- Water ingestion during swimming activities in a pool: a pilot study
Alfred P Dufour
US Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 26 W Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
J Water Health 4:425-30. 2006
Chloroisocyanurates are commonly added to outdoor swimming pools to stabilize chlorine disinfectants. The chloroisocyanurates decompose slowly to release chlorine and cyanuric acid...
- Systematic review and meta-analysis comparing land and aquatic exercise for people with hip or knee arthritis on function, mobility and other health outcomes
Stephanie I Batterham
Department of Physiotherapy, Monash University Peninsula Campus, McMahons Rd, Frankston, Australia
BMC Musculoskelet Disord 12:123. 2011
..This review investigated the effects of aquatic compared to land based exercise on function, mobility or participants' perception of programs for people with arthritis...
- Swimming pool attendance and risk of asthma and allergic symptoms in children
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain
Eur Respir J 34:1304-10. 2009
..68-1.08) and allergic rhinitis symptoms (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.96) compared to those who started attending swimming pools after 4 yrs of age...
- Changes in serum pneumoproteins caused by short-term exposures to nitrogen trichloride in indoor chlorinated swimming pools
Industrial Toxicology Unit, Catholic University of Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
Biomarkers 7:464-78. 2002
..In view of the increasing and widespread human exposure to this gas not only in indoor pools but also in a variety of other situations, these findings warrant further study...
- Delinquent mortgages, neglected swimming pools, and West Nile virus, California
William K Reisen
Center for Vectorborne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Old Davis Rd, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 14:1747-9. 2008
..This led to large numbers of neglected swimming pools, which were associated with a 276% increase in the number of human West Nile virus cases during the summer of ..
- Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2001-2002
Jonathan S Yoder
Public Health Prevention Service, Epidemiology Program Office, CDC, USA
MMWR Surveill Summ 53:1-22. 2004
..This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease outbreaks on persons in the United States...
- Genotoxic effects in swimmers exposed to disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pools
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain
Environ Health Perspect 118:1531-7. 2010
..A recent study (Villanueva et al. 2007; Am J Epidemiol 165:148-156) found an increased bladder cancer risk among subjects attending swimming pools relative to those not attending.
- Short-term changes in respiratory biomarkers after swimming in a chlorinated pool
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain
Environ Health Perspect 118:1538-44. 2010
..Swimming in chlorinated pools involves exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and has been associated with impaired respiratory health...
- What's in the pool? A comprehensive identification of disinfection by-products and assessment of mutagenicity of chlorinated and brominated swimming pool water
Susan D Richardson
National Exposure Research Laboratory, U S Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Georgia 30606, USA
Environ Health Perspect 118:1523-30. 2010
- Detection of free living amoebae, Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in swimming pools, Malaysia
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Trop Biomed 27:566-77. 2010
This study reports the detection of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria species in 14 swimming pools around Petaling Jaya and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...
- Swimming pool attendance, asthma, allergies, and lung function in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:582-8. 2011
..Cross-sectional studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between recreational swimming pool attendance and asthma and allergic diseases in childhood...
- [Investigation of an outbreak of acute respiratory illness due to exposure to chlorine gas in a public swimming pool]
Diego Almagro Nievas
Unidad de Epidemiología y Programas del Distrito Metropolitano de Granada, Granada, Espana
Gac Sanit 22:287-90. 2008
..All cases recovered completely, except one who had a history of asthma...
- Cryptosporidium and Giardia in swimming pools in the Netherlands
F M Schets
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
J Water Health 2:191-200. 2004
The occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in indoor swimming pools in the Netherlands was studied at five locations...
- Effect of swimming pools on antibiotic use and clinic attendance for infections in two Aboriginal communities in Western Australia
Desiree T Silva
Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia
Med J Aust 188:594-8. 2008
To determine whether installation of swimming pools in remote Aboriginal communities reduces infection-related outpatient attendances and prescription of antibiotics.
- [Is Dutch swimming pool water erosive?]
P A Lokin
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, A Deusinglaan 1 9713 AV Groningen
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 111:14-6. 2004
..only the relatively safe sodium hypochlorite method is used, and the quality of the water in public swimming pools is monitored monthly by independent test laboratories...
- Poor-quality water in swimming pools associated with a substantial risk of otitis externa due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Faculty of Industrial Safety and Health, Sahel Park, Boulevard Sahel, Hakimyeh Tehranpars, Tehran, Iran
Water Sci Technol 50:63-7. 2004
There are many large and small public outdoor and indoor swimming pools in Tehran that hundreds of people use, especially on hot summer days...
- Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba in swimming pools: a survey in the southern Brazilian city of Porto Alegre
Programa de Pós Graduação em Microbiologia Agrícola e do Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 103:477-85. 2009
Between May 2006 and March 2007, 65 water samples were collected from both heated and unheated swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, the capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul...
- Benefits of swimming pools in two remote Aboriginal communities in Western Australia: intervention study
Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, PO Box 855, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia
BMJ 327:415-9. 2003
To determine the health impact of swimming pools built with the aim of improving quality of life and reducing high rates of pyoderma and otitis media.
- Effects of medium-pressure UV lamps radiation on water quality in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool
UPRES 2991, Efficience et Déficience Motrices, Faculte des Sciences du Sport, Universite Montpellier 1, 34090 Montpellier, France
Chemosphere 62:1507-13. 2006
..05 and P<0.001, respectively). The additional formation of chloroform and bromodichloromethane may be explained by the increase in active chlorine and by radicalizing mechanisms initiated by UV radiation...
- Infant swimming in chlorinated pools and the risks of bronchiolitis, asthma and allergy
Dept of Public Health, Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium
Eur Respir J 36:41-7. 2010
..Swimming pool attendance during infancy is associated with a higher risk of bronchiolitis, with ensuing increased risks of asthma and allergic sensitisation...
- Sporadic gastroenteritis and recreational swimming in a longitudinal community cohort study in Melbourne, Australia
School of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Am J Epidemiol 170:1469-77. 2009
..This study showed that although the incremental risk of recreational swimming is significant, it is relatively small...
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa in public swimming pools and bathroom water of patients with cystic fibrosis
Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Children s Hospital, 9006 St Gallen, Switzerland
J Cyst Fibros 4:227-31. 2005
..PA is a ubiquitous pathogen prevalent in humid conditions. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of PA in public swimming pools, as well as from water taps.
- Attendance at chlorinated indoor pools and risk of asthma in adult recreational swimmers
Department of Medicine, School of Sports Medicine, University of Verona, Italy
J Sci Med Sport 14:184-9. 2011
..statistical analysis revealed an independent association between the cumulative lifetime hours spent in indoor swimming pools and new onset asthma (relative risk 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.07)...
- Trihalomethane exposures in indoor swimming pools: a level III fugacity model
University of British Columbia Okanagan, School of Engineering, Kelowna, BC, Canada
Water Res 45:5084-98. 2011
The potential for generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in swimming pools is high due to the concentrations of chlorine required to maintain adequate disinfection, and the presence of organics introduced by the swimmers...
- Indoor heated swimming pools: the vulnerability of some infants to develop spinal asymmetries years later
Marianne E McMaster
Scottish National Paediatric Spine Centre, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, UK
Stud Health Technol Inform 123:151-5. 2006
Evidence reported in an earlier paper suggests that infants introduced to indoor heated swimming pools in the first year of life show an association with spinal asymmetries including progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and ..
- Measured occupational solar UVR exposures of lifeguards in pool settings
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria, Australia
Am J Ind Med 52:645-53. 2009
..The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices...
- Exposure assessment for swimmers in bathing waters and swimming pools
Franciska M Schets
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Water Res 45:2392-400. 2011
..The objective of this study was to collect exposure data for swimmers in fresh water, seawater and swimming pools, i.e. volume of water swallowed and frequency and duration of swimming events...
- Derivation of a toxicity reference value for nitrogen trichloride as a disinfection by-product
EHESP School of Public Health Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, avenue du professeur Leon Bernard, 35043 Rennes Cedex, France
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 56:357-64. 2010
..is a highly volatile chlorination disinfection by-product, very commonly found in the air of indoor swimming pools. The aim of this work is to characterize the hazard associated with it and to determine the concentration at ..
- [An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with swimming pools]
Nagano Prefectural Hokushin Health Center
Kansenshogaku Zasshi 82:14-9. 2008
..This report is, to our knowledge, the first of a cryptosporidiosis outbreak associated with swimming pools in Japan.
- Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods
Seoul Metropolitan Government Research Institute of Public Health and Environment, Gyeonggi Province 427 070, South Korea
Int J Hyg Environ Health 213:465-74. 2010
..bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine, and a ..
- Formation of disinfection by-products in indoor swimming pool water: the contribution from filling water natural organic matter and swimmer body fluids
Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Anderson, SC 29625, USA
Water Res 45:926-32. 2011
..Experiments with filling waters collected from WTP effluents at three different times showed more variability in HAA than THM formation at the WTPs studied...
- Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water
Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000, Thailand
J Environ Sci (China) 20:372-8. 2008
..Cancer risk from skin exposure while swimming was 94.18% of the total cancer risk...
- Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis
Marianne E McMaster
Scottish National Paediatric Spine Deformity Centre, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK
Environ Health 10:86. 2011
..a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS)...
- Chloroform in indoor swimming-pool air: monitoring and modeling coupled with the effects of environmental conditions and occupant activities
H T Hsu
Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No 91 Hsueh Shih Rd, Taichung, Taiwan
Water Res 43:3693-704. 2009
Human exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools has been recognized as a potential health concern...
- Characteristics of trihalomethane (THM) production and associated health risk assessment in swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods
Institute of Health and Environment, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 799, South Korea
Sci Total Environ 407:1990-7. 2009
..The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentrations of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in indoor swimming pools adopting these disinfection methods, and to examine the correlations between the concentrations of THMs and ..
- Haloacetic acids in swimming pools: swimmer and worker exposure
M J Cardador
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, E 14071 Córdoba, Spain
Environ Sci Technol 45:5783-90. 2011
..Finally, exposure estimates indicate that ingestion is the major route of exposure (~94%), followed by inhalation (~5%) and dermal contribution (~1%)...
- The role of unused swimming pools as a habitat for Anopheles immature stages in urban Malindi, Kenya
Daniel E Impoinvil
Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, University of Liverpool, 111 Main Building, Leahurst Neston, Cheshire CH64 7TE United Kingdom
J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24:457-9. 2008
..located in urban Malindi, Kenya, in 2005 and 2006 with the goal of determining the productivity of unused swimming pools in relation to other habitats...
- Swimming pool attendance and exhaled nitric oxide in children
J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:958-60. 2006
- Impact of chlorinated swimming pool attendance on the respiratory health of adolescents
Department of Public Health, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Pediatrics 124:1110-8. 2009
..The goal was to estimate the burden of allergic diseases associated with chlorinated pool exposure among adolescents...
- The relationship between water concentrations and individual uptake of chloroform: a simulation study
Heather J Whitaker
Small Area Health Statistics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
Environ Health Perspect 111:688-94. 2003
..6. Mothers who swam regularly received far greater doses than did nonswimmers. Results suggest there will be considerable attenuation in risk estimates and/or power loss in epidemiologic studies if the putative agent is chloroform...
- Prevalence and antimicrobial-resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs
Jonathan K Lutz
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OI 43210, USA
Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:554-64. 2011
..aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs...
- Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools
William A Weaver
School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2051, USA
Water Res 43:3308-18. 2009
Chlorination of indoor swimming pools is practiced for disinfection and oxidation of reduced compounds that are introduced to water by swimmers...
- Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams
M S Ali-Shtayeh
Department of Biological Sciences, An Najah University, Nablus, Palestinian Authority, Via Israel
Mycopathologia 156:193-205. 2002
..of keratinophilic fungal communities including dermatophytes were assessed in three stream sites and three swimming pools in the Nablus district in Palestine, using hair baiting (HBT) and surface dilution plate (SDP) techniques, ..
- Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis associated with a swimming pool inflatable
Health Protection Unit, Health House, Grange Park Lane, Willerby, UK
Epidemiol Infect 130:187-92. 2003
..Attention should be given to the problem of routine decontamination of swimming pool inflatables. P. aeruginosa folliculitis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin rashes in children, especially in Primary Care...
- The determinants of prevalence of health complaints among young competitive swimmers
Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, 945 Ave Wolfe, G1V 5B3, Sainte Foy, Quebec, Canada
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80:32-9. 2006
..The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of health complaints of young swimmers and young indoor soccer players and to evaluate the relationship between chloramine concentrations and the athletes' health complaints...
- Self-reported skin disease in hydrotherapists working in swimming pools
Contact Dermatitis Clinic, Meir Hospital, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar Saba, Israel
Contact Dermatitis 53:327-31. 2005
..We conclude that contact dermatitis should be recognized as an occupational disease in hydrotherapists...
- Exposure to trichloramine and respiratory symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers
J H Jacobs
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
Eur Respir J 29:690-8. 2007
..Aggravation of existing respiratory disease or interactions between irritants and allergen exposures are the most likely explanations for the observed associations...
- Diffusion of an effective skin cancer prevention program: design, theoretical foundations, and first-year implementation
Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Health Psychol 24:477-87. 2005
..on implementation, maintenance, and sustainability; improvements in environmental supports for sun safety in swimming pools; and sun protection habits and sunburn among participating children...
- Brief report: a brief intervention to improve lifeguard surveillance at a public swimming pool
David C Schwebel
Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
J Pediatr Psychol 32:862-8. 2007
..This study tested the efficacy of a brief intervention to improve lifeguard attention and surveillance at a public swimming pool...
- Swimming pool water--fractionation and genotoxicological characterization of organic constituents
Water Chemistry, Engler Bunte Institut, Universitat Karlsruhe TH, Engler Bunte Ring 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Water Res 39:4494-502. 2005
..Thus, considerable DBP removal by membrane treatment requires membranes with low-molecular weight cut offs down to 200 g/mol. The comprehensive elimination of the genotoxic compounds requires further treatment steps...
- Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?
University of Thessaly, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Larissa, Greece
BMC Public Health 6:306. 2006
..The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined...
- Nitrosamine carcinogens also swim in chlorinated pools
Spencer S Walse
Department of Chemical Engineering, Mason Laboratory 313b, Yale University, 9 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
Environ Sci Technol 42:1032-7. 2008
Highly carcinogenic N-nitrosodialkylamine (nitrosamine) disinfection byproducts were quantified in chlorinated swimming pools, hot tubs, and aquaria...
- Henry's law constant of N,N-dichloromethylamine: application to the contamination of the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools
Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l Eau, Universite de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 6008, ESIP, 40, avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex, France
Chemosphere 77:465-70. 2009
..Trace levels of DCMA (16-70 microg m(-3)) were detected in the atmosphere of an indoor swimming pool whereas the concentrations of DCMA in water pools were in the range 8.8-15 microg L(-1)...
- New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments
Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research IDAEA CSIC, Jordi Girona 18 26, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Anal Chim Acta 662:23-30. 2010
..Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure...
- Infant swimming practice, pulmonary epithelium integrity, and the risk of allergic and respiratory diseases later in childhood
Unit of Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, Avenue E Mounier 53, Box 53 02, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
Pediatrics 119:1095-103. 2007
Irritant gases and aerosols contaminating the air of indoor swimming pools can affect the lung epithelium and increase asthma risk in children...
- The good, the bad, and the volatile: can we have both healthy pools and healthy people?
Judy S LaKind
LaKind Associates, LLC, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Environ Sci Technol 44:3205-10. 2010
..Swimming is a healthful activity that comes with increased risk of exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and disinfection agents/byproducts...
- Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in schoolchildren: unexpected associations with the attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools
Industrial Toxicology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
Occup Environ Med 60:385-94. 2003
..To study whether exposure to nitrogen trichloride in indoor chlorinated pools may affect the respiratory epithelium of children and increase the risk of some lung diseases such as asthma...
- Occupational asthma caused by chloramines in indoor swimming-pool air
K M Thickett
Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK
Eur Respir J 19:827-32. 2002
..workers who developed occupational asthma following exposure to airborne chloramines in indoor chlorinated swimming pools is reported...
- Genotoxicity of water concentrates from recreational pools after various disinfection methods
Grup de Mutagenesi, Departament de Genetica i de Microbiologia, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Valles, Spain
Environ Sci Technol 44:3527-32. 2010
..Actions such as showering before entering the water and informing patrons about the potential harm from urinating in a pool could reduce the precursors of toxic DBPs...
- Chlorination products: emerging links with allergic diseases
Department of Public Health, Unit of Toxicology, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Curr Med Chem 14:1771-82. 2007
..Giving the increasing popularity of water recreational areas, there is an obvious need to assess the effects of chlorine-based oxidants on human health and their possible implication in the epidemic of allergic diseases...
- Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools
Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Biostatistics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
Sci Total Environ 264:257-65. 2001
The study evaluated occupational exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in indoor swimming pools. Thirty-two subjects, representing the whole workforce employed in the five public indoor swimming pools in the city of Modena (Northern Italy) ..
- Colonization of abandoned swimming pools by larval mosquitoes and their predators following Hurricane Katrina
Kevin A Caillouët
Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
J Vector Ecol 33:166-72. 2008
Thousands of flooded swimming pools were abandoned in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina and provided a natural experiment to examine colonization of a novel aquatic habitat by mosquito larvae and their aquatic predators...
- Indoor swimming pools, water chlorination and respiratory health
Eur Respir J 19:790-3. 2002
- Distribution and determinants of trihalomethane concentrations in indoor swimming pools
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Royal School of Mines, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP, UK
Occup Environ Med 59:243-7. 2002
..The purpose of this study was to estimate the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in some indoor swimming pools in London and their variation within and between pools and any correlation with other factors.
- Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations
Clifford P Weisel
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Environ Health Perspect 117:500-7. 2009
..we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children's exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming pools and associations with new-onset childhood asthma and recommend a research agenda to improve our understanding ..
- Longitudinal monitoring of lung injury in children after acute chlorine exposure in a swimming pool
Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padua, Italy
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:545-9. 2006
..Acute exposure to chlorine gas results in respiratory impairment, but few data are available on the pathobiology of the underlying lung damage...
- Formation of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pool water
Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, South Korea
Chemosphere 46:123-30. 2002
- Blood and breath analyses as biological indicators of exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita degli Studi di Modena, Italy
Sci Total Environ 217:155-63. 1998
In this article, exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in indoor swimming pools as a consequence of water chlorination is reported...
- Factors associated with seeking emergency treatment following suspected chemical contamination of a leisure pool
E C Goyder
School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield
Commun Dis Public Health 3:208-11. 2000
..The number of different symptoms was associated with the length of time spent at the pool, but not with being present at the time of the evacuation or with having heard about the incident on radio or television...
- Swimming pool attendance and hay fever rates later in life
GSF, National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Neuherberg, Germany
Allergy 61:1305-9. 2006
..The aim of our study was to assess whether pool attendance in childhood would be related to higher rates of allergic diseases in adulthood, with special regard to hay fever...
- Bladder cancer and exposure to water disinfection by-products through ingestion, bathing, showering, and swimming in pools
Cristina M Villanueva
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain
Am J Epidemiol 165:148-56. 2007
..57 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 2.09). Bladder cancer risk was associated with long-term exposure to THMs in chlorinated water at levels regularly occurring in industrialized countries...
- [Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in swimming pools in the province of Palermo, Italy]
Dipartimento di Igiene e Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Palermo
Ann Ig 18:367-74. 2006
21 samples of waters of 7 swimming pools in the province of Palermo were investigated for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts...
- Drowning in disinfection byproducts? Assessing swimming pool water
Engler Bunte Institute, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
Environ Sci Technol 41:363-72. 2007
Disinfection is mandatory for swimming pools: public pools are usually disinfected by gaseous chlorine or sodium hypochlorite and cartridge filters; home pools typically use stabilized chlorine...
- Outbreaks of short-incubation ocular and respiratory illness following exposure to indoor swimming pools
Anna B Bowen
Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector borne and Enteric Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333 USA
Environ Health Perspect 115:267-71. 2007
Chlorination destroys pathogens in swimming pool water, but by-products of chlorination can cause human illness. We investigated outbreaks of ocular and respiratory symptoms associated with chlorinated indoor swimming pools at two hotels.
- Ecological association between childhood asthma and availability of indoor chlorinated swimming pools in Europe
Department of Public Health, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Occup Environ Med 64:37-46. 2007
It has been hypothesised that the rise in childhood asthma in the developed world could result at least in part from the increasing exposure of children to toxic chlorination products in the air of indoor swimming pools.
- Outdoor swimming pools and the risks of asthma and allergies during adolescence
Dept of Public Health, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Eur Respir J 32:979-88. 2008
Exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools can be detrimental to the airways of swimmers and increase asthma risks but it is unknown whether these effects concern outdoor pools...
- Asthma and swimming pools: statistical issues
Occup Environ Med 61:475; author reply 476. 2004
- Efficacy of vectobac DT and culinexcombi against mosquito larvae in unused swimming pools in Malindi, Kenya
Samuel C Kahindi
Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P O Box 428, 80108 Kilifi, Kenya
J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24:538-42. 2008
..sphaericus [Bs]), were tested against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in temporarily unused swimming pools with rainwater in Malindi, Kenya...
- Evaluation of disinfectant efficacy against biofilm and suspended bacteria in a laboratory swimming pool model
D M Goeres
Center for Biofilm Engineering, 366 EPS Building, Montana State University Bozeman, Bozeman, MT 59717 3980, USA
Water Res 38:3103-9. 2004
..The research demonstrated the importance of studying a biofilm in addition to the planktonic bacteria to assess the microbial dynamics that exist in a swimming pool model...
- Do head lice spread in swimming pools?
School of Public Health, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
Int J Dermatol 46:1211-3. 2007
This study investigated the potential for head lice transmission in swimming pools using an in vitro experiment and a field trial...
- Health risks of early swimming pool attendance
GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
Int J Hyg Environ Health 211:367-73. 2008
..In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming...
- Health effects associated with indoor swimming pools: a suspected toxic chloramine exposure
S Cornelia Kaydos-Daniels
West Virginia Bureau for Public Health, Charleston, WV, USA
Public Health 122:195-200. 2008
- [A preliminary investigation on the occurrence of protozoa in swimming pools in Italy]
Dipartimento Ambiente e Connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma
Ann Ig 16:709-19. 2004
In Italy controls on the hygienic quality of swimming pools are fixed by the Accordo tra il Ministero della Salute, le regioni e le province autonome di Trento e di Bolzano, come into force in 2003...
- Pathways of trihalomethane uptake in swimming pools
University of Heidelberg, Institute for Hygiene, Dep Hygiene and Med Microbiology, Heidelberg, Germany
Int J Hyg Environ Health 207:571-5. 2004
..Blood concentrations are correlated to air chloroform concentrations; correlation to water concentrations is less obvious...
- Fractional exhaled NO and serum pneumoproteins after swimming in a chlorinated pool
School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1472-6. 2008
..The purpose of this study was to examine whether a swimming session performed in a pool sanitized with chlorine-based agents induces lung inflammation, modifies lung epithelium permeability, and alters lung function...
- Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools
Cattedra di Metodologia Epidemiologica ed Igiene, , Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, , Italy
J Chromatogr A 710:181-90. 1995
..as the result of disinfection with sodium hypochlorite was demonstrated in the water and ambient air of indoor swimming pools. Environmental monitoring was performed in 12 indoor swimming pools in northern Italy and the level of human ..
- [Indoor air and bathing water pollution in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Spain)]
Loreto Santa Marina
Subdirección de Salud Pública de Guipúzcoa, Departamento de Sanidad del Gobierno Vasco, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa, Espana
Gac Sanit 23:115-20. 2009
To describe levels of pollutants found in indoor swimming pools in Guipúzcoa (Basque Country, Spain), both in the bathing water and in the air, and to study the association between these pollutants and other variables related to ..
- Exhaled nitric oxide in children after accidental exposure to chlorine gas
Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany
Inhal Toxicol 19:895-8. 2007
..No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were seen in asymptomatic children. These data suggest that acute chlorine gas exposure results in a mild increase of exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children...
- Airway remodeling and inflammation in competitive swimmers training in indoor chlorinated swimming pools
Centre de Recherche de l Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:351-8, 358.e1. 2012
..Airway disorders are common in regular chlorinated swimming pool attendees, particularly competitive athletes, but the impact of intense swimming training on airway function and structure remains unclear...
- Pulmonary epithelial integrity in children: relationship to ambient ozone exposure and swimming pool attendance
Birgitta Json Lagerkvist
Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
Environ Health Perspect 112:1768-71. 2004
..However, children who regularly visited chlorinated indoor swimming pools had significantly lower CC16 levels in serum than did nonswimming children both before and after exercise (..
- Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2003-2004
Eric J Dziuban
Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases proposed, CDC, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
MMWR Surveill Summ 55:1-30. 2006
..In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States...
- Waterborne diseases prevention: evaluation of inspection scoring system for water sites according to water microbiological tests during the Athens 2004 pre-Olympic and Olympic period
University of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Larisa, Greece
J Epidemiol Community Health 60:829-35. 2006
..To evaluate the inspection grading system for water sites implemented during the Athens 2004 Olympic inspection programme...
- An outbreak of viral meningitis associated with a public swimming pond
A M Hauri
Government Health Service Institute, Dillenburg, Germany
Epidemiol Infect 133:291-8. 2005
..This outbreak demonstrates the potential of nature-like swimming ponds to cause widespread community infection with substantial public health impact...
- Unintentional drownings among New York State residents, 1988-1994
Marilyn L Browne
Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology, New York State Department of Health, 547 River Street, Room 200, Troy, NY 12180, USA
Public Health Rep 118:448-58. 2003
- Toddler drowning prevention: teaching parents about water safety in conjunction with their child's in-water lessons
Centre for Health and Physical Education, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 13:254-6. 2006
..Further research is required to determine how parents whose toddlers do not attend swimming lessons might similarly benefit from such a programme...
- Novel use of a swimming pool biocide in the treatment of a rare fungal mastoiditis
Christopher Y Chang
Division of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
Laryngoscope 115:1065-9. 2005
- Sanitary conditions of public swimming pools in Amman, Jordan
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Int J Environ Res Public Health 4:301-6. 2007
This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan...
- An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with an animal nursery at a regional fair
Rosie H Ashbolt
Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 27:244-9. 2003
..01). This is the first reported outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with an animal nursery in Australia. The outbreak demonstrates the importance of infection control policies and hygiene measures in the animal nursery setting...
- Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis at a California waterpark: employee and patron roles and the long road towards prevention
Epidemic Intelligence Service assigned to the California Department of Health Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
Epidemiol Infect 135:302-10. 2007
..Occurring more than a decade after the first reported outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in swimming pools, this outbreak demonstrates that messages about healthy swimming practices have not been adopted by pool ..
- [Treatment of thermal pool waters]
Dipartimento di Sanita Pubblica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma
Ig Sanita Pubbl 62:539-52. 2006
..of spa pool water, since it is not completely logical that these should have the same requirements as normal swimming pools. The problem arises especially with regards to the use of chlorine as a disinfectant, which may actually ..
- The chlorine hypothesis: fact or fiction?
M J Nieuwenhuijsen
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Primary Care and Population Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
Occup Environ Med 64:6-7. 2007