Summary: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Causation and causal inference in epidemiology
    Kenneth J Rothman
    Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Public Health 95:S144-50. 2005
  2. pmc Analysing connectivity with Granger causality and dynamic causal modelling
    Karl Friston
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:172-8. 2013
  3. ncbi Investigating directed cortical interactions in time-resolved fMRI data using vector autoregressive modeling and Granger causality mapping
    Rainer Goebel
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Magn Reson Imaging 21:1251-61. 2003
  4. pmc Effective connectivity: influence, causality and biophysical modeling
    Pedro A Valdes-Sosa
    Cuban Neuroscience Center, Ave 25 15202 esquina 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Cuba
    Neuroimage 58:339-61. 2011
  5. ncbi Wiener-Granger causality: a well established methodology
    Steven L Bressler
    Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA
    Neuroimage 58:323-9. 2011
  6. ncbi Testing causality in the association between regular exercise and symptoms of anxiety and depression
    Marleen H M de Moor
    Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:897-905. 2008
  7. ncbi The identification of interacting networks in the brain using fMRI: Model selection, causality and deconvolution
    Alard Roebroeck
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Postbus 616, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 58:296-302. 2011
  8. ncbi Dynamic causal modelling: a critical review of the biophysical and statistical foundations
    J Daunizeau
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College of London, UK
    Neuroimage 58:312-22. 2011
  9. ncbi Illusions of causality at the heart of pseudoscience
    Helena Matute
    Deusto University, Bilbao, Spain
    Br J Psychol 102:392-405. 2011
  10. ncbi Detecting causality in complex ecosystems
    George Sugihara
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 338:496-500. 2012

Detail Information

Publications328 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Causation and causal inference in epidemiology
    Kenneth J Rothman
    Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Public Health 95:S144-50. 2005
    ..causes in terms of sufficient causes and their component causes illuminates important principles such as multi-causality, the dependence of the strength of component causes on the prevalence of complementary component causes, and ..
  2. pmc Analysing connectivity with Granger causality and dynamic causal modelling
    Karl Friston
    The Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:172-8. 2013
    ..We focus on detecting and estimating directed connectivity in neuronal networks using Granger causality (GC) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM)...
  3. ncbi Investigating directed cortical interactions in time-resolved fMRI data using vector autoregressive modeling and Granger causality mapping
    Rainer Goebel
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Magn Reson Imaging 21:1251-61. 2003
    ..brain areas using time-resolved fMRI and vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling in the context of Granger causality. After describing the underlying mathematical concepts, we present simulations helping to characterize the ..
  4. pmc Effective connectivity: influence, causality and biophysical modeling
    Pedro A Valdes-Sosa
    Cuban Neuroscience Center, Ave 25 15202 esquina 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Cuba
    Neuroimage 58:339-61. 2011
    ..series dedicated to "The identification of interacting networks in the brain using fMRI: Model selection, causality and deconvolution"...
  5. ncbi Wiener-Granger causality: a well established methodology
    Steven L Bressler
    Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA
    Neuroimage 58:323-9. 2011
    ..b>Causality in the Wiener-Granger sense is based on the statistical predictability of one time series that derives from ..
  6. ncbi Testing causality in the association between regular exercise and symptoms of anxiety and depression
    Marleen H M de Moor
    Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:897-905. 2008
    ..We cannot exclude the major contribution of a third underlying factor influencing exercise behavior and symptoms of anxiety and depression...
  7. ncbi The identification of interacting networks in the brain using fMRI: Model selection, causality and deconvolution
    Alard Roebroeck
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Postbus 616, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimage 58:296-302. 2011
    ..should include consideration of more than just a few brain structures, (ii) temporal precedence - and causality concepts based on it - are essential in dynamic models of connectivity and (iii) undoing the effect of ..
  8. ncbi Dynamic causal modelling: a critical review of the biophysical and statistical foundations
    J Daunizeau
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College of London, UK
    Neuroimage 58:312-22. 2011
    ..Finally, we discuss potential extensions of the current DCM framework, such as stochastic DCMs, plastic DCMs and field DCMs...
  9. ncbi Illusions of causality at the heart of pseudoscience
    Helena Matute
    Deusto University, Bilbao, Spain
    Br J Psychol 102:392-405. 2011
    ..Psychology, however, has much to say about them, as it is the illusory perceptions of causality of so many people that needs to be understood...
  10. ncbi Detecting causality in complex ecosystems
    George Sugihara
    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Science 338:496-500. 2012
    ..We introduce a method, based on nonlinear state space reconstruction, that can distinguish causality from correlation...
  11. ncbi Causal effects in clinical and epidemiological studies via potential outcomes: concepts and analytical approaches
    R J Little
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 2029, USA
    Annu Rev Public Health 21:121-45. 2000
  12. ncbi Methods for causality assessment of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review
    Taofikat B Agbabiaka
    Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, UK
    Drug Saf 31:21-37. 2008
    Numerous methods for causality assessment of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have been published. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses...
  13. ncbi Nonlinear connectivity by Granger causality
    Daniele Marinazzo
    Laboratory of Neurophysics and Physiology, CNRS UMR 8119, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France
    Neuroimage 58:330-8. 2011
    ..of the art to understand the communication between brain systems are dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and Granger causality. While DCM models nonlinear couplings, Granger causality, which constitutes a major tool to reveal effective ..
  14. ncbi Testing for causality and prognosis: etiological and prognostic models
    Giovanni Tripepi
    CNR IBIM, Clinical Epidemiology and Physiopathology of Renal Diseases and Hypertension of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy
    Kidney Int 74:1512-5. 2008
    ..Multivariate modeling is a fundamental tool both to infer causality and to investigate prognostic factors in epidemiological research...
  15. pmc Functional connectivity of default mode network components: correlation, anticorrelation, and causality
    Lucina Q Uddin
    The Phyllis Green and Randolph Cowen Institute for Pediatric Neuroscience, New York University Child Study Center, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:625-37. 2009
    ..Granger causality analyses suggest that vmPFC and PCC exert greater influence on their anticorrelated networks than the other way ..
  16. pmc Effect of lowering blood pressure on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients on dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    Hiddo J Lambers Heerspink
    George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    Lancet 373:1009-15. 2009
    ..We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of blood pressure lowering in patients on dialysis...
  17. pmc HIV infection in the etiology of lung cancer: confounding, causality, and consequences
    Gregory D Kirk
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 8:326-32. 2011
    ..Potential mechanisms by which HIV infection may lead to lung cancer are discussed. Finally, irrespective of causality and mechanisms, lung cancer represents an important and growing problem confronting HIV-infected patients and ..
  18. pmc When two become one: the limits of causality analysis of brain dynamics
    Daniel Chicharro
    Center of Brain and Cognition, Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
    PLoS ONE 7:e32466. 2012
    ..Our work also has important consequences for the interpretation of other approaches commonly applied to study causality in the brain...
  19. ncbi Perceiving causality after the fact: postdiction in the temporal dynamics of causal perception
    Hoon Choi
    Department of Psychology, Yale University, Box 208205, New Haven, CT 06520 8205, USA
    Perception 35:385-99. 2006
    In simple dynamic events we can easily perceive not only motion, but also higher-level properties such as causality, as when we see one object collide with another...
  20. ncbi Homocysteine and stroke: evidence on a causal link from mendelian randomisation
    Juan P Casas
    Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, British Heart Foundation Laboratories, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, Rayne Building, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6 JJ, UK
    Lancet 365:224-32. 2005
  21. ncbi Voluntary action and causality in temporal binding
    Andre M Cravo
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof Lineu Prestes, 1524 ICB I Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508 900, Brazil
    Exp Brain Res 199:95-9. 2009
    ..In the present study, we investigate voluntary action and causality as the necessary and sufficient conditions for temporal binding...
  22. ncbi Arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence
    Ana Navas-Acien
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 2223, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:1037-49. 2005
    ..In other populations or in occupational settings, the evidence was inconclusive. Because of the high prevalence of arsenic exposure, carefully performed studies of arsenic and cardiovascular outcomes should be a research priority...
  23. ncbi Quantifying biases in causal models: classical confounding vs collider-stratification bias
    Sander Greenland
    Department of Epidemiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Epidemiology 14:300-6. 2003
  24. pmc Re-entrant projections modulate visual cortex in affective perception: evidence from Granger causality analysis
    Andreas Keil
    NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:532-40. 2009
    ..Granger causality analysis was conducted on steady-state visual evoked potentials elicited by emotionally arousing pictures ..
  25. pmc Maternal smoking in pregnancy, fetal development, and childhood asthma
    Jouni J K Jaakkola
    Institute of Occupational Health, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Public Health 94:136-40. 2004
    ..We examined the relationships among maternal smoking in pregnancy, fetal development, and the risk of asthma in childhood...
  26. ncbi Multiple sclerosis: the environment and causation
    Gavin Giovannoni
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Queen Mary University London, London, UK
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:261-8. 2007
    ..We review current thinking on the aetiology of multiple sclerosis, how genetic susceptibility interacts with environmental risk factors at the population level, multiple sclerosis-associated risk factors and contemporary causation theory...
  27. ncbi Multivariate Granger causality analysis of fMRI data
    Gopikrishna Deshpande
    WHC Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, 30322, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:1361-73. 2009
    This article describes the combination of multivariate Granger causality analysis, temporal down-sampling of fMRI time series, and graph theoretic concepts for investigating causal brain networks and their dynamics...
  28. ncbi Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality
    Joseph R DiFranza
    Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Pediatrics 117:e1237-48. 2006
    ..We sought to determine whether there is evidence of a causal link between exposure to tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use by children...
  29. pmc Tractography-based priors for dynamic causal models
    Klaas Enno Stephan
    Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Neuroimage 47:1628-38. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, this study provides the first formal evidence that probabilistic knowledge of anatomical connectivity can improve models of functional integration...
  30. pmc Altered connectivity pattern of hubs in default-mode network with Alzheimer's disease: an Granger causality modeling approach
    Xiaoyan Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e25546. 2011
    ..The issues on how these hubs interact to each other, with the rest nodes of the DMN and the altered pattern of hubs with respect to AD, are still on going discussion for eventual final clarification...
  31. ncbi Perinatal mortality in developing countries
    Jelka Zupan
    Department of Making Pregnancy Safer, World Health Organization, Geneva
    N Engl J Med 352:2047-8. 2005
  32. ncbi Mendelian randomization: using genes as instruments for making causal inferences in epidemiology
    Debbie A Lawlor
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, U K
    Stat Med 27:1133-63. 2008
    ..This paper outlines Mendelian randomization, draws parallels with IV methods, provides examples of implementation of the approach and discusses limitations of the approach and some methods for dealing with these...
  33. ncbi Mendelian randomization as an instrumental variable approach to causal inference
    Vanessa Didelez
    Department of Statistical Science, University College London, UK
    Stat Methods Med Res 16:309-30. 2007
    ..This framework allows us to address limitations of the Mendelian randomization technique that have often been overlooked in the medical literature...
  34. pmc Recovering directed networks in neuroimaging datasets using partially conditioned Granger causality
    Guo Rong Wu
    Department of Data Analysis, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Brain Connect 3:294-301. 2013
    ..Granger causality (GC) analysis is a valuable tool to detect directed dynamical connectivity, and it is being increasingly used...
  35. pmc Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality
    Tanis R Fenton
    Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
    Nutr J 10:41. 2011
    ..The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate causal relationships between dietary acid load and osteoporosis using Hill's criteria...
  36. pmc Inference for causal interactions for continuous exposures under dichotomization
    Tyler J VanderWeele
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Biometrics 67:1414-21. 2011
    ..The results in this article are applied to a study of the interactive effects between smoking and arsenic exposure from well water in producing skin lesions...
  37. ncbi On model selection and model misspecification in causal inference
    Stijn Vansteelandt
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Ghent University, 281 S9 Krijgslaan, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Stat Methods Med Res 21:7-30. 2012
  38. pmc Serum uric acid and adiposity: deciphering causality using a bidirectional Mendelian randomization approach
    Tanica Lyngdoh
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine IUMSP, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e39321. 2012
    Although the relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) and adiposity is well established, the direction of the causality is still unclear in the presence of conflicting evidences...
  39. ncbi Chorioamnionitis and chronic lung disease of prematurity: a path analysis of causality
    Nada Sindicić Dessardo
    Institute of Neonatology, University Hospital of Rijeka, Croatia
    Am J Perinatol 29:133-40. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to test a new statistical framework incorporating path analysis to evaluate causality between exposure to chorioamnionitis and fetal inflammatory response syndrome and the development of chronic ..
  40. ncbi Causality in complex interventions
    Dean Rickles
    Unit for History and Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia
    Med Health Care Philos 12:77-90. 2009
    In this paper I look at causality in the context of intervention research, and discuss some problems faced in the evaluation of causal hypotheses via interventions...
  41. ncbi Using Mendelian randomisation to infer causality in depression and anxiety research
    Suzanne H Gage
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit IEU, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Depress Anxiety 30:1185-93. 2013
    ..use, which can address problems of reverse causation and residual confounding, providing stronger evidence about causality. Genetic variants can be used instead of directly measuring exposure levels, in order to gain an unbiased ..
  42. ncbi "What is this genetics, anyway?" Understandings of genetics, illness causality and inheritance among British Pakistani users of genetic services
    Alison Shaw
    Ethox Centre, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Oxford, Badenoch Building, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LG, England
    J Genet Couns 17:373-83. 2008
    ..This paper investigates understandings of genetics, illness causality and inheritance among British Pakistanis referred to a UK genetics clinic...
  43. pmc Polygenic effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms on life span: when association meets causality
    Center for Population Health and Aging, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0408, USA
    Rejuvenation Res 15:381-94. 2012
    ..The fact that genes found in our and other genetic association studies of aging/longevity have similar functions indicates high chances of true positive associations for corresponding genetic variants...
  44. pmc The causality analysis of climate change and large-scale human crisis
    David D Zhang
    Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17296-301. 2011
    ..Our findings indicate that climate change was the ultimate cause, and climate-driven economic downturn was the direct cause, of large-scale human crises in preindustrial Europe and the Northern Hemisphere...
  45. pmc Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:959-62; discussion 963-4. 2009
    ..g., "adiposity"). The authors conclude that causal diagrams need to be used to represent biases arising not only from confounding and selection but also from measurement...
  46. pmc Instrumental variables I: instrumental variables exploit natural variation in nonexperimental data to estimate causal relationships
    Jeremy A Rassen
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 62:1226-32. 2009
    ..It gives examples of instruments used in clinical epidemiology and concludes with an outline on estimation of effects...
  47. pmc A definition of causal effect for epidemiological research
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, US
    J Epidemiol Community Health 58:265-71. 2004
    ..The article concludes with a discussion on the limitations of randomised studies. These limitations are the reason why methods for causal inference from observational data are needed...
  48. pmc On the nondifferential misclassification of a binary confounder
    Elizabeth L Ogburn
    Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston MA, USA
    Epidemiology 23:433-9. 2012
    ..We also present an analytic proof of the result for the effect of treatment among the treated and describe extensions to measures conditional on or standardized over other covariates...
  49. pmc Estimating the directed information to infer causal relationships in ensemble neural spike train recordings
    Christopher J Quinn
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA
    J Comput Neurosci 30:17-44. 2011
    ..present in the data, neuroscientists have employed causal measures-most of which are variants of Granger causality-with limited success...
  50. ncbi The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies
    Wolfram Hesse
    Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jahnstr 3, Germany
    J Neurosci Methods 124:27-44. 2003
    ..However, on this basis, no statements on causality or the direction of their interrelations are possible...
  51. ncbi On the spectral formulation of Granger causality
    D Chicharro
    Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
    Biol Cybern 105:331-47. 2011
    Spectral measures of causality are used to explore the role of different rhythms in the causal connectivity between brain regions...
  52. ncbi Causality assessment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity: promises and pitfalls
    Max A Shapiro
    Hepatology Section, Division of Gastroenterology, Georgetown University Hospital, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Clin Liver Dis 11:477-505, v. 2007
    ..challenges inherent in what is currently a clinical process of elimination made in the attempt of assigning causality in drug-induced liver injury...
  53. ncbi Confounding effects of indirect connections on causality estimation
    Vasily A Vakorin
    Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest, Toronto, Canada
    J Neurosci Methods 184:152-60. 2009
    ..We introduce a Granger causality measure based on a multivariate version of transfer entropy...
  54. ncbi The identification of synergism in the sufficient-component-cause framework
    Tyler J VanderWeele
    Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Epidemiology 18:329-39. 2007
    ..In the context of monotonic effects, the conditions derived are closely related to effect modification on the risk difference scale; however, this is not the case without the assumption of monotonic effects...
  55. ncbi Kernel method for nonlinear granger causality
    Daniele Marinazzo
    Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Italy
    Phys Rev Lett 100:144103. 2008
    ..Here we generalize Granger causality to the nonlinear case using the theory of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces...
  56. ncbi The social determinants of oral health: new approaches to conceptualizing and researching complex causal networks
    J Timothy Newton
    Department of Oral Health Services Research and Dental Public Health, GKT Dental Institute, Caldecot Road, London SE5 9RW, UK
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 33:25-34. 2005
  57. ncbi Is Helicobacter pylori the primary cause of duodenal ulceration?
    F I Tovey
    Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, United Kingdom
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:1053-6. 1999
    ..This would explain the enigma of regional variations in DU prevalence unrelated to H. pylori prevalence...
  58. ncbi Using multiple cause-of-death data to investigate associations and causality between conditions listed on the death certificate
    Matthew D Redelings
    Data Collection and Analysis Unit, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90012, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:104-8. 2007
    ..In this paper, the authors discuss methods used in studying associations between reported causes of death and in investigating commonly reported causal pathways between events or conditions listed on the death certificate...
  59. ncbi Health selection in the Whitehall II study, UK
    Tarani Chandola
    International Centre for Health and Society, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1 19 Torrington Place, WC1E 6BT, London, UK
    Soc Sci Med 56:2059-72. 2003
    ..The results suggest that the development of social gradients in health in the Whitehall II study may not be primarily explained in terms of a health selection effect...
  60. ncbi Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and head and neck cancer: a meta-analysis implementing a Mendelian randomization approach
    Stefania Boccia
    Genetic Epidemiology and Molecular Biology Unit, Institute of Hygiene, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, L go F Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:248-54. 2009
    ..57; P for interaction = 0.43). Besides showing the effectiveness of the Mendelian randomization approach, these findings support the theory that alcohol increases head and neck cancer risk through the carcinogenic action of acetaldehyde...
  61. pmc Causal inference based on counterfactuals
    M Hofler
    Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
    BMC Med Res Methodol 5:28. 2005
    ..The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies...
  62. pmc Development and inter-rater reliability of the Liverpool adverse drug reaction causality assessment tool
    Ruairi M Gallagher
    Institute of Child Health, Department of Women s and Children s Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e28096. 2011
    To develop and test a new adverse drug reaction (ADR) causality assessment tool (CAT).
  63. pmc Inter-expert agreement of seven criteria in causality assessment of adverse drug reactions
    Yannick Arimone
    INSERM U 657, Departement de Pharmacologie, Universite Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2, France
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 64:482-8. 2007
    To evaluate agreement between five senior experts when assessing seven causality criteria and the probability of drug causation.
  64. ncbi Brain network for passive word listening as evaluated with ICA and Granger causality
    A Londei
    Department of Psychology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Brain Res Bull 72:284-92. 2007
    ..a new data-driven analysis approach that applies both independent components analysis (ICA) and the Granger causality (GC)...
  65. ncbi On directed information theory and Granger causality graphs
    Pierre Olivier Amblard
    GIPSAlab, Department of Images and Signals, CNRS UMR 5216, BP46, 38402, Saint Martin d Heres cedex, France
    J Comput Neurosci 30:7-16. 2011
    ..We show here that measures built from directed information theory in networks can be used to assess Granger causality graphs of stochastic processes...
  66. pmc The pathoplasticity of dysphoric episodes: differential impact of stressful life events on the pattern of depressive symptom inter-correlations
    A O J Cramer
    Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Psychol Med 42:957-65. 2012
    ..The present study investigates the predictions of these two theories...
  67. ncbi High prevalence of rheumatic heart disease detected by echocardiography in school children
    Maneesha Bhaya
    Sardar Patel Medical College and Associated Group of Hospitals, Department of Cardiology, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
    Echocardiography 27:448-53. 2010
    ..We attempted diagnosing RHD in school children in Bikaner city by cardiac ultrasound...
  68. ncbi Modulatory effects of acupuncture on resting-state networks: a functional MRI study combining independent component analysis and multivariate Granger causality analysis
    Chongguang Zhong
    Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    J Magn Reson Imaging 35:572-81. 2012
    ..To investigate acupuncture specificity by exploring causal relationships of brain networks following acupuncture at GB40 (Qiuxu), with the acupoint KI3 (Taixi) as a control (belonging to the same nerve segment but different meridians)...
  69. pmc Causes of intravenous medication errors: an ethnographic study
    K Taxis
    Department of Practice and Policy, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, London WC1N 1AX, UK
    Qual Saf Health Care 12:343-7. 2003
    ..Our aim was to investigate causes of errors in IV drug preparation and administration using a framework of human error theory...
  70. pmc Granger causality relationships between local field potentials in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy
    Alex J Cadotte
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 6131, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 189:121-9. 2010
    ..In this study, we use Granger causality (GC) to determine the strength and direction of relationships between local field potentials (LFPs) recorded ..
  71. pmc Reliability of the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method for assessing causality in drug-induced liver injury
    James Rochon
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC 27713, USA
    Hepatology 48:1175-83. 2008
    The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was developed to quantify the strength of association between a liver injury and the medication implicated as causing the injury...
  72. ncbi "Imagine a can opener"--the magic of principal stratum analysis
    Philip Dawid
    University of Cambridge, UK
    Int J Biostat 8:19. 2012
    ..We argue that this can be meaningful only in those rare cases that involve strong functional dependence, and even then may not be appropriate...
  73. ncbi Identification of feedback loops in neural networks based on multi-step Granger causality
    Chao Yi Dong
    Department of Automatic Control, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot 010080, People s Republic of China
    Bioinformatics 28:2146-53. 2012
    ..Therefore, the system-level identification of feedback circuits using time-series measurements is critical to understand the underlying regulatory mechanism of synchronized bursting behaviors...
  74. ncbi Comparison of two clinical scales for causality assessment in hepatotoxicity
    M I Lucena
    Servicio de Farmacologia Clinica, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Facultad de Medicina, Campus Universitario de Teatinos s n, Malaga, Spain
    Hepatology 33:123-30. 2001
    ..The performance of the M&V scale was poor in reactions with long latency periods (i.e., amoxycillin/clavulanic acid), evolution to chronicity after withdrawal (cholestatic pattern), or death...
  75. ncbi Revisiting Wiener's principle of causality -- interaction-delay reconstruction using transfer entropy and multivariate analysis on delay-weighted graphs
    Michael Wibral
    MEG Unit, Brain Imaging Center, Goethe University, 60528 Frankfurt, Germany
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2012:3676-9. 2012
    ..Transfer entropy is an implementation of Wiener's principle of observational causality based on information theory, and detects arbitrary linear and non-linear interactions...
  76. pmc Individual causal models and population system models in epidemiology
    J S Koopman
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 2029, USA
    Am J Public Health 89:1170-4. 1999
    ..Recent advances in G-estimation and discrete individual transmission model formulation provide opportunities for such integration...
  77. pmc Multi-subject analyses with dynamic causal modeling
    Christian Herbert Kasess
    MR Center of Excellence, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
    Neuroimage 49:3065-74. 2010
    ..Group results obtained with these FFX approaches should therefore be interpreted carefully by considering estimates of dependencies among model parameters...
  78. pmc Establishing causality for dopamine in neural function and behavior with optogenetics
    Elizabeth E Steinberg
    Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Brain Res 1511:46-64. 2013
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Optogenetics (7th BRES)...
  79. ncbi Dyslipidemias in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: risks and causality
    Ian Graham
    Department of Cardiology, Charlemont Clinic, Dublin, Ireland
    Curr Cardiol Rep 14:709-20. 2012
    ..and LDL-cholesterol relate to CVD risk in an independent and graded manner and fulfill the criteria for causality. Therapeutic reduction of these lipid fractions is associated with improved outcomes...
  80. ncbi Causal connectivity of evolved neural networks during behavior
    Anil K Seth
    The Neurosciences Institute, 10640 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Network 16:35-54. 2005
    ..paper proposes a method, based on a graph-theoretic extension of vector autoregressive modeling and 'Granger causality,' for characterizing causal interactions generated within intact neural mechanisms...
  81. ncbi Causality assessment of adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)
    Anita M Loughlin
    Boston Medical Center and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States
    Vaccine 30:7253-9. 2012
  82. ncbi Alcohol, suppressed anger and violence
    Thor Norstrom
    Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    Addiction 105:1580-6. 2010
  83. ncbi Causality in linear nongaussian acyclic models in the presence of latent gaussian confounders
    Zhitang Chen
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Neural Comput 25:1605-41. 2013
    ..Experiments on synthetic data and real-world data have been conducted to show the applicability of our model and the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms...
  84. pmc Folic acid, homocysteine, and cardiovascular disease: judging causality in the face of inconclusive trial evidence
    David S Wald
    Centre for Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London EC1M 6BQ
    BMJ 333:1114-7. 2006
  85. ncbi Reverse causality in the association between whiplash and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the HUNT study
    Arnstein Mykletun
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Mental Health, Oslo, Norway
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 36:1380-6. 2011
    ..Longitudinal population-based cohort study...
  86. ncbi Community participation and psychological empowerment: testing reciprocal causality using a cross-lagged panel design and latent constructs
    Brian D Christens
    University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Health Educ Behav 38:339-47. 2011
    ..Results indicated that CP influenced future PE; however, reciprocal causality was not found to occur between the variables...
  87. pmc Deconstructing events: the neural bases for space, time, and causality
    Alexander Kranjec
    Psychology Department, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 24:1-16. 2012
    Space, time, and causality provide a natural structure for organizing our experience...
  88. pmc A review of causal inference for biomedical informatics
    Samantha Kleinberg
    Department of Biomedical Informatics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, United States
    J Biomed Inform 44:1102-12. 2011
    b>Causality is an important concept throughout the health sciences and is particularly vital for informatics work such as finding adverse drug events or risk factors for disease using electronic health records...
  89. ncbi Aberrant sense of agency in patients with schizophrenia: forward and backward over-attribution of temporal causality during intentional action
    Takaki Maeda
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 8582, Japan
    Psychiatry Res 198:1-6. 2012
    ..Confusion in the experience of temporal causal relations between the self and the external world may underlie self-disturbances in schizophrenia...
  90. pmc Testing for causality in covarying traits: genes and latitude in a molecular world
    Conor O'Brien
    Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 5289, USA
    Mol Ecol 20:2471–6. 2011
    ..Herein, we demonstrate a straightforward test for inferring causality using residuals from regression of the traits with the common factor...
  91. ncbi Measuring autonomy and emergence via Granger causality
    Anil K Seth
    School of Informatics and Sackler Centre for Conciousness Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QJ, UK
    Artif Life 16:179-96. 2010
    ..for both autonomy and emergence, based on the framework of multivariate autoregression and specifically Granger causality. G-autonomy measures the extent to which the knowing the past of a variable helps predict its future, as ..
  92. ncbi Direct causality between single-Purkinje cell activities and motor learning revealed by a cerebellum-machine interface utilizing VOR adaptation paradigm
    Yutaka Hirata
    Department Computer Science, Chubu University College of Engineering, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan
    Cerebellum 11:455-6. 2012
    A cerebellum-machine interface (CMI) was developed to test direct causality between single-unit cerebellar Purkinje cell activities and motor learning...
  93. ncbi Regulatory causality evaluation methods applied in kava hepatotoxicity: are they appropriate?
    Rolf Teschke
    Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Klinikum Hanau, Teaching Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 59:1-7. 2011
    ..Forster) as an anxyolytic herbal extract, but the regulatory causality evaluation of these cases was a matter of international and scientific debate...
  94. ncbi An evaluation of applied biomechanics as an adjunct to systematic specific causation in forensic medicine
    Michael D Freeman
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, USA
    Wien Med Wochenschr 161:458-68. 2011
    ..The statistical benefits and limitations of biomechanical analysis are discussed as an adjunct to forensic medicine...
  95. ncbi Analysis of unintended events in hospitals: inter-rater reliability of constructing causal trees and classifying root causes
    Marleen Smits
    Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, PO Box 1568, NIVEL, 3500 BN Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Int J Qual Health Care 21:292-300. 2009
    ..It is important that root cause analysis tools are reliable, because they form the basis for patient safety interventions...
  96. ncbi Coming to terms with risk factors for eating disorders: application of risk terminology and suggestions for a general taxonomy
    Corinna Jacobi
    Department of Psychology, University of Trier, Trier, Germany
    Psychol Bull 130:19-65. 2004
    ..Suggestions are made for the conceptualization of future risk factor studies...
  97. pmc Dynamic Granger-Geweke causality modeling with application to interictal spike propagation
    Fa Hsuan Lin
    Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
    Hum Brain Mapp 30:1877-86. 2009
    ..during cognitive processing using structural equation modeling (SEM) and, more recently, with Granger-Geweke causality. While SEM is complicated by the need for a priori directional connectivity information, the temporal resolution ..
  98. ncbi A new algorithm to identify the causality of adverse drug reactions
    Yvonne Koh
    Drug Saf 28:1159-61. 2005
  99. pmc Granger causality mapping during joint actions reveals evidence for forward models that could overcome sensory-motor delays
    Idil Kokal
    Department of Neuroscience, BCN Neuroimaging Centre, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 5:e13507. 2010
    ..sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network), here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM) [5]...
  100. ncbi Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease: a review of shared risk factors and new findings supporting a causality hypothesis
    Mohammad S Al-Zahrani
    Division of Peridontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
    Quintessence Int 37:11-8. 2006
    ..Recent findings to support a causal association between the 2 conditions are also presented...
  101. ncbi Stochastic modeling of neurobiological time series: power, coherence, Granger causality, and separation of evoked responses from ongoing activity
    Yonghong Chen
    The J Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Chaos 16:026113. 2006
    ..analyzed by an adaptive multivariate autoregressive modeling strategy which yields power, coherence, and Granger causality spectra...

Research Grants78

  1. Genetic variation and regulatory networks: Mechanisms and complexity
    DANA PE ER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..a rich source of variation to help uncover regulatory relations in the molecular network as well as direct their causality. We will develop our methods using a large collection of highly variable yeast strains, for which we have ..
  2. Cerebral metabolism, EEG, and sleep cycling in critically ill neonates
    Renée A Shellhaas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) Employ measures of coherence, causality, and directed transfer functions to assess for altered cerebral metabolism associated with seizures arising from ..
  3. Persisting Grand Mal and Myoclonic Seizures in JME including Veterans
    Antonio V Delgado-Escueta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If a putative epilepsy gene is in at least 3% of our cohorts, we seek proof for causality by replication of epilepsy in knockout (Ko) or knockin (Ki) mice model...
  4. Effects of periodontitis on insulin target organs and glucose homeostasis
    Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, the causality and mechanisms linking periodontitis to T2DM are not known...
  5. Effect of exposure to organochlorine compounds on the development of obesity and
    GEORGE E HOWELL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..namely oxychlordane and/or DDE, and the occurrence of T2D, there is very little empirical evidence to show causality. Therefore, the current research plan will utilize both in vitro cell culture models of insulin sensitive ..
  6. Contribution of Gstm1 to the severity of hypertension and chronic kidney disease
    Thu H Le; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Despite the strong evidence implicating a role of the null variant of GSTM1 in human diseases, direct proof of causality and the exact molecular mechanism by which loss of the gene product causes disease susceptibility have not been ..
  7. Atherogenic mechanism of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes
    Sanjay Srivastava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To probe causality, we will examine whether treatment with chemical chaperones, which assist protein folding, would decrease lesion ..
  8. Food Environment, Diet Quality and Disparities in Obesity
    Adam Drewnowski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To be able to establish causality between environmental and dietary variables and health outcomes, the behavior survey module and the food ..
  9. Sleep Disordered Breathing and Growth in Children: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
    Karen Bonuck; Fiscal Year: 2009 examine sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and growth throughout childhood, and evaluate evidence of causality. ALSPAC follows an inception cohort of 13,000+ children since 1992...
  10. Advanced Glycation End-Products and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer
    Li Jiao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A Mendelian randomization study will be performed to assess the causality of any observed association;and Aim 2) to investigate the association between genetic variations of the CML- AGE/..
  11. Etanercept: a Mechanistic Probe of Central Mu-Opioid Dysregulation in Pain States
    ALAN RODNEY PROSSIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Etanercept, a cytokine (i.e. TNF-alpha) antagonist, is proposed as a mechanistic probe to differentiate causality from epi-phenomena in determining the role that cytokines play in the dysregulaton of central mu-opioid receptor ..
  12. Genetic Risk for Orofacial Clefts in the Folate/Homocysteine Pathway
    NICHOLAS MARINI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will better define the causality of orofacial clefts as well as uncover the remedial mechanism of nutritional supplementation...
  13. Multigenerational Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure
    Yasmin L Hurd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will address the causality between gene expression impairments and specific behavioral phenotypes using in vivo gene manipulations in the ..
  14. miR-10a regulation of regional arterial endothelial phenotypes in atherosclerosis
    Yun Fang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..develop a transgenic mouse model that exhibits inducible expression of endothelial miR-10a to demonstrate the causality of endothelial miR-10a expression and atherosclerosis, thereby testing in vivo the hypothesis that athero-..
  15. Novel strategy to mitigate and treat radiation combined infection injury by targe
    Shyam Biswal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Other than clinical management, currently there are no effective therapies that can be translated to mass causality during a nuclear attack...
  16. Understanding the malaria-poverty vicious circle
    MARCIA CALDAS DE CASTRO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..are (a) to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the potential bi-directional malaria-poverty causality;(b) to empirically test the proposed conceptual framework;(c) to provide evidence regarding the magnitude of the ..
  17. Visualizing Actomyosin Transients by Data Merging
    Thomas P Burghardt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Myosin MD simulation provides complementary insights into how coupling pathways perform. MD introduces the causality test identifying source, path, and termination of coupling networks in sequential time that is an integral part ..
  18. From Defective Microglia to Cortical Activity and Pathological Behavior
    Mario R Capecchi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..One can imagine multiple mechanisms and the causality is likely to be multifaceted...
  19. Dissection of the ACPA response in African-Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis
    S Louis Bridges; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that antibodies from antigen-specific ACPA/CCP/PAD B cells in RA are cross-reactive to PAD, implicating causality. Our aims are: 1...
  20. Microbiomes in Human Pancreatic Cancer
    Dominique S Michaud; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While this project will not be able to address causality directly, it will provide valuable data to complement ongoing and future epidemiologic studies examining the ..
    Lawrence H Snyder; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..resting state data are used to infer functional connections between regions, but little is known about causality, spatial and temporal scale, or the underlying neural substrate of the correlations...
  22. Modulation of Insulin Action by Testosterone in Men
    Nelly Pitteloud; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..demonstrate an inverse relationship between insulin resistance and testosterone (T) levels in men, data on causality are lacking...
  23. Impact of MC1R Functional Variants on the DNA Damage Response of Human Melanocyte
    SANCY ANN LEACHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and the role of human melanocytes in photoprotection, it is critical to investigate the impact and establish causality of common human MC1R variants in the aberrant UV response, using human melanocytes that naturally express this ..
  24. Homocysteine: Vascular Biochemistry and Metabolism
    DONALD WELDON JACOBSEN; Fiscal Year: 2010 a mechanism involving the activation of NF-kB;3) the fundamental mechanism underlying homocysteine causality is molecular targeting;and, 4) homocysteine-lowering by primary intervention will reduce mortality and morbidity ..
  25. Defining the causality &biologic impact of genes within ulcerative colitis loci.
    John D Rioux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The identification of causal genetic variants linked to UC and their functional implications could provide new guidelines for drug dose adjustment, for changes in treatment modalities and for prevention strategies. ..
  26. Friendships and Risk of Over-weight among Diverse-origin Adolescents
    ELIZABETH contact VAQUERA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..longitudinal analyses and instrumental variables to correct biases of unobserved heterogeneity and reverse causality, to distinguish between homophily and influence, and to isolate pathways of causality...
  27. Environmental Attributes and Weight Control: Study of Over 1.3 Million Veterans
    Shannon N Zenk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..employ panel data statistical models that are robust to a broad class of potential sources of bias and reverse causality. We will use similar models with a matched control group derived through propensity score analysis to determine ..
  28. Targeting the Pial Collateral Circulation for Mitigation of Cerebral Ischemia
    James E Faber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim I and II will thus identify the highest priority candidates that Am III will test for causality using in vivo gene targeting, cellular analyses, and functional outcomein stroke...
  29. Pursuing purine pathways to clinical trials for Parkinson's disease
    Michael A Schwarzschild; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Although the association does not address causality, it provides a valuable new clue to the pathophysiology of PD...
  30. Active zone loss cause dying back neuropathy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Hiroshi Nishimune; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..motor neurons (corticospinal synapses) prior to the onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to test the causality of active zone loss in NMJ denervation...
    Tim J Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Finally, to determine causality and investigate the underlying mechanisms of slow CR, we will manipulate expression of candidate genes and ..
  32. Cardiolipin, pneumonia, and a novel cardiolipin pump
    Rama K Mallampalli; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The PI will execute loss-of-function and gain-of-function strategies to address causality for FIC1 control of CL, exploit use of bacterially-infected FIC1 mutant mice, and identify the molecular ..
  33. miR-10a regulation of regional arterial endothelial phenotypes in atherosclerosis
    Yun Fang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..develop a transgenic mouse model that exhibits inducible expression of endothelial miR-10a to demonstrate the causality of endothelial miR-10a expression and atherosclerosis, thereby testing in vivo the hypothesis that athero-..
  34. TGFb Modulation: Therapeutic Targeting for COPD-Emphysema
    Enid R Neptune; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with distinct compartmental manifestations which challenge simplistic notions of single gene or single pathway causality. Whereas the airway findings of subepithelial fibrosis and fibroblast proliferation seem to reflect exuberant ..
  35. Impact of CCR5 inhibition on Sarcoid Immunophenotypes
    KEVIN FITZGERALD GIBSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the specific causality of sarcoidosis is enigmatic, the granuloma formation and other pathologic findings of this disorder almost ..
  36. Early determinants of childhood obesity: Etiology disparities policy analysis
    Summer Sherburne Hawkins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of public data through data linkage, integrating analytic techniques from economics and epidemiology to infer causality, understanding influences on racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities, and identifying policy drivers for ..
  37. FcgRIIB links CRP signals with ITGAM functions: a G x G x G model of SLE.
    Alexander J Szalai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..expression to: (i) genetic/environmental variation in blood CRP, (ii) ITGAM function, and (iii) SLE risk and causality. We have access to a large group of healthy and SLE affected people and the appropriate clinical and basic ..
  38. Regulation of Proteasome Function in Cardiomyopathies
    Sharlene M Day; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..reported proteasome dysfunction in a number of cardiac disease models, but mechanisms are largely unknown, and causality has not yet been established...
    Trudy F Mackay; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Establishing unambiguous causality for SNPs associated with phenotypic variation is hampered in human genetic studies because of large LD blocks...
  40. Functions of TEX11 and its associated proteins in mice and humans
    Peijing Jeremy Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013 two critical barriers: 1) causative mutations in a particular gene are expected to be extremely rare and 2) causality is nearly impossible to prove for infertility, as traditional pedigree-based linkage analyses are not applicable,..
  41. The role of prostaglandin d2 in hair follicle biology
    LUIS ANDRES GARZA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to investigate transgenic and knockout mice with altered PGD2 signaling to establish causality and mechanism...
  42. Fractalkine in Adipose Inflammation and Insulin Resistance
    Muredach P Reilly; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will define causality and mechanism while providing the human context for clinical and therapeutic development of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in DIO ..
  43. Environment Change and Diarrheal Disease: A Natural Experiment
    Joseph N S Eisenberg; Fiscal Year: 2012 incorporate a longitudinal design, building on our previous four years of data, which will help to establish causality between social factors and diarrheal illness;and the other is to collect social and molecular data that will ..
  44. A novel atherosclerosis locus on mouse chromosome 4
    CARRIE LYNN WELCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will include gene-specific knockdowns. Proof of causality will be addressed with atherosclerosis studies, in vivo, using transgenic, gene knockout or gene knock-in mice...
  45. Cytokine Regulation of Muscle Protein Synthesis During Infection
    Charles H Lang; Fiscal Year: 2013 skeletal muscle permits loss- and gain-of-function experiments to be performed, thereby assigning causality to the observed changes...
  46. Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration
    J Marie Hardwick; Fiscal Year: 2013 epilepsy genes of unknown function, and new approaches are needed to delineate their mechanisms of disease causality. A case in point is the human KCTD7 gene, a newly designated epilepsy/neurodegeneration gene...
  47. Therapeutic Angiogenesis for Erectile Dysfunction
    BRIAN ANNEX; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..between changes in VEGF ligand and VEGF receptor signaling in corporal tissue was found;but association is not causality. Targeting individual cells types within the complex corporal vascular structure is now feasible...
  48. The Incidence and Progression of Peripheral Venous Disease
    Michael H Criqui; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..risk factors for incident/progressive venous disease, focusing on risk factors potentially biased by "reverse causality" in prevalence studies;i.e., venous disease may cause rather than, or as well as, result from the risk factor;e...
  49. Breastfeeding RCT: Adolescent Neurocognitive and Respiratory Function
    Emily Oken; Fiscal Year: 2013 largely based on observational studies, which are prone to measurement error, publication bias and reverse causality. In addition, substantial differences between mothers who do and do not choose to breastfeed may confound ..
  50. Mitochondrial genetics in skeletal muscle aging
    Jonathan Wanagat; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These models will test the causality of mitochondrial mutations in the aging process and pinpoint areas amenable to intervention...
  51. The Role Of Interoceptive Awareness In Affect And Related Mental Faculties
    IAN ROBERT KLECKNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of interoception and affective processing have been correlated, there is a critical lack of knowledge regarding causality in these relationships...
  52. Targeting stabilized mutant p53 protein
    UTE MARTHA MOLL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, causality studies on mechanism of drug action will be performed...
  53. Michigan Hepatotoxicity Clinical Research Network Renewal 2013
    Robert J Fontana; Fiscal Year: 2013 genetic variation in DILI susceptibility and outcomes using next generation sequencing techniques in high causality score cases...
  54. Enhanced Evaluation of Second Stage Translational Research
    TERRENCE EDWARD MURPHY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..employed, with concomitant risk of imbalanced covariates creating bias that potentially undermines support for causality. Another related factor further complicates the rigorous evaluation of non- randomized interventions...
  55. Poverty, Stress, and Discounting: A potential micro-mechanism for behavior change
    Johannes Haushofer; Fiscal Year: 2013 both developing and developed countries, both in the laboratory and in the field;we aim to establish causality in all studies, and employ novel measures of welfare (cortisol and cytokines)...
  56. Shear Stress and Mechnaically Unstable Plaque
    Tzung K Hsiai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..represents a concerted effort between two labs (Tzung Hsiai and Linda Demer) to test hypothesis, to establish causality, and to assess mechanically unstable plaque in the presence of calcification...
  57. Discovering Human Birth Defect Genes from Chromosomal Rearrangements
    Richard L Maas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 3, to establish causality for these candidate genes, we will perform mutational analyses of phenotypically related human cases, and in Aim ..
  58. Methyl Donor Pathway Genetics in the Development of Orofacial Clefts
    JASPER D RINE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We hope to better define the causality of orofacial clefts, understand the remedial role of nutritional supplementation, and determine whether ..
  59. Mitochondrial Integrity Regulates Cerebral Reperfusion Injury
    THOMAS HUDSON SANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..utilizing our cultured primary neuron model of transient ischemia to define molecular interactions and assign causality to these events...
    TAMARA G HERSHEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, these data have come from retrospective studies and so the direction of causality can only be hypothesized. To address this ambiguity, prospective data are greatly needed...
  61. Unique Anti-microbial Rinse to Reduce Oral Inflammation
    Charles J Gauntt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..While causality has yet to be confirmed, some studies have shown that oral health interventions may impact biological markers of ..
  62. Autoimmunity and Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    Alessandro Iannaccone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of autoreactivity in AMD, investigate commonalities (and differences) across species and models, test the causality of the autoimmune hypothesis in AMD, define an "autoreactivity sequence", identify early disease markers and ..
    Alfredo Sadun; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..the association between the compromise of mitochondrial function and optic neuropathies and investigating causality and mechanism...
  64. Aging, Social Interdependence and Wisdom in the U.S. and Japan
    Richard E Nisbett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..more broadly, more clearly recognize the role of situations in producing behavior and have more complex views of causality, look for the middle way in disputes and evaluation of contradictory propositions, are more cognizant of ..
    Norman Alpert; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of the relationship between %TnT2 (TnT/TnT1 X 100) and the cross-bridge force- time integral, we will test for causality TnT2 substitution on thin filaments...
  66. A Computational Approach for 3D Brain Source Imaging
    Bin He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..computational methods are proposed including a novel subspace source localization method and an innovative causality analysis algorithm for high resolution seizure foci localization and imaging...
    Douglas Mann; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Thus, cytoskeletal proteins may provide a unifying causality for DCM analogous to that of sarcomeric proteins for HCM...
    Richard Santen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The strategies to establish causality include the induction of hypersensitivity to estradiol in non-adapted cells, and reversion of hypersensitivity ..
    Vladimir Hlady; Fiscal Year: 2001 surface yields protein layer yields platelet and cell adhesion forms the basis of the generally accepted causality between the biomaterial surface property and the attempt of the host organism to isolate artificial material...
    Vladimir Hlady; Fiscal Year: 2003 surface yields protein layer yields platelet and cell adhesion forms the basis of the generally accepted causality between the biomaterial surface property and the attempt of the host organism to isolate artificial material...
  71. Self-concordant goals, self-regulation, and personality
    KENNON SHELDON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..My own work based in Self-determination theory, has used internal perceived locus of causality (I-PLOC) ratings to index the concordance of goals with implicit personality and may be susceptible to self-..
    Philippe Hujoel; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Establishing the causality of these associations is difficult; the compared groups, individuals with and without periodontitis, may differ ..
    Harry Goshgarian; Fiscal Year: 1992 to carry out correlative quantitative physiological and morphological analyses to either prove or disprove causality between the above morphological and physiological events...
  74. Effects of periodontitis on onset and severity of IR, T2DM and organ damage
    Keiko Watanabe; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, confounding factors are difficult to control in these studies. Thus, causality between periodontitis and diabetes and obesity remains unclear...
    Joan Haase; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The study design contains two components. To answer questions about relationships and causality among individual, family and social protective factors, illness-related and individual risk factors, and ..
  76. Validation of a Laboratory Measure of Self-Aggression
    Michael McCloskey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..correlates of lethal and non-lethal acts of self-aggression, these methodologies are unable to specify causality. A similar problem with aggression research was addressed via the use of laboratory analogues of aggression...
  77. Research in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A History
    Henry Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of the risk paradigm on practice and public health, and dialectic about the medical and public health views of causality and prevention...
  78. Micro Foundations of Health and Development
    Duncan Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..b>Causality between health and economic status likely runs in both directions: isolating the causal effect of health on ..