disease reservoirs

Summary

Summary: Animate or inanimate sources which harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs should be distinguished from vectors and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses
    Charles H Calisher
    Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:531-45. 2006
  2. pmc Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1842-7. 2005
  3. ncbi Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses
    Wendong Li
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS, Beijing, China
    Science 310:676-9. 2005
  4. ncbi Origins of major human infectious diseases
    Nathan D Wolfe
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1772, USA
    Nature 447:279-83. 2007
  5. pmc The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk
    Kathleen LoGiudice
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:567-71. 2003
  6. pmc Identifying reservoirs of infection: a conceptual and practical challenge
    Daniel T Haydon
    University of Edinburgh, Roslin, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1468-73. 2002
  7. ncbi Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus
    Eric M Leroy
    Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
    Nature 438:575-6. 2005
  8. ncbi Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife--threats to biodiversity and human health
    P Daszak
    Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Science 287:443-9. 2000
  9. ncbi Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds
    Bjorn Olsen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Umea University, SE 90187 Umea, Sweden
    Science 312:384-8. 2006
  10. pmc Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1
    Brandon F Keele
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Science 313:523-6. 2006

Detail Information

Publications273 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses
    Charles H Calisher
    Arthropod Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:531-45. 2006
    ..From these summaries, it is clear that we do not know enough about bat biology; we are doing too little in terms of bat conservation; and there remain a multitude of questions regarding the role of bats in disease emergence...
  2. pmc Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens
    Mark E J Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1842-7. 2005
    ..However, although zoonotic pathogens do represent the most likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious disease, only a small minority have proved capable of causing major epidemics in the human population...
  3. ncbi Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses
    Wendong Li
    Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS, Beijing, China
    Science 310:676-9. 2005
    ..The human and civet isolates of SARS-CoV nestle phylogenetically within the spectrum of SL-CoVs, indicating that the virus responsible for the SARS outbreak was a member of this coronavirus group...
  4. ncbi Origins of major human infectious diseases
    Nathan D Wolfe
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90095 1772, USA
    Nature 447:279-83. 2007
    ..We propose an initiative to resolve disputed origins of major diseases, and a global early warning system to monitor pathogens infecting individuals exposed to wild animals...
  5. pmc The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk
    Kathleen LoGiudice
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:567-71. 2003
    ..g., shrews), which are capable of maintaining high disease risk when mouse density is low. Our study suggests that the preservation of vertebrate biodiversity and community composition can reduce the incidence of Lyme disease...
  6. pmc Identifying reservoirs of infection: a conceptual and practical challenge
    Daniel T Haydon
    University of Edinburgh, Roslin, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:1468-73. 2002
    ..We discuss the practical value of different approaches that may be used to identify reservoirs in the field...
  7. ncbi Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus
    Eric M Leroy
    Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
    Nature 438:575-6. 2005
    ..We find evidence of asymptomatic infection by Ebola virus in three species of fruit bat, indicating that these animals may be acting as a reservoir for this deadly virus...
  8. ncbi Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife--threats to biodiversity and human health
    P Daszak
    Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Science 287:443-9. 2000
    ....
  9. ncbi Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds
    Bjorn Olsen
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Umea University, SE 90187 Umea, Sweden
    Science 312:384-8. 2006
    ....
  10. pmc Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1
    Brandon F Keele
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Science 313:523-6. 2006
    ..These findings establish P. t. troglodytes as a natural reservoir of HIV-1...
  11. pmc Marburg virus infection detected in a common African bat
    Jonathan S Towner
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Special Pathogens Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e764. 2007
    ..These data imply that more areas are at risk for MHF outbreaks than previously realized and correspond well with a recently published report in which three species of fruit bats were demonstrated to be likely reservoirs for Ebola virus...
  12. pmc Resting CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals carry integrated HIV-1 genomes within actively transcribed host genes
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Ross 1049, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:6122-33. 2004
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIV-1 genomes reside within actively transcribed host genes in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo...
  13. pmc Eco-bio-social determinants of dengue vector breeding: a multicountry study in urban and periurban Asia
    Natarajan Arunachalam
    Centre for Research in Medical Entomology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Madurai, TN, India
    Bull World Health Organ 88:173-84. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife
    Eric M Leroy
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR034, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
    Science 303:387-90. 2004
    ..Surveillance of animal mortality may help to predict and prevent human Ebola outbreaks...
  15. pmc Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague
    R D Perry
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 10:35-66. 1997
    ..These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague...
  16. ncbi Hantavirus infections in Europe
    Olli Vapalahti
    Division of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki and HUCH Laboratory Diagnostics, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:653-61. 2003
    ..Typing of a specific hantavirus infection requires neutralisation antibody assays or reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing...
  17. ncbi Bats as a continuing source of emerging infections in humans
    Samson Wong
    Department of Microbiology, Research Centre of Infection and Immunology, The University of Hong Kong, 4 F University Pathology Building, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
    Rev Med Virol 17:67-91. 2007
    ..A systematic survey of bats is warranted to better understand the ecology of these viruses...
  18. ncbi From the discovery of the Malta fever's agent to the discovery of a marine mammal reservoir, brucellosis has continuously been a re-emerging zoonosis
    Jacques Godfroid
    Département de Bactériologie et d Immunologie, Centre d Etude et de Recherches Vétérinaires et Agrochimiques, 99 Groeselenberg, 1180 Uccle, Belgium
    Vet Res 36:313-26. 2005
    ..e. B. cetaceae and B. pinnipediae, represents a new zoonotic threat but the pathogenicity for humans of the different Brucella species found in cetaceans and pinnipeds still has to be clearly established...
  19. ncbi Evidence of the role of European wild boar as a reservoir of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
    Victoria Naranjo
    Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM, Ronda de Toledo s n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
    Vet Microbiol 127:1-9. 2008
    ....
  20. pmc Carriage of Leptospira interrogans among domestic rats from an urban setting highly endemic for leptospirosis in Brazil
    Marcos Tucunduva de Faria
    Gonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of Health, Salvador, Brazil
    Acta Trop 108:1-5. 2008
    ....
  21. ncbi Climate change effects on trematodiases, with emphasis on zoonotic fascioliasis and schistosomiasis
    Santiago Mas-Coma
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 163:264-80. 2009
    ..All indicates that this phenomenon has been the reason for previous analyses to conclude that helminthiases do not constitute priority targets in climate change impact studies...
  22. ncbi Tick-borne encephalitis virus - a review of an emerging zoonosis
    K L Mansfield
    Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Surrey, UK
    J Gen Virol 90:1781-94. 2009
    ..We also discuss the factors which may have influenced an apparent increase in the number of reported human cases each year, despite the availability of effective vaccines...
  23. pmc Pteropid bats are confirmed as the reservoir hosts of henipaviruses: a comprehensive experimental study of virus transmission
    Kim Halpin
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Australia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:946-51. 2011
    ..An alternate assessment framework is required if we are to fully understand how this reservoir host maintains and transmits not only these but all viruses with which it has been associated...
  24. ncbi Coaxing HIV-1 from resting CD4 T cells: histone deacetylase inhibition allows latent viral expression
    Loyda Ylisastigui
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75390, USA
    AIDS 18:1101-8. 2004
    ..Histone deacetylase (HDAC), a host mediator of gene repression, inhibits HIV gene expression and virus production and may contribute to quiescence of HIV within resting CD4 T cells...
  25. pmc Food reservoir for Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections
    Caroline Vincent
    McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A2, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:88-95. 2010
    ..coli from human UTIs. This study provides strong support for the role of food reservoirs or foodborne transmission in the dissemination of E. coli causing common community-acquired UTIs...
  26. ncbi Ecological origins of novel human pathogens
    Mark Woolhouse
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Crit Rev Microbiol 33:231-42. 2007
    ..We also consider the public health implications of the continuing emergence of new pathogens, focusing on the importance of international surveillance...
  27. pmc Tracing the source of campylobacteriosis
    Daniel J Wilson
    Department of Maths and Statistics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000203. 2008
    ..Our results imply that the primary transmission route is through the food chain, and suggest that incidence could be dramatically reduced by enhanced on-farm biosecurity or preventing food-borne transmission...
  28. pmc Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya
    J Teun Bousema
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Malar J 3:18. 2004
    ..This study identified factors that influence gametocytaemia in asymptomatic children in the absence and presence of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (SP) antimalarial treatment...
  29. pmc An ecological approach to preventing human infection: vaccinating wild mouse reservoirs intervenes in the Lyme disease cycle
    Jean I Tsao
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18159-64. 2004
    ..Thus, where nonmouse hosts play a large role in infection dynamics, vaccination should be directed at additional species...
  30. ncbi Super-shedding and the link between human infection and livestock carriage of Escherichia coli O157
    Margo Chase-Topping
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:904-12. 2008
    ..More generally, epidemiological evidence suggests that super-shedding might be important in other bacterial and viral infections...
  31. ncbi Assigning the source of human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand: a comparative genetic and epidemiological approach
    Petra Mullner
    Molecular Epidemiology and Veterinary Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Infect Genet Evol 9:1311-9. 2009
    ..The comparative-modeling and molecular sentinel surveillance approach proposed in this study provides new opportunities for the management of zoonotic diseases...
  32. pmc Hepatitis E virus: animal reservoirs and zoonotic risk
    X J Meng
    Center for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg VA, USA
    Vet Microbiol 140:256-65. 2010
    ..Accumulating evidence indicated that hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease, and swine and perhaps other animal species are reservoirs for HEV. A vaccine against HEV is not yet available...
  33. pmc Henipavirus RNA in African bats
    Jan Felix Drexler
    Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e6367. 2009
    ..These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat...
  34. pmc The duration of the effects of repeated widespread badger culling on cattle tuberculosis following the cessation of culling
    Helen E Jenkins
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e9090. 2010
    ..However, a full assessment of the utility of badger culling requires information on the duration of culling effects...
  35. pmc Ecology and transmission of Buruli ulcer disease: a systematic review
    Richard W Merritt
    Department of Entomology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e911. 2010
    ..The application of these criteria to the transmission of M. ulcerans presents a significant challenge...
  36. pmc A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by Norway rats in Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J D Easterbrook
    The W Harry Feinstone Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 135:1192-9. 2007
    ..The risk of human exposure to these pathogens is a significant public health concern. Because these pathogens cause non-specific and often self-limiting symptoms in humans, infection in human populations is probably underdiagnosed...
  37. pmc Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States
    Charles S Apperson
    Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:71-82. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts...
  38. ncbi Public health. Pathogen surveillance in animals
    T Kuiken
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Science 309:1680-1. 2005
  39. pmc Risk maps of Lassa fever in West Africa
    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
    Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e388. 2009
    ..In addition, meteorological rainfall data collected between 1951 and 1989 were used to generate a synoptic rainfall surface for the same region...
  40. ncbi Management of bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife: current status and near term prospects
    Daniel J O'Brien
    Wildlife Disease Laboratory, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 4125 Beaumont Road, Lansing, MI 48910 8106, USA
    Vet Microbiol 151:179-87. 2011
    ..Yet formidable challenges remain, and evidence suggests that eradication of bTB, if it can be achieved, will take decades, and will require greater public and political resolve than has been demonstrated thus far...
  41. pmc Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors
    Bruno B Chomel
    Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Vet Res 40:29. 2009
    ..However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity/restriction, the mode of transmission, and the bacterial factors involved in arthropod infection and transmission is still limited...
  42. ncbi Poor housing quality increases risk of rodent infestation and Lassa fever in refugee camps of Sierra Leone
    Phillip Cullison Bonner
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:169-75. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that risk of Lassa fever in refugee camps depends on individual housing quality and the hygiene of the immediate surrounding environment...
  43. ncbi Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus
    Daniel G Bausch
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA
    N Engl J Med 355:909-19. 2006
    ..An outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever was first observed in a gold-mining village in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in October 1998...
  44. ncbi Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles): the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology and control
    L A L Corner
    School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    J Comp Pathol 144:1-24. 2011
    ..A combination of strategies, which employ the optimal use and targeting of resources, is likely to make a significant contribution towards eradication of the disease...
  45. ncbi Ecology of Marburg and Ebola viruses: speculations and directions for future research
    T P Monath
    Research and Medical Affairs, OraVax, Inc, Cambridge Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:S127-38. 1999
    ..Such viruses may have separate life cycles or may give rise to virulent strains by mutation...
  46. pmc Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: mechanisms of coronavirus cross-species transmission
    Rachel L Graham
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2105D McGaveran Greenberg Hall, CB7, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Virol 84:3134-46. 2010
    ..We pay particular attention to how changes in the Spike attachment protein, both within and outside of the receptor binding domain, mediate the emergence of coronaviruses in new host populations...
  47. ncbi Identification of human-infective trypanosomes in animal reservoir of sleeping sickness in Uganda by means of serum-resistance-associated (SRA) gene
    S C Welburn
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, EH25 9RG, Edinburgh, UK
    Lancet 358:2017-9. 2001
    ..We investigated the use of a simple genetic marker to characterise parasites collected from cattle in villages within the new sleeping sickness focus in Soroti District, Uganda...
  48. ncbi Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying-foxes
    Kaw Bing Chua
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Lumpur, Kuala, Malaysia
    Microbes Infect 4:145-51. 2002
    ..The isolation of Nipah virus from the Island flying-fox corroborates the serological evidence that it is one of the natural hosts of the virus...
  49. ncbi From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence
    Jean Marc Duplantier
    Programme RAMSE, IRD Madagascar, Madagascar
    Vet Res 36:437-53. 2005
    ..pestis to survive, to be transmitted to new hosts, and to colonize new environments. Therefore, any environmental change should be taken as a warning signal and active surveillance programs should be initiated...
  50. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)
    N Komar
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:387-91. 1999
    ..Although starlings are not originally native where EEE is enzootic, a starling can infect about three times as many mosquitoes as can a robin...
  51. ncbi Fluctuating rodent populations and risk to humans from rodent-borne zoonoses
    S Davis
    Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5:305-14. 2005
    ..The few longer field studies (>5 years) show a positive but delayed relationship between reservoir abundance and reservoir prevalence...
  52. ncbi Reducing costs and operational constraints of dengue vector control by targeting productive breeding places: a multi-country non-inferiority cluster randomized trial
    W Tun-Lin
    Department of Medical Research, Yangon, Myanmar
    Trop Med Int Health 14:1143-53. 2009
    ....
  53. ncbi Outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Israel
    Raymond L Jacobson
    Department of Parasitology, The Kuvin Center for Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    J Infect Dis 188:1065-73. 2003
    ..tropica foci. P. arabicus is the main vector, and it transmits parasites that are different from other L. tropica isolates, with respect to antigenic, molecular, and biochemical parameters...
  54. ncbi Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species
    Nicole Nemeth
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:1-13. 2006
    ..We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding...
  55. pmc Hantavirus in African wood mouse, Guinea
    Boris Klempa
    Institute of Virology, Charite Medical School, Campus Charite Mitte, Schumannstrasse 20 21, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:838-40. 2006
    ..Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the genetic material demonstrate a novel hantavirus species, which we propose to name "Sangassou virus."..
  56. ncbi The role of birds in the ecology of West Nile virus in Europe and Africa
    M Malkinson
    Kimron Veterinary Institute, Beit Dagan 50250, Israel
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:309-22. 2002
    ..If this is the case it will be necessary to define the strategies for detection of virus overwintering in the European temperate climate...
  57. ncbi Epizootiologic survey of Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife and farm environments in northern Michigan
    Gary Witmer
    US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Ave, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 2154, USA
    J Wildl Dis 46:368-78. 2010
    ....
  58. ncbi Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance
    Ajay R Bharti
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:757-71. 2003
    ..Mainstays of treatment are still tetracyclines and beta-lactam/cephalosporins. No vaccine is available. Prevention is largely dependent on sanitation measures that may be difficult to implement, especially in developing countries...
  59. ncbi Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus Leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where Lyme Borreliosis is highly endemic
    Jonas Bunikis
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 4025, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1515-23. 2004
    ..burgdorferi by late August, coinciding with the peak activity period of host-seeking larvae uninfected with the spirochete Ixodes scapularis, thereby perpetuating the agent through succeeding generations of ticks...
  60. pmc First isolation and direct evidence for the existence of large small-mammal reservoirs of Leptospira sp. in Madagascar
    Soanandrasana Rahelinirina
    Plague Unit, Pasteur Institute, Antananarivo, Madagascar
    PLoS ONE 5:e14111. 2010
    ..Leptospirosis has long been a major public health concern in the southwestern Indian Ocean. However, in Madagascar, only a few, old studies have provided indirect serological evidence of the disease in humans or animals...
  61. ncbi Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis
    Peter Deplazes
    Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr 266a, CH 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
    Trends Parasitol 20:77-84. 2004
    ..multilocularis. Such studies are essential for estimating the risk of transmission to humans and to determine the basics for the development of control strategies...
  62. ncbi Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in healthy young beef steers from Argentina: prevalence and virulence properties
    Lelis Meichtri
    Instituto Tecnología de Alimentos, Centro de Investigación de Agroindustria, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, C C 77 C P B1708WAB, Moron, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Int J Food Microbiol 96:189-98. 2004
    ..This research indicates that young steers from the main beef-producing area of Argentina are an important reservoir of STEC strains; however, its importance as agents of human diseases in our country has still to be established...
  63. ncbi Sympatric Ixodes trianguliceps and Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on field voles (Microtus agrestis): potential for increased risk of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the United Kingdom?
    K J Bown
    Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:404-10. 2006
    ..trianguliceps, which may alone maintain endemic cycles, and exophilic I. ricinus ticks, which could act as a bridge vector and transmit infections to humans and domesticated animals...
  64. ncbi Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007
    Eric M Leroy
    Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville CIRMF, Franceville, Gabon
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:723-8. 2009
    ..These findings support the suspected role of bats in the natural cycle of Ebola virus and indicate that the massive seasonal fruit bat migrations should be taken into account in operational Ebola risk maps and seasonal alerts in the DRC...
  65. pmc Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in waterborne protozoa
    W J Snelling
    School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine Campus, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co Londonderry, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5560-71. 2005
    ....
  66. pmc Tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts
    Philippe Parola
    Unite des Rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR 48, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:719-56. 2005
    ..We present here the tick-borne rickettsioses described through 2005 and focus on the epidemiological circumstances that have played a role in the emergence of the newly recognized diseases...
  67. pmc Using geographic information system-based ecologic niche models to forecast the risk of hantavirus infection in Shandong Province, China
    Lan Wei
    State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:497-503. 2011
    ..These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts...
  68. ncbi The socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors associated with leptospirosis in an urban area of north-eastern Brazil
    D S C Oliveira
    Laboratório de Doenças Transmissíveis, Departamento de Parasitologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes, Avenida Moraes Rego, S N, CEP 50670 420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 103:149-57. 2009
    ..55/month), and the proportion of households from which rubbish was dumped in skips, lakes, rivers or the sea or on vacant land - explained 60% (P=0.017) of the differences in disease risk observed between the various areas of the city...
  69. ncbi Prevalence of Calodium hepaticum (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) in house mice (Mus musculus) in the Azores archipelago
    A R Resendes
    Department of Biology, University of the Azores, Apartado 1422, 9501 855 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
    Vet Parasitol 160:340-3. 2009
    ..The high rate of infection found in the present study suggests that house mice are an important reservoir for this parasite in the Azores and could have a role in human transmission...
  70. ncbi The coati (Nasua nasua, Carnivora, Procyonidae) as a reservoir host for the main lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Pantanal region, Brazil
    H M Herrera
    Laboratório de Biologia de Tripanosomatídeos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040 900, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:1133-9. 2008
    ..cruzi subpopulations. Our data give support that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi transmission and perpetuation in the wild...
  71. ncbi Food web connections and the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in the Pantanal Region, Brazil
    H M Herrera
    Laboratório de Biologia de Tripanosomatídeos, FIOCRUZ RJ Av Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105:380-7. 2011
    ..cruzi and T. evansi in the southern Pantanal region takes place via an intricate ecological trophic network involving generalist and specialist mammal species that are linked through a robust food-web connection...
  72. pmc Introduced Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus barberi) harbor more-diverse Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies than native bank voles (Myodes glareolus)
    M Marsot
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UR 346 Epidémiologie Animale, 63122 Saint Genes Champanelle, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:5716-21. 2011
    ..afzelii. If chipmunks are competent reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi sensu lato, they may spill back B. burgdorferi sensu lato to native communities and eventually may increase the risk of Lyme disease transmission to humans...
  73. ncbi Lesions associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in the European wild boar
    María Paz Martín-Hernando
    Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM, Ronda de Toledo s n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 87:360-7. 2007
    ..Further studies on the routes of excretion as well as the effect of altering management methods would be of interest to confirm the role of wild boar in TB epidemiology in Spain...
  74. pmc The natural progression of Gambiense sleeping sickness: what is the evidence?
    Francesco Checchi
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e303. 2008
    ..Self-resolving and asymptomatic chronic infections probably constitute a minority if they do indeed exist. Chronic carriage, however, deserves further study, as it could seed renewed epidemics after control programmes cease...
  75. ncbi Environmental factors affecting transmission risk for hantaviruses in forested portions of southern Brazil
    Maria R Donalisio
    Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Acta Trop 119:125-30. 2011
    ..Host distribution maps indicate overlap of several species of Oligoryzomys in the transmission area, showing the necessity of more detailed reservoir-based studies to detect finer-scale infection foci...
  76. ncbi Experimental aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis in North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana)
    Scott D Fitzgerald
    Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, P O Box 30076, Lansing, Michigan 48909, USA
    J Wildl Dis 39:418-23. 2003
    ....
  77. pmc Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals
    Michael A Jhung
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1039-45. 2008
    ..Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans...
  78. ncbi Experimental inoculation of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with Mycobacterium bovis
    Kelly L Diegel
    Department of Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, P O Box 30076, Lansing, Michigan 48909, USA
    J Wildl Dis 38:275-81. 2002
    ..The findings suggest that opossums are susceptible to M. bovis infection by multiple routes, although their relative susceptibility compared to true reservoir hosts appears to be low...
  79. ncbi Replication of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in naturally infected Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) causes no morphologic lesions
    Pierre Yves Daoust
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
    J Wildl Dis 47:401-9. 2011
    ..The lack of lesions associated with this infection suggests that there is a strong selection by LPAI virus to cause minimal virulence in this maintenance host species...
  80. ncbi Rickettsia spp. in wild small mammals in Lower Bavaria, South-Eastern Germany
    Susanne Schex
    Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, Munich, Germany
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 11:493-502. 2011
    ..However, with the course of infection and its transmission in wild animals still unknown, further investigations are needed to better understand the natural cycle of SFG rickettsiae...
  81. ncbi The effects of annual widespread badger culls on cattle tuberculosis following the cessation of culling
    Helen E Jenkins
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Int J Infect Dis 12:457-65. 2008
    ....
  82. pmc Leishmania tropica in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) in a focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Dalit Talmi-Frank
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University, Rehovot, Israel
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:814-8. 2010
    ..The high rates of infection and exposure to L. tropica among hyraxes supports their involvement in the transmission cycle of this parasite, and their potential role as a reservoir for human disease...
  83. ncbi Susceptibility of raccoons (Procyon lotor) to infection with Mycobacterium bovis
    Mitchell V Palmer
    Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Services, USDA, 2300 N Dayton Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA
    J Wildl Dis 38:266-74. 2002
    ..The need for multiple large oral doses to establish infection, and the low number of orally inoculated raccoons that excreted M. bovis in nasal secretions or saliva, suggest that wide-spread tuberculosis among raccoons is unlikely...
  84. pmc Kinetics of immune responses in deer mice experimentally infected with Sin Nombre virus
    Tony Schountz
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado, USA
    J Virol 86:10015-27. 2012
    ..Together, these data suggest that a subtle immune response that fails to clear the virus occurs in deer mice...
  85. ncbi Wild boars as an important reservoir for foodborne pathogens
    Silke Wacheck
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Food Hygiene and Technology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 7:307-12. 2010
    ..This study shows that wild boars are frequent carriers of foodborne pathogens. High wild boar densities and increasing popularity of outdoor ranging of pigs may intensify the risk of transmission of these pathogens to fattening pigs...
  86. pmc Localized reactive badger culling increases risk of bovine tuberculosis in nearby cattle herds
    Flavie Vial
    MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Biol Lett 8:50-3. 2012
    ..Such findings may partly explain why some earlier localized approaches to bTB control were ineffective...
  87. ncbi The role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern India
    Rebecca J Traub
    World Health Organization Collaborating Center for the Molecular Epidemiology of Parasitic Infections, Division of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:539-45. 2002
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the role of the dog as a significant disseminator and environmental contaminator of Ascaris lumbricoides in communities where promiscuous defecation by humans occurs...
  88. ncbi Tuberculosis in badgers; a review of the disease and its significance for other animals
    J Gallagher
    Central Veterinary Laboratory, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Res Vet Sci 69:203-17. 2000
    ..Trials of the effects of the removal of badgers on the occurrence of tuberculosis in cattle are summarised. It is concluded that badgers are well adapted as the primary host of bovine tuberculosis in parts of Britain and much of Ireland...
  89. ncbi Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife and livestock
    Stephen M Schmitt
    Wildlife Disease Laboratory, Rose Lake Wildlife Research Station, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, East Lansing, Michigan 48823, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 969:262-8. 2002
    ..The measures of apparent TB prevalence have been decreased by half since 1997, providing hopeful preliminary evidence that eradication strategies are succeeding...
  90. pmc Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza
    Jeong Ki Kim
    Division of Virology, Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 3678, USA
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 3:121-8. 2009
    ..It is generally accepted that wild duck species can spread HP H5N1 viruses, but there is insufficient evidence to show that ducks maintain these viruses and transfer them from one generation to the next...
  91. pmc Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina
    R E Gurtler
    Laboratorio de Eco Epidemiología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Parasitology 134:69-82. 2007
    ..The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats...
  92. ncbi Targeting the hypnozoite reservoir of Plasmodium vivax: the hidden obstacle to malaria elimination
    Timothy N C Wells
    Medicines for Malaria Venture, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trends Parasitol 26:145-51. 2010
    ..New developments in cell biology are starting to open ways to the next generation of drugs against hypnozoites. This search is urgent, given the time needed to develop a new medication...
  93. ncbi Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle among wild and domestic mammals in three areas of orally transmitted Chagas disease outbreaks
    André Luiz R Roque
    Laboratory of Tripanosomatid Biology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:742-9. 2008
    ..The importance of a reduction in wild mammalian fauna diversity and selection of suitable T. cruzi reservoir hosts are discussed as risk factors for the re-emergence of Chagas disease...
  94. ncbi Natural Plasmodium infections in Brazilian wild monkeys: reservoirs for human infections?
    Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte
    Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Superintendência de Controle de Endemias SUCEN, Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, Rua Paula Souza 166, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Acta Trop 107:179-85. 2008
    ..Furthermore, these findings raise the question of the relationship between simian and autochthonous human malaria in extra-Amazonian regions...
  95. ncbi Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers
    T Khanna
    Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
    Vet Microbiol 128:298-303. 2008
    ..This study demonstrates that MRSA is common in pigs in Ontario, Canada, and provides further support to concerns about transmission of MRSA between pigs and humans...
  96. ncbi Contrasting reservoirs for Schistosoma japonicum between marshland and hilly regions in Anhui, China--a two-year longitudinal parasitological survey
    Da Bing Lu
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Parasitology 137:99-110. 2010
    ..Such results may have implications for the current human- and bovine-oriented control policy for this medically and veterinarily important disease, particularly within the hilly regions of mainland China...
  97. ncbi Leishmaniasis in Israel and the Palestinian Authority
    Charles L Jaffe
    Department of Parasitology, Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, PO Box 12272, Jerusalem 91220, Israel
    Trends Parasitol 20:328-32. 2004
  98. ncbi Wildlife reservoirs for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Canada: strategies for management and research
    John S Nishi
    Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Box 900, Government of the Northwest Territories, Fort Smith, NT X0E 0P0, Canada
    Vet Microbiol 112:325-38. 2006
    ..where wildlife populations are infected with bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) and considered to be disease reservoirs. Free-ranging populations of wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in and around Wood Buffalo National Park (..
  99. ncbi Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections
    Henri Jean Boulouis
    Microbiologie immunologie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d Alfort, 7 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94704 Maisons Alfort, France
    Vet Res 36:383-410. 2005
    ..Furthermore, a description of the main epidemiological and clinical features of zoonotic Bartonellae is given. Finally, the main means for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases are presented...
  100. ncbi Transmission studies of Hendra virus (equine morbillivirus) in fruit bats, horses and cats
    M M Williamson
    CSIRO, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria
    Aust Vet J 76:813-8. 1998
    ..To determine the infectivity and transmissibility of Hendra virus (HeV)...
  101. pmc Tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild rodents in winter, Finland, 2008-2009
    Elina Tonteri
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:72-5. 2011
    ..Persistence in rodent reservoirs may contribute to virus overwintering...

Research Grants65

  1. Production of OspA in rice for the control of Lyme Disease
    Ning Huang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..An alternative approach to protecting humans from Lyme disease is to vaccinate the disease reservoirs to reduce or eliminate B...
  2. Outbreak detection:combinatorial tests for small samples
    SCOTT D FERSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2000). Additionally, they can have broad effect on the general population, acting as disease reservoirs and leading to increased overall incidence...
  3. Production of OspA in rice for the control of Lyme Disease
    Ning Huang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..An alternate approach to protecting humans from Lyme disease is to vaccinate the disease reservoirs to reduce or eliminate B...
  4. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This information will be invaluable in targeting prevention and control resources, especially for obtaining maximum benefit in developing countries with limited resources. ..
  5. HOST COMPETENCE FACTORS AFFECT ARBOVIRUS TRANSMISSION
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Studies will assess how alternating sequential infections between vertebrate and vector species that are part of the natural transmission cycle may alter virus genetics and fitness. ..
  6. ARBOVIRUS PERSISTENCE IN SEASONAL WETLANDS
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Virus ecology at wetlands in the Coachella Valley of southeastern California with consistent enzootic activity will be compared with wetlands in the southern San Joaquin Valley where virus activity currently is intermittent. ..
  7. COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PANDEMIC INFLUENZA
    Robert Webster; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  8. LYME DISEASE IN WESTERN USA: ECOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Robert Lane; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Development of this risk model, which culminates over 2 decades of intensive study, should contribute significantly to our knowledge of the landscape ecology and epidemiology of LD in this region. ..
  9. ZOONOTIC AND XENOZOONOTIC RISKS OF HEPATITIS E VIRUS
    Xiang Jin Meng; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. Antigenic variation in rickettsial transmission
    Guy Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This hypothesis will be addressed using comprehensive identification of the variant population in the reservoir host and tick vector and testing whether immune responses against a broad array of variants prevents superinfection. ..
  11. Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus as a SARS Model
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Prevalence and Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus in the United States
    Kenrad Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. The Role of a Novel Coronavirus In Kawasaki Disease
    Jeffrey Kahn; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We have identified a novel human virus, designated the New Haven coronavirus that is associated with KD. The goals of this study is to investigate the role of this novel virus in KD. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  14. Mosquito-Virus-Host Interactions and WNV Pathogenesis
    Kristen Bernard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The research proposed in this application is significant because understanding this complex interaction is essential to developing innovative treatment and control strategies for WNV. ..
  15. Population dynamics of a bird-borne arbovirus
    Charles Brown; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..e., colony sites) can be reliably identified and ecological hypotheses tested. ..
  16. HIV Vaccines on Latent Reservoirs in Young Adults on HAART
    Deborah Persaud; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Clinical specimens and analytic resources from VRC and PACTG provide a unique opportunity to study pathogenesis of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infected individuals. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. Spread of Lyme borreliosis bacteria in the U.S.
    Durland Fish; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Who drives safely? Visual/cognitive predictors in Elders
    Sheila West; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This study will provide critical data on the interactive role of vision, visual attention, and cognition in changing older persons driving behaviors, and the resulting effect on driver errors and risk of crashes. ..
  19. Immunobiology and Prevention of H. pylori Disease
    Phillip Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..pylori urease plus IL-10 or FoxP3 (the Tr cell transcription factor) protects mice against H. pylori infection. ..
  20. Developing Avirulent Rabies Virus Vaccines
    Zhen F Fu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such characterists will make these recombinant RV vaccines particularly suitable for post-exposure treatment. ..
  21. Alcohol and HIV Risk Reduction in St. Petersburg, R.F.
    Nadia Abdala; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to immediately develop and test a theory-based risk reduction intervention for men and women who drink alcohol, who are seeking VCT at STI clinics and are at risk for contracting and transmitting HIV in St Petersburg, Russia. ..
  22. HIV-1 chemoprophylaxis and archived drug resistance in infants
    Deborah Persaud; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  23. ROLE OF NON-CLASSICAL MHC CLASS I AND HSPs IN IMMUNITY
    Jacques Robert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Do hsp70 and gp96 generate similar anti-tumor CCU-CTL effectors? Aim 3. How important is the hsp-generated CCU-CTL responses in tumor immunity in vivo? Aim 4. Do CCU-CTLs interact with class Ib molecules? ..
  24. Perpetuation of Francisella tularensis
    Sam R Telford; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Taken together, these observations will provide a basis for understanding how the agent of tularemia is perpetuated on Martha's Vineyard, and why pneumonic human disease is prevalent there. ..
  25. Analysis of L. Pneumophilia Virulence Regulation
    MICHELE SOMES SWANSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, concepts and pathways identified here can also guide studies and management of less tractable intracellular pathogens such as the Mycobacteria, Chlamydia, Francisella, and Coxiella species. ..
  26. Ecological relationships of Mycobacterium Infection
    RICHARD MERRITT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  27. Regulating I. scapularis and the Role of Entomopathogenic Fungi
    Thomas Daniels; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..scapularis in lab studies. Long- term health benefits might also accrue with the reduction in pesticide use those results from the availability of an effective biocontrol agent. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. Symposium on the Landscape Ecology of Infectious Disease
    MICHAEL WIMBERLY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Evasion of Macrophage Lysosomes by L pneumophilia
    MICHELE SWANSON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  30. Immune Responses During Measles Virus Infection
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3. To determine the roles of different CD4 and CD8 T cell populations in production of cytokines at various times during measles and the effect of concurrent HIV infection on these roles. ..
  31. Pathogenesis of Macrophage Tropic HIV-1
    Paul Gorry; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Understanding the molecular basis of enhanced M-tropism will provide further insights into HIV-1 pathogenesis, which is vital for the development of new inhibitors for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. ..
  32. Effect of Alcohol on HIV-1 Immune Responses & BBB Damage
    Yuri Persidsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The ability to use an in vitro BBB and an in vivo animal model will help in defining mechanisms of disease progression in the setting of alcohol abuse. ..
  33. Comparison of US and European Babesia divergens Isolates
    Patricia Holman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The molecular aspects may provide information that will be useful in future efforts to devise diagnostic tests. ..
  34. Genetic Determinants of Anaplasma Transmission
    SUSAN NOH; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The sponsor has an active research program in vector borne disease has successfully mentored clinicians, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows to research independence. ..
  35. IMMUNE RESPONSES TO ROTAVIRUS-- ROLE MATERNAL ANTIBODIES
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Clarification of the mechanisms of suppression by maternal Ab and means to overcome them will lead to more efficacious vaccines for both RV and other pathogens infecting neonates. ..
  36. AMD AND RISK FACTORS IN A HISPANIC POPULATION
    Sheila West; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Such data will advance our understanding of the magnitude of AMD in this ethnic group, and the way in which risk factors relate to AMD in different populations. ..
  37. HUMAN EHRLICHIOSIS SURVEILLANCE AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
    William Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  38. FUSION COMPETENT HIV VACCINE IMMUNOGENS
    JACK NUNBERG; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  39. INTERVENTIONS FOR VISUAL LOSS IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS
    Sheila West; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This trial will answer timely questions of the impact on the functional status of the most frail elderly of modest, potentially sustainable inputs into improving the appropriate utilization of eye care services. ..
  40. INHIBITION OF HHV 8 GENE EXPRESSION BY RIBOZYMES
    Thomas Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  41. ROLES OF EHRLICHIAL OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN IN PARASITISM
    Yasuko Rikihisa; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Aim 5 addresses hypothesis 3 by examining the effects of immunization with the ehrlichial OMP in a mouse model of human ehrlichiosis. ..
  42. MEASLES VACCINES--IMMUNE RESPONSES AND ATYPICAL MEASLES
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  43. Proximal determinants of risk for tularemia outbreaks
    Sam Telford; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..tularensis in the environment; and, ultimately, a better understanding of F. tularensis-host interactions. ..
  44. CYTOLYTIC T CELL RESPONSE IN AIDS VACCINE RECIPENTS
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..nonresponders. Antigen processing and presentation will then be studied using cells from non-responders. Finally the ability of HIV-1 specific CTL to lyse newly or chronically infected resting CD4 T cells will be examined. ..
  45. Antigenic Relationships of SARS and Animal Coronaviruses
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Animal models of hantavirus cardiopulmonary disease
    CHARLES FULHORST; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A mouse model of severe or lethal HCPS could substantively augment studies on the pathogenesis of the capillary leak that results in the life-threatening pulmonary edema HCPS. ..
  47. The role of aquatic Invertebrates in M. ulcerans Disease
    RICHARD MERRITT; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..g., deforestation, agriculture), BU incidence, and limnological and biological characteristics of waterbodies to better understand the epidemiology of this important emerging disease. ..
  48. Virological Surveillance of influenza A in Asian lakes
    Scott Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..If the lake water and ice are significant reservoirs of influenza, then continued surveillance of arctic lakes may lead to another tool in the battle against this disease. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Significance of Oral KS in an African Setting
    Thomas Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It is expected that the results of these studies will provide useful information to programs for introduction of contemporary antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited areas of Africa. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  50. Complete Characterization of the 1918 Influenza Virus
    JEFFERY TAUBENBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  51. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS C INFECTION IN THAILAND
    Kenrad Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Through the transfer of technology for HCV research to our collaborators, we hope to focus on understanding the biology and epidemiology of HCV and the development of more effective prevention of HCV. ..
  52. 2007 Viruses & Cells Gordon Conference
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. TRIAL OF ANTIBIOTICS TO REDUCE RECURRENT TRICHIASIS
    Sheila West; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  54. Epidemiology of Hep E Virus Infections in Bangladesh
    Kenrad Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  55. Natural History of Borrelia lonestari
    Susan Little; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..S., enhancing public health efforts in those areas where people are risk of infection; reduction in human disease from these pathogens should result. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Genetics of Dengue Vector Competence in Aedes aegypti
    William Black; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..DS2 and DR2 will be used in the construction of recombinant inbred lines for use in a subtractive hybridization approach to clone cDNAs putatively encoded bydmib3and to assist in a collaborative effort to positionally clone dmib3. ..
  57. Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System: Pathogenesis and Worldwide Impact
    Diane Griffin; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  58. Genetic Susceptibility to Mercury-Induced Immune Dysfunction in Autism & ASD
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Role of Genomic Imprinting in Developmental Neurotoxici*
    Ellen Silbergeld; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..2. To utilize high throughput methods to examine patterns of DNA methylation in candidate genes in sperm and zygote in order to detect the presence of male-mediated effects on imprinted genes involved in early development. ..
  60. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF LYME DISEASE BORRELIA
    Alan Barbour; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..burgdorferi, its transmission, and reservoir host immunize responses. The results may also have relevance for the control of other vector-bone zoonotic diseases and perhaps for development of novel methods for vaccine delivery. ..
  61. CHAGAS DISEASE: AUTOIMMUNITY STEMS FROM PARASITE INVASION OF HOST GENOME
    Antonio Teixeira; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..