters are also considered for an impulsive noise removal, faster processing, and filtering using large input data windows...
- [Numerical modeling of ultrasound thermotherapy]S Ginter
Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik und Elektronik Akustik, Universitat Karlsruhe, Deutschland
Biomed Tech (Berl) 47:261-4. 2002..The temperature dependence of parameters is integrated in the complete model. Simulation results demonstrate the potentialities of this simulation tool to analyze and optimize thermotherapy...
- Finite-difference schemes for reaction-diffusion equations modeling predator-prey interactions in MATLABMarcus R Garvie
School of Computational Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 4120, USA
Bull Math Biol 69:931-56. 2007..Users can download, edit, and run the codes from http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgarvie/, to investigate the key dynamical properties of spatially extended predator-prey interactions...
- A hybrid fuzzy logic/constraint satisfaction problem approach to automatic decision making in simulation game modelsSverre Braathen
Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, Norway
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 34:1786-97. 2004..Training of the automatic FL/CSP decision agents against selected performance measures is also shown and results are presented together with directions for future research...
- Fractals in physiology and medicineA L Goldberger
Cardiovascular Division, Beth Israel Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215
Yale J Biol Med 60:421-35. 1987..Alterations in fractal scaling may underlie a number of pathophysiological disturbances, including sudden cardiac death syndromes...
- Radial single-shot STEAM MRIKai Tobias Block
Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max Planck Institut für biophysikalische Chemie, Gottingen, Germany
Magn Reson Med 59:686-91. 2008..Experimental results for a phantom and human brain in vivo demonstrate that radial single-shot STEAM MRI may exceed the resolution obtainable by a comparable Cartesian acquisition by a factor of four...
- A noisy chaotic neural network for solving combinatorial optimization problems: stochastic chaotic simulated annealingLipo Wang
IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern 34:2119-25. 2004..We show the effectiveness of this new approach with two difficult combinatorial optimization problems, i.e., a traveling salesman problem and a channel assignment problem for cellular mobile communications...
- Measurement of reaching kinematics and prehensile dexterity in nonhuman primatesMarc A Pizzimenti
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
J Neurophysiol 98:1015-29. 2007..We also show that the device and performance scores are effective for differentiating the effects of localized injury to motor areas of the cerebral cortex...
- Efficient calculation of resolution and covariance for penalized-likelihood reconstruction in fully 3-D SPECTJ Webster Stayman
Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2122, USA
IEEE Trans Med Imaging 23:1543-56. 2004..The evaluation of these predictors requires significantly less computation time than traditional prediction techniques, once the system geometry specific precomputations have been made...
- On the spread of morphogensJ H Merkin
Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
J Math Biol 51:1-17. 2005..Whether this occurs by diffusion or some other more elaborate mechanism is controversial. Here we provide an analysis of two models considered by Lander et al. used in support of the diffusive transport hypothesis...
- Destabilizing effect of cannibalism on a structured predator-prey systemK G Magnusson
Division of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Math Biosci 155:61-75. 1999..Numerical studies indicate that a stable limit cycle appears. Cannibalism can therefore be a destabilizing force in a predator-prey system...
- A novel parametric method for non-rigid image registrationAnne Cuzol
IRISA, Université de Rennes 1 INRIA, Campus de Beaulieu, 35 042 Rennes, France
Inf Process Med Imaging 19:456-67. 2005..2D experiments of this method are presented and demonstrate its ability to recover evolving phenomena (MS lesions) so as to register images from 20 patients...
- An image morphing technique based on optimal mass preserving mappingLei Zhu
Department of Biomedical Engineering and the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA
IEEE Trans Image Process 16:1481-95. 2007..This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods...
- Automatic detection of red lesions in digital color fundus photographsMeindert Niemeijer
Image Sciences Institute Q0S 459, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands
IEEE Trans Med Imaging 24:584-92. 2005..The method is compared with several different automatic systems and is shown to outperform them all. Performance is close to that of a human expert examining the images for the presence of red lesions...
- An investigation of numerical grid effects in parameter estimationGeorge A Zyvoloski
Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
Ground Water 44:814-25. 2006....
- An expression index for Affymetrix GeneChips based on the generalized logarithmLei Zhou
Department of Biostatistics, Amgen, Inc USA
Bioinformatics 21:3983-9. 2005..The substantial reduction in variability and increased ability to detect differential expression, together with the simplicity of implementation, make GLA a plausible candidate for analysis of Affymetrix GeneChip data...
- Modelling the macrophage invasion of tumours: effects on growth and compositionM R Owen
Nonlinear Systems Laboratory, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
IMA J Math Appl Med Biol 15:165-85. 1998..An extended model is also considered which incorporates addition of exogenous chemical regulators. In this case, the model admits the possibility of tumour regression, and the therapeutic implications of this are discussed...
- Recognition and verification of unconstrained handwritten wordsAlessandro L Koerich
Applied Informatics, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, R Imaculada Conceição, 1155, Curitiba, PR, 80215 901, Brazil
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 27:1509-22. 2005..Our approach is described in detail and the experimental results on a large database of unconstrained handwritten words extracted from postal envelopes are presented...
- Parallel sequential minimal optimization for the training of support vector machinesL J Cao
Financial Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China
IEEE Trans Neural Netw 17:1039-49. 2006..Experiments show that there is great speedup on the adult data set and the Mixing National Institute of Standard and Technology (MNIST) data set when many processors are used. There are also satisfactory results on the Web data set...
- Bilateral recovering of sharp edges on feature-insensitive sampled meshesCharlie C L Wang
Department of Automation and Computer Aided Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, PR China
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 12:629-39. 2006..We show that the proposed method can robustly reconstruct sharp edges on feature-insensitive sampled meshes...
- Algebraic comparison of metabolic networks, phylogenetic inference, and metabolic innovationChristian V Forst
Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
BMC Bioinformatics 7:67. 2006..This approach disregards functional replacements as well as orthologies that are misannotated. Direct comparison of the structure of metabolic networks can circumvent these problems...
- Application of advanced Monte Carlo Methods in numerical dosimetryU Reichelt
Institute of Nuclear and Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, P O Box 510119, 01328 Dresden, Germany
Radiat Prot Dosimetry 119:479-82. 2006..As additional examples, results for the detector efficiency of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a dose estimation for an X-ray shielding for radiation protection are shown...
- Multisurface proximal support vector machine classification via generalized eigenvaluesOlvi L Mangasarian
Computer Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 28:69-74. 2006..These examples show the advantages of the proposed approach in both computation time and test set correctness...
- Tumor Diagnosis through Enhanced Ultrasound ImagingMichael Oelze; Fiscal Year: 2003..6. Several techniques for combining typical ultrasound images with the quantification of tissue microstructures will be evaluated for facilitation of clinical detection and diagnosis of disease. ..
- Updating Chromosome Aberration Simulator (CAS) SoftwareRainer Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2006..An interdisciplinary team has been assembled for this project. The grant would ensure that a computer resource important to the radiation cytogenetics community is kept fully current and readily available. ..
- Video Technologies for Neonatal SeizuresNICOLAOS KARAYIANNIS; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- Neurovascular Factors in Functional MRIThomas T Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010..The specific aims of this project are to identify the measures that most effectively explain changes in resting-state connectivity due to (a) caffeine usage and (b) inter-subject differences in physiology. ..
- Alzheimer's Disease and Estrogen ReplacementValerie Crooks; Fiscal Year: 2007..The study will also maintain its bank of DNA and pursue promising genetic leads in dementia and late-onset AD, although there are no specific plans to conduct additional gene tests proposed now. ..
- Interactive intraoperative imaging with cone beam CTJOSEPH STAYMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Statistical Methods for Analysis of Array CGH DataRebecca Betensky; Fiscal Year: 2007..Sound statistical methods are required for efficient and valid analyses of these important data. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Phase-Contrast Imaging of Microvascular StuctureMARK ANASTASIO; Fiscal Year: 2006..The successful completion of our proposed research will establish in-line phase-contrast tomography as an effective and important modality for imaging microvascular structure. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Silicon Graphics Prism Extreme 128P/1TBALMA SORENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Validity Without a Gold StandardAlaattin Erkanli; Fiscal Year: 2006..Each participant will receive 2 of 3 interviews; 400 will thus receive each combination. Screening efficiency will be calculated relative to each interview separately, and averaged over all 3. ..
- Cell-To-Cell Signaling in Bacterial BiofilmsDAVID CHOPP; Fiscal Year: 2006..Experimental results will be used to refine the mathematical models. ..
- MRI-Based Method to Evaluate Engineered CartilageCorey Neu; Fiscal Year: 2006..The deformation measurements will be used to approximate the 3D finite strain tensor field throughout normal and tissue engineered cartilage. ..
- High Resolution PET Camera for Brain ImagingALMA SORENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2006..Placement of the HRRT in the proposed environment will provide a unique facility to advance brain imaging research that in turn will provide insights for a variety of illnesses and biomedical questions. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Electromagnetic Tracking of Tumors for RadiotherapyMartin Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2006..The augmented Calypso targeting system will be designed for integration into existing radiation therapy systems to provide enhanced beam targeting capability. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Breast Cancer Imaging Using a Solid-State SPECT CameraG Zeng; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Sharing canonical human stroke dataOna Wu; Fiscal Year: 2010..Linking our existing portals with BIRN resources has the potential to greatly facilitate data sharing which will benefit the understanding of stroke and speed discovery of new therapeutic interventions. ..
- Statistical PET Image ReconstructionDAN KADRMAS; Fiscal Year: 2008..The improvements in image quality offered by this research will broadly impact all applications of PET imaging, with specific benefit for tumor detection and quantitation. ..
- Automated Video Activity Analysis for EldercareZhihai He; Fiscal Year: 2008..The remarkable growth of the elderly population and the shortage of eldercare professionals underscore the significance of the proposed research. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mathematical Modeling of the Superspreaders of Antibiotic-Resistante BacteriaShigui Ruan; Fiscal Year: 2010..The proposed work will lead to a better understanding of the factors which contribute to the spread of ARB, and will allow the development and implementation of effective public health policies. ..
- Deformable image registration and reconstruction for radiotherapy applicationsMartin J Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2010..The third aim of the project is to develop measurement and validation procedures to assess the accuracy and reliability of these novel image registration and reconstruction techniques. ..
- MECHANICAL INJURY OF THE ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUMSUSAN SHEPS MARGULIES; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF FAILURE TIME DATARebecca Betensky; Fiscal Year: 2009..The methods may lead to faster discovery of cancer genes and effective treatments and to better understanding of disease progression through more efficient use of resources. ..
- New approaches for the modelling of speciationSERGEY Y GAVRILETS; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Optimizing Cardiovascular Devices Thrombogenicity for Eliminating AnticoagulationDanny Bluestein; Fiscal Year: 2009..It is envisioned that it will also facilitate the use of these devices for long term therapy by reducing the need for difficult pharmacological management with anticoagulants, which is mandated for most existing devices. ..
- BIOEFFECTS OF GAS BODY ACTIVATION IN MEDICAL ULTRASOUNDDouglas Miller; Fiscal Year: 2009..This project will examine bioeffects in cells and tissues and show how to safely use ultrasound contrast agents in diagnostic imaging. ..
- Temporal Clustering Analysis for Detection of Irregular Transient fMRI ActivationVICTORIA MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Computerized Analysis of Mesothelioma on CT ScansSamuel Armato; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Promoting Self-Change From Alcohol Problems: Mechanisms of Change in a CommunityLinda Sobell; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Development and control of repetitive leg movements during embryonic developmentNINA BRADLEY; Fiscal Year: 2008..We will accelerate the time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant light and delay time to hatch by incubating eggs in constant dark. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Predictors of Skin Cancer in Commercial Airline PilotsJoyce Nicholas; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- ULTRASOUND ENHANCEMENT OF CANCER GENE THERAPYDouglas Miller; Fiscal Year: 2003..This research will provide a bridge from the basic research breakthrough to specific therapeutic applications and urgently needed clinical research programs utilizing this novel technology. ..
- Semiparametric Regression Analysis of Censored DataDanyu Lin; Fiscal Year: 2004..Applications to real medical studies will be provided. The research results will be disseminated to practicing statisticians and medical investigators via publications, lectures and software distributions. ..
- Brain H2D MRS: Implemation and Initial ApplicationsZhiyue Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004..2D MRS will also be used to characterize unusual peaks found in clinical practice. ..
- ULTRASOUND ENHANCEMENT OF CANCER GENE THERAPYDouglas Miller; Fiscal Year: 2002..This research will provide a bridge from the basic research breakthrough to specific therapeutic applications and urgently needed clinical research programs utilizing this novel technology. ..
- Radio-Immunotherapy (RIT) Planning Using SPECTLAWRENCE ZENG; Fiscal Year: 2004..Novel image reconstruction algorithms will be developed to provided quantitative SPECT images. Our hypothesis will be verified through human observer studies and Channelized Hotelling observer studies. ..
- Non Iterative Methods for 3D SPECT Image ReconstructionXiaochuan Pan; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- A 3.0 Tesla MRI System in a Neuroscience ICUALMA SORENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2004..Since these subjects are difficult to bring to the instrumentation, we seek to gain these insights by bringing the instrumentation to them. The proposed instrument will bring state-of-the-art performance to a unique setting. ..
- PATIENT SPECIFIC MODELS IN LUNG CANCER SCREENING WITH CTMatthew Brown; Fiscal Year: 2004..4] To compare radiologist accuracy and interpretation times of HR-hCT scans, both with and without assistance from the automated detection system, against pre-existing nodule detection methods. ..
- A Telephone Screening Test of Cognitive FunctionValerie Crooks; Fiscal Year: 2003..This three-year study will provide the first brief test of cognitive domains, impacted by age, developed according to established psychometric criteria. ..
- Statistical methods for utility of multiple testsYing Lu; Fiscal Year: 2003..based on data from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) and simulation models using cost-effectiveness and population distribution parameters published in literature. ..
- Real Time Elastography and Parametric US Imaging SystemThaddeus Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2004..The system will be evaluated by testing in patients with thyroid nodules and in patients with proven breast masses. ..
- Development of a Software for Parallel Imaging in MRIWALID KYRIAKOS; Fiscal Year: 2002..In addition, this software will allow a higher throughput of patients contributing to the decrease of the cost of MRI. ..
- Non Iterative Methods for 3D SPECT Image ReconstructionXiaochuan Pan; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- EVALUATION OF NURSING SENSITIVE PATIENT OUTCOME MEASURESMarion Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2001..Fehring (1987) content validity scores will be used to evaluate the content validity of new outcomes. ..
- VERY-HIGH-FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND ARRAYS FOR OPHTHALMOLOGYJeffrey Ketterling; Fiscal Year: 2005..Concepts are validated and refined using scans of in-vitro porcine eyes and in-vivo rabbit eyes. ..
- BIOEFFECTS OF GAS BODY ACTIVATION IN MEDICAL ULTRASOUNDDouglas Miller; Fiscal Year: 2001..abstract_text> ..
- Standard Database for CT Lung ImagesSamuel Armato; Fiscal Year: 2006..The ideas resented in this proposal are expected to stimulate the efforts of the Consortium toward that goal. ..
- FOURIER AND SPLINE BASED RECONSTRUCTIONS IN HELICAL CTXiaochuan Pan; Fiscal Year: 2001....
- Local Tomography for Radiation Therapy Tumor ImagingMARK ANASTASIO; Fiscal Year: 2005..By increasing the conformality of the radiation therapy treatment procedure, the chances of survival for cancer patients could be improved while simultaneously minimizing the risk of radiation-induced complications. ..
- Image Reconstruction with Solid Srate SPECRLAWRENCE ZENG; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- CYTOGENETIC MODELS FOR ASSESSING LOW DOSE RADIATION RISKRainer Sachs; Fiscal Year: 2001..By studying molecular, mechanisms relevant to low doses and low dose-rates quantitatively the project will help firm-up risk estimates and make them more credible. ..
- Imaging Biomarkers for Cancer Drug DevelopmentALMA SORENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2004..The planning grant revolves around three aims: to confer a multidisciplinary partnership to work towards this goal; to select a set of demonstration projects, and to develop an operating plan for the partnership. ..
- Structure Prediction of Helical Transmembrane ProteinsYing Xu; Fiscal Year: 2010..The predicted structural information for these proteins could provide a basis for understanding and controlling this disease. ..
- One dimensional transport equations for CE systems by asymptotic homogenizationSandip Ghosal; Fiscal Year: 2009..The emergence of such devices would have an enormous impact on human health as they would enable biochemical analyses (such as DNA sequencing) that currently take months or years to be completed in minutes. ..
- MR Physics Simulation Package for Pulse, Sequence, and Hardware DesignChristopher Collins; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Memphis BioImaging SymposiumThaddeus Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Exploration of Stereo Display for Lung Cancer ScreeningXiao Hui Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005..We expect to demonstrate that the use of a stereo display for lung cancer screening will result in improved accuracy and efficiency, and this could greatly increase the efficacy of this screening process. ..
- MRI DIFFUSION/PERFUSION MISMATCH IN HUMAN ACUTE STROKEALMA SORENSEN; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Form/function of Extended Amygdala/Accumbens Shell:CRFDANIEL ZAHM; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Preventing pressure ulcers using a new sitting conceptMohsen Makhsous; Fiscal Year: 2004..Furthermore, we will perform extensive testing to optimize user function, while maximizing safety ..
- LPH to VTA Neurotensin: Actions and Cocaine EffectsDANIEL ZAHM; Fiscal Year: 2004..The data may lead to better, more selective therapeutic approaches to prevention of psychostimulant sensitization, which is thought play a significant role in destructive drug seeking behaviors. ..
- THERMODYNAMICS OF BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMSROBERT ALBERTY; Fiscal Year: 2005..This quantitative treatment of the literature data on biochemical reactions will uncover errors because deltafG'0 values can be determined by use of two or more biochemical reactions, which should give the same answer. ..
- Reducing Low-back Disorders Using a New Sitting DesignMohsen Makhsous; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- Three-Class ROC Analysis for Task-Based Medical Image Quality AssessmentXin He; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MRI Gradient Coils with Improved Stimulation ThresholdChristopher Collins; Fiscal Year: 2005..This work will lay the foundation for development of clinically useful head and body gradient coils that can outperform existing coils before inducing PNS. ..