- Early origin and recent expansion of Plasmodium falciparum
Deirdre A Joy
Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
Science 300:318-21. 2003
..However, both the world and some regional populations appear to be older (50,000 to 100,000 years old), suggesting an earlier wave of migration out of Africa, perhaps during the Pleistocene migration of human beings...
- Phylogenetic comparison of the carboxy-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC) of bovine herpesviruses (BoHV) 1.1, 1.2 and 5 from South America (SA)
P A Esteves
Embrapa Suinos e Aves, BR 153, Km 110, CEP 89700 000, Concordia, SC, Brazil
Virus Res 131:16-22. 2008
..1, BoHV-1.2 and BoHV-5 after phylogenetic analysis. The results suggest that the phylogenetic analysis performed here can be used as a potential molecular epidemiological tool for herpesviruses...
- Contrasting genetic structure in Plasmodium vivax populations from Asia and South America
Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
Int J Parasitol 37:1013-22. 2007
..falciparum, and have important implications for the design of association mapping studies, and interpretation of P. vivax epidemiology...
- Evolution of a unique Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance phenotype in association with pfcrt polymorphism in Papua New Guinea and South America
R K Mehlotra
Division of Geographic Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals of Cleveland, School of Medicine, W147D, 2109 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-4983, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12689-94. 2001
..Further we found a previously undescribed CQR phenotype to be associated with the SVMNT haplotype from PNG and South America. This CQR phenotype is significantly less responsive to verapamil chemosensitization compared with the effect ..
- Brief communication: Restricted geographic distribution for Y-Q* paragroup in South America
Laboratorio de Genética Molecular Poblacional, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular IMBICE, CCT CONICET La Plata 1900, Argentina
Am J Phys Anthropol 140:578-82. 2009
..We found a restrictive geographic distribution and low frequency of Q1a3* in South America. We assumed that this low frequency could be reflecting extreme drift effects...
- MSX1 and TGFB3 contribute to clefting in South America
A R Vieira
Departments of Pediatrics, 2613 JCP, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 52242 1083, USA
J Dent Res 82:289-92. 2003
..These results suggest that MSX1 and TGFB3 mutations make a contribution to clefts in South American populations...
- Biogeographic range expansion into South America by Coccidioides immitis mirrors New World patterns of human migration
M C Fisher
Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4558-62. 2001
..Herein, we estimate the introduction into South America to have occurred within the last 9,000-140,000 years. This range increase parallels that of Homo sapiens...
- Ecology of rickettsia in South America
Marcelo B Labruna
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1166:156-66. 2009
Until the year 2000, only three Rickettsia species were known in South America: (i) Rickettsia rickettsii, transmitted by the ticks Amblyomma cajennense, and Amblyomma aureolatum, reported in Colombia, Argentina, and Brazil, where it is ..
- Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America
Juan J Calvete
Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Jaume Roig 11, 46010 Valencia, Spain
J Proteome Res 9:528-44. 2010
..represented the key axis along which overall venom toxicity has evolved during Crotalus durissus invasion of South America. The paedomorphic trend is supported by a decreasing LNC (lethal neurotoxicity coefficient, defined as the ..
- Burkholderia mimosarum sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Mimosa spp. from Taiwan and South America
Wen Ming Chen
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No 142, Hai Chuan Road, Nan Tzu, Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:1847-51. 2006
..nov. is proposed. The type strain, PAS44(T) (=LMG 23256(T) =BCRC 17516(T)), was isolated from Mimosa pigra nodules in Taiwan...
- Population analysis using the nuclear white gene detects Pliocene/Pleistocene lineage divergence within Anopheles nuneztovari in South America
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York, USA
Med Vet Entomol 22:109-19. 2008
..nuneztovari Gabaldón (Diptera: Culicidae), a locally important malaria vector in some regions of South America, has been hypothesized to consist of at least two cryptic incipient species...
- Gene flow among Anopheles albimanus populations in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean assessed by microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA
Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala
Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:350-9. 2004
..between Central and South American populations, suggesting a barrier to gene flow between Central and South America. However, Panamanian and Pacific Costa Rican populations differed with respect to western Central America, ..
- First detection of the plasmid-mediated class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from South America
Maria Virginia Villegas
CIDEIM International Center for Medical Research and Training, Cali, Colombia
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2880-2. 2006
..These KPC enzymes are the first from South America and the second isolation outside of the United States...
- Correlations of mutations in katG, oxyR-ahpC and inhA genes and in vitro susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains segregated by spoligotype families from tuberculosis prevalent countries in South America
Elis R Dalla Costa
State Foundation for Production and Research in Health FEPPS, Porto Alegre, Brazil
BMC Microbiol 9:39. 2009
- Molecular population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Immunology and Infectious Disease, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222, USA
Heredity (Edinb) 96:311-21. 2006
..relatedness and phylogeographic structure of Anopheles darlingi from 19 localities throughout Central and South America, we used a minimum spanning network, diversity measures, differentiation, neutrality tests, and mismatch ..
- The history of Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests in eastern South America: inferences from the genetic structure of the tree Astronium urundeuva (Anacardiaceae)
Laboratoire de Systématique et de Biodiversité, Unité de Phylogénie et Génétique Moléculaires, Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, 1 Chemin de l Impératrice, CP 60, CH 1292 Chambésy, Geneve, Switzerland
Mol Ecol 17:3147-59. 2008
Today, the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTF) of eastern South America occur as large, well-defined nuclei (e.g. Caatinga in the northeast) and as smaller enclaves within other vegetations (e.g. Cerrado and Chaco)...
- Ticks (Ixodidae) on humans in South America
A A Guglielmone
Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Rafaela, CC 22, CP 2300, Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina
Exp Appl Acarol 40:83-100. 2006
Twenty eight species of Ixodidae have been found on man in South America (21 Amblyomma, 1 Boophilus, 2 Dermacentor, 2 Haemaphysalis, 1 Ixodes and 1 Rhipicephalus species). Most of them are rarely found on man...
- A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 21, DK 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Mol Phylogenet Evol 46:760-75. 2008
..At least two independent migrations between North and South America predating the rise of the Panama isthmus need to be postulated to explain the distribution of Chamaedoreeae, ..
- Incidence and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease in Asia, Africa and South America; combining expert opinion, official disease information and livestock populations to assist risk assessment
Animal Health Department, Food and Agriculture Organization, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy
Transbound Emerg Dis 55:5-13. 2008
- Monte Verde: seaweed, food, medicine, and the peopling of South America
Tom D Dillehay
Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37265, USA
Science 320:784-6. 2008
..site of Monte Verde in southern Chile has raised questions of when and how people reached the tip of South America without leaving much other evidence in the New World...
- Genetic variability of hepatitis A virus in South America reveals heterogeneity and co-circulation during epidemic outbreaks
Laboratorie de Virologie, Institut de Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Regional Universitaire de Nantes, Rue Quai Moncousu 9, 44093 Nantes, France
J Gen Virol 82:2647-52. 2001
..In order to gain insight into the genetic variability and mode of evolution of HAV in South America, an analysis was performed of sequence data obtained from the VP1 amino terminus and the VP1/2A region of HAV ..
- Epidemiology and burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Australia, Asia and South America
Lara Quirino Araujo
Federal University of Sao Paulo, UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Herpes 14:40-4. 2007
..Epidemiological data from Asia and South America are scarce...
- Twenty-five years of violence: the epidemiology of terrorism in South America
Amado Alejandro Baez
Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Prehosp Disaster Med 23:128-32. 2008
..While the causes vary, the results are the same: death, disability, and suffering. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive, epidemiological, descriptive study of terrorist incidents in South America.
- Malaria in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network
Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Clin Infect Dis 39:1104-12. 2004
..Malaria is a common and important infection in travelers...
- Morphological convergence in Hippidion and Equus (Amerhippus) South American equids elucidated by ancient DNA analysis
CNRS UMR 5534, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 16 rue R Dubois, bâtiment G Mendel, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
J Mol Evol 57:S29-40. 2003
Unusual equids named hippidions inhabited South America for more than 2 MY (million years)...
- Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli strains isolated in Central and South America: an overview
E C Grisard
Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, 88040 900, Brasil
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94:203-9. 1999
..rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T...
- Geostatistics and remote sensing using NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery as predictive tools in tick distribution and habitat suitability estimations for Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in South America. National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administrati
Unidad de Parasitologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Zaragoza, Spain
Vet Parasitol 81:73-82. 1999
..microplus. It can be also used to prepare eradication campaigns or to make predictions about the effects of global change on the distribution of the parasite...
- Nectar concentration and composition of 26 species from the temperate forest of South America
Vanina R Chalcoff
Laboratorio Ecotono, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Quintral 1250, 8400, Bariloche, Argentina
Ann Bot 97:413-21. 2006
Floral nectar concentration and chemical composition of 26 plant species native to the temperate forest of southern South America are reported and the relationships with the flower type are evaluated.
- Possible migration routes into South America deduced from mitochondrial DNA studies in Colombian Amerindian populations
Instituto de Genetica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota
Hum Biol 74:211-33. 2002
..Colombia, a key route of migration between North and South America, has until now not been studied...
- East-West cranial differentiation in pre-Columbian human populations of South America
Hector M Pucciarelli
Departamento Científico de Antropología del Museo de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
Homo 57:133-50. 2006
..However, different intensities of gene flow between Palaeoamericans and Amerindians in the highlands and in the lowlands cannot be completely dismissed as a possible explanation for the differentiation found...
- Cathepsin L-like genes of Trypanosoma vivax from Africa and South America--characterization, relationships and diagnostic implications
Alane P Cortez
Department of Parasitology, University of Sao Paulo, Av Prof Lineu Prestes 1374, 05508 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Mol Cell Probes 23:44-51. 2009
..TviCatL1-4 sequences were from cattle isolates from West Africa (Nigeria and Burkina Faso) and South America (Brazil and Venezuela), which belonged to the same T. vivax genotype. T...
- Preliminary data on changes in neural tube defect prevalence rates after folic acid fortification in South America
Eduardo E Castilla
ECLAMC at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, CP 926, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20001 970 Brazil
Am J Med Genet A 123:123-8. 2003
..for the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) routinely monitoring birth defects in South America since 1976, surveyed the impact of this fortification...
- A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping
David M Spooner
U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706 1590, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14694-9. 2005
- Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times
Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, FiocruzRio de Janeiro, Brasil
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103:106-8. 2008
..Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.
- Animal trypanosomiasis in South America. Current status, partnership, and information technology
A M Davila
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045 900, Brazil
Ann N Y Acad Sci 916:199-212. 2000
Animal trypanosome species of economical importance in South America include T. vivax and T. evansi. Both species are described in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. In Argentina and Guyana, only T...
- Phylogeny and temporal diversification of Calomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae): implications for the biogeography of an endemic genus of the open/dry biomes of South America
Francisca C Almeida
Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 42:449-66. 2007
..This indicates the importance of safeguarding ecotones and the Cerrado at a time where this biome is being rapidly destroyed...
- Biogeography and evolution of Amazonian triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae): implications for Chagas disease surveillance in humid forest ecoregions
Instituto Leonidas and Maria Deane Fiocruz, Amazônia, Rua Teresina, Manaus, AM, Brasil
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102:57-70. 2007
..These observations suggest several research avenues, from the use of climate data to map risk areas to the assessment of the synanthropic potential of individual vector species...
- Usefulness of spoligotyping in molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis-related infections in South America
M J Zumarraga
Instituto de Biotecnologia, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Veterinarias, INTA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Clin Microbiol 37:296-303. 1999
..Therefore, for the purpose of typing of M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping could be performed first and the isolates could be grouped into clusters and then analyzed by RFLP analysis with the DR and PGRS probes...
- Evolution into and out of the Andes: a Bayesian analysis of historical diversification in Thamnophilus antshrikes
Robb T Brumfield
Museum of Natural Science, 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA
Evolution 61:346-67. 2007
..a clade of 30 species whose collective distribution spans nearly the entirety of lowland habitats in tropical South America, the eastern slope foothills of the Andes, and the tepuis of northern South America...
- Mitochondrial DNA diversity in South America and the genetic history of Andean highlanders
Area di Antropologia, Dipartimento di Biologia E S, Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Mol Biol Evol 20:1682-91. 2003
..Although it is not possible to identify a pattern of genetic variation common to all South America, when western and eastern populations are analyzed separately, the mtDNA diversity in both regions fits the ..
- Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in South America
M V Villegas
International Center for Medical Research and Training CIDEIM, Cali, Colombia
Clin Microbiol Infect 14:154-8. 2008
..ESBL rates in South America are among the highest in the world, probably due to multiple factors...
- Proof that Burkholderia strains form effective symbioses with legumes: a study of novel Mimosa-nodulating strains from South America
Wen Ming Chen
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan
Appl Environ Microbiol 71:7461-71. 2005
- Phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukemia viruses isolated in South America reveals diversification in seven distinct genotypes
Unidad de Biofísica de Proteínas, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Mataojo 2020, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay
Arch Virol 155:481-9. 2010
..A significant number of amino acid substitutions found in BLV strains isolated in South America map to the second neutralization domain of gp51...
- Cactophilic Drosophila in South America: a model for evolutionary studies
Maura Helena Manfrin
Departamento de Biologia FFCLRP USP, Av dos Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirao Preto, SP, 14040 901, Brazil
Genetica 126:57-75. 2006
..which theoretically follow the expansion and retraction of dry areas during the paleoclimatic oscillations in South America, as that promoted by the glacial cycles of the Quaternary...
- The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax from South America and Africa
A P Cortez
Department of Parasitology, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Parasitology 133:159-69. 2006
..vivax in Africa and of the whole subgenus Trypanosoma (Duttonella) might be higher than previously believed...
- Lead levels in new enamel household paints from Asia, Africa and South America
C Scott Clark
Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, 2180 East Galbraith Road, Cincinnati, OH 45237 1625, USA
Environ Res 109:930-6. 2009
..from the four initial countries plus 8 additional countries, three from Asia, three from Africa and two from South America. During the intervening time period two million toys and other items imported into the United States were ..
- Molecular population genetics and phylogeography of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in South America
R V Piccinali
Laboratorio de Eco Epidemiología, Departamento de Ecologia, Genetica y Evolucion, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires C1428EHA, Argentina
J Med Entomol 46:796-809. 2009
..This expansion could have taken place as a two-wave process, as was shown by the phylogenetic analysis and signatures of population admixture in the southern most Argentinean populations...
- Divergence times and origin of neotropical sheath-tailed bats (tribe Diclidurini) in South America
Burton K Lim
Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ont, Canada M5S 2C6
Mol Phylogenet Evol 45:777-91. 2007
..phylogeny suggests that the ancestor of New World emballonurid bats has its origin in Africa and this is the third report of placental mammals colonizing South America by trans-Atlantic dispersal and subsequent speciation in allopatry.
- Mast fruiting is a frequent strategy in woody species of eastern South America
Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique, UMR 5174 Université Paul Sabatier CNRS, Toulouse, France
PLoS ONE 2:e1079. 2007
..However, previous tests of this hypothesis were based on only few tropical datasets, and none from tropical South America. Moreover, reproductive strategies have been quantified based on the coefficient of variation of interannual ..
- Mitochondrial DNA and the peopling of South America
Cecil M Lewis
Department of Human Genetics, 4909 Buhl Building, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Hum Biol 79:159-78. 2007
The initial peopling of South America is largely unresolved, in part because of the unique distribution of genetic diversity in native South Americans...
- Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii: striking homogeneous pattern between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections within Europe and South America
Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive UMR 5558, CNRS, Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France
Microbes Infect 10:742-7. 2008
..infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients) infections among patients from Europe and South America. Independent of the clinical presentation of the disease, serotypes differed according to geographical origin, ..
- Angiostrongylus vasorum from South America and Europe represent distinct lineages
School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK
Parasitology 136:107-15. 2009
..vasorum in Europe and Angiocaulus raillieti in South America, more recent taxonomic revision has amalgamated these into a single species, A. vasorum...
- The ornithodoros (Alectorobius) talaje species group (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae): description of Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) rioplatensis n. sp. from southern South America
J M Venzal
Department of Parasitology, Veterinary Faculty, University of the Republic, 11600 Montevideo, Uruguay
J Med Entomol 45:832-40. 2008
..talaje and O. puertoricensis collected from the United States, and Central and South America. Larval specimens of O...
- Search for ethnic, geographic, and other factors in the epidemiology of Down syndrome in South America: analysis of data from the ECLAMC project, 1967-1997
A D Carothers
MRC Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
Am J Med Genet 103:149-56. 2001
..An unusual finding was of a markedly lower sex ratio (98 males per 100 females) than has been reported in other DS samples...
- Prenatal sonographic detection of birth defects in 18 hospitals from South America
Laboratory of Genetic Epidemiology, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular, CC 403 1900 La Plata, Argentina
J Ultrasound Med 29:203-12. 2010
- Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America
Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, 277, CEP 05508 900, Brazil
BMC Evol Biol 8:308. 2008
..Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing...
- Paediatric and congenital heart disease in South America: an overview
C A C Pedra
Catheterisation Laboratory for Congenital Heart Disease, Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, Av Dr Dante Pazzanese 500, 14 andar, CEP 04012 180, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Heart 95:1385-92. 2009
..As most countries in South America have a high birth rate, they are a significant public health concern...
- Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among female commercial sex workers in South America
C T Bautista
U S Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Sex Transm Infect 82:311-6. 2006
Assessment of HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) across major cities in South America.
- Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America
Hatherly Laboratories, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, U K
Med Vet Entomol 23:14-22. 2009
..relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes...
- Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision
Nicole C Arrigo
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
J Virol 84:1014-25. 2010
..one that circulates in North America (NA EEEV) and the Caribbean and three that circulate in Central and South America (SA EEEV)...
- Multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Africa and South America: epidemiology, diagnosis and management in adults and children
H Simon Schaaf
Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, and Tygerberg Children s Hospital, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
Clin Chest Med 30:667-83, vii-viii. 2009
..Until recently, Africa and South America were deprived of second-line antituberculosis drugs, preventing the development of extensively drug-resistant ..
- Soybean sudden death syndrome species diversity within north and South america revealed by multilocus genotyping
Microbial Genomics Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
Phytopathology 100:58-71. 2010
..death syndrome (SDS) of soybean has become a serious constraint to the production of this crop in North and South America. Phenotypic and multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses, as well as pathogenicity experiments, have ..
- Size heterogeneity in the 3' noncoding region of South American isolates of yellow fever virus
Juliet E Bryant
Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
J Virol 79:3807-21. 2005
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas ANLIS Carlos Malbrá, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103:489-92. 2008
The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB) in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between ..
- Frequency of cytokine polymorphisms in populations from western Europe, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America
Northern Ireland Regional Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics Laboratory, City Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Hum Immunol 63:1055-61. 2002
..Five populations were investigated, Northern Ireland, South African Zulu, Omani, Singapore Chinese and Mexican Mestizos...
- Review on meat consumption and cancer in South America
Department of Chemical and Environmental Carcinogenesis, Research Area, Institute of Oncology AH Roffo, University of Buenos Aires, Avenue San Martín 5481, 1417, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Mutat Res 506:243-9. 2002
..Hence, future research for the verification of the observed associations between HCA and cancer, should be conducted through in-depth, chemically validated questionnaires based on local data...
- Phenotypic variability associated to genomic changes in the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone of South America
Centro Regional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica de La Rioja, Anillaco 5301, La Rioja, CRILAR, Argentina
Acta Trop 106:60-7. 2008
..quantitative characters of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone of South America. The antennal phenotype of 225 adults from five countries and three cytotypes, were analyzed using univariate ..
- Microsatellite typing of ancient maize: insights into the history of agriculture in southern South America
Veronica V Lia
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Avenida Rivadavia 1917, CP C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Proc Biol Sci 274:545-54. 2007
Archaeological maize specimens from Andean sites of southern South America, dating from 400 to 1400 years before present, were tested for the presence of ancient DNA and three microsatellite loci were typed in the specimens that gave ..
- Effects of mining activities on heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, and macroinvertebrates in different reaches of the Pilcomayo River, South America
A J P Smolders
Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44:314-23. 2003
..Analysis of sediment cores from the Ibibobo floodplain, however, reveal an increase of the heavy metal concentrations in the lower reaches since the introduction of the contaminating flotation process in the mine industry in 1985...
- Rodent-borne emerging viral zoonosis. Hemorrhagic fevers and hantavirus infections in South America
D A Enria
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Virales Humanas Dr Julio I Maiztegui, Administración Nacional de Laboratories e Institutos de Salud ANLIS, Pergamino, Argentina
Infect Dis Clin North Am 14:167-84, x. 2000
..Hantavirus infections have been increasingly recognized in South America since the description in 1993 of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome...
- Influence of continental history on the ecological specialization and macroevolutionary processes in the mammalian assemblage of South America: differences between small and large mammals
Ana Moreno Bofarull
Dept Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, c Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
BMC Evol Biol 8:97. 2008
- Out in the cold: genetic variation of Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae) provides evidence for latitudinally distinct evolutionary histories in austral South America
Universidad Nacional del Comahue CRUB CONICET INIBIOMA, Laboratorio Ecotono, Quintral 1250, 8400 Bariloche, Argentina
Mol Ecol 19:371-85. 2010
Nothofagus pumilio is the dominant and almost ubiquitous tree species in mountainous environments of temperate South America. We used two types of molecular markers (cpDNA and isozymes) to evaluate the effects of the Paleogene ..
- Redescription of Rhadinorhynchus ornatus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, collected in the Pacific Ocean off South America, with special reference to new morphological features
Omar M Amin
Institute of Parasitic Diseases, P O Box 28372, Tempe, Arizona 85285, USA
J Parasitol 95:656-64. 2009
..of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus), in the high seas of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America (new parasite locality record) and described using optical microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
- Island radiation on a continental scale: exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RB, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10334-9. 2006
- Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 12 from an outbreak of the disease in South America
Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Vet Rec 151:301-2. 2002
- Effect of the interaction between high altitude and socioeconomic factors on birth weight in a large sample from South America
Jorge S Lopez Camelo
Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations, ECLAMC, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular, IMBICE, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
Am J Phys Anthropol 129:305-10. 2006
..Interaction between both factors showed no effect. High altitude seems to act independent of socioeconomic status in explaining birth weight reduction...
- Origin and dissemination of Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistance mutations in South America
Joseph F Cortese
Malaria Section, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
J Infect Dis 186:999-1006. 2002
..This study highlights the importance of continent-wide malaria-control policies and suggests that the containment of resistance to the next generation of therapies may be feasible...
- Full-length genome analysis of natural isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana 1 serotype) from North, Central and South America
Luis L Rodriguez
Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Orient Point, Long Island, PO Box 848 Greenport, NY 11944 0848, USA
J Gen Virol 83:2475-83. 2002
..a distinct genetic lineage and geographical origin: 98COE (North America), 94GUB (Central America) and 85CLB (South America)...
- Complex segregation analysis of 1,792 cleft lip and palate families in South America: 1967-1997
Alexandre Rezende Vieira
Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, USA
Pesqui Odontol Bras 17:161-5. 2003
- Immigration status and HIV-risk related behaviors among female sex workers in South America
Christian T Bautista
US Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
AIDS Behav 12:195-201. 2008
..e., local/native) HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSW) in South America. A total of 1,845 FSW were enrolled in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay...
- Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America
Robert L Koch
Dept Entomology, Univ Minnesota, 219 Hodson Hall, 1980 Folwell Avenue, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
Neotrop Entomol 35:421-34. 2006
The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, has recently been detected in South America after successfully invading North America and Europe...
- Periodontal diseases in Central and South America
Periodontol 2000 29:70-8. 2002
- Inheritance of cleft palate in South America: evidence for a major locus recessive
A R Vieira
Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations ECLAMC, Department of Genetics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Orthod Craniofac Res 6:83-7. 2003
..Determine the model of inheritance of non-syndromic cleft palate in humans...
- Are antigen test kits efficient for detecting heartworm-infected dogs at the southern distribution limit of the parasite in South America? Preliminary results
Ecología de Reservorios y Vectores de Parásitos, Facultad de Cs Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Argentina
Res Vet Sci 85:113-5. 2008
..heartworm antigen tests in dogs harbouring Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae near its distribution limit in South America. A total of 4934 blood samples of adult dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires were examined to detect ..
- Contrasting sylvatic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in northern South America
Instituto de Zoologia Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas
Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:324-34. 2002
- Genetic differentiation within the Puccinia triticina population in South America and comparison with the North American population suggests common ancestry and intercontinental migration
M E Ordoñez
United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Cereal Disease Laboratory, St Paul, MN, USA
Phytopathology 100:376-83. 2010
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P...
- Rickettsiosis of the genus Rickettsia in South America
Marcio A M Galvao
Departamento de Nutrição Clínica e Social, Escola de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil 35400 000
Ann N Y Acad Sci 990:57-61. 2003
In South America, human cases of infection by the genus Rickettsia have been described in several countries in the last twenty years...
- Estimates of PI*S and PI*Z Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency alleles prevalence in the Caribbean and North, Central and South America
F J de Serres
Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction, Environmental Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 2233, USA
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 71:96-105. 2009
..study, estimates of the prevalence of the two major deficiency alleles PI S and PI Z were estimated for 25 countries in the Caribbean and North, Central, and South America to supplement our previous studies on 69 countries worldwide.
- Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006-2008 period
US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 3:327-30. 2009
..Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America...
- Challenges in the control of gonorrhea in South America and the Caribbean: monitoring the development of resistance to antibiotics
Jo Anne R Dillon
Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Program GASP in the Americas and the Caribbean, Ottawa, Canada
Sex Transm Dis 33:87-95. 2006
- Common and unexpected findings in mummies from ancient Egypt and South America as revealed by CT
Center of Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, CH 3012 Bern, Switzerland
Radiographics 28:1477-92. 2008
..Artificial mummification was performed on every continent, especially in South and Central America...
- Cocaine problems in the coca-growing countries of South America
J C Negrete
Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Ciba Found Symp 166:40-50; discussion 50-6. 1992
- Clusters of sirenomelia in South America
Ieda M Orioli
ECLAMC Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations, Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 85:112-8. 2009
..One hospital in the city of Cali, Colombia, of the ECLAMC (Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) network, reported the unusual occurrence of four cases of sirenomelia within a 55-day period...
- Phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O re-emerging in free areas of South America
Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center PAHO WHO, Av Presidente Kennedy, 7778 Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 25040 004, Brazil
Virus Res 124:22-8. 2007
..disease viruses (FMDV), type O, isolated during the recent emergencies of the disease in free areas of South America (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, October 2005, and Corrientes, Argentina, February 2006), were determined...
- An update on three radiation accidents in South America
Nelson José de Lima Valverde
Hygia Integral Occupational and Safety Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Health Phys 98:868-71. 2010
This paper revisits three major accidents that occurred in South America. The main purpose of this review is to analyze the long term health and other effects of accidental exposures to ionizing radiation in order to extract lessons from ..
- Early dissemination of CTX-M-derived enzymes in South America
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:602-4. 2002
- Antimalarial therapy selection for quinolone resistance among Escherichia coli in the absence of quinolone exposure, in tropical South America
Ross J Davidson
Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
PLoS ONE 3:e2727. 2008
..Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is thought to develop only in the presence of antibiotic pressure. Here we show evidence to suggest that fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli has developed in the absence of fluoroquinolone use...
- Arrival and diversification of caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates in South America
Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Phylogénie et Paléobiologie, CC064, Institut des Sciences de l Evolution UMR 5554 CNRS, Universite Montpellier II, Place E, Bataillon, 34 095, Montpellier Cedex 05, France
Syst Biol 55:228-44. 2006
Platyrrhine primates and caviomorph rodents are clades of mammals that colonized South America during its period of isolation from the other continents, between 100 and 3 million years ago (Mya)...
- Diverse BF recombinants have spread widely since the introduction of HIV-1 into South America
J K Carr
Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
AIDS 15:F41-7. 2001
To describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in South America by full genome sequencing and analysis.
- Stroke in South America: a systematic review of incidence, prevalence, and stroke subtypes
Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Ramos Mejia Hospital, Buenos Aires University, Argentina
Stroke 34:2103-7. 2003
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in South America because of an increase in life expectancy and changes in the lifestyle of the population...
- Riverine barriers and the geographic distribution of Amazonian species
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2501 M Street NW Suite 200, Washington, DC, 20037, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13672-7. 2000
..Combined results of this and other studies significantly weaken the postulated role of rivers as major drivers of Amazonian diversification...