africa

Summary

Top Publications

  1. pmc Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
    Darryn L Knobel
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland
    Bull World Health Organ 83:360-8. 2005
  2. pmc Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa
    Sohini Ramachandran
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:15942-7. 2005
  3. pmc Epidemiology of plasmodium-helminth co-infection in Africa: populations at risk, potential impact on anemia, and prospects for combining control
    Simon Brooker
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Kepel Street, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:88-98. 2007
  4. ncbi Intercontinental spread of pyrimethamine-resistant malaria
    Cally Roper
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Science 305:1124. 2004
  5. pmc Contextual influences on the use of health facilities for childbirth in Africa
    Rob Stephenson
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Public Health 96:84-93. 2006
  6. ncbi Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini)
    P Arctander
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Mol Biol Evol 16:1724-39. 1999
  7. ncbi Economic burden and the cost-effectiveness of treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Africa
    T A Gaziano
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Heart 94:140-4. 2008
  8. pmc Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: explaining worldwide patterns of human genetic variation using a coalescent-based serial founder model of migration outward from Africa
    Michael DeGiorgio
    Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16057-62. 2009
  9. ncbi Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: review of achievements and potential
    K Walker
    Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Med Vet Entomol 21:2-21. 2007
  10. pmc Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?
    M Winnen
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Bull World Health Organ 80:384-91. 2002

Detail Information

Publications269 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
    Darryn L Knobel
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland
    Bull World Health Organ 83:360-8. 2005
    To quantify the public health and economic burden of endemic canine rabies in Africa and Asia.
  2. pmc Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa
    Sohini Ramachandran
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:15942-7. 2005
    ..in the globally distributed populations of the data set are best explained by an expansion originating in Africa and that no geographic origin outside of Africa accounts as well for the observed patterns of genetic diversity...
  3. pmc Epidemiology of plasmodium-helminth co-infection in Africa: populations at risk, potential impact on anemia, and prospects for combining control
    Simon Brooker
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Kepel Street, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:88-98. 2007
    Human co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum and helminths is ubiquitous throughout Africa, although its public health significance remains a topic for which there are many unknowns...
  4. ncbi Intercontinental spread of pyrimethamine-resistant malaria
    Cally Roper
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Science 305:1124. 2004
    ..evidence demonstrating that malaria parasites bearing high-level pyrimethamine resistance originally arrived in Africa from southeast Asia...
  5. pmc Contextual influences on the use of health facilities for childbirth in Africa
    Rob Stephenson
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Public Health 96:84-93. 2006
    ..Previous studies of maternal health-seeking behavior focused on individual- and household-level factors. We examined community-level influences on the decision to deliver a child in a health facility across 6 African countries...
  6. ncbi Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini)
    P Arctander
    Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Mol Biol Evol 16:1724-39. 1999
    ..Moreover, their former distribution extended over Africa, as a probable result of the expansion of open grassland on the continent during the last 2.5 Myr...
  7. ncbi Economic burden and the cost-effectiveness of treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Africa
    T A Gaziano
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Heart 94:140-4. 2008
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in those over the age of 45 in Africa. The economic toll from cardiovascular diseases is equally devastating, leading to billions of dollars lost due to healthcare costs and reduced ..
  8. pmc Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: explaining worldwide patterns of human genetic variation using a coalescent-based serial founder model of migration outward from Africa
    Michael DeGiorgio
    Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2218, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16057-62. 2009
    ..have discovered three trends in summary statistics as a function of increasing geographic distance from East Africa: a decrease in heterozygosity, an increase in linkage disequilibrium (LD), and a decrease in the slope of the ..
  9. ncbi Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: review of achievements and potential
    K Walker
    Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
    Med Vet Entomol 21:2-21. 2007
    ..This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years...
  10. pmc Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?
    M Winnen
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Bull World Health Organ 80:384-91. 2002
    ..To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community...
  11. pmc Sampling-based approach to determining outcomes of patients lost to follow-up in antiretroviral therapy scale-up programs in Africa
    Elvin H Geng
    JAMA 300:506-7. 2008
  12. ncbi Clinical implications of HIV and hepatitis B co-infection in Asia and Africa
    Christopher J Hoffmann
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:402-9. 2007
    ..of chronic liver disease and liver-related death worldwide, with the majority of these cases occurring in areas of Africa and Asia where HBV prevalence is high...
  13. ncbi The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa
    J F Trape
    Laboratoire de Paludologie, Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, formerly ORSTOM, Dakar, Senegal
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:12-7. 2001
    ..Between 1978 and 1988 Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine has been reported in all countries of tropical Africa. Despite the intensification of resistance during the last 2 decades, chloroquine remains in 2000 the first-line ..
  14. ncbi Onchocerciasis: the clinical and epidemiological burden of skin disease in Africa
    M E Murdoch
    Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BB, UK
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:283-96. 2002
    ..8; P<0.001). Cutaneous onchocerciasis was found to be a common problem in many endemic areas in Africa which do not have high levels of onchocercal blindness...
  15. ncbi Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa
    Frank C Tanser
    Malaria Research Lead Programme, Medical Research Council, Overport, Durban, South Africa
    Lancet 362:1792-8. 2003
    ..Climate change is likely to affect transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. We quantitatively estimated current malaria exposure and assessed the potential effect of projected climate scenarios on malaria transmission...
  16. pmc Genital herpes has played a more important role than any other sexually transmitted infection in driving HIV prevalence in Africa
    Laith J Abu-Raddad
    Statistical Center for HIV Aids Research and Prevention, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 3:e2230. 2008
    ..The potential impact of these interventions requires a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the synergy between HIV and HSV-2 at the population level...
  17. pmc Methodological challenges of genome-wide association analysis in Africa
    Yik Ying Teo
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
    Nat Rev Genet 11:149-60. 2010
    Medical research in Africa has yet to benefit from the advent of genome-wide association (GWA) analysis, partly because the genotyping tools and statistical methods that have been developed for European and Asian populations struggle to ..
  18. pmc Sample registration of vital events with verbal autopsy: a renewed commitment to measuring and monitoring vital statistics
    Philip W Setel
    Department of Epidemiology and MEASURE Evaluation, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 83:611-7. 2005
    ..Nonetheless, interest in establishing SVR is rapidly growing in Africa and Asia...
  19. pmc Remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial analysis for schistosomiasis epidemiology and ecology in Africa
    C Simoonga
    Ministry of Health, P O Box 30205, 10101 Lusaka, Zambia
    Parasitology 136:1683-93. 2009
    ..information systems (GIS), to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in Africa, has steadily grown...
  20. pmc Public spending on health care in Africa: do the poor benefit?
    F Castro-Leal
    World Bank, Latin America and Caribbean Region, Washington DC, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 78:66-74. 2000
    ..The constraints that prevent the poor from taking advantage of these services must also be addressed if the public subsidies are to be effective in reaching the poor...
  21. pmc Microbial translocation, the innate cytokine response, and HIV-1 disease progression in Africa
    Andrew D Redd
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6718-23. 2009
    ..However, this phenomenon's role in HIV-1 disease in Africa is unknown...
  22. pmc The stigma of being HIV-positive in Africa
    William W Rankin
    Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance, San Francisco, California, USA
    PLoS Med 2:e247. 2005
  23. ncbi Emerging non-communicable disease epidemic in Africa: preventive measures from the WHO Regional Office for Africa
    Jacob Mufunda
    Department of Physiology, Orotta School of Medicine Asmara, Eritrea
    Ethn Dis 16:521-6. 2006
    The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) commissioned a study to compile and analyze published reports on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa to build evidence on the burden of NCDs in the region...
  24. pmc The entomological inoculation rate and Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children
    D L Smith
    Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 16, 16 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 438:492-5. 2005
    ..The results have important implications for public health interventions: the success of malaria control will depend heavily on whether efforts are targeted at those who are most at risk of infection...
  25. ncbi Resurgence of blackwater fever in long-term European expatriates in Africa: report of 21 cases and review
    F Bruneel
    Clinique de Réanimation des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Groupe Hospitalier Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
    Clin Infect Dis 32:1133-40. 2001
    ..We report 21 cases of BWF seen in France from 1990 through 1999 in European expatriates who lived in sub-Saharan Africa. All patients had macroscopic hemoglobinuria, jaundice, and anemia...
  26. ncbi Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century
    Kevin M De Cock
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 360:67-72. 2002
    Approaches to the prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa have been heavily based on early experiences and policies from industrialised countries, where the disease affects specific risk groups...
  27. ncbi Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor residual spraying in Africa: how can it be used for malaria control?
    Shobha Sadasivaiah
    Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:249-63. 2007
    ..This article discusses the controversy surrounding the use of DDT for IRS; its effective implementation in Africa; recommendations for deployment today, and training, monitoring, and research needs for effective and sustainable ..
  28. ncbi Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review
    Eline L Korenromp
    World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 9:1050-65. 2004
    To review the impact of malaria control on haemoglobin (Hb) distributions and anaemia prevalences in children under 5 in malaria-endemic Africa.
  29. pmc Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia
    Karen I Barnes
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    Malar J 8:S8. 2009
    ..At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria as a cornerstone of ..
  30. ncbi Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics
    Esther E Freeman
    Harvard Medical School, Francis Weld Peabody Society, 260 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 83:i17-24. 2007
    ..To understand the changing impact of herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV incidence over time in four sub-Saharan African cities, using simulation models...
  31. pmc Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa
    James A G Whitworth
    The Wellcome Trust, London, UK
    Lancet 372:1590-3. 2008
  32. ncbi Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa
    L Quintana-Murci
    Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, University of Pavia, Italy
    Nat Genet 23:437-41. 1999
    The out-of-Africa scenario has hitherto provided little evidence for the precise route by which modern humans left Africa...
  33. pmc Virologic and immunologic determinants of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Africa
    S A Allen
    Department of Epidemiology and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:901-10. 2001
    More than 80% of the world's HIV-infected adults live in sub-Saharan Africa, where heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of spread...
  34. ncbi Timing of C4 grass expansion across sub-Saharan Africa
    Loïc Ségalen
    Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    J Hum Evol 53:549-59. 2007
    ..Changes included major shifts in floral composition-characterized in Africa by shrinking of forests and emergence of C(4) grasses and more open landscapes-followed by large-scale ..
  35. ncbi Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at human G6PD: recent origin of alleles that confer malarial resistance
    S A Tishkoff
    Department of Biology, Biology Psychology Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Science 293:455-62. 2001
    ..These results support the hypothesis that malaria has had a major impact on humans only since the introduction of agriculture within the past 10,000 years and provide a striking example of the signature of selection on the human genome...
  36. pmc The health worker shortage in Africa: are enough physicians and nurses being trained?
    Yohannes Kinfu
    School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
    Bull World Health Organ 87:225-30. 2009
    To estimate systematically the inflow and outflow of health workers in Africa and examine whether current levels of pre-service training in the region suffice to address this serious problem, taking into account population increases and ..
  37. pmc The high burden of cholera in children: comparison of incidence from endemic areas in Asia and Africa
    Jacqueline L Deen
    International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e173. 2008
    ..Cholera remains an important public health problem. Yet there are few reliable population-based estimates of laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence in endemic areas around the world...
  38. ncbi Rheumatic and nonrheumatic valvular heart disease: epidemiology, management, and prevention in Africa
    Mohammed Rafique Essop
    Division of Cardiology, Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Circulation 112:3584-91. 2005
    Unlike the Western world, valvular disease ranks among the major cardiovascular afflictions in Africa. Acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic valvular disease in their most virulent form are still commonly encountered and impose a ..
  39. pmc Clonal expansion of sequence type (ST-)5 and emergence of ST-7 in serogroup A meningococci, Africa
    P Nicolas
    , World Organization Collaborating Center, , France imtssa meningo free fr
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:849-54. 2001
    One hundred four serogroup A meningococci in our collection, isolated in Africa from 1988 to 1999, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
  40. pmc Addressing inequalities in research capacity in Africa
    Jimmy Volmink
    BMJ 331:705-6. 2005
  41. ncbi Accuracy of visual screening for cervical neoplasia: Results from an IARC multicentre study in India and Africa
    Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan
    Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Int J Cancer 110:907-13. 2004
    ..0-91.3% for VILI. VILI had a significantly higher sensitivity than VIA in detecting HSIL, but specificity was similar. VILI appears to be a more accurate visual test for use in screening and treatment programs in low-resource settings...
  42. pmc Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa
    Simon I Hay
    TALA Research Group in the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:81-90. 2005
    Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa's malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates...
  43. ncbi Diabetes in Africa. Diabetes microvascular and macrovascular disease in Africa
    Jean Claude Mbanya
    Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Specialities, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon
    J Cardiovasc Risk 10:97-102. 2003
    This review on the prevalence and characteristics of diabetes micro- and macrovascular disease in Africa is based on a bibliographical Medline search and diabetes conference proceedings of published data over the past decade...
  44. ncbi History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation
    Sarah A Tishkoff
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 24:2180-95. 2007
    Little is known about the history of click-speaking populations in Africa. Prior genetic studies revealed that the click-speaking Hadza of eastern Africa are as distantly related to click speakers of southern Africa as are most other ..
  45. pmc Vibrio cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor strains, Asia and Africa
    Ashrafus Safa
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:987-8. 2008
  46. ncbi Mapping and estimating the population at risk from lymphatic filariasis in Africa
    S W Lindsay
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:37-45. 2000
    Lymphatic filariasis remains a major public health problem in Africa and is 1 of the World Health Organization's 6 diseases targeted for global eradication...
  47. ncbi Where is the meningitis belt? Defining an area at risk of epidemic meningitis in Africa
    Anna M Molesworth
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:242-9. 2002
    Mapping an area at risk of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in Africa has significant implications for their prevention and case treatment, through the targeted development of improved surveillance systems and control policies...
  48. pmc Annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa: literature survey, Internet access and review
    S I Hay
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:113-27. 2000
    ..of the formal and informal literature on annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa from 1980 onwards...
  49. ncbi Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review
    Janet Maia Wojcicki
    University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Biosoc Sci 37:1-36. 2005
    ..of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower ..
  50. pmc Preventing childhood malaria in Africa by protecting adults from mosquitoes with insecticide-treated nets
    Gerry F Killeen
    Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania
    PLoS Med 4:e229. 2007
    Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest...
  51. pmc Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa
    Iruka N Okeke
    Department of Biology, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1640-6. 2007
    ..of fecal-orally transmitted pathogens is inadequate in many developing countries, in particular, in sub-Saharan Africa. Acquired resistance to antimicrobial drugs is becoming more prevalent among Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella ..
  52. pmc Assessment of the drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory conc
    Halima Kaddouri
    Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard and Université René Descartes, Paris, France
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3343-9. 2006
    The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements...
  53. doi Tuberculosis in Africa--combating an HIV-driven crisis
    Richard E Chaisson
    Center for Tuberculosis Research at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:1089-92. 2008
  54. pmc Differential susceptibility to hypertension is due to selection during the out-of-Africa expansion
    J Hunter Young
    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 1:e82. 2005
    ..susceptibility to hypertension is due to differential exposure to selection pressures during the out-of-Africa expansion...
  55. ncbi Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa
    A P Hardon
    University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS Care 19:658-65. 2007
    Adherence levels in Africa have been found to be better than those in the US. However around one out of four ART users fail to achieve optimal adherence, risking drug resistance and negative treatment outcomes...
  56. pmc Removing user fees for primary care in Africa: the need for careful action
    Lucy Gilson
    Centre for Health Policy University of Witwatersrand, PO Box 1038, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
    BMJ 331:762-5. 2005
  57. pmc Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial
    Jairam R Lingappa
    University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1411. 2008
    Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus...
  58. ncbi Cross-species infection of blood parasites between resident and migratory songbirds in Africa
    J Waldenstrom
    Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Sweden
    Mol Ecol 11:1545-54. 2002
    ..We mapped transmission events, e.g. the occurrence of the parasite lineages in resident bird species in Europe or Africa, onto a phylogenetic tree...
  59. ncbi The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe and Asia
    B Murgue
    Institut Pasteur, Centre de Référence des Arbovirus et Fièvres Hémorragiques Virales, Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Lyon, France
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:195-221. 2002
  60. ncbi The role of birds in the ecology of West Nile virus in Europe and Africa
    M Malkinson
    Kimron Veterinary Institute, Beit Dagan 50250, Israel
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:309-22. 2002
    ..Knowledge of the routes taken by birds migrating between Africa and Europe will therefore help in selecting sites where attempts to isolate viruses will be most fruitful...
  61. ncbi On the distribution and genetic differentiation of Anopheles gambiae s.s. molecular forms
    Alessandra della Torre
    Sezione di Parassitologia, Dipartimento di Scienze di Sanità Pubblica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:755-69. 2005
    ..and dynamics, also in view of the possible consequences on the transmission of human pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa. Preliminary results and perspectives of the use of transposable element insertion sites as markers of genetic ..
  62. ncbi Improving mothers' access to PMTCT programs in West Africa: a public health perspective
    Philippe Msellati
    IRD, UMR 145, IRD Université de Montpellier CreCSS, MMSH, 5 Rue du Chateau de l Horloge, 13094 Aix en Provence cedex 2, France
    Soc Sci Med 69:807-12. 2009
    ..evidence collected during 15 years of PMTCT implementation, childcare research and treatment programs in West Africa. The analysis aims to identify the social issues that explain the gap between PMTCT program aims and achievements ..
  63. ncbi HIV-1/AIDS and the control of other infectious diseases in Africa
    Elizabeth L Corbett
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet 359:2177-87. 2002
    The effect of HIV-1 on other infectious diseases in Africa is an increasing public health concern...
  64. pmc Environmental risk and meningitis epidemics in Africa
    Anna M Molesworth
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:1287-93. 2003
  65. ncbi A serostatus-based approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Africa
    Kevin M De Cock
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
    Lancet 362:1847-9. 2003
  66. pmc Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa (DART): a randomised non-inferiority trial
    P Mugyenyi
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit, 222 Euston Road, London NW1 2DA, UK
    Lancet 375:123-31. 2010
    HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often managed without routine laboratory monitoring in Africa; however, the effect of this approach is unknown...
  67. pmc The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data
    Tiziana Lembo
    Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e626. 2010
    Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent.
  68. ncbi Risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in Africa: the INTERHEART Africa study
    Krisela Steyn
    Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
    Circulation 112:3554-61. 2005
    ..the impact of modifiable CVD risk factors on myocardial infarction (MI) has not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
  69. pmc Malaria risk in travelers
    Helena Hervius Askling
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:436-41. 2005
    ..travelers varied from 1 per 100,000 travelers to Central America and the Caribbean to 357 per 100,000 in central Africa. Travelers to East Africa had the highest adjusted odds ratio (OR = 341, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 134-886) ..
  70. ncbi Bladder cancer in Africa: update
    N G el-Mawla
    Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt
    Semin Oncol 28:174-8. 2001
    ..Primary prevention could be possible if the parasite is eliminated nationwide. Chemoprevention using retinoids or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors is a possible alternative. Semin Oncol 28:174-178...
  71. pmc Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa
    Rebecca S Levine
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus Program, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 2:e176. 2007
    ..Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this ..
  72. ncbi The importance of the period of malarial infection during pregnancy on birth weight in tropical Africa
    Gilles Cottrell
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Paris, France
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:849-54. 2007
    ..Malaria prevention policies should be started early in pregnancy, especially by implementing the systematic use of insecticide-treated nets...
  73. ncbi Malaria: a changed climate in Africa?
    Christopher Thomas
    Nature 427:690-1. 2004
  74. ncbi Reducing the burden of childhood malaria in Africa: the role of improved
    Maria E Rafael
    RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, California 90401 2138, USA
    Nature 444:39-48. 2006
  75. pmc Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa
    Ndola Prata
    Bixby Population Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 1690, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 83:274-9. 2005
    ..Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment ..
  76. ncbi Sickle cell disease in Africa
    Dapa Diallo
    Hematology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, Bamako, Mali
    Curr Opin Hematol 9:111-6. 2002
    b>Africa is the main birthplace of sickle mutations; the number of newborns affected by sickle cell disease is estimated at 200,000 per year...
  77. ncbi Apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele distribution in the world. Is APOE*4 a 'thrifty' allele?
    R M Corbo
    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Ann Hum Genet 63:301-10. 1999
    ..The absence of the association of APOE*4 with CAD and AD in Sub-Saharan Africans, and its presence in African Americans, seems to confirm this hypothesis...
  78. pmc Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans
    Dan Mishmar
    Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics, University of California, Irvine, 92697 3940, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:171-6. 2003
    ..However, it is not easy to account for the fact that only two mtDNA lineages (M and N) left Africa to colonize Eurasia and that lineages A, C, D, and G show a 5-fold enrichment from central Asia to Siberia...
  79. ncbi Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe
    Catherine Cêtre-Sossah
    CIRAD EMVT, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA30 G, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Vet Res 35:325-37. 2004
    ..Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe...
  80. ncbi Mitochondrial evidence for the origin of hamadryas baboons
    Derek E Wildman
    Department of Anthropology, New York Univesity, USA
    Mol Phylogenet Evol 32:287-96. 2004
    Baboons (Mammalia: Primates, Papio) are found primarily on the continent of Africa, but the range of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) extends to the Arabian Peninsula, and the origin of Arabian populations is unclear...
  81. ncbi Development of sero-diagnostic and molecular tools for the control of important tick-borne pathogens of cattle in Africa
    S P Morzaria
    International Livestock Research Institute ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya
    Parassitologia 41:73-80. 1999
    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a major economic constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. ILRI is focussing on developing a range of products, such as vaccines, diagnostics and decision support services to underpin ..
  82. pmc Evidence for the involvement of VAR2CSA in pregnancy-associated malaria
    Ali Salanti
    Centre for Medical Parasitology, Dept of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Panum Institute 24 2, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Exp Med 200:1197-203. 2004
    ..manner; (c) that high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels can be found in pregnant women from both West and East Africa; and (d) that women with high plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA IgG give birth to markedly heavier babies and have a ..
  83. ncbi Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world
    Murray B Isman
    Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Annu Rev Entomol 51:45-66. 2006
    ....
  84. pmc Monitoring and evaluation of programmes to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV in Africa
    Richard Reithinger
    Clinical Trials Area, Westat, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    BMJ 334:1143-6. 2007
  85. pmc Mental health policy development in Africa
    O Gureje
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
    Bull World Health Organ 78:475-82. 2000
    ..Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity...
  86. ncbi Multivitamins, nutrition, and antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease in Africa
    Barbara Marston
    N Engl J Med 351:78-80. 2004
  87. ncbi An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa
    S C Anton
    Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Hum Evol 43:773-85. 2002
    ..extent of the early Pleistocene dispersal of Homo erectus to estimate diffusion coefficients of early Homo from Africa. These diffusion coefficients indicate more rapid and efficient dispersals than those calculated for fossil Macaca ..
  88. pmc Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: incidence, causes and risk factors
    Dominique J Pepper
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:83. 2010
    ..Despite the availability of antiretroviral and antituberculosis treatment in Africa, clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment remains a frequent reason for hospital admission...
  89. ncbi Molecular surveillance of meningococcal meningitis in Africa
    Dominique A Caugant
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Meningococci, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
    Vaccine 25:A8-11. 2007
    ..Monitoring of the clones responsible for meningococcal disease provides important insights on the biology and epidemiology of this most serious pathogen...
  90. ncbi Hospice and palliative care development in Africa: a multi-method review of services and experiences
    David Clark
    International Observatory on End of Life Care, Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
    J Pain Symptom Manage 33:698-710. 2007
    There is a paucity of information on hospice and palliative care provision in Africa and only a weak evidence base upon which to build policy and practice development...
  91. pmc Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans
    Michael P Richards
    Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16034-9. 2009
    ..As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe...
  92. pmc Association of microsatellite variations of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (Pfnhe-1) gene with reduced in vitro susceptibility to quinine: lack of confirmation in clinical isolates from Africa
    Valérie Andriantsoanirina
    Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Unité de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Antananarivo, Madagascar, France
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:782-7. 2010
    ..falciparum isolates from Africa. Because we did not include any isolate of Asian origin in our series, these results did not exclude the ..
  93. ncbi Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis
    Lincoln Chen
    Global Equity Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Lancet 364:1984-90. 2004
    ..Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors...
  94. ncbi Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics
    W J Murphy
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Science 294:2348-51. 2001
    ..and other placentals, at about 103 million years, and may be accounted for by the separation of South America and Africa in the Cretaceous...
  95. pmc Rabies control in rural Africa: evaluating strategies for effective domestic dog vaccination
    M Kaare
    Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
    Vaccine 27:152-60. 2009
    ..Domestic dog rabies has been increasing across most of sub-Saharan Africa indicating that dog vaccination programmes to date have been inadequate...
  96. pmc Mapping Africa's advanced public health education capacity: the AfriHealth project
    C B IJsselmuiden
    Council on Health Research for Development, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 85:914-22. 2007
    Literature on human resources for health in Africa has focused on personal health services. Little is known about graduate public health education. This paper maps "advanced" public health education in Africa...
  97. pmc "Rapid-impact interventions": how a policy of integrated control for Africa's neglected tropical diseases could benefit the poor
    David H Molyneux
    Lymphatic Filariasis Support Centre at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 2:e336. 2005
  98. pmc The prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review
    Quinette A Louw
    Division of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 8:105. 2007
    ..Anecdotally, there is a general assumption that LBP prevalence in Africa is comparatively lower than in developed countries...
  99. ncbi Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa
    A L Roca
    Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Science 293:1473-7. 2001
    Elephants from the tropical forests of Africa are morphologically distinct from savannah or bush elephants...
  100. pmc Underreported threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Africa
    Yanis Ben Amor
    Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York 10025, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1345-52. 2008
    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Africa may be more prevalent than previously appreciated. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs...
  101. ncbi Clinical features and etiology of pneumonia in acid-fast bacillus sputum smear-negative HIV-infected patients hospitalized in Asia and Africa
    Muriel Vray
    Institut Pasteur, France
    AIDS 22:1323-32. 2008
    ..To determine the main causes of acid-fast bacillus sputum smear-negative pneumonia in Asian and African HIV-infected patients..

Research Grants69

  1. Pathogenesis of falciparum malaria in infancy
    Patrick Duffy; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Identifying new therapies for children is an urgent public health goal, but is not a funding priority for the United States Department of Defense. ..
  2. Collaborative IRB Mentoring Project
    Roberto Rivera; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Establish a collaborative and mutually strengthening program between the African IRBs and FHI's IRB. . Create a program of IRB development that can be replicated. ..
  3. Community factors shaping the sexual behavior of males
    Robert Stephenson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  4. THE ROLE OF MYCOBACTERIA IN CROHN'S DISEASE
    David Graham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of this study should either confirm or refute the proposed etiologic association of M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease as well as the identification of patients with Crohn's disease and M. paratuberculosis. ..
  5. Community Influences on Young People's HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes & Practices
    Robert Stephenson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  6. CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION OF A US ADMIXTURE MAP
    Mark Shriver; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..From simulation studies, we estimate that about 1000 AIMs will be required for genome-wide mapping with two-way admixture, and about 1500 for admixture between three populations. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. IDENTIFYING NIDDM GENES USING ADMIXED POPULATIONS
    Mark Shriver; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..They will verify any positive associations found using sib-pair linkage analysis and the transmission disequilibrium test. ..
  8. MATERNAL MALARIA--PARASITE ADHESION AND ANTIBODIES
    Patrick Duffy; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Further, the delineation of binding domains and B cell epitopes will provide the basis to design an anti-adhesion vaccine to protect primigravid and other women susceptible to placental infection with the CSA-binding parasites. ..
  9. Health Literacy Intervention for Korean Americans with HPB
    Miyong T Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..s. ..
  10. Comparative Genomics of Anopheline Mosquitoes
    Zhijian Tu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  11. DNA Methylation as an Epigenetic Host Factor in HIV/AIDS
    Jianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. Characterization and Expression of microRNA Genes in Anopheles gambiae
    Zhijian Tu; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. CANCER VACCINES TO HPV-16 ASSOCIATED TUMOR
    Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In case the applicant's hypothesis is correct, data gathered within the realm of this application will serve as the basis for a clinical Phase I trial. ..
  14. Long-term follow-up of postobese black and white women
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Safer and More Efficacious Recombinant AIDS Vaccines
    Tilahun Yilma; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. Hepcidin and the pathogenesis of anemia in older adults.
    Richard D Semba; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study should provide new insight into the epidemiology and biological mechanisms of anemia among older adults and help identify strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of anemia. ..
  17. High Blood Pressure Care for Korean Americans
    Miyong Kim; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. IRON STATUS IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE
    Usha Ramakrishnan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The investigators state that in summary, the project is expected to provide information that can be used to examine policy options and develop guidelines to ensure adequate but safe iron status for women of reproductive age. ..
  19. Microcredit and Health Services Experiment in Bangladesh
    Stan Becker; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  20. Genetic Epidemiology of Adult Brain Cancer: A Follow-up Study
    Jianming Tang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Prime-boost regimens for adenoviral vaccines to HIV-1
    Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Genetic Vaccine to Rabies Virus
    Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In aim 3, we are proposing experiments in non-human primates to test the vaccine for efficacy in pre- and post-challenge vaccination experiments with and without concomitant application of RIG. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Paraspinal Denervation in Low Back Pain
    Andrew J Haig; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results will help doctors avoid unnecessary surgery and help scientists to understand more about how spinal stenosis disables so many older people. ..
  24. Functional Characterization of Leishmania Transporters
    Scott M Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Overall, this proposal will provide a detailed biochemical and genetic dissection of glucose transporter function and the essential role of these permeases in the parasite life cycle. ..
  25. Schizophrenia Liability Genes among African Americans
    L Dianne Bradford; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The genetic basis of SCZ in the African-American population must have its roots in both Africa and Europe...
  26. Intramuscular lipid and insulin action: ethnic aspects
    Barbara Gower; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Genetics of Hearing Loss in Middle Eastern Families
    Mary Claire King; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  28. Hepatoxicity in an African HIV Treatment Cohort
    Christopher Hoffmann; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..One known risk factor for hepatotoxicity, hepatitis B (HBV), is hyper-endemic in parts of Africa. In addition to HBV, multiple other known and potential risks for hepatotoxicity may exist including alcohol, ..
  29. Reducing Health Disparities at End of Life
    Ardith Z Doorenbos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project will evaluate the effect of the web-based training for primary health clinicians on quality of end of life communication as assessed by patients and with content-based coding of clinician communication with patients. ..
  30. Anitviral Activity of Thioaptamers Against West Nile Virus
    Alan Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. HIV PREVENTION TRIAL UNITS
    Kenneth Mayer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will continue our leadership work in community education and the engagement of diverse communities in HIV prevention initiatives. ( ..
  32. Development of Assay for High Throughput Screen of Parasite Glucose Transporter
    Scott M Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since glucose is an essential nutrient for these parasites, such compounds would kill the parasite and could act as novel drugs for treatment of the diseases they cause. ..
  33. Anti-larval measures for malaria control in The Gambia
    Steven Lindsay; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..formulations of Bs and Bti have recently been shown to give excellent control of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. Use of these products is better than chemical larvicides since they have multiple actions and do not appear to ..
  34. African Society of Human Genetics Conference
    Charles Rotimi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..from[unreadable] the advances of genomic led bio-technologies?And will tomorrow's medicine work for all?The Africa Society of[unreadable] Human Genetics (AfSHG) was formed in 2003 to ensure that Africa is not left out of the ..
  35. An Economic & Policy Analysis of ADHD & Stimulant Drugs
    Richard Scheffler; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..S. By furthering the understanding of this variation, the results will inform policymakers, health professionals, educators, and families with school-age children. ..
  36. ECONOMICS OF MANAGED BEHAVIORAL HEALTH CARE
    Richard Scheffler; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The first project proposed here, in particular, lays out that challenge. ..
  37. CHILD HEALTH EFFECTS OF RAPID SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The data are from our ongoing prospective studies in Soweto (South Africa), Russia, China and Cebu (Philippines)...
  38. BEYOND RACE--EXPLAINING INEQUALITY MANIFESTED AS OBESITY
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This work will provide important insights in the relative importance of genetic and environmental determinants of overweight and activity. ..
  39. OUTPATIENT NURSE MANAGED HIV ADHERENCE TRIAL
    William Holzemer; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Evidence is also provided to support the feasibility of utilizing nurse case managers to delivery a home care-based adherence intervention. ..
  40. VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION FOR HIV INFECTED CHILDREN
    Richard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..periodic, oral vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality for HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. The goals of the project are being met through a randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical trial of oral ..
  41. INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL IMMUNITY WITH RECOMBINANT VACCINES
    Tilahun Yilma; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Since the mucosal route is the most common route of transmission of HIV, these animals will be challenged intravaginally to evaluate the efficacy of the vaccines. ..
  42. MICRONUTRIENTS AND MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV
    Richard Semba; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The relationship between mastitis and breastmilk HIV load and the epidemiology and microbiology of mastitis will be examined in a new cohort of HIV-infected lactating women. ..
  43. DFNA1 IN INHERITED HEARING LOSS
    Mary Claire King; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  44. Insecticide resistance in Africa Malaria mosquitoes
    Maureen Coetzee; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The problem of malaria vector control in South Africa and southern Mozambique has recently become a serious issue. Compounding factors include the following...
  45. E1-deleted adenoviral vectors for oral immunization
    Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In aim 4, we will determine the tropism of the simian and human Ad recombinants upon oral application emphasizing localization of and cytokine production by transduced antigen presenting cells (APCs). ..
  46. Oral Vaccine to Inhalation Rabies
    Hildegund Ertl; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In aim 2, the AdC68rab.gp vaccine will be tested in a non-human primate rabies virus challenge model. ..
  47. Ethical Challenges in Lead Poisoning Prevention Research
    Nancy Kass; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The investigators hypothesize that our approach can produce models for education of diverse communities and EH scientists. ..
  48. LIVE, ATTENUATED, RECOMBINANT VACCINE - WEST NILE VIRUS
    Thomas Monath; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  49. Epilepsy-associated stigma in Zambia
    Gretchen Birbeck; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional belief systems and lack of access to antiepileptic agents may worsen the burden of disease and stigma ..
  50. A Safer and More Efficacious Smallpox Vaccine
    Tilahun Yilma; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS WITH OXAZOLE MOIETIES
    Peter Wipf; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The proposed program represents a multi-dimensional effort to increase the basic knowledge of the function of marine natural products, establish new methods in heterocyclic chemistry, and identify novel pharmacophores. ..
  52. Effective Behavior Through Understanding Emotion
    HILLARY ELFENBEIN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  53. Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Intervention for PCOS
    Barbara A Gower; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the lower GL diet will be more effective in decreasing insulin secretion, increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing ectopic adipose tissue, decreasing inflammation, and improvin% (<10% saturated fat) saturated fat) ..
  54. EID - Effects of avian migration & anthropogenic change on the distribution & tra
    Thomas Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, we will share our results with public health organizations and the scientific community in a timely fashion in order to maximize the public good. ..
  55. Diet, Activity, Obesity & The Built Environment Dynamics
    Barry Popkin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A central issue is determining modifiable environment factors that may reduce ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in health status. ..
  56. RCT OF STEPPING STONES BEHAVIOURAL INTERVENTION FOR HIV
    Rachel Jewkes; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the transmission of HIV and promoting HIV risk reducing practices, among poor rural women and men in South Africa. The study seeks to determine the effectiveness of Stepping Stones, in changing aspects of gender dynamics in ..
  57. Engaging African Communities for the HapMap Project
    Charles Rotimi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Current international sampling plans include populations in three geographic regions in Africa. Since one of the major objectives of the National Human Genome Center (NHGC) at Howard University is ..
  58. Variation at Malaria Resistance Genes in Africans
    SARAH TISHKOFF; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Over 90% of the 1 million deaths per year due to malaria are in sub-Saharan Africa. Although a number of candidate genes have been identified that play a role in resistance to malarial infection, ..
  59. ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF P CARINII
    Sten Vermund; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The long-term objective of this research is to prevent the transmission of PC in the health care as well as the home setting, thereby reducing the risk of PC infection among immunosuppressed individuals. ..
  60. Estimation Models for HIV/AIDS in China
    Sten Vermund; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We intend to use the findings to help the China CDC establishing a better estimation model for HIV/AIDS. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Ecology, genetics and physiology of insect vectors
    Elliot Krafsur; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..are obligate blood feeders and the vectors in Africa of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in people and 'nagana' in cattle...
  62. Cervical Cancer Screening in HIV-infected women in India
    Sten Vermund; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  63. Host Polymorphisms and Uncomplicated Malaria
    Sunil Parikh; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Parikh will be able to utilize modern molecular epidemiology techniques to investigate human genetic factors underlying susceptibility to malaria and he will be well equipped for a career in academic research. ..
  64. Measuring Incident Human Immonodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infections in China
    Sten Vermund; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Whether we pursue option 1 or 2 will depend upon the results of Specific Aim 1. Year two of this R03 award will be in the pursuit of option 1 or 2, as the science dictates. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  65. HIV/AIDS through the eyes of young Africans: an analysis of fictional narratives
    SAMANTHA WINSKELL; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..long-term objective of this study is to improve HIV/AIDS communication programs for young people in sub-Saharan Africa. The proposed research will advance that goal by increasing understanding of the sociocultural context of HIV/AIDS ..
  66. Efficacy of HIV Posttest Support for ANC in South Africa
    Suzanne Maman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..support for women attending the King Edward VIII Hospital (KEH) antenatal care (ANC) clinic in Durban, South Africa. The rates of HIV infection among pregnant women in South Africa are among the highest in the world...