Summary: One of the principal schools of medical philosophy in ancient Greece and Rome. It developed in Alexandria between 270 and 220 B.C., the only one to have any success in reviving the essentials of the Hippocratic concept. The Empiricists declared that the search for ultimate causes of phenomena was vain, but they were active in endeavoring to discover immediate causes. The "tripod of the Empirics" was their own chance observations (experience), learning obtained from contemporaries and predecessors (experience of others), and, in the case of new diseases, the formation of conclusions from other diseases which they resembled (analogy). Empiricism enjoyed sporadic continuing popularity in later centuries up to the nineteenth. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p186; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Beyond empiricism: informing vaccine development through innate immunity research
    Stuart M Levitz
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 148:1284-92. 2012
  2. ncbi [Adult cardiopulmonary bypass in the twentieth century: science, art or empiricism?]
    André Lupp Mota
    Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 23:78-92. 2008
  3. ncbi Empiricism and rationalism: two paths toward the same goal
    Luc Pellerin
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:1240-1. 2004
  4. ncbi From total empiricism to a rational design of metronomic chemotherapy phase I dosing trials
    Thomas Lam
    Postgraduate Medical Institute, University of Hull, Hull, UK
    Anticancer Drugs 17:113-21. 2006
  5. ncbi The rationale of combination antifungal therapy in severely immunocompromised patients: empiricism versus evidence-based medicine
    Georgios Chamilos
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:380-5. 2006
  6. ncbi The hegemony of empiricism: the opportunity for theoretical science in medicine
    Anthony J Yun
    Med Hypotheses 70:478-81. 2008
  7. ncbi Rooting the tree of knowledge: a response to Henriques' "psychology defined"
    Jack Presbury
    Department of Graduate Psychology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1255-8. 2004
  8. ncbi Psychology's dilemma: an institutional neurosis?
    Michael W Katzko
    Department of Cultural and Personality Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Psychol 60:1237-41. 2004
  9. ncbi Taxonomy as a contextualist views it
    Steven C Hayes
    Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 0062, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1231-5. 2004
  10. ncbi The unification of psychology: a noble quest
    Lawrence G Calhoun
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1283-9. 2004

Detail Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Beyond empiricism: informing vaccine development through innate immunity research
    Stuart M Levitz
    Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Cell 148:1284-92. 2012
    ..Incorporating these adjuvants and delivery systems in vaccines can beneficially alter the quantitative and qualitative nature of the adaptive immune response, resulting in enhanced protection...
  2. ncbi [Adult cardiopulmonary bypass in the twentieth century: science, art or empiricism?]
    André Lupp Mota
    Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 23:78-92. 2008
    ..e) The reason of the title, highlighting that based on its current patterns, would the CPB be an outcome of empiricism, art, or science? The bottom line of this article carries the certainty of that as much as the empiricism, art, ..
  3. ncbi Empiricism and rationalism: two paths toward the same goal
    Luc Pellerin
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:1240-1. 2004
  4. ncbi From total empiricism to a rational design of metronomic chemotherapy phase I dosing trials
    Thomas Lam
    Postgraduate Medical Institute, University of Hull, Hull, UK
    Anticancer Drugs 17:113-21. 2006
    ..We argue that this is too empirical and propose a set of phase I metronomic chemotherapy dosing strategies based on a principled approach which may help to reduce the problem of empiricism in dosing for metronomic chemotherapy trials.
  5. ncbi The rationale of combination antifungal therapy in severely immunocompromised patients: empiricism versus evidence-based medicine
    Georgios Chamilos
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 19:380-5. 2006
    ..Herein we review recent advances in the area of antifungal combinations in high-risk patients to separate empiricism from evidence-based medicine.
  6. ncbi The hegemony of empiricism: the opportunity for theoretical science in medicine
    Anthony J Yun
    Med Hypotheses 70:478-81. 2008
    ..Although this hegemony of empiricism instills useful discipline to the scientific process, it also limits the pace of science to sensor innovation ..
  7. ncbi Rooting the tree of knowledge: a response to Henriques' "psychology defined"
    Jack Presbury
    Department of Graduate Psychology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1255-8. 2004
    ..There is no view from nowhere. Psychology is the primordial ground in which the tree of knowledge has its roots...
  8. ncbi Psychology's dilemma: an institutional neurosis?
    Michael W Katzko
    Department of Cultural and Personality Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    J Clin Psychol 60:1237-41. 2004
    ..That the latter falls within the scope of the Tree of Knowledge is illustrated in how Henriques' "Justification Hypothesis" sheds light on the nature of institutional disunity...
  9. ncbi Taxonomy as a contextualist views it
    Steven C Hayes
    Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 0062, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1231-5. 2004
  10. ncbi The unification of psychology: a noble quest
    Lawrence G Calhoun
    Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1283-9. 2004
    ..Finally, the potential future of the unified theory is considered with a focus on its potential as a "useful mass movement" in psychology...
  11. ncbi Pluralism in the sciences is not easily dismissed
    Wayne Viney
    Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    J Clin Psychol 60:1275-8. 2004
    ..It is also argued that there are not true type identities between levels of organization (e.g., experience and underlying neurological processes). Accordingly, there are serious questions about the kind of unity that can be achieved...
  12. ncbi The current status of psychotherapy
    Oye Gureje
    Department of Psychiatry College of Medicine, Ibadan, Nigeria
    West Afr J Med 23:97-103. 2004
  13. ncbi The German specimen case, Amalia X: empirical studies
    Horst Kachele
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Ulm University, Am Hochsträss 8, D 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Int J Psychoanal 87:809-26. 2006
    ..These studies demonstrate the many modalities empirical process research has available to objectively study psychoanalytic process phenomena and their implication for outcome...
  14. ncbi Eleven rules for a more successful clinical psychology
    Steven C Hayes
    Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, NV 89557 0062, USA
    J Clin Psychol 61:1055-60. 2005
    ..No amount of "brute force" education and empiricism is certain to solve the problems of the scope of our field identified by the authors...
  15. ncbi What is conceptual research in psychoanalysis?
    Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber
    Am Ebelfeld 1A, D 60488 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Int J Psychoanal 87:1355-86. 2006
    ..Examples taken from six issues of the International Journal of Psychoanalysis in 2002-3 serve as illustrations for seven different subtypes of conceptual research...
  16. ncbi Fight the power: the limits of empiricism and the costs of positivistic rigor
    William Indick
    Graduate School of Human Development, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University, USA
    J Psychol 136:21-36. 2002
    A summary of the influence of positivistic philosophy and empiricism on the field of psychology is followed by a critique of the empirical method. The dialectic process is advocated as an alternative method of inquiry...
  17. ncbi Religion, spirituality and psychiatry: steps towards rapprochement
    John Turbott
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Science, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, New Zealand
    Australas Psychiatry 12:145-7. 2004
    ..To consider the claim that there is a fundamental epistemological conflict between religion and psychiatry over what constitutes rational explanation, and what impediment this might be to rapprochement between the two...
  18. ncbi Empirical research and logotherapy
    Stefan E Schulenberg
    Department of Psychology, The University of Mississippi, University 38677, USA
    Psychol Rep 93:307-19. 2003
    ..The psychometrics of logotherapy measures need to be expanded. Carefully conducted experimental studies may aid in refining long-standing logotherapy concepts and supporting or refuting new ones...
  19. ncbi Recognizing evidence for what it is
    C M Schlachta
    Surg Endosc 18:575-6. 2004
  20. ncbi The ideology of logic in contemporary psychology
    Rex Olsen
    Hunter Student Development Center, Alfred State College, NY 14802, USA
    Am Psychol 61:256-7; discussion 259-61. 2006
  21. ncbi I know what you did last summer (and it was not CBT): a factor analytic model of international psychotherapeutic practice in the eating disorders
    David L Tobin
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA
    Int J Eat Disord 40:754-7. 2007
    ..We also sought to describe an empirically defined approach to psychotherapeutic practice as defined by clinicians via factor analysis...
  22. ncbi The dynamics of empirically derived factors in the therapeutic relationship
    Eric J Nuetzel
    St Louis Psychoanalytic Institute, MO 63124, USA
    J Am Psychoanal Assoc 55:1321-53. 2007
    ..Results indicate that the therapeutic alliance, transference, and resistance are central components of the psychotherapeutic relationship, which in turn predict the ongoing life experience of the patient...
  23. ncbi [Life satisfaction--a dimension of psychotherapeutical prevention. Critical reflections and results of empirical research]
    Anton Leitner
    Zentrum fur Psychosoziale Medizin, Donau Universität Krems, Krems, Osterreich
    Wien Med Wochenschr 154:555-63. 2004
    ..Assessments of life contentment are shown by means of various psychotherapeutic methods. The conclusion is that psychotherapy aims at a "productive therapeutic" change with immediate consequences of application...
  24. ncbi Gaps and limitations of psychological interventions for bipolar disorders
    Jan Scott
    University Department of Psychiatry, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Psychother Psychosom 77:4-11. 2008
    ..To highlight gaps or limitations in applying evidence-based psychological therapies as an adjunct to medication in the management of bipolar disorders...
  25. ncbi [Surgical science]
    Rainer Arbogast
    Chirurg . 2008
  26. ncbi Cognitive development, culture, and conversation: comments on Harris and Koenig's "truth in testimony: how children learn about science and religion"
    Maureen A Callanan
    University of California, Santa Cruz, 95064, USA
    Child Dev 77:525-30. 2006
    ..The issues discussed by Harris and Koenig are crucial if we are to take seriously the importance of culture in cognitive development...
  27. ncbi Strategic eclecticism in hypnotherapy: effectiveness research considerations
    Jon K Amundson
    Amundson and Associates, 1614 8th Avenue NW, Calgary
    Am J Clin Hypn 50:233-45. 2008
    ..In this light, strategic eclecticism as a broader research-based consideration is used to illustrate empirical principles within Eriksonian hypnotherapeutic approaches...
  28. ncbi [Research on violence against women in Latin America: from blind empiricism to theory without data]
    Roberto Castro
    Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
    Cad Saude Publica 19:135-46. 2003
    ..Only then will it be possible to imagine the new research questions that the problem of violence requires...
  29. ncbi Fairness heuristic theory: valid but not empirical
    Steinvör Pöll Arnadóttir
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Iceland
    Scand J Psychol 43:353-62. 2002
    ..The propositions, it is argued, are necessary truths of commonsense psychology that are not falsifiable by empirical outcomes. Hence, empirical research designed to test them, it is argued, is fruitless and misguided...
  30. ncbi A content analysis of advertisements for psychotherapy workshops: implications for disseminating empirically supported treatments
    Joan M Cook
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
    J Clin Psychol 64:296-307. 2008
    ..g., use of superlatives and exclamation points). Promotional strategies to advertise psychotherapy workshops can be used to inform the dissemination of empirically supported treatments...
  31. ncbi [Empiricism or evidence in pediatric sleep medicine]
    Christian F Poets
    Abteilung Neonatologie, Universitäts Kinderklinik, Calwerstrasse 7, D 72076 Tubingen, Deutschland
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 115:853-4. 2003
  32. ncbi "Torque-like" action of remedies and diseases on the vital force and their consequences for homeopathic treatment
    Lionel R Milgrom
    Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, London, UK
    J Altern Complement Med 12:915-29. 2006
    ..So far, this approach has illustrated the biphasal action of remedies, resonance phenomena arising out of homeopathic provings, and aspects of the therapeutic encounter...
  33. ncbi Evidence-based principles and practices in pathology: selected problem areas
    Mark R Wick
    Department of Pathology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 0214, USA
    Semin Diagn Pathol 22:116-25. 2005
    ..The concepts illustrating departures from EBM are discussed for each of those topics...
  34. ncbi Patient-Practitioner-Remedy (PPR) Entanglement, Part 7: a gyroscopic metaphor for the vital force and its use to illustrate some of the empirical laws of homeopathy
    L R Milgrom
    Department of Chemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 11:212-23. 2004
  35. ncbi Advancing a casuistic model of clinical decision making: a response to commentators
    Mark R Tonelli
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98198 6522, USA
    J Eval Clin Pract 13:504-7. 2007
  36. ncbi What's in a name? A commentary on Tonelli (2007) 'Advancing a casuistic model of clinical decision making: a response to commentators'
    Mona Gupta
    Mental Health in Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Women s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 13:508-9. 2007
  37. ncbi Rationality in medicine. A commentary on Tonelli (2007) 'Advancing a casuistic model of clinical decision making: a response to commentators'
    Olli S Miettinen
    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
    J Eval Clin Pract 13:510-1. 2007
  38. ncbi Enigmatic, but understandable: empiric therapy
    Jeannette Y Wick
    National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Consult Pharm 22:691-4. 2007
    ..It ranges from "derived from experiment and observation rather than theory" at one extreme, to "relying on medical quackery or uninfluenced by pathology or clinical tools" at the other...
  39. ncbi Realism in evidence based medicine: interpreting the randomised controlled trial
    Jim Connelly
    Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, School of Health and Social Care, University of Reading, Reading, UK
    J Health Organ Manag 18:70-81. 2004
    ..Evidence based medicine should adopt realism to temper a misleading empiricism, this will involve relegating statistical arguments to their proper subsidiary place and adopting an adequate ..
  40. ncbi Evidence-based medical decision making: deductive versus inductive logical thinking
    Demetrios N Kyriacou
    Acad Emerg Med 11:670-1. 2004
  41. ncbi [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy]
    Sun Hyung Kim
    Department of Sasang constitutional medicine East west neo medical center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
    Uisahak 18:117-31. 2009
    ..King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine...
  42. ncbi Challenges for management of the diabetic foot in Africa: doing more with less
    Zulfiqarali G Abbas
    Department of Internal Medicine, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    Int Wound J 4:305-13. 2007
    ..rational optimal use of existing microbiology facilities and prescribing through epidemiologically directed empiricism, where appropriate; and using sentinel hospitals for surveillance activities...
  43. ncbi A brief history of decision making
    Leigh Buchanan
    Harv Bus Rev 84:32-41, 132. 2006
    ..better tools for the purpose, from the Hindu-Arabic systems for numbering and algebra, to Aristotle's systematic empiricism, to friar Occam's advances in logic, to Francis Bacon's inductive reasoning, to Descartes's application of the ..
  44. ncbi The use and safety of non-allopathic Indian medicines
    N J Gogtay
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai Bombay, India
    Drug Saf 25:1005-19. 2002
    ..base of many of the above systems, unlike Western medicine, is based on years of experience, observations, empiricism and intuition and has been handed down generations both through word of mouth and treatises...
  45. ncbi [Development of 'Ordnungstherapie' by Bircher-Benner in naturopathy of the 20th century]
    J Melzer
    Departement Innere Medizin, Abteilung Naturheilkunde, Universitatsspital Zurich, Schweiz
    Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 11:293-303. 2004
    ..The German term 'Ordnungstherapie' is one of the five therapeutics which defines naturopathy in German-speaking countries...
  46. ncbi On some historical and theoretical foundations of the concept of chordates
    Margherita Raineri
    Department of Biology, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
    Theory Biosci 128:53-73. 2009
    ..Yet, there was still another interpretation of Kowalevsky's discoveries. As an adherent to empiricism and to Cuvier's theory of types, von Baer asserted that these discoveries did not prove convincingly a dorsal ..
  47. ncbi [Not Available]
    O Riha
    Med Ges Gesch 13:9-34. 1995
    ..It emerged that empiricism in our sense played an important, but not the most important role...
  48. ncbi Physical and thermal properties of blood storage bags: implications for shipping frozen components on dry ice
    Peter J Hmel
    Department of Blood Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910 7500, USA
    Transfusion 42:836-46. 2002
    ..The rate of loss can reach 50 to 80 percent. To identify those bags with lower probability of breaking during shipment, the thermal and physical properties of blood storage bags were examined...
  49. ncbi Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness
    Ron Chrisley
    Centre for Research in Cognitive Science and Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, United Kingdom
    Artif Intell Med 44:119-37. 2008
    ..Since AI is the most promising avenue toward artificial consciousness (AC), the conclusion many draw is that AC is even more doomed than AI supposedly is. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the soundness of this inference...
  50. ncbi Recent developments in the management of interstitial cystitis
    Kirsten Bouchelouche
    Department of Urology, Herlv Hosptal, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark
    Curr Opin Urol 13:309-13. 2003
    ..Although there are plenty of theories, the etiology of the condition remains obscure. This review focuses on recently published literature on interstitial cystitis...
  51. ncbi Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?
    Victor L Yu
    University of Pittsburgh and Special Pathogens Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
    Chest 136:1618-21. 2009
    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology...
  52. ncbi [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image]
    Shiow Ru Chang
    School of Nursing, National Taiwan University, ROC
    Hu Li Za Zhi 54:77-81. 2007
    ..This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind...
  53. ncbi [History of biological anthropology of the Basque population: empiricism with molecular genetics]
    Frederic Bauduer
    Departement d Hematologie, CH Côte Basque, 64100 Bayonne et UMR CNRS 6578, Universiti de la M6diterrande, 13005 Marseille courriel fbauduerO01 chicb com
    Hist Sci Med 42:123-30. 2008
    ..These two elements explain the presence of numerous cases of inherited disorders related to founding effects. The origin of the genetic heterogeneity is not yet established...
  54. ncbi Fluvastatin enhancement of trastuzumab and classical cytotoxic agents in defined breast cancer cell lines in vitro
    Daniel R Budman
    Section of Experimental Therapeutics, Don Monti Division of Oncology, Monter Cancer Center of North Shore University Hospital New York University, 450 Lakeville Road, New York, Lake Success 11040, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 104:93-101. 2007
    The combination of anticancer drugs used in the clinic has been based upon empiricism, and the potential permutations of currently available drugs overwhelm the clinical trials system...
  55. ncbi William James on a phenomenological psychology of immediate experience: the true foundation for a science of consciousness?
    Eugene Taylor
    Saybrook Univ
    Hist Human Sci 23:119-30. 2010
    ..to make before he died with regard to his developing tripartite metaphysics of pragmatism, pluralism and radical empiricism, which essentially asked "Is a science of consciousness actually possible?" James's lineage in this regard, was ..
  56. ncbi The periodontal abscess: a review
    D Herrera
    Section of Graduate Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    J Clin Periodontol 27:377-86. 2000
  57. pmc Behavior analysis and ecological psychology: past, present, and future. a review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in context
    Edward K Morris
    Department of Applied Behavioral Science, 4020 Dole Human Development Center, University of Kansas, 1000 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
    J Exp Anal Behav 92:275-304. 2009
    ..It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ..
  58. ncbi Xanthones as antimalarial agents: discovery, mode of action, and optimization
    M Riscoe
    Medical Research Service, RD 33, VA Medical Center, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Curr Med Chem 12:2539-49. 2005
    ..of xanthones as potential antimalarial agents took a rather circuitous route, involving both serendipity and empiricism, and is described together with mechanistic details of drug action...
  59. ncbi An eighteenth-century medical-meteorological society in the Netherlands: an investigation of early organization, instrumentation and quantification. Part 2
    Huib J Zuidervaart
    Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Br J Hist Sci 39:49-66. 2006
    ..this involvement arose after 1750, after university-trained medical doctors had reoriented themselves towards empiricism as a working method...
  60. ncbi Feminist approaches to social science: epistemological and methodological tenets
    R Campbell
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago 60607 7137, USA
    Am J Community Psychol 28:773-91. 2000
    ..Feminist epistemologies, such as feminist empiricism, standpoint theory, and postmodernism, recognize women's lived experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge...
  61. ncbi ["Acute human glanders". Contribution for the scientific history of the Museum of pathological anatomy established in Trieste Hospital]
    F Braulin
    Università di Losanna, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia
    Pathologica 97:383-93. 2005
    ..now be seen as referring to what was happening on the international scale, in a setting that after a century of empiricism and morphologism, was characterized by the progressive penetration of laboratory medicine into clinical-..
  62. ncbi Replacing positivism in medical geography
    David Bennett
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1S 5B6
    Soc Sci Med 60:2685-95. 2005
    ..sources in human geography shows that logical positivism has been conflated with Comtean positivism, science, empiricism, quantification, science politics, scientism and so on, to produce the "standard version" of the all-purpose ..
  63. ncbi Impact of adequate empirical antibiotic therapy on the outcome of patients admitted to the intensive care unit with sepsis
    Jose Garnacho-Montero
    Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Sevilla, Spain
    Crit Care Med 31:2742-51. 2003
    ..The impact of adequate empirical antibiotic therapy on early (<3 days), 28-day, and 60-day mortality rates also was assessed. We determined the risk factors for inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy. DESIGN Prospective cohort study...
  64. ncbi A blind empiricism against the coevolution theory of the origin of the genetic code
    M Di Giulio
    International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, Via G Marconi 10, 80125 Naples, Italy
    J Mol Evol 53:724-32. 2001
  65. ncbi Pattern cladistics and the 'realism-antirealism debate' in the philosophy of biology
    Francisco Vergara-Silva
    Laboratorio de Sistemática Molecular Jardín Botánico, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 3er Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D F, Mexico
    Acta Biotheor 57:269-94. 2009
    ..of an influential dichotomy in the philosophy of science: the opposition between Scientific Realism and Empiricism. Placing special emphasis on the notion of 'causal grounding' of morphological characters (sensu Olivier Rieppel)..
  66. ncbi Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions
    Martin J Farrell
    School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Hist Psychol 14:158-73. 2011
    ..His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian ..
  67. ncbi Critical realism and psychiatric nursing: a philosophical inquiry
    Christopher Littlejohn
    Centre for Addiction Research and Education, Department of Psychiatry, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
    J Adv Nurs 43:449-56. 2003
    ..This tension cannot be resolved by way of the underpinning philosophies of these positions, namely empiricism and idealism...
  68. ncbi Clinical biophysics: the promotion of skeletal repair by physical forces
    Roy K Aaron
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brown Medical School, 100 Butler Drive, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1068:513-31. 2006
    ..We are beginning to understand the biological effects of biophysical stimulation and are now poised to replace empiricism with treatment paradigms based upon physiologic understandings of dose and biologic response.
  69. pmc Understanding current causes of women's underrepresentation in science
    Stephen J Ceci
    Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:3157-62. 2011
    ..More recent and robust empiricism, however, fails to support assertions of discrimination in these domains...
  70. ncbi Implications of COPD in patients admitted to the intensive care unit by community-acquired pneumonia
    J Rello
    Critical Care Dept, Joan XXIII University Hospital, Carrer Mallafre Guasch 4, E43007 Tarragona, Spain
    Eur Respir J 27:1210-6. 2006
  71. ncbi [New developments in the diagnosis and therapy of acute bacterial meningitis]
    Boris P Ehrenstein
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin I, Klinikum der Universitat Regensburg, 93042 Regensburg
    Med Klin (Munich) 100:325-33. 2005
    ..Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment it continues to have a high case-fatality rate and high rates of long-term neurologic sequelae...
  72. ncbi A new approach to sperm preservation based on bioenergetic theory
    D P Froman
    Department of Animal Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA
    J Anim Sci 88:1314-20. 2010
    ..The present work outlines the development of an alternative approach based on empiricism and bioenergetic theory...
  73. ncbi Immune tolerance therapy for factor VIII inhibitors: moving from empiricism to an evidence-based approach
    D Dimichele
    Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    J Thromb Haemost 5:143-50. 2007
    ..Finally, this paper summarizes the currently recommended approach to ITI and makes the case for a move from empiric therapeutics to a risk-stratified evidence-based approach to FVIII inhibitor eradication...
  74. ncbi [Imaging the brain, from the cell to the organ]
    Emmanuel Alain Cabanis
    Académie nationale de médecine
    Bull Acad Natl Med 193:837-47. 2009
    Brain imaging has progressed over the centuries, from prehistory (surgical and sculptural empiricism), through the Middle Ages (dissection and drawings), the Renaissance (printing) and the 18th century (Spallanzani and ultrasounds), to ..
  75. ncbi Lattice Boltzmann equation method for multiple immiscible continuum fluids
    T J Spencer
    Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, United Kingdom
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 82:066701. 2010
    ..While retaining all its computational advantages, we remove entirely the empiricism associated with contact behavior in our previous multiple immiscible fluid models [M. M. Dupin, Phys. Rev...
  76. ncbi [The art of horseshoeing--between empiricism and science]
    M A Weishaupt
    Pferdeklinik, Sportmedizinisches Leistungszentrum für Pferde Vetsuisse Fakultät, Universitat Zurich
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 148:64-72. 2006
    ..The differences between the rolled toe and the 4 point shoe however, were minimal. Gait analysis is a technique well suited for objective evaluation of different shoeing techniques under standardised conditions...
  77. ncbi A fundamental approach for the estimation of the mechanical glass transition temperature in gelatin
    Stefan Kasapis
    Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Block S3, Level 6, Science Drive 4, Singapore 117548, Singapore
    Int J Biol Macromol 36:71-8. 2005
    The paper constitutes an attempt to overcome the empiricism prevalent in the estimation of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of gelatin networks using rheological techniques...
  78. ncbi Safety and efficacy of itraconazole compared to amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy for neutropenic fever in patients with haematological malignancy
    Ulrich Schuler
    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Universitatsklinikum Dresden, Germany
    Onkologie 30:185-91. 2007
    ..Safety, tolerability and efficacy of itraconazole and amphotericin B (AMB) were compared for empirical antifungal treatment of febrile neutropenic cancer patients...
  79. ncbi Two dogmas of conceptual empiricism: implications for hybrid models of the structure of knowledge
    F C Keil
    Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    Cognition 65:103-35. 1998
    ..particularly with respect to real world concepts; we contend that the dogmas arise from a particular species of empiricism that inhibits progress in the study of conceptual structure; and finally, we advocate the retention of a hybrid ..
  80. ncbi Have sanctioned algorithms replaced empiric judgment in the selection process of antiarrhythmic drugs for the therapy for atrial fibrillation?
    James A Reiffel
    Columbia Presbyterian Hospital, Division of Cardiology, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Curr Cardiol Rep 6:365-70. 2004
    ..to which practitioners should be held regarding the selection of an AAD for AF management, they have not removed empiricism and clinical judgment from the AAD selection process...
  81. ncbi [Health anthropology and hospital archiving. The Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the City Hospital of Trieste]
    F Braulin
    Centro Interdipartimentale per la Storia delle Malattie Mentali Università degli Studi di Siena, Via Fabiano 9, I 52100 Arezzo, Italia
    Pathologica 93:535-43. 2001
    ..The Museum is permeated with empiricism, morphologism and localisation, and its exhibits fluctuate between macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, between ..
  82. ncbi Pharmacokinetic aspects of fluid therapy
    Christer H Svensen
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sodersjukhuset, 118 83 Stockholm, Sweden
    Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 23:213-24. 2009
    Peri-operative fluid therapy continues to be an exercise in empiricism, with nagging questions about efficacy and complications. Pharmacokinetics is used for studying the time dependency of administered drugs...
  83. ncbi Mesmer minus magic: hypnosis and modern medicine
    David Spiegel
    Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305 5718, USA
    Int J Clin Exp Hypn 50:397-406. 2002
    ..as the first Western conception of a psychotherapy, the ancient philosophical debate between idealism and empiricism, and the conflict in modern medicine between biotechnological emphasis on cure and the need for care as many ..
  84. ncbi Decision making in antifungal monotherapy versus combination therapy
    Russell E Lewis
    Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 26:61S-67S. 2006
    ..However, empiricism largely governs this therapy, especially in patients with invasive mould infections for whom there is a dire ..
  85. ncbi Empirical support for a treatment program for families of young children with externalizing problems
    Kristin Abbott Feinfield
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33:182-95. 2004
    ..Five months following treatment, teachers reported significant improvements in child behaviors, whereas parents reported that reductions in child behavior problems and parenting stress were maintained...
  86. ncbi Health in Cuba
    Richard S Cooper
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:817-24. 2006
    ..Scientists make claims to objectivity and empiricism that are often used to support an argument that they make unique contributions to social welfare...
  87. ncbi [Does evidence-b(i)ased psychiatry have its limitations?]
    J Vandenberghe
    UPC KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Tijdschr Psychiatr 50:377-85. 2008
    ..EBM attaches greater value to biomedical sciences that to the humanities, to empiricism than to hermeneutics and to quantitative research than to qualitative research...
  88. ncbi Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research
    Jacob Kraemer Tebes
    Division of Prevention and Community Research and The Consultation Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA
    Am J Community Psychol 35:213-30. 2005
    ..After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the ..
  89. ncbi Representing health and illness: thoughts for the 21st century
    Sander L Gilman
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Med Humanit 32:69-75. 2011
    The on-going discussion about a new empiricism in the study of the medical humanities has lead to a misapprehension about the problems attendant to representing health and illness...
  90. ncbi Computational methods in synthetic biology
    Yiannis N Kaznessis
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Digital Technology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Biotechnol J 4:1392-405. 2009
    We discuss how a theoretical synthetic biology research programme may liberate empiricism in biological sciences beyond the unaided human brain...
  91. ncbi [Empowerment, quality of life and participation in neurological rehabilitation. Empirical study with stroke patients and their relatives]
    Monika Nowotny
    Zentrum für Postgraduale Studien der Neurowissenschaften, Donau Universität Krems, Donauklinikum, Krems, Osterreich
    Wien Med Wochenschr 154:577-83. 2004
    ..Therefore, measures of empowerment should be included in long-term outcome measurements following stroke...
  92. ncbi [Diagnostic procedures and management of Fever in pediatric cancer patients]
    H J Laws
    Klinik für Kinder Onkologie, Hämatologie und Immunologie, Universitatsklinikum Dusseldorf
    Klin Padiatr 217:S9-16. 2005
    ..The recommendations given are a consensus of the German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) and the German Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI)...
  93. ncbi [Gender-sensitive epidemiological data analysis: methodological aspects and empirical outcomes. Illustrated by a health reporting example]
    I Jahn
    Bremer Institut für Präventionsforschung und Sozialmedizin, Bremen, BRD
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 51:13-27. 2008
    ..Future gender studies deserve innovative study designs as well as conceptual distinctiveness with regard to the biological and the sociocultural elements of the category sex/gender...
  94. ncbi [An empirical analysis of patients' preference of setting for outpatient arthroscopic surgery]
    D L B Schwappach
    Fakultät für Medizin, Universitat Witten Herdecke, Witten
    Chirurg 77:166-72. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate patient preferences of setting for outpatient surgery--office-based, hospital-based, or inpatient care environment--and the factors relevant to their decision...
  95. ncbi Read, Think, Do!: a method for fitting research evidence into practice
    Sarah Winch
    School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    J Adv Nurs 50:20-6. 2005
    ..Read, Think, Do! is a problem-solving approach to research utilization and practice development which has the potential to overcome barriers to research utilization...
  96. pmc Vienna-Chicago: the cultural transformation of the model system of the un-opposed molar
    Xianghong Luan
    Oral Biology, UIC College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 801 South Paulina, Chicago, IL 60565, USA
    Bioessays 29:819-30. 2007
    ..In fin-de-siecle Vienna, this debate coincided with a philosophical debate over empiricism/materialism versus idealism/vitalism...
  97. ncbi [The nurse answers for health in social inequalities: the development of the nursing critical paradigm.]
    Gennaro Rocco
    Direttore corso di Laurea in Infermieristica Università di Tor Vergata _ Sede IDI _ IRCCS Roma
    Ig Sanita Pubbl 63:319-37. 2007
    ..In fact, nursing scholars questioned the validity of empiricism as the historical foundation for nursing science and the limitations of interpretivism in strengthening nursing ..
  98. ncbi Bioengineering of therapeutic aerosols
    David A Edwards
    Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 4:93-107. 2002
    ..at this stage by market forces, relies on a mixture of new and old science, pharmaceutical science intuition, and a degree of biological-impact empiricism that speaks to the importance of an increased level of academic involvement.
  99. ncbi Immunonutrition in septic patients: a philosophical view of the current situation
    Guido Bertolini
    Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli Interventi in Terapia Intensiva Coordinating Center Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, Aldo e Cele Daccò, Ranica Bergamo, Italy
    Clin Nutr 26:25-9. 2007
    Two different ways of thinking pervaded the history of science: rationalism and empiricism. In theory, these two paradigms are not necessarily in conflict. In practice, there has always been tension between them...
  100. ncbi Helmholtz's early empiricism and the Erhaltung der Kraft
    Edward Jurkowitz
    Max Planck Institute for History of Science, Berlin, Germany
    Ann Sci 67:39-78. 2010
    ..I suggest that already in his 1847 'Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft' one may find important aspects of his later empiricism. I highlight the ways in which, from early on, Helmholtz turned Kant to use in developing an empirical program ..
  101. ncbi What leads children to adopt new strategies? A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of class inclusion
    Robert S Siegler
    Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Child Dev 77:997-1015. 2006
    ..Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed...

Research Grants48

  1. A Systems Approach To Iron Metabolism In Cancer Cells
    Suzy V Torti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The project goal is to move beyond empiricism to a rational predictive model that will enable an understanding of basic forces that drive changes in iron ..
  2. Chemical biological dissection of Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels
    David T Yue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3 channels. Ongoing small-molecule screens thereby rely on rank empiricism, largely bereft of known channel interfaces to which drug binding would likely alter opening...
  3. Optimization of Multi-Modal Therapies in Pre-clinical models of Prostate Cancer
    Arif Hussain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Anti-cancer agents are no longer being developed based on empiricism, but are now being aimed to inhibit validated targets that are relatively specific for tumor cells...
  4. Bioreactor Actuated Ovarian Development
    Alan Russell; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We propose that bioengineering can overcome empiricism and provide solutions that support the growth of early stage follicles and establish markers of healthy follicle ..
  5. Faster quantum chemistry calculations with dual basis sets
    Jing Kong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..modeling of biomolecular systems from first principles of quantum mechanics without any experimental input or empiricism. This predictive capability comes at high computational cost, which restricts their use to key classes of ..
  6. New Parallel Correlated Electronic Structure Algorithms
    Jing Kong; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..methods permit the modeling of molecular systems from first principles without any experimental input or empiricism at very high computational cost...
  7. New Parallel Correlated Electron Structure Algorithms
    Jing Kong; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..methods permit the modeling of molecular systems from first principles without any experimental input or empiricism at very high computational cost...
    FAYE GETZ; Fiscal Year: 1990
    A book, entitled Physic, Empiricism, and the Healing Communities in Medieval England, is presently under contract with Princeton University Press...
  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for OCD
    Steven Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This investigation also includes measures to assess the psychological processes through which changes of compulsive behavior occur. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  10. Gastrointestinal Biopsychosocial Research Center
    William Whitehead; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The proposed Center is university wide and includes investigators from psychology, psychiatry, surgery (gynecology division), neuroradiology, dentistry, and the school of public health. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. Model Vaccines Exploiting Fungal Mannosylation
    STUART LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
  12. Assisting Systematic Review Preparation Using Automated Document Classification
    Aaron Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Since up-to-date systematic reviews are essential for establishing widespread high quality practice standards and guidelines, the overall public health will benefit from this work. ..
  13. A Couples Approach to Enhance Breast Cancer Survirorship
    Donald Baucom; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If successful, it will enlarge our repertoire of methods for effectively enhancing the well being of both cancer patients and their partners. ..
  14. Fibronectin-binding Integrins in Angiogenesis
    Judith A Varner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Delphi Evaluation of Alcohol Advertising Codes
    Thomas Babor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. Improving Hypertension Treatment in Africa
    Richard Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Whether our project yields a "positive" or "negative" result in relation to the main goal of identifying an effective clinical method, the outcome will have far-reaching implications for health care policy in that region. ..
  17. Dimensions of Early Stress and Child Welfare Involvement
    Philip Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, we will examine whether the effects of neglect/caregiver transitions are mediated through parenting practices in middle childhood and alterations in stress regulatory neural systems. ..
  18. Cancer Pain Management-Decision Support Computer Program
    Eun Ok Im; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  19. Behavioral clustering in adolescents with STDs
    Richard Rothenberg; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Demonstration of such phenomena will be of use in designing interventions that incorporate network information into their formulation. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  20. Negative Regulation of Cell Migration by PKA
    Judith Varner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will lead to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating angiogenesis and metastasis and may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of cancer. ..
  21. Signal Transduction in Models of Fibroblast Invasion
    JASON HAUGH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These efforts will serve as a foundation for more in-depth studies of molecular mechanisms governing physiological processes. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Evaluating Alcohol Brief Intervention Implementation
    Thomas Babor; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
    Philip Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2003
  24. Physical Regulation of Skeletal Repair Workshop
    Roy Aaron; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Finally, how repairing skeletal tissues organize physical information to augment the repair process, and what translational opportunities exist, will be considered. ..
    Richard Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The resulting synthesis of ideas and amassed data permits rigorous hypothesis testing not otherwise possible and will hasten understanding of the previously elusive genetic variation responsible for disease risk. ..
    STUART LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Completion of these aims will add significantly to our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of cryptococcosis and may suggest novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of this life-threatening mycosis. ..
  27. 6th International Conf. on Cryptococcus & Cryptococcosis
    STUART LEVITZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..neoformans and Cryptococcosis and to recommend new and future research initiatives and prioritize these. ..
  28. Halogenated Xanthones as Antimalarial Agents
    Michael Riscoe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Since heme is an immutable biomolecule, it is difficult to envision any simple mutation that could lead to resistance. ..
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Testing of these hypotheses will provide novel and fundamental answers to craving mechanisms. ..
  30. Dedicated High Performance Human Brain/Preclinical PET
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. High End Computing for PET/SPECT
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We propose to carry out experiments using PET to establish a more complete understanding of the neurotransmission in TS. This will also help establish new ationales for improved therapeutics in TS. ..
  33. Geography, networks, and risk in disease transmission
    Richard Rothenberg; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
    THOMAS BORKOVEC; Fiscal Year: 2002
  35. Inhaled Large Porous Particles for Treatment of MDR-TB
    David Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It represents a new paradigm for treating and limiting the spread (especially nosocomial transmission) of respiratory infectious diseases such as TB, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza, and small pox. ..
    Richard Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The African diaspora creates a unique opportunity for these[unreadable] cross-cultural studies.[unreadable]..
  37. A Multiethnic Internet Study on Menopausal Symptoms
    Eun Ok Im; Fiscal Year: 2008
  38. EIFC: Outcomes Through Middle Childhood
    Philip Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Four waves of data collection are proposed at 6-month intervals, beginning at 48 months post baseline assessment. By the end of the study, the children will be 9-12 years old. ..
  39. Evaluating industry codes governing malt liquor ads
    Thomas Babor; Fiscal Year: 2003
  40. Molecular Crosstalk in Intracellular Signaling Netoworks
    JASON HAUGH; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, for conditions found to perturb the signaling network, the corresponding effects on cell proliferation and survival will be assessed. ..
    DEAN WONG; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If the initial D2 receptor deficits are exacerbated by alcohol abuse one can envision a positive feedback loop hard to break. ..
  42. Brief Intervention for Drug Abuse Using the WHO ASSIST
    Thomas Babor; Fiscal Year: 2006
  43. Brief Interventions for nicotine and cannabis use
    Thomas Babor; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  44. Dissemination of empirically-supported psychotherapies
    Joan Cook; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
    Laura Dunn; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Advancing the Treatment of Fecal & Urinary Incontinence
    William Whitehead; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The conference is scheduled to take place November 3-5, 2002, in Milwaukee, and half of the invitees have accepted invitations to speak. ..
    Robert Siegler; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..