wales

Summary

Top Publications

  1. pmc Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores
    Julia Hippisley-Cox
    Division of Primary Care, Tower Building, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
    BMJ 339:b4229. 2009
  2. ncbi Epidemiology of fractures in England and Wales
    T P Van Staa
    MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK
    Bone 29:517-22. 2001
  3. pmc Unintended effects of statins in men and women in England and Wales: population based cohort study using the QResearch database
    Julia Hippisley-Cox
    Division of Primary Care, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
    BMJ 340:c2197. 2010
  4. ncbi Access to stroke care in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the effect of age, gender and weekend admission
    A G Rudd
    Clinical Effectiveness and Evaluation Unit, Royal College of Physicians, London, UK
    Age Ageing 36:247-55. 2007
  5. ncbi Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in South East Wales
    C Hirst
    Department of Neurology, Helen Durham Neuro inflammatory Centre, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:386-91. 2009
  6. ncbi Survival from malignant digestive endocrine tumors in England and Wales: a population-based study
    Come Lepage
    Registre Bourguignon des Cancers Digestifs INSERM UMR 866 CHU Dijon, Faculte de Medecine, Dijon, France
    Gastroenterology 132:899-904. 2007
  7. ncbi Survey of the incidence and aetiology of mastitis on dairy farms in England and Wales
    A J Bradley
    School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford
    Vet Rec 160:253-7. 2007
  8. ncbi Population-based cancer survival trends in England and Wales up to 2007: an assessment of the NHS cancer plan for England
    Bernard Rachet
    Non communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Oncol 10:351-69. 2009
  9. ncbi The late diagnosis and consequent short-term mortality of HIV-infected heterosexuals (England and Wales, 2000-2004)
    Timothy R Chadborn
    HIV and STI Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    AIDS 20:2371-9. 2006
  10. ncbi Management and outcome of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in England and Wales
    C C Kibbler
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK
    J Hosp Infect 54:18-24. 2003

Research Grants

  1. Infant Screening and Diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dys*
    Paul Fernhoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Rural Environmental Health in Central/Eastern Europe
    Thomas Cook; Fiscal Year: 2002
  3. BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN OF POLISH ANCESTRY
    Dorothy Pathak; Fiscal Year: 1999
  4. BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN OF POLISH ANCESTRY
    Dorothy Pathak; Fiscal Year: 2001
  5. Meeting on Inhaled Mineral Dusts/Nanoparticles
    Brooke Mossman; Fiscal Year: 2005
  6. SHAPING HEALTH BEHAVIORS THROUGH SCIENCE ENRICHMENT
    L Campfield; Fiscal Year: 2002
  7. Multilingual Health Education Resource Project
    MARY GILLISPIE; Fiscal Year: 2002
  8. Brain Tissue Resource Centre for Alcohol Research
    Clive Harper; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. MULTICENTER GENETIC STUDIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Ann Pulver; Fiscal Year: 2007
  10. MULTICENTER GENETIC STUDIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Brien Riley; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications281 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores
    Julia Hippisley-Cox
    Division of Primary Care, Tower Building, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
    BMJ 339:b4229. 2009
    ..To develop and validate two new fracture risk algorithms (QFractureScores) for estimating the individual risk of osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture over 10 years...
  2. ncbi Epidemiology of fractures in England and Wales
    T P Van Staa
    MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK
    Bone 29:517-22. 2001
    ..Practice Research Database were used to derive age- and gender-specific fracture incidence rates for England and Wales during the period 1988-1998...
  3. pmc Unintended effects of statins in men and women in England and Wales: population based cohort study using the QResearch database
    Julia Hippisley-Cox
    Division of Primary Care, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
    BMJ 340:c2197. 2010
    ..To quantify the unintended effects of statins according to type, dose, and duration of use...
  4. ncbi Access to stroke care in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the effect of age, gender and weekend admission
    A G Rudd
    Clinical Effectiveness and Evaluation Unit, Royal College of Physicians, London, UK
    Age Ageing 36:247-55. 2007
    ..To determine whether access to high-quality stroke care is affected by the age or gender of the patient or by weekend admission...
  5. ncbi Increasing prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in South East Wales
    C Hirst
    Department of Neurology, Helen Durham Neuro inflammatory Centre, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:386-91. 2009
    ..In addition, direct comparison of cross sectional prevalence estimates performed in different epochs in ethnically and geographically distinct populations may be inappropriate...
  6. ncbi Survival from malignant digestive endocrine tumors in England and Wales: a population-based study
    Come Lepage
    Registre Bourguignon des Cancers Digestifs INSERM UMR 866 CHU Dijon, Faculte de Medecine, Dijon, France
    Gastroenterology 132:899-904. 2007
    ..Little is known about the prognosis of patients with malignant digestive endocrine tumors (MDETs), primarily because of their rarity...
  7. ncbi Survey of the incidence and aetiology of mastitis on dairy farms in England and Wales
    A J Bradley
    School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford
    Vet Rec 160:253-7. 2007
    A survey of clinical and subclinical mastitis was carried out on 97 dairy farms in England and Wales, selected at random from members of a national milk recording scheme...
  8. ncbi Population-based cancer survival trends in England and Wales up to 2007: an assessment of the NHS cancer plan for England
    Bernard Rachet
    Non communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Oncol 10:351-69. 2009
    ..By contrast, a formal cancer strategy was not implemented in Wales until late 2006...
  9. ncbi The late diagnosis and consequent short-term mortality of HIV-infected heterosexuals (England and Wales, 2000-2004)
    Timothy R Chadborn
    HIV and STI Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    AIDS 20:2371-9. 2006
    ..To describe the proportion of HIV-infected heterosexual individuals diagnosed late and estimate how much mortality could have been prevented by earlier diagnosis...
  10. ncbi Management and outcome of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in England and Wales
    C C Kibbler
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK
    J Hosp Infect 54:18-24. 2003
    ..Six hospitals in England and Wales acted as sentinel hospitals. Main outcome measures were hospital population-based incidence and 30-day mortality...
  11. pmc Heat-related and cold-related deaths in England and Wales: who is at risk?
    S Hajat
    Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Occup Environ Med 64:93-100. 2007
    Despite the high burden from exposure to both hot and cold weather each year in England and Wales, there has been relatively little investigation on who is most at risk, resulting in uncertainties in informing government interventions.
  12. ncbi Identification and characterization of transmissible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in cystic fibrosis patients in England and Wales
    Fiona W Scott
    Laboratory of HealthCare Associated Infection, Specialist and Reference Microbiology Division, Health Protection Agency, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5HT, UK
    J Med Microbiol 53:609-15. 2004
    ..Isolates of P. aeruginosa were requested from over 120 hospitals in England and Wales and a sample size of approximately 20% of the CF patient population in each centre was recommended...
  13. pmc The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in England and Wales: spatial patterns in transmissibility and mortality impact
    Gerardo Chowell
    School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 275:501-9. 2008
    ..for the autumn and winter waves of the 1918-1919 pandemic in cities, towns and rural areas of England and Wales. Average measures of transmissibility, estimated by the reproduction number, ranged between 1.3 and 1...
  14. ncbi Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the pre-conjugate vaccine era: England and Wales, 1996-2006
    Caroline L Trotter
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, UK
    J Infect 60:200-8. 2010
    To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in England & Wales in the pre-conjugate vaccine era.
  15. ncbi The current burden of pneumococcal disease in England and Wales
    A Melegaro
    Modelling and Economics Unit, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, Health Protection Agency, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Infect 52:37-48. 2006
    ..To evaluate the potential impact of various pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies, it is critical to ascertain the pre-vaccination epidemiology and to have a detailed evaluation of the current burden of pneumococcal disease...
  16. ncbi Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in England and Wales between 1981 and 2000
    Belgin Unal
    Department of Public Health, University of Liverpool, England
    Circulation 109:1101-7. 2004
    ..Our study aimed to examine how much of the decrease in England and Wales between 1981 and 2000 could be attributed to medical and surgical treatments and how much to changes in ..
  17. pmc Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2
    Julia Hippisley-Cox
    Division of Primary Care, Tower Building, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
    BMJ 336:1475-82. 2008
    ..to provide accurate estimates of cardiovascular risk in patients from different ethnic groups in England and Wales and to compare its performance with the modified version of Framingham score recommended by the National Institute ..
  18. ncbi Mental health, places and people: a multilevel analysis of economic inactivity and social deprivation
    David L Fone
    Centre for Health Sciences Research, Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
    Health Place 12:332-44. 2006
    ....
  19. ncbi Palliative care in children in Wales: a study of provision and need
    Richard D W Hain
    University of Wales College of Medicine, Department of Child Health, Llandough Hospital, Penarth, Vale of Glamorgan CF64 2XX, Wales, UK
    Palliat Med 19:137-42. 2005
    To establish incidence and prevalence of children needing palliative care in Wales.
  20. pmc Improved access and targeting of musculoskeletal services in northwest Wales: targeted early access to musculoskeletal services (TEAMS) programme
    Peter Maddison
    North West Wales NHS Trust, Ysbyty Gwynedd, Bangor LL57 2PW, Wales
    BMJ 329:1325-7. 2004
    The hospital based musculoskeletal service in northwest Wales was unable to cope with the demand for referrals from general practitioners...
  21. pmc Acanthamoeba keratitis in England and Wales: incidence, outcome, and risk factors
    C F Radford
    Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK cherry radford ukgateway net
    Br J Ophthalmol 86:536-42. 2002
    To determine the incidence, regional variation in frequency, outcome, and risk factors for acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in England and Wales.
  22. pmc Recent trends in diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in England and Wales among men who have sex with men
    N Macdonald
    HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Department, Health Protection Agency, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 80:492-7. 2004
    To examine trends in rates of diagnoses of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales between 1997 and 2002.
  23. ncbi Cannabis and schizophrenia: model projections of the impact of the rise in cannabis use on historical and future trends in schizophrenia in England and Wales
    Matthew Hickman
    Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Canynge Hall, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, UK
    Addiction 102:597-606. 2007
    ..To estimate long-term trends in cannabis use and projections of schizophrenia assuming a causal relation between cannabis use and schizophrenia...
  24. pmc Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes in England and Wales: frequency, characterization, and association with clinical disease
    A Holmes
    Laboratory of HealthCare Associated Infection, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, NW9 5HT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2384-90. 2005
    ..aureus and belonged to 12 different sequence types, including ST22 and ST30, which are closely related to the most prevalent MRSA clones in United Kingdom hospitals, EMRSA-15 and EMRSA-16, respectively...
  25. ncbi The oral health of psychiatric in-patients in South Wales
    S Lewis
    Department of Adult Dental Health, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF144XY, Wales, UK
    Spec Care Dentist 21:182-6. 2001
    ..quantify the oral health status and identify dental treatment needs of hospitalized psychiatric patients in South Wales; and to compare the oral health of subgroups within the population by their age, psychiatric diagnosis, ..
  26. ncbi A comparative study of elderly suicides in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland: trends over time and age-associated trends
    Ajit Shah
    Ageing, Ethnicity and Mental Health, International School for Communities, Rights and Inclusion, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
    Int Psychogeriatr 21:581-7. 2009
    ..The elderly population size in the U.K. and its constituent countries is increasing. Traditionally, suicide rates increase with aging...
  27. pmc Geographical variation in life expectancy at birth in England and Wales is largely explained by deprivation
    Laura M Woods
    Non communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 59:115-20. 2005
    To describe the population mortality profile of England and Wales by deprivation and in each government office region (GOR) during 1998, and to quantify the influence of geography and deprivation in determining life expectancy.
  28. pmc Host, weather and virological factors drive norovirus epidemiology: time-series analysis of laboratory surveillance data in England and Wales
    Ben Lopman
    Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e6671. 2009
    ..Viral populations are dynamic and evolve under positive selection pressure...
  29. ncbi Presentation and frequency of catatonia in new admissions to two acute psychiatric admission units in India and Wales
    Padmaja Chalasani
    Hergest Unit, Ysbyty Gwynedd, Bangor, North Wales, UK
    Psychol Med 35:1667-75. 2005
    ..There are no modern cross-cultural comparative studies of the frequency and clinical presentation of catatonia in a Western country and India using standardized rating instruments and diagnostic criteria...
  30. ncbi Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine: the experience in England and Wales
    Helen Campbell
    Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 27:B20-9. 2009
    ..The MCC immunization programme has been extremely successful in controlling serogroup C disease and continues to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to review the experiences in England and Wales over the past 9 years.
  31. ncbi Causes of blind certifications in England and Wales: April 1999-March 2000
    C Bunce
    Research and Development, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK c bunce ucl ac uk
    Eye (Lond) 22:905-11. 2008
    The last complete report on causes of blindness in England and Wales was for data collected during April 1990 to March 1991...
  32. pmc Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales
    Jay Lucidarme
    Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Health Protection Agency, P O Box 209, Floor 2, Clinical Sciences Building 2, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WZ, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3577-85. 2009
    ..MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a ..
  33. pmc Trends in the prevalence and management of atrial fibrillation in general practice in England and Wales, 1994-1998: analysis of data from the general practice research database
    A Majeed
    School of Public Policy, University College London, London WC1H 9EZ, UK
    Heart 86:284-8. 2001
    To determine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in England and Wales, and examine trends in its treatment with warfarin and aspirin between 1994 and 1998.
  34. ncbi Carbon losses from all soils across England and Wales 1978-2003
    Pat H Bellamy
    National Soil Resources Institute, Cranfield University, Silsoe MK45 4DT, UK
    Nature 437:245-8. 2005
    ..Here we use data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales obtained between 1978 and 2003 to show that carbon was lost from soils across England and Wales over the survey ..
  35. ncbi Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and weight problems in adolescents in Wales
    F J Elgar
    Department of Family Social Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2
    Public Health 119:518-24. 2005
    ..The study also examined the extent to which physical activity mediated the relationship between sedentary behaviour and body mass...
  36. pmc The transmission dynamics of groups A and B human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in England & Wales and Finland: seasonality and cross-protection
    L J White
    Ecology and Epidemiology Group, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 133:279-89. 2005
    ..Simultaneous model fits to data from two locations (England & Wales, UK, and Turku, Finland) successfully reproduced the contrasting infection dynamics and group A/B dominance ..
  37. ncbi Cost-utility analysis of osteopathy in primary care: results from a pragmatic randomized controlled trial
    Nefyn H Williams
    Department of General Practice, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff University, Wescram, UK
    Fam Pract 21:643-50. 2004
    ..Management guidelines have encouraged primary care referral for spinal manipulation, but the evidence base is weak. More economic evaluations alongside pragmatic trials have been recommended...
  38. ncbi The cervical cancer epidemic that screening has prevented in the UK
    Julian Peto
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 364:249-56. 2004
    ..Recent reports suggest that the reduction in mortality achieved by the UK national cervical screening programme is too small to justify its financial and psychosocial costs, except perhaps in a few high-risk women...
  39. ncbi Continuing rapid increase in esophageal adenocarcinoma in England and Wales
    Come Lepage
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Am J Gastroenterol 103:2694-9. 2008
    ..Substantial changes have occurred in the epidemiology of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We examined trends in incidence in a large national population...
  40. pmc Chronic subdural haematoma in the elderly--a North Wales experience
    Muhammad Asghar
    Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, Gloucester GN1 3NN, UK
    J R Soc Med 95:290-2. 2002
    ..elderly patients with CSDH by retrospective study of the period 1996-1999 in the three district hospitals of North Wales. 40 cases of CSDH were identified in patients >65 years, the incidence in this population being 8.2/100,000...
  41. pmc One day survey by the Mental Health Act Commission of acute adult psychiatric inpatient wards in England and Wales
    R Ford
    Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, London SE1 1LB
    BMJ 317:1279-83. 1998
    ..To provide (via the Mental Health Act Commission's "national visit") empirical evidence on ward occupancy levels, use of the Mental Health Act 1983, nurse staffing, and care of female patients on acute adult psychiatric wards...
  42. ncbi Seroprevalence of meningococcal serogroup C bactericidal antibody in England and Wales in the pre-vaccination era
    Caroline Trotter
    Immunisation Division, PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Vaccine 21:1094-8. 2003
    ..This study provides baseline antibody levels which will facilitate the evaluation of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination programme...
  43. ncbi Exposure to heavy metals and infectious disease mortality in harbour porpoises from England and Wales
    P M Bennett
    Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent s Park, London NW1 4RY, UK
    Environ Pollut 112:33-40. 2001
    ..Post-mortem investigations on 86 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, found dead along the coasts of England and Wales revealed that 49 of the porpoises were healthy when they died as a consequence of physical trauma (most frequently ..
  44. ncbi Rates and risk factors by ethnic group for suicides within a year of contact with mental health services in England and Wales
    Kamaldeep S Bhui
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Old Anatomy Bldg, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, United Kingdom
    Psychiatr Serv 59:414-20. 2008
    ..This study compared suicide rates, clinical symptoms, and perceived preventability of suicide among persons in four ethnic groups who completed suicide within 12 months of contact with mental health services...
  45. pmc Living arrangements and place of death of older people with cancer in England and Wales: a record linkage study
    E Grundy
    Centre for Population Studies, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 49 51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, UK
    Br J Cancer 91:907-12. 2004
    ..record linkage study of people aged 50 years and over included in a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study)...
  46. pmc Cold related mortality in England and Wales; influence of social class in working and retired age groups
    G C Donaldson
    Medical Sciences Building, Queen Mary and Westfield College, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 57:790-1. 2003
  47. ncbi Responses to criminal prosecutions for HIV transmission among gay men with HIV in England and Wales
    Catherine Dodds
    Sigma Research, University of Portsmouth, London, UK
    Reprod Health Matters 17:135-45. 2009
    In England and Wales, criminal prosecutions for recklessly causing serious bodily harm by transmitting HIV have occurred since 2003...
  48. ncbi Equity of access to dialysis facilities in Wales
    P White
    Cartographics Department, Welsh Assembly Government, Cardiff, UK
    QJM 99:445-52. 2006
    ..Demand for dialysis, particularly, in-centre haemodialysis (HD), is growing, and more units will be needed. Travel time to treatment is consistently a major area of concern for patients...
  49. pmc Foodborne general outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in England and Wales 1992-2002: where are the risks?
    I A Gillespie
    Gastrointestinal Diseases Department, Health Protection Agency Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 133:803-8. 2005
    ..Two distinct aetiologies were identified. Foodborne outbreaks of STEC O157 infection in England and Wales were independently associated with farms, which related to milk and milk products, and with red meats/meat ..
  50. pmc Lyme disease surveillance in England and Wales, 1986 1998
    R Smith
    PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 6:404-7. 2000
    ..Case reports peaked in the third quarter of each year. Several high-incidence localities were identified. Erythema migrans was reported in 41% of patients; arthritis in 4%; musculoskeletal symptoms in 18%; and neuroborreliosis in 15%...
  51. ncbi Review of diagnostic laboratory submissions of adult cattle 'found dead' in England and Wales in 2004
    E N Watson
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Winchester, Hampshire so21 1bx
    Vet Rec 163:531-5. 2008
    A total of 253 submissions from adult cattle 'found dead' in England and Wales were referred to the Veterinary Laboratories Agency in 2004...
  52. ncbi An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in England and Wales
    F A Nicholson
    ADAS Gleadthorpe Research Centre, Meden Vale, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire NG20 9PF, UK
    Sci Total Environ 311:205-19. 2003
    An inventory of heavy metal inputs (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg) to agricultural soils in England and Wales in 2000 is presented, accounting for major sources including atmospheric deposition, sewage sludge, livestock manures, ..
  53. pmc Tetanus in England and Wales, 1984-2000
    A A Rushdy
    Immunisation Division, Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW1 5EQ
    Epidemiol Infect 130:71-7. 2003
    A review of national tetanus surveillance in England and Wales during 1984-2000 was undertaken to evaluate the surveillance system and national vaccination policy...
  54. ncbi The detection and characterisation of Dichelobacter nodosus from cases of ovine footrot in England and Wales
    L J Moore
    School of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford House, Langford, North Somerset BS40 5DU, UK
    Vet Microbiol 108:57-67. 2005
    ..Seven hundred and six isolates, collected from outbreaks in England and Wales, were therefore used to investigate these issues. A 16S rRNA PCR was adapted to detect D...
  55. ncbi Outcomes and costs of penetrating trauma injury in England and Wales
    Michael C Christensen
    Global Development, Novo Nordisk A S, KrogshĂžjvej 55, DK 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark
    Injury 39:1013-25. 2008
    ..Little information exists on the patient and treatment characteristics for penetrating trauma in England and Wales, and the acute outcomes and costs of care have not been documented and analysed in detail.
  56. ncbi Influence of cohort effects on patterns of suicide in England and Wales, 1950-1999
    David Gunnell
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 182:164-70. 2003
    Age- and gender-specific suicide rates in England and Wales have changed considerably since 1950.
  57. ncbi From policy to plate: barriers to implementing healthy eating policies in primary schools in Wales
    Sue Moore
    Cardiff Institute of Society, Health and Ethics, School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
    Health Policy 94:239-45. 2010
    ....
  58. ncbi Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in animals on public amenity premises in England and Wales, 1997 to 2007
    G C Pritchard
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Bury St Edmunds, Rougham Hill, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk IP33 2RX, UK
    Vet Rec 164:545-9. 2009
    At the request of the public health authorities, 31 public amenity premises in England and Wales containing animals of various species were investigated for the presence of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 between 1997 and ..
  59. ncbi Service implications from a comparison of the evidence on the effectiveness and a survey of provision in England and Wales of COPD specialist nurse services in the community
    Bridget Candy
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson s Institute of Preventative Medicine, Barts and The London, Queen Mary s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 4NS, UK
    Int J Nurs Stud 44:601-10. 2007
    ..Therefore, implementing the right care model(s) for patients with COPD is a priority. Nurses, particularly those with specialist roles, are often the principal health professionals involved in new service models...
  60. ncbi Socio-demographic variations in moves to institutional care 1991-2001: a record linkage study from England and Wales
    Emily Grundy
    Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 49 51 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DP, UK
    Age Ageing 36:424-30. 2007
    Only a minority of older people in England and Wales live in institutional care, but among the older of the old, this minority is large. Disability is the major driver of admissions, but socio-demographic factors are also relevant...
  61. ncbi Perceptions of social capital and the built environment and mental health
    Ricardo Araya
    University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Soc Sci Med 62:3072-83. 2006
    ..A cross-sectional household survey was undertaken during May-August 2001 in a district of South Wales with a population of 140,000...
  62. ncbi Does social cohesion modify the association between area income deprivation and mental health? A multilevel analysis
    David Fone
    Department of Epidemiology, Statistics and Public Health, Centre for Health Sciences Research, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 36:338-45. 2007
    ..We investigated the joint effect of community and individual-level socio-economic deprivation and social cohesion on individual mental health status...
  63. ncbi Current trends in colorectal cancer: site, incidence, mortality and survival in England and Wales
    D Hayne
    University College London, UK
    Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 13:448-52. 2001
    The objective was to examine trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in England and Wales over the last 30 years...
  64. pmc Cancer mortality in ethnic South Asian migrants in England and Wales (1993-2003): patterns in the overall population and in first and subsequent generations
    P Mangtani
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Br J Cancer 102:1438-43. 2010
    Cancer mortality has been examined among ethnic South Asian migrants in England and Wales, but not by generation of migration.
  65. ncbi Coronary heart disease trends in England and Wales from 1984 to 2004: concealed levelling of mortality rates among young adults
    M O'Flaherty
    Division of Public Health, University of Liverpool, UK
    Heart 94:178-81. 2008
    ..Trends in cardiovascular risk factors among UK adults present a complex picture. Ominous increases in obesity and diabetes among young adults raise concerns about subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in this group...
  66. ncbi Investigations of cattle herd breakdowns with bovine tuberculosis in four counties of England and Wales using VETNET data
    L E Green
    Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
    Prev Vet Med 70:293-311. 2005
    ..herd breakdown (HBR) with bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was investigated for farms in four counties of England and Wales outside southwest England from 1986 to early 2000...
  67. ncbi Environmental temperatures and the incidence of food poisoning in England and Wales
    G Bentham
    Centre for Environmental and Risk Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Int J Biometeorol 45:22-6. 2001
    The incidence of food poisoning in England and Wales has been increasing for many years and it is now a major public health problem...
  68. ncbi Estimating the number of deaths with rotavirus as a cause in England and wales
    Mark Jit
    Modelling and Economics Unit, Immunisation Department, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Hum Vaccin 3:23-6. 2007
    The precise number of deaths due to rotavirus infection in England and Wales is difficult to determine because mortality is usually low and reported simply as death due to gastrointestinal disease...
  69. pmc Hepatitis C infection among injecting drug users in England and Wales (1992-2006): there and back again?
    Michael J Sweeting
    Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Robinson Way, Cambridge, UK
    Am J Epidemiol 170:352-60. 2009
    ..were examined by using 24,311 records from unlinked anonymous surveillance of injecting drug users in England and Wales. Bayesian logistic regression was used to estimate annual prevalence, accounting for changing recruitment patterns ..
  70. ncbi Suicide rates in people of South Asian origin in England and Wales: 1993-2003
    Kwame McKenzie
    Social Equity and Health Research, Centre for Addictions and Mental Health, Suite 300, 455 Spadina Ave, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2G8, Canada
    Br J Psychiatry 193:406-9. 2008
    ..Low rates of suicide in older men and high rates in young women have been reported in the South Asian diaspora worldwide. Calculating such suicide rates in the UK is difficult because ethnicity is not recorded on death certificates...
  71. pmc Patterns of coronary heart disease mortality over the 20th century in England and Wales: Possible plateaus in the rate of decline
    Steven Allender
    Division of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    BMC Public Health 8:148. 2008
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) rates in England and Wales between 1950 and 2005 were high and reasonably steady until the mid 1970s, when they began to fall...
  72. pmc Emerging trends in the epidemiology of invasive mycoses in England and Wales (1990-9)
    T L Lamagni
    HIV and STD Division, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Public Health Laboratory Service, London, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 126:397-414. 2001
    ..remains low and there is no surveillance system specific to fungal infections currently existing in England and Wales. We analysed laboratory reports of deep-seated mycoses made to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre ..
  73. pmc Predicting risk of type 2 diabetes in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QDScore
    Julia Hippisley-Cox
    Division of Primary Care, Tower Building, University Park, Nottingham NG2 7RD
    BMJ 338:b880. 2009
    ..To develop and validate a new diabetes risk algorithm (the QDScore) for estimating 10 year risk of acquiring diagnosed type 2 diabetes over a 10 year time period in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse population...
  74. ncbi Trends in suicide from drug overdose in the elderly in England and Wales, 1993-1999
    Rajen Shah
    Sutton Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, UK
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17:416-21. 2002
    ..Drug overdose is a common method of suicide in the elderly. Hence, an understanding of current trends in epidemiology of these deaths is important when considering measures to decrease suicide rates...
  75. ncbi The cost of preterm birth throughout childhood in England and Wales
    Lindsay J Mangham
    National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Pediatrics 123:e312-27. 2009
    ..This study considers the economic consequences of preterm birth from birth to adult life and compares the costs accruing to those born preterm with those born at term...
  76. ncbi The role of manual occupation in the aetiology of Dupuytren's disease in men in England and Wales
    A A Khan
    Oxford University Medical School, Oxford, UK
    J Hand Surg Br 29:12-4. 2004
    ..compared the incidence of significant Dupuytren's disease in men across occupational social classes in England and Wales, using data from the National Morbidity Survey...
  77. ncbi Prevalence of chronic disabling fatigue in children and adolescents
    Anne Farmer
    MRC Social, Genetic, Developmental Psychiatric Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK
    Br J Psychiatry 184:477-81. 2004
    ..The epidemiology of chronic fatiguing illnesses in young people is poorly understood...
  78. ncbi Epidemiology of critically ill children in England and Wales: incidence, mortality, deprivation and ethnicity
    R C Parslow
    Paediatric Epidemiology Group, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics LIGHT, Room 8 49, Worsley Building, Clarendon Way, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Arch Dis Child 94:210-5. 2009
    The purpose of this work was to investigate the incidence rate for admission and mortality of children receiving paediatric intensive care in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity in England and Wales.
  79. ncbi Marital status and the risk of suicide: experience from England and Wales, 1982-1996
    Paul S Yip
    Hong Kong Jockey Club, Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, SAR
    Psychol Rep 94:401-7. 2004
    This analysis examined suicide rates by age, sex, and marital status in England and Wales for the period 1982-1996. Never married, widowed, and divorced people had higher rates of suicide than those who were married, for both sexes...
  80. ncbi Tuberculosis in non-UK-born persons, England and Wales, 2001-2003
    C E French
    Tuberculosis Section, Respiratory Diseases Department, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 11:577-84. 2007
    England and Wales, 2001-2003.
  81. ncbi Factors associated with the recent decline in suicide rates in the elderly in England and Wales, 1985-1998
    Lubbaba Mahmood Lodhi
    Ealing Site, West London Mental Health NHS Trust, London
    Med Sci Law 45:31-8. 2005
    Elderly suicide rates have declined in recent years in several countries including England and Wales. This study examined the association between a trend of decline in age-specific suicide rates in the elderly in England and Wales and ..
  82. pmc Suicide in doctors: a study of risk according to gender, seniority and specialty in medical practitioners in England and Wales, 1979-1995
    K Hawton
    Centre for Suicide Research, University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 55:296-300. 2001
    To investigate the suicide risk of doctors in England and Wales, according to gender, seniority and specialty.
  83. ncbi The contribution of influenza to combined acute respiratory infections, hospital admissions, and deaths in winter
    D M Fleming
    Birmingham Research Unit, Royal College of General Practitioners
    Commun Dis Public Health 3:32-8. 2000
    ..Estimates of the consulting populations for each condition in England and Wales were derived by extrapolating the difference between observed and baseline incidence rates to the total population...
  84. pmc Epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men in England and Wales
    S Dougan
    Department of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, NW9 5EQ, UK
    Sex Transm Infect 81:345-50. 2005
    To examine the epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic (BME) men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales (E&W).
  85. ncbi Investigation of ecological and environmental determinants for the presence of questing Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) on Gower, South Wales
    J M Medlock
    Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, United Kingdom
    J Med Entomol 45:314-25. 2008
    ..This article details the findings of a 3-yr study on the Gower peninsula, south Wales, which investigated the contribution of such factors (both ground- and geographic information systems [GIS] -..
  86. ncbi No time to wait: how many HIV-infected homosexual men are diagnosed late and consequently die? (England and Wales, 1993-2002)
    Timothy R Chadborn
    HIV STI Department, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency s, Centre for Infections London, London NW9 5EQ UK
    AIDS 19:513-20. 2005
    ..To determine separately risk factors for late diagnosis and short-term mortality...
  87. pmc Deaths from norovirus among the elderly, England and Wales
    John P Harris
    Centre for Infections, GEZI, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1546-52. 2008
    The number of deaths in England and Wales associated with gastrointestinal pathogens, norovirus in particular, in persons >or=65 years was estimated for 2001-2006...
  88. pmc Disease risks from foods, England and Wales, 1996-2000
    Goutam K Adak
    Environmental and Enteric Diseases Department, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:365-72. 2005
    ..and analyzed to estimate the impact of disease and risks associated with eating different foods in England and Wales. From 1996 to 2000, an estimated 1,724,315 cases of indigenous foodborne disease per year resulted in 21,997 ..
  89. ncbi Diseases and impairments as risk factors for onset of disability in the older population in England and Wales: findings from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study
    Nicola A Spiers
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, 22 28 Princess Road West, Leicester, LE1 6TP, UK
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60:248-54. 2005
    ..and impairments and 2-year onset of disability in a prospective study of people aged 65 years or older in five urban and rural centers in England and Wales (Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study; MRC-CFAS).
  90. pmc Breast cancer survival in South Asian women in England and Wales
    Sabya Farooq
    Non communicable Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 59:402-6. 2005
    ..socioeconomic differences in breast cancer incidence and survival between South Asians and non-South Asians in England and Wales, and to provide a baseline for surveillance of cancer survival in South Asians, the largest ethnic minority.
  91. ncbi Cases of typhoid fever imported into England, Scotland and Wales (2000-2003)
    Fiona J Cooke
    Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:398-404. 2007
    ..all 692 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi from cases in England, Scotland and Wales that were sent to the Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens at the Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, ..
  92. ncbi Estimating Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine effectiveness in England and Wales by use of the screening method
    Mary E Ramsay
    Immunisation Division, Public Health Laboratory Service PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 188:481-5. 2003
    ..0041). Use of a catch-up vaccination program enhanced the control of Hib infection in England and Wales. Since 1999, however, low effectiveness in infants, declining effectiveness with age, and the use of lower-..
  93. ncbi Complementary and alternative medicine use by patients with cancer in Wales: a cross sectional survey
    Philip Harris
    School of Health and Social Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff, Wales, UK
    Complement Ther Med 11:249-53. 2003
    ..To determine the prevalence and cost of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, and examine perceived satisfaction and reasons for using CAM...
  94. pmc bla(CTX-M) genes in clinical Salmonella isolates recovered from humans in England and Wales from 1992 to 2003
    M Batchelor
    Department of Food and Environmental Safety, Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT153NB, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1319-22. 2005
    ..Also, it represents the first report of a bla(CTX-M) gene in Salmonella enterica serotype Stanley and a bla(CTX-M-15) gene in Salmonella enterica serotypes Anatum, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium...
  95. pmc Thyroid cancer epidemiology in England and Wales: time trends and geographical distribution
    I Dos Santos Silva
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Br J Cancer 67:330-40. 1993
    ..We examined thyroid cancer time trends and geographical distribution in England and Wales and possible interpretations of these. During 1962-84, there were significant increases in incidence (P < 0...
  96. ncbi The effect of mammographic screening and hormone replacement therapy use on breast cancer incidence in England and Wales
    Michael Waller
    Cancer Screening Evaluation Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:2257-61. 2007
    An extended age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effect of mammographic screening and hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer incidence in England and Wales between 1971 and 2001.
  97. pmc Disease presentation in relation to infection foci for non-pregnancy-associated human listeriosis in England and Wales, 2001 to 2007
    Iain A Gillespie
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3301-7. 2009
    ..The epidemiology of listeriosis in England and Wales changed between 2001 and 2007, with more patients > or = 60 years old presenting with bacteremia (but without ..
  98. pmc The maldistribution of general practitioners in England and Wales: 1974-2003
    Mark Hann
    National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester
    Br J Gen Pract 54:894-8. 2004
    ..Maldistribution across family health service authorities in England and Wales fell between 1974 and the mid-1980s but then remained, at best, constant until the mid-1990s.
  99. pmc Demographic determinants for Campylobacter infection in England and Wales: implications for future epidemiological studies
    I A Gillespie
    Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 136:1717-25. 2008
    ..The collation of detailed epidemiological data and its comparison with appropriate denominator data provides a valuable epidemiological tool for studying infection...
  100. ncbi Changing patterns of case ascertainment and trends in meningococcal disease in England and Wales
    M Ramsay
    Immunisation Division PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London
    Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev 7:R49-54. 1997
    We have reviewed data on meningococcal disease routinely collected in England and Wales from 1989 to 1995 to illustrate and explain changing patterns and guide future surveillance...
  101. ncbi No evidence for capsule replacement following mass immunisation with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines in England and Wales
    Caroline L Trotter
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:616-7; author reply 617-8. 2006

Research Grants14

  1. Infant Screening and Diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular Dys*
    Paul Fernhoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Citing the DMD screening program in Wales as a model program, the authors point out that neonatal DMD screening may not give parents sufficient time for ..
  2. Rural Environmental Health in Central/Eastern Europe
    Thomas Cook; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..experts from Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands; rural and environmental health professionals from Wales, the World Health Organization and the US; representatives of USEPA, the USAID, and the US National Cancer ..
  3. BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN OF POLISH ANCESTRY
    Dorothy Pathak; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..to the rates of the host county (standardized mortality ratios 91 (US), 100 (Australia), and 97 (England and Wales). No other population of migrants has shown so rapid a transition...
  4. BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN OF POLISH ANCESTRY
    Dorothy Pathak; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..to the rates of the host county (standardized mortality ratios 91 (US), 100 (Australia), and 97 (England and Wales). No other population of migrants has shown so rapid a transition...
  5. Meeting on Inhaled Mineral Dusts/Nanoparticles
    Brooke Mossman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This series of meetings historically began in the late 1970s at the MRC Pneumoconiosis Center in Cardiff, Wales, and traditionally have been held every 4-5 years, altering in location between Europe and the US...
  6. SHAPING HEALTH BEHAVIORS THROUGH SCIENCE ENRICHMENT
    L Campfield; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Det of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University, the Culinary Arts Program of Johnson & Wales University in Denver...
  7. Multilingual Health Education Resource Project
    MARY GILLISPIE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..high quality multilingual written resources that have already been developed and put on-line by the NSW (New South Wales) Multicultural Health Communication Service (MHCS) of Australia...
  8. Brain Tissue Resource Centre for Alcohol Research
    Clive Harper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The aim of this important and innovative facility, the New South Wales Tissue Resource Center (TRC), is to provide fresh-frozen (-80C) and/or formalin fixed tissues to research groups ..
  9. MULTICENTER GENETIC STUDIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Ann Pulver; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Wales, U. Paris VI, U. W. Australia) as consortia to the University of Pennsylvania...
  10. MULTICENTER GENETIC STUDIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Brien Riley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Wales, U. Paris VI, U. W. Australia) as consortia to the University of Pennsylvania...
  11. MULTICENTER GENETIC STUDIES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
    Pablo Gejman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b>Wales, U. Paris VI, U. W. Australia) as consortia to the University of Pennsylvania...
  12. IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR VIROLOGY OF ACUTE HIV INFECTION
    Lawrence Corey; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..sites at the University of Washing, University of Minnesota, University of Geneva, University of New South Wales, and 7 of the 8 HIVNET Vaccine Preparedness sites...
  13. Dynamic Signal Processing Analyses of Neural Plasticity
    Emery Brown; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Wendy Suzuki of New York University) and a control engineer (Dr. Victor Solo of the University of New South Wales) to develop a systems engineering approach to understanding neural plasticity...
  14. Opioid Dependence: Candidate Genes and G x E Effects
    Elliot Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..will be ascertained from the large methadone (and buprenorphine) maintenance treatment population of New South Wales, Australia...