carrier state

Summary

Summary: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections
    Heiman F L Wertheim
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:751-62. 2005
  2. ncbi Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease
    D Bogaert
    Laboratory of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:144-54. 2004
  3. ncbi Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004
    Rachel J Gorwitz
    National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1226-34. 2008
  4. pmc Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farming
    Andreas Voss
    Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1965-6. 2005
  5. ncbi Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group
    C von Eiff
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Munster, Germany
    N Engl J Med 344:11-6. 2001
  6. ncbi Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers
    Heiman F L Wertheim
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 364:703-5. 2004
  7. ncbi Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype- and clone-specific differences in invasive disease potential
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Academic Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, John Radcliffe Hospital and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 187:1424-32. 2003
  8. pmc Persistence of livestock associated MRSA CC398 in humans is dependent on intensity of animal contact
    Haitske Graveland
    Division Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e16830. 2011
  9. pmc A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting
    Ivor Harris
    Australian Army Malaria Institute, Weary Dunlop Drive, Gallipoli Barracks Enoggera, QLD 4051, Australia
    Malar J 9:254. 2010
  10. pmc How clonal is Staphylococcus aureus?
    Edward J Feil
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 185:3307-16. 2003

Detail Information

Publications265 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections
    Heiman F L Wertheim
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:751-62. 2005
    ..The nose is the main ecological niche where S aureus resides in human beings, but the determinants of the carrier state are incompletely understood...
  2. ncbi Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease
    D Bogaert
    Laboratory of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet Infect Dis 4:144-54. 2004
    ....
  3. ncbi Changes in the prevalence of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2001-2004
    Rachel J Gorwitz
    National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1226-34. 2008
    ..Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of infection, particularly in persons colonized by this organism. Virulent strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have emerged in the general community...
  4. pmc Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farming
    Andreas Voss
    Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1965-6. 2005
    ..While spa-type t108 is apparently a more widespread clone among pig farmers and their environment, we did find other spa-types...
  5. ncbi Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group
    C von Eiff
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Munster, Germany
    N Engl J Med 344:11-6. 2001
    ..We examined S. aureus isolates from blood and from nasal specimens to determine whether the organisms in the bloodstream originated from the patient's own flora...
  6. ncbi Risk and outcome of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in nasal carriers versus non-carriers
    Heiman F L Wertheim
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 364:703-5. 2004
    ..006). S aureus nasal carriers and non-carriers differ significantly in risk and outcome of nosocomial S aureus bacteraemia. Genotyping revealed that 80% of strains causing bacteraemia in carriers were endogenous...
  7. ncbi Clonal relationships between invasive and carriage Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype- and clone-specific differences in invasive disease potential
    Angela B Brueggemann
    Academic Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease, John Radcliffe Hospital and Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 187:1424-32. 2003
    ....
  8. pmc Persistence of livestock associated MRSA CC398 in humans is dependent on intensity of animal contact
    Haitske Graveland
    Division Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 6:e16830. 2011
    ..We conducted a longitudinal study among 155 veal farmers in which repeated nasal and throat swabs were taken for MRSA detection. Periods with and without animal exposure were covered...
  9. pmc A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting
    Ivor Harris
    Australian Army Malaria Institute, Weary Dunlop Drive, Gallipoli Barracks Enoggera, QLD 4051, Australia
    Malar J 9:254. 2010
    ....
  10. pmc How clonal is Staphylococcus aureus?
    Edward J Feil
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 185:3307-16. 2003
    ....
  11. pmc Improved detection of nasopharyngeal cocolonization by multiple pneumococcal serotypes by use of latex agglutination or molecular serotyping by microarray
    Paul Turner
    Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot, Thailand
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1784-9. 2011
    ..Sweep serotyping is cost-effective and field deployable but may fail to detect serotypes at low abundance, whereas microarray serotyping is more costly and technology dependent but may detect these additional minor carried serotypes...
  12. pmc Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers
    Tara C Smith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e4258. 2009
    ..However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.)...
  13. pmc Age- and gender-associated Staphylococcus aureus spa types found among nasal carriers in a general population: the Tromso Staph and Skin Study
    Maria Sangvik
    Research Group for Host Microbe Interactions, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
    J Clin Microbiol 49:4213-8. 2011
    ..This may provide valuable clues to the multifactorial mechanisms, among them bacterial factors, involved in nasal colonization with S. aureus...
  14. ncbi Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002
    Matthew J Kuehnert
    National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:172-9. 2006
    ..Although methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has become increasingly reported, population-based S. aureus and MRSA colonization estimates are lacking...
  15. ncbi Report from a WHO Working Group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:e1-11. 2003
    ..Numerous studies evaluating the efficacy of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines are being conducted or planned throughout the world. Some of these studies are evaluating the effect of vaccine on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage...
  16. pmc Nasal colonization of humans with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 with and without exposure to pigs
    Christiane Cuny
    Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode Branc, Wernigerode, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e6800. 2009
    ..The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans...
  17. pmc Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease in England: a cross-sectional study
    Stefan Flasche
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 8:e1001017. 2011
    ....
  18. pmc Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene
    Haitske Graveland
    Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 5:e10990. 2010
    ..In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms...
  19. pmc Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic children in Senegal: relation to transmission, age and erythrocyte variants
    Manijeh Vafa
    Department of Immunology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Malar J 7:17. 2008
    ..This study aimed to examine the MOI in asymptomatic children between two and ten years of age and to relate it to erythrocyte variants, clinical attacks, transmission levels and other parasitological indexes...
  20. ncbi Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus
    Lonneke G M Bode
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 362:9-17. 2010
    ..Nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus are at increased risk for health care-associated infections with this organism. Decolonization of nasal and extranasal sites on hospital admission may reduce this risk...
  21. ncbi Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among veterinarians: an international study
    M W H Wulf
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 14:29-34. 2008
    ....
  22. ncbi Antibody responses to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults: a longitudinal household study
    David Goldblatt
    Immunobiology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK
    J Infect Dis 192:387-93. 2005
    ..pneumoniae or cross-reactive antigens. No longitudinal studies of carriage of and immune responses to S. pneumoniae have been conducted using sophisticated immunological laboratory techniques...
  23. ncbi Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Gambian villages: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1468-76. 2010
    ..pneumoniae in rural Africa and a baseline for evaluating the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the region...
  24. ncbi Genetic analysis of meningococci carried by children and young adults
    Heike Claus
    Institute for Hygiene and Microbiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Infect Dis 191:1263-71. 2005
    ..The relationship between meningococcal genotype and capsular polysaccharide, the principal virulence factor and vaccine component, was investigated in carried meningococci isolated from 8000 children and young adults in Bavaria, Germany...
  25. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 43:673-9. 2006
    ..To prepare for the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied the nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers...
  26. pmc Follow-up of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage after 8 years: redefining the persistent carrier state
    M F VandenBergh
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 37:3133-40. 1999
    ..aureus nasal carriage is a unique characteristic of a fraction of the population, and the attribute "persistent" should be confined to those individuals for whom serial nasal swab specimen cultures consistently yield S. aureus...
  27. pmc Clustering of serotypes in a longitudinal study of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in three day care centres
    Tuija Leino
    National Public Health Institute KTL, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Infect Dis 8:173. 2008
    ..Here we report the first longitudinal study of pneumococcal carriage that records serotype specific exposure to pneumococci simultaneously within the two most important mixing groups, families and day care facilities...
  28. pmc Persistence of nasal colonization with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farmers after holidays from pig exposure
    Robin Köck
    Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4046-7. 2012
    ..This study analyzed whether an absence from direct contact with pigs during holidays had an impact on nasal MRSA colonization rates of pig farmers. Overall, 59% of the farmers did not clear MRSA colonization during their leave...
  29. pmc Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after start of vaccination program, the Netherlands
    Judith Spijkerman
    University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:584-91. 2011
    ..PCV7 serotypes were largely replaced by non-PCV7 serotypes. Disappearance of PCV7 serotypes in parents suggests strong transmission reduction through vaccination...
  30. ncbi Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus
    A C Fluit
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:735-44. 2012
    ..Vaccination of animals may be a solution to this problem, but new avenues for vaccination need to be explored, because no vaccine is currently available...
  31. ncbi Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing home residents in northern Germany
    S Pfingsten-Würzburg
    Städtisches Gesundheitsamt, Braunschweig, Germany
    J Hosp Infect 78:108-12. 2011
    ..aureus strains. These data show that in northern Germany MRSA has spread from the hospital environment to other healthcare institutions, which must now be regarded as important reservoirs for MRSA transmission...
  32. ncbi Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) proviral load and disease progression in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers: a nationwide prospective study in Japan
    Masako Iwanaga
    Department of Hematology and Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki, Japan
    Blood 116:1211-9. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Meningococcal vaccines and herd immunity: lessons learned from serogroup C conjugate vaccination programs
    Caroline L Trotter
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Bristol, UK
    Expert Rev Vaccines 8:851-61. 2009
    ..The magnitude of the herd effects following MCC vaccination was largely unanticipated, and has important consequences for the design and evaluation of new meningococcal vaccines...
  34. pmc Methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 in pigs and humans
    Alex van Belkum
    University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:479-83. 2008
    ..aureus circulates among humans at low frequency (0.2%) but was isolated in 3 human cases of bacteremia (2.1%; p = 0.026). Although its natural host is probably porcine, ST398 MRSA likely causes infections in humans...
  35. ncbi Reclassification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage types
    Alex van Belkum
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 199:1820-6. 2009
    ..This study was performed to provide additional insight into staphylococcal carriage types...
  36. pmc Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000476. 2009
    ....
  37. pmc A longitudinal household study of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage in a UK setting
    M Hussain
    Immunisation Department, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 133:891-8. 2005
    ..pneumoniae is common in a UK setting in the pre-conjugate vaccine era. PCV would protect against a large proportion of carriage isolates. However, the impact of vaccination on non-vaccine serotypes will need to be monitored...
  38. pmc Continued impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on carriage in young children
    Susan S Huang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA 92868, USA
    Pediatrics 124:e1-11. 2009
    ....
  39. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 46:807-14. 2008
    ..To prepare for national introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants...
  40. pmc The prevalence and risk factors for pneumococcal colonization of the nasopharynx among children in Kilifi District, Kenya
    Osman Abdullahi
    Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 7:e30787. 2012
    ..We studied the epidemiology of carriage among children 3-59 months old before vaccine introduction in Kilifi, Kenya...
  41. ncbi High prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in Gabonese adults
    Matthias P Dal-Bianco
    Medical Research Unit, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Lambarene, Gabon
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:939-42. 2007
    ..falciparum. Most positive cases were only detected by the stevor-PCR. Asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia in adults living in a malaria-endemic country is frequent...
  42. pmc Prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among pigs on German farms and import of livestock-related MRSA into hospitals
    R Kock
    Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149, Munster, Germany
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:1375-82. 2009
    ..Our results indicate that livestock represents a relevant reservoir for the import of MRSA into regional German hospitals...
  43. ncbi Hepatitis B in China
    Jie Liu
    Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an 710032, Shaanxi, China
    Lancet 369:1582-3. 2007
  44. ncbi Health-care workers: source, vector, or victim of MRSA?
    Werner C Albrich
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:289-301. 2008
    ..We discuss advantages and disadvantages of screening and eradication policies for MRSA control and give recommendations for the management of colonised health-care workers in different settings...
  45. ncbi First report of putative Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D among nasopharyngeal isolates from Fijian children
    Ping Jin
    Bao an Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shenzhen, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 200:1375-80. 2009
    ..A putative Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype, 6D, resulting from the introduction of wciN(beta) into serotype 6B has been proposed...
  46. ncbi Impact of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines on carriage and herd immunity
    Martin C J Maiden
    Dept of Zoology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 197:737-43. 2008
    ..The impact of this intervention on asymptomatic carriage of meningococci was investigated to establish whether serogroup replacement or protection by herd immunity occurred...
  47. ncbi Are host genetics the predominant determinant of persistent nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in humans?
    Raymond Ruimy
    EA3964 Université Paris Diderot and Centre National de Référence, Résistance bactérienne dans les flores commensales, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, AP HP, Paris, France
    J Infect Dis 202:924-34. 2010
    ..Therefore, we concomitantly assessed the epidemiological, microbiological, and human-genetic carriage-related factors in a nearly closed population...
  48. ncbi Duration of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after hospital discharge and risk factors for prolonged carriage
    A Scanvic
    Bacteriology Laboratory, Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, France
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1393-8. 2001
    ....
  49. pmc Persistence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in field workers after short-term occupational exposure to pigs and veal calves
    Brigitte A G L van Cleef
    Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 49:1030-3. 2011
    ..In conclusion, MRSA is frequently present after short-term occupational exposure, but in most cases the strain is lost again after 24 h...
  50. ncbi Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a pathogen in children
    Timothy F Murphy
    University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:43-8. 2009
    ..influenzae. Feasibility of vaccination for prevention of otitis media due to nontypeable H. influenzae was recently demonstrated in a clinical trial with a vaccine that included the surface virulence factor, protein D...
  51. pmc Meningococcal carriage and disease--population biology and evolution
    Dominique A Caugant
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Meningococci, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Vaccine 27:B64-70. 2009
    ....
  52. ncbi Prospective evaluation of colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacteriaceae among patients at hospital admission and of subsequent colonization with ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae among patients during hospitalizati
    Reuven Friedmann
    Department of Geriatrics, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 30:534-42. 2009
    ..To determine the rates of and risk factors for carriage and acquisition of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae during hospitalization...
  53. pmc Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of animal origin in humans
    Inge van Loo
    Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1834-9. 2007
    ..This study shows that MRSA from an animal reservoir has recently entered the human population and is now responsible for >20% of all MRSA in the Netherlands...
  54. pmc Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya
    J Teun Bousema
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Malar J 3:18. 2004
    ..This study identified factors that influence gametocytaemia in asymptomatic children in the absence and presence of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine (SP) antimalarial treatment...
  55. ncbi Serologic and clinical outcomes of 1536 Alaska Natives chronically infected with hepatitis B virus
    B J McMahon
    Viral Hepatitis Program, Alaska Native Medical Center, c/o Arctic Investigations Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4055 Tudor Centre Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-5932, USA
    Ann Intern Med 135:759-68. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: In HBsAg-positive carriers, observed clearance of HBeAg was more than 70% during the first 10 years of follow-up...
  56. ncbi Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people living and working in pig farms
    I V F VAN DEN Broek
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, Centre Infectious Disease Control, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Epidemiol Infect 137:700-8. 2009
    ..Working in pig stables with MRSA-positive pigs poses a high risk for acquiring MRSA, increasingly so when contact with live pigs is more intensive or long lasting...
  57. ncbi Colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children
    D Bogaert
    Department of Paediatrics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Lancet 363:1871-2. 2004
    ..These findings suggest a natural competition between colonisation with vaccine-type pneumococci and S aureus, which might explain the increase in S aureus-related otitis media after vaccination...
  58. ncbi Universal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at hospital admission and nosocomial infection in surgical patients
    Stephan Harbarth
    Infection Control Program, University of Geneva Hospitals and Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland
    JAMA 299:1149-57. 2008
    ..Experts and policy makers have repeatedly called for universal screening at hospital admission to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection...
  59. ncbi Livestock veterinarians at high risk of acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398
    C Garcia-Graells
    Laboratoire de Référence MRSA Staphylocoques, Department of Microbiology, Université Libre Bruxelles Hôpital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium
    Epidemiol Infect 140:383-9. 2012
    ..Since carriage of MRSA ST398 may increase the risk of complications during hospitalization, our results underline that preventive measures may need to be developed for veterinary professionals, particularly for livestock veterinarians...
  60. pmc Dynamic models of pneumococcal carriage and the impact of the Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on invasive pneumococcal disease
    Alessia Melegaro
    DONDENA Centre for Research on Social Dynamics, Bocconi University, Via Guglielmo Rontgen, Milan, Italy
    BMC Infect Dis 10:90. 2010
    ..However the long term effects of PCV are still unclear, as beneficial direct and herd immunity effects might be countered by serotype replacement...
  61. ncbi Invasive disease and paediatric carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ghana
    Eric S Donkor
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
    Scand J Infect Dis 42:254-9. 2010
    ..The high multiple drug resistance of the organism observed heightens the public health burden, which may be controlled by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to a large extent...
  62. pmc Relative importance of nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from healthy and sick individuals varies with age
    David Greenberg
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4604-9. 2004
    ..Culturing only one site significantly reduced the recovery of H. influenzae at all ages. NP cultures for S. pneumoniae detected close to 100% of isolates in children but only 58% of isolates in mothers...
  63. pmc Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state
    Geoffrey Gonzalez-Escobedo
    Center for Microbial Interface Biology and the Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:9-14. 2011
    ..In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp.--predominantly S. Typhi--colonize and persist in the human gall bladder...
  64. ncbi The pneumococcus: why a commensal misbehaves
    Jeffrey N Weiser
    Department of Microbiology and Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 88:97-102. 2010
    ..is a major cause of disease, the organism is most commonly an "asymptomatic" colonizer of its human host (the carrier state), with transmission occurring exclusively from this reservoir of commensal organisms...
  65. pmc Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults
    James P Watt
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 N Washington St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4974-6. 2004
    ..Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults...
  66. ncbi A U.S. population-based survey of Staphylococcus aureus colonization
    Philip L Graham
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University and New York Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Ann Intern Med 144:318-25. 2006
    ..The epidemiology of staphylococcal colonization and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is changing, and little is known from the national perspective...
  67. pmc Revisiting pneumococcal carriage by use of broth enrichment and PCR techniques for enhanced detection of carriage and serotypes
    Maria da Gloria Carvalho
    Streptococcus Laboratory, Respiratory Disease Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop C02, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1611-8. 2010
    ..A PCR-based approach that employed a broth enrichment step appeared to best enhance the detection of mixed serotypes and low-density pneumococcal carriage...
  68. ncbi Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in home care settings: prevalence, duration, and transmission to household members
    Jean Christophe Lucet
    InfectionControl Unit, Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris AP HP, Paris, France
    Arch Intern Med 169:1372-8. 2009
    ..However, information is lacking about factors associated with prolonged MRSA colonization and MRSA transmission to household contacts...
  69. ncbi Changes in pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotypes carried by vaccinated and unvaccinated day-care centre attendees in Portugal, a country with widespread use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    R Sá-Leão
    Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    Clin Microbiol Infect 15:1002-7. 2009
    ..Rates of antibiotic resistance remained unchanged due to a balance between reduction in VT and an increase in antimicrobial-resistant NVT...
  70. ncbi Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization among immunized and unimmunized children in a community-randomized trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1211-20. 2007
    ..The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects...
  71. pmc Expression of a novel P22 ORFan gene reveals the phage carrier state in Salmonella typhimurium
    William Cenens
    Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems M2S, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    PLoS Genet 9:e1003269. 2013
    ..the emerging siblings, the feature of pid expression remained tightly linked to the cell inheriting this phage carrier state and became quenched in the other...
  72. pmc The descriptive epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults in Kilifi district, Kenya
    Osman Abdullahi
    Wellcome Trust Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:59-64. 2008
    ..In East Africa we do not know how these pathogens are transmitted between population subgroups nor which serotypes circulate commonly...
  73. ncbi Persistent (not intermittent) nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is the determinant of CPD-related infections
    Jan L Nouwen
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Kidney Int 67:1084-92. 2005
    ..We investigated the impact of staphylococcal carriage among patients on continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD) in a university hospital...
  74. ncbi The clonality of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage
    Christian Cespedes
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:444-52. 2005
    ..The present study demonstrates that carriage of discordant S. aureus strains in individuals with nasal colonization occurs regularly and suggests that the nares are likely sites for horizontal genetic exchange among strains...
  75. ncbi Staphylococcus aureus carriage among participants at the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
    E Nulens
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Nijmegen University Centre for Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre St Radboud, 440 MMB, P O Box 9101, 6500 Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:145-8. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, the rate of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus carriage was significantly higher among participants from countries with a low prevalence of MRSA...
  76. ncbi Effect of reduced-dose schedules with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in children: a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
    JAMA 302:159-67. 2009
    ..The effects of reduced-dose schedules of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) on pneumococcal carriage in children are largely unknown, although highly relevant in the context of subsequent herd effects...
  77. ncbi Nasal swab screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus--how well does it perform? A cross-sectional study
    Ann Matheson
    Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 33:803-8. 2012
    ..To determine the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detections identified by nasal swabbing using agar culture in comparison with multiple body site testing using agar and nutrient broth culture...
  78. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian children who participated in a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial and in their younger siblings
    Yin Bun Cheung
    Biostatistics Department, Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:990-5. 2009
    ..We studied the effects of vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the carriage of individual serotypes and on antimicrobial resistance in vaccinated children and their younger siblings...
  79. pmc Controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: quantifying the effects of interventions and rapid diagnostic testing
    M C J Bootsma
    Department of Mathematics, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 6, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:5620-5. 2006
    ..RDT can markedly enhance feasibility...
  80. ncbi Clusters of infections in horses with MRSA ST1, ST254, and ST398 in a veterinary hospital
    Christiane Cuny
    Wernigerode Branch, Robert Koch Institute, Wernigerode, Germany
    Microb Drug Resist 14:307-10. 2008
    ..The infections were caused by different MRSA clones (ST1, ST254, and ST398). In the same time, nasal colonization of veterinarians, veterinary personnel, and students was observed indicating transmission to humans...
  81. pmc Levels of serum chemokines discriminate clinical myelopathy associated with human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) disease from HTLV-1 carrier state
    J B Guerreiro
    Servico de Imunologia, Hospital Universitario Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 5o andar, Rua João das Botas s n Canela, 40110 160 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    Clin Exp Immunol 145:296-301. 2006
    ..HTLV-1 infection and Tax and/or additional viral encoded factor-mediated pathological processes triggering T cell activation with autogenous IFN-gamma release are probably involved in regulating chemokine release...
  82. ncbi Dynamic of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in children with acute otitis media following PCV7 introduction in France
    R Cohen
    Departement de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Creteil, Service de Microbiologie, 40 avenue de Verdun, 94 000 Creteil, France
    Vaccine 28:6114-21. 2010
    ..Most of the serotype 19A replacement was related to the clonal expansion of ST276 which was found to be the predominant ST among penicillin non-susceptible isolates...
  83. pmc Bacterial and host factors implicated in nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in mice
    Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn
    Unite des Agents Antibacteriens, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Infect Immun 73:1847-51. 2005
    ..aureus strains and demonstrated increased colonization levels by MRSA in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-deficient mice and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-deficient mice but not TLR4-deficient mice...
  84. ncbi Tropheryma whipplei bacteremia during fever in rural West Africa
    Florence Fenollar
    Unite de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine, 1Marseille, France
    Clin Infect Dis 51:515-21. 2010
    ..We investigated the role of T. whipplei in febrile patients from rural Senegal who had a negative test result for malaria...
  85. ncbi Report from a WHO working group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:133-40. 2003
    ..Numerous studies evaluating the efficacy of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines are being conducted or planned throughout the world. Some of these studies are evaluating the effect of vaccine on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage...
  86. ncbi Evaluation of sequential multiplex PCR for direct detection of multiple serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions
    Martin Antonio
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Med Microbiol 58:296-302. 2009
    ..0001). The multiplex PCR method identified significantly more serotypes than the latex/Quellung method if limited to the 29 serotypes (P=0.001 and P=0.014, respectively)...
  87. pmc Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among Taiwanese children in 2005 and 2006
    Yhu Chering Huang
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Chang Gung Children s Hospital and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linko, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    J Clin Microbiol 45:3992-5. 2007
    ..We concluded that between 2005 and 2006, 7.3% of healthy Taiwanese children were colonized by MRSA in nares. MRSA harbored in healthy children indicates an accelerated spread in the community...
  88. ncbi Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and pets in a small animal referral hospital in the UK
    Anette Loeffler
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 56:692-7. 2005
    ....
  89. ncbi Impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines on antibiotic resistance
    Ron Dagan
    Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center and the Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:785-95. 2008
    ..Further strategies include expansion of PCV serotype coverage, development of protein-based vaccines, and further limitation of antibiotic use...
  90. pmc Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte dynamics in areas of different malaria endemicity
    Kasia Stepniewska
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420 6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Malar J 7:249. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to identify and compare factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in three regions of differing malaria endemicity...
  91. pmc The dynamics of nasopharyngeal streptococcus pneumoniae carriage among rural Gambian mother-infant pairs
    Momodou K Darboe
    MRC International Nutrition Group, Keneba Field Station, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 10:195. 2010
    ..Better understanding of the dynamics of transmission and carriage will inform control strategies...
  92. ncbi Reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae after administration of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to toddlers attending day care centers
    Ron Dagan
    Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel
    J Infect Dis 185:927-36. 2002
    ..The rate of carriage of non-vaccine-type pneumococci (excluding serotype 6A) was higher in the pneumococcal-vaccine group than in the control group...
  93. pmc Serotype specific invasive capacity and persistent reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease
    Inci Yildirim
    Department of Pediatrics, Boston University, School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Vaccine 29:283-8. 2010
    ..g. 33F, 22F) as successful colonizers resulting in increased IPD incidence due to replacement serotypes...
  94. ncbi Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage: a systematic review
    Heidi S M Ammerlaan
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 48:922-30. 2009
    ..aureus carriage, with an estimated success of rate of 90% 1 week after treatment and approximately 60% after a longer follow-up period...
  95. ncbi Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Finnish children younger than 2 years old
    R K Syrjänen
    Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Infect Dis 184:451-9. 2001
    ..The most frequent NP serotypes were 6B, 6A, 11, 19F, and 23F. Both age and health status were important determinants of NP carriage of S. pneumoniae and these features should be considered carefully during analysis of carriage rates...
  96. ncbi Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in young South Indian infants
    C L Coles
    Department of International Health, John Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 20:289-95. 2001
    ..7% of all serotyped isolates. CONCLUSIONS: South Indian infants experience high rates of pneumococcal carriage during the first 6 months of life, which may partially explain their increased risk for pneumonia...
  97. ncbi Effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage with Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in a randomized controlled trial
    Elske J M van Gils
    Department of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 29:7595-8. 2011
    ..influenzae and 68% for M. catarrhalis at the age of 18 months. Reduced dose (CRM197) schedules induced a slight reduction in overall pneumococcal carriage but no increases in the presence of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis...
  98. pmc Exoproteome of Staphylococcus aureus reveals putative determinants of nasal carriage
    Gowrishankar Muthukrishnan
    Laboratory of Innate Host Defense, Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, United States
    J Proteome Res 10:2064-78. 2011
    ..While further analyses of specific differences between carrier and noncarrier strains of SA are required, many of the differentially expressed proteins identified can be considered to be putative determinants of nasal carriage...
  99. pmc Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, gender and smoking status. The Tromsø Staph and Skin Study
    K Olsen
    Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North Norway, 9038, Tromsø, Norway
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:465-73. 2012
    ..28-0.69) in the top tertile of serum 25(OH)D versus the bottom tertile. In women and smokers there were no such associations. Our study supports that serum vitamin D is a determinant of S. aureus colonization and carriage...
  100. ncbi Continued control of pneumococcal disease in the UK - the impact of vaccination
    R A Gladstone
    Division of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, University of Southampton School of Medicine, UK
    J Med Microbiol 60:1-8. 2011
    ..Continued surveillance and identification of factors influencing serotype distribution are essential to allow rational vaccine design, implementation and continued effective control of pneumococcal disease...
  101. ncbi Characterization of the carrier state in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection
    Dennis C Horter
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Vet Microbiol 86:213-28. 2002
    ..An understanding of the carrier state is necessary for prevention, control and/or elimination of PRRS virus...

Research Grants63

  1. Combination therapies for chronic HBV, liver disease and cancer
    Mark A Feitelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Given that the major risk factors for HCC are the HBV carrier state (defined as the persistence of virus or virus antigens in blood for more than 6 months) and chronic liver ..
  2. Extracellular Replication of Listeria in Vivo
    Christopher H Contag; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We propose to use molecular imaging techniques to learn how this bacterium colonizes the gallbladder, constituting the only current animal model of the human carrier state of typhoid fever.
  3. Modular Subunit Vaccine for Salmonella
    MARC KEVIN JENKINS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This results in either systemic disease, clearance of the organism, or an asymptomatic carrier state in which individuals shed the organism for life...
  4. Discovery of novel anti-HBV compounds targeting host factors
    Pavel A Petukhov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1 interferon and nucleosides analogs, do not offer a significant probability for the resolution of the chronic carrier state. The shortcomings o the existing HBV therapeutic regiments include the necessity of life-long treatment and ..
  5. Bordetella Biofilms and Pathogenesis
    RAJENDAR K DEORA; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Current pertussis vaccines although effective at preventing the severe form of disease do not prevent the carrier state. Adult and adolescent carriers are responsible for the transmission of the bacterium to infants and young ..
  6. Virologic and Serologic Outcomes of Persons with HIV and HBV co-infection on Mono
    JUDITH ANN ABERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  7. Tissue-Specific Infection by Group A Streptococci
    DEBRA BESSEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The hypothesis to be tested in Aim 1 states that organisms recovered from a carrier state and/or invasive disease are significantly more likely to have defects in pilus production, as compared to ..
  8. Evaluation of Salmonella in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Pets
    Timothy S Frana; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..How frequently do cases of Salmonellosis occur in pets, and how frequently do they develop a carrier state, where do they harbor the bacteria but fail to exhibit clinical signs of disease? In addition, the various ..
  9. H+-ATPase B-subunit Dysfunction and Calcium Nephrolithiasis
    Orson W Moe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal focuses on the B1 subunit of the V-ATPase. The heterozygous carrier state is universaly believed to be silent...
  10. Improving diagnostic capabilities for typhoid fever
    Edward T Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..typhi antigens expressed in vivo and unique to the carrier state. Main milestones by the end of year 2 (R21), we propose (1) to have developed at least one prototype approach (..
  11. Epstein-Barr Virus-Enhanced Tumor Progression
    Rona S Scott; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Emerging possibilities that more fully acknowledge EBV opportunism in the context of the life-long carrier state include viral reactivation with entry into cells made more prone to infection and EBV-enhanced malignant ..
  12. EPITOPES RECOGNIZED BY CTL FROM EIAV CARRIER HORSES
    SHERITTA RIDGELY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The control of clinical disease in horses and the maintenance of the inapparent carrier state during persistent infection with EIAV makes this an attractive model in which to study immune control of ..
  13. NATURAL HISTORY OF BABESIOSIS
    Peter Wettstein; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..First, since most piroplasm species studied to date comprise a chronic carrier state as part of their transmission cycle, we will attempt to document the chronic carrier state in humans, and to ..
  14. INCIDENTAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES AS COFACTORS
    Niels Pedersen; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..alters the normal clinical and immunologic manifestation of 7 common infectious diseases of cats, alters the carrier state that follow the clinical phase of these illnesses, affects the normal perturbations in lymphocyte ..
  15. MECHANISM OF BACTERIAL SUPERINFECTION
    BARBARA SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..using different doses of the bacteria and different routes of inoculation (intranasal, aerosol, and the 'carrier state') Respiratory tissues will be harvested at various time intervals for quantitative culture to determine the ..
  16. ADOPTIVE TRANSFER OF CD8+ CTLS TO CONTROL EIAV
    ROBERT MEALEY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition, continued immunologic control mechanisms are likely responsible for maintenance of the inapparent carrier state, as evidenced by recrudescence of clinical disease following immunosuppression...
  17. FUNGAL PROTEIN/GLYCOPROTEIN EXPRESSION IN TINEA CAPITIS
    Susan Abdel Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..species of fungus is capable of resulting in vastly divergent clinical presentations including an asymptomatic carrier state, a chronic non-inflammatory disease state and an acute severely-inflammatory disease state...
  18. OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEINS OF PATHOGENIC LEPTOSPIRA SPECIES
    David Haake; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..will be used: fulminant leptospirosis in hamsters, and sublethal infection of BALB/c mice resulting in the carrier state. Animals will be challenged with virulent Leptospira by two routes: intraperitoneal and conjunctival ..
  19. INTERACTIONS OF HELICOBACTER WITH THE GASTRIC MUCOSA
    Donald Guiney; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..We propose that a long-term carrier state is the result of a balance of pro-inflammatory mediators and regulatory elements that maintain mucosal ..
  20. LEUKODYSTROPHIC STATES IN PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS
    FRANK SCHOENFELD; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..evaluate 200 chronically ill psychiatric patients for the presence of a leukodystrophy or the leukodystrophic carrier state and to relate the metabolic defect in these patients with neurocognitive impairment...
  21. CHEMOPREVENTION OF PRIMARY LIVER CANCER
    Baruch Blumberg; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..A large body of data supports the hypothesis that altering the carrier state can considerably decrease the risk of liver cancer...
  22. MODEL SYSTEMS FOR ANALYSIS OF HBV REPLICATION
    Robert Lanford; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A precise understanding of the replication cycle may yield strategies to eliminate the carrier state. Although the replication cycle of HBV has been partially elucidated, many aspects remain unresolved...
  23. SUBGROUPS OF NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE
    Michael Apicella; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..In addition, correlations will be between serogroup type and clinical parameters such as disseminated disease, carrier state, antimicrobial sensitivity and reinfection...
  24. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES
    Jennifer Puck; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..This finding will form the basis for three approaches to diagnosis of the carrier state. The first requires that the two X chromosomes be separated so that the active and inactive X can be ..
  25. MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDIES OF RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS
    Eric Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..X inactivation patterns to determine the extent of association between recurrent spontaneous abortion and the carrier state for X-linked lethal traits...
  26. Identification of HCV E1 an E2 Inhibitors
    Arnab Basu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..HCV causes a spectrum of disease ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to end-stage liver disease; which includes cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
  27. LIVER DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PERSISTENT HBV INFECTION
    CHESTER ZAHN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..viral gene products cause pathophysiologic consequences of chronic infection, including the asymptomatic carrier state, chronic inflammatory liver disease, and hepatocyte transformation...
  28. Recombinant HBxAg Production For Anti-cancer Therapeutic
    Xinli Lin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..virus gene expression and replication, and is crucial for the establishment and maintenance of the chronic carrier state. Intrahepatic HBxAg expression also correlates with the intensity and progression of liver disease, suggesting ..
  29. CYSTIC FIBROSIS MUTATION SCREENING AND COUNSELING
    Wayne Grody; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..screening programs for other recessive disorders indicates that understanding of and stigmatization by the carrier state may vary significantly among different target populations, depending upon ethnic group, level of education, ..
  30. Regulation of Epstein Barr Virus Persistence
    JEFFERY SAMPLE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These are the regulation of EBV gene expression during restricted latency. i.e., the long-term virus carrier state, and the disruption by EBV of the host's innate immunity to virus infection...
  31. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL BY HEPATITIS C VIRUS
    Michael Gale; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In most cases acute HCV infection develops into a chronic carrier state in which viral replication persists over the lifetime of the individual...
  32. Novel Application of Infection Control Strategies to Limit Transmission of ESBL'S
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  33. Quinolone resistant E coli in long term care facilities
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  34. QUINOLONE RESISTANCE IN NOSOCOMIAL URINARY INFECTIONS
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  35. Clinical Impact of Quinolone-Resistant E.coli carriage
    Ebbing Lautenbach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Recurrent otitis media and COPD: immunity and vaccines
    Timothy Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed studies will advance the field of vaccine development to prevent otitis media and respiratory tract infections in COPD. ..
  37. Catheter Dwell Time and Risk of Bloodstream Infections in Hospitalized Neonates
    Aaron M Milstone; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..This project will help to develop evidence-based strategies to prevent bloodstream infections among vulnerable infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. ..
  38. DEVELOPMENT OF A VACCINE FOR MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS
    Timothy Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..catarrhalis surface, the identification of surface antigens expressed specifically during human infection and critical information about the human immune response to surface antigens of M. catarrhalis. ..
  39. Molecular bssis of mef-mediated antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    David S Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pneumoniae. ..
  40. Pneumocystis in Pathogenesis of HIV-associated Emphysema
    Alison Morris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This information will help us understand and treat emphysema in these patients and in the many non-HIV-infected people who suffer from this disease. ..
  41. CLINICAL RESEARCH CURRICULUM AWARD
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Center for Clinical and Translational Science Advancement at Emory
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. Epidemiology and Significance of P carinii Colonization
    Alison Morris; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, greater insight into the epidemiology of colonization may aid in understanding the transmission and prevention of P. carinii. ..
  44. Resistant E.coli in Humans and Poultry
    James Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Does the research address a current and compelling problem of antimicrobial resistance that is of high public health importance and for which research is needed? [yes]. ..
  45. Airborne Transmission of Viruses in Human Subjects: Efficacy of Face Masks
    Werner Bischoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This cnowledge is paramount in view of the inevitable viral pandemics. ..
  46. Regulation of Capsule Biosynthesis in N. meningitidis
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  47. MENINGOCOCCAL LIPOOLIGOSACCHARIDE & MUCOSAL PATHOGENESIS
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies will also continue to define differences between enteric endotoxin and the unique structure and biology of meningococcal endotoxin. ..
  48. MENTORED PATIENT ORIENTED RESEARCH CAREER DEVELOPMENT AW
    Margaret Rosenfeld; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results and experience gained by the proposed studies may aid in the rigorous conduct of future clinical trials of inhaled agents in infants both with and without CF. ..
  49. S AUREUS PATHOGENESIS IN HIV INFECTION AND IN DRUG USE
    FRANKLIN LOWY; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The ability to integrate both epidemiologic and biologic studies using a well defined high risk cohort of drug users and HIV-infected subjects provides an ideal setting to examine these issues. ..
  50. Social Networks of S. aureus Carriage Among Drug Users
    FRANKLIN LOWY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Miller's preexistent cohort of women drug users and their network members in the Bedford Stuyvesant section of Brooklyn. This will allow for the rapid integration of this investigation into her ongoing study. ..
  51. Evaluating Trichophyton tonsurans Carriage and Infection
    Susan Abdel Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Immune response to Helicobacter pylori VacA as a marker
    Guillermo Perez Perez; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If our hypothesis is correct, we hope to establish a simple and economical serological test to assess the risk of gastric cancer development. ..
  53. BACTERIAL PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE AND PATHOGENESIS
    Jeffrey Weiser; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Aim 3 will determine the effects of the immune response to ChoP on colonization, where our findings demonstrate that expression of ChoP is most important to pathogenesis. ..
  54. Lentiviral Diseases: EIAV Pathogenesis
    SUSAN LYNNE PAYNE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  55. Gene Discovery for Pneumococcal Otitis Media
    Melinda Pettigrew; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Discovery of additional factors involved in streptococcal OM will facilitate the development of new strategies for the control and prevention of this important disease. ..
  56. ROLE OF NON-CLASSICAL MHC CLASS I AND HSPs IN IMMUNITY
    Jacques Robert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Do hsp70 and gp96 generate similar anti-tumor CCU-CTL effectors? Aim 3. How important is the hsp-generated CCU-CTL responses in tumor immunity in vivo? Aim 4. Do CCU-CTLs interact with class Ib molecules? ..
  57. T cell Interactions in the CNS During Viral Persistence
    Dorian McGavern; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The main objective of this research is to define the immunologic parameters that contribute to viral clearance versus persistence in the CNS and foster approaches that tip the balance in favor of clearance. ..
  58. Appropriate Pneumococcal Vaccination in Infants in Fiji
    Fiona Russell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of this study will form the basis of an effectiveness evaluation following the pilot introduction of pneumococcal immunization into Fiji in 3-5 years time. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  59. Genetic Associations with Biased Processing of Emotion Cues in MDD
    CHRISTOPHER BEEVERS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Thus, the proposed study should advance our knowledge of the etiological and maintenance processes for MDD and provide specific direction for the design of treatment programs for this serious psychiatric problem. ..
  60. Molecular Epidemiology of Community-Associated MRSA
    SANJAY SHUKLA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will determine the presence or absence of 40 different virulence factor genes in all 320 isolates listed in aim 2 and determine evolution of virulence factor genes in contemporary CA-MRSA. ..
  61. Immune cell dynamics during central nervous system viral infection
    JUAN DE LA TORRE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..