- Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
Darryn L Knobel
Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, Scotland
Bull World Health Organ 83:360-8. 2005
To quantify the public health and economic burden of endemic canine rabies in Africa and Asia.
- Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa
Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:15942-7. 2005
..in the globally distributed populations of the data set are best explained by an expansion originating in Africa and that no geographic origin outside of Africa accounts as well for the observed patterns of genetic diversity...
- Epidemiology of plasmodium-helminth co-infection in Africa: populations at risk, potential impact on anemia, and prospects for combining control
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Kepel Street, London, United Kingdom
Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:88-98. 2007
Human co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum and helminths is ubiquitous throughout Africa, although its public health significance remains a topic for which there are many unknowns...
- Intercontinental spread of pyrimethamine-resistant malaria
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Science 305:1124. 2004
..evidence demonstrating that malaria parasites bearing high-level pyrimethamine resistance originally arrived in Africa from southeast Asia...
- Contextual influences on the use of health facilities for childbirth in Africa
Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Am J Public Health 96:84-93. 2006
..Previous studies of maternal health-seeking behavior focused on individual- and household-level factors. We examined community-level influences on the decision to deliver a child in a health facility across 6 African countries...
- Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini)
Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Mol Biol Evol 16:1724-39. 1999
..Moreover, their former distribution extended over Africa, as a probable result of the expansion of open grassland on the continent during the last 2.5 Myr...
- Economic burden and the cost-effectiveness of treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Africa
T A Gaziano
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Heart 94:140-4. 2008
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in those over the age of 45 in Africa. The economic toll from cardiovascular diseases is equally devastating, leading to billions of dollars lost due to healthcare costs and reduced ..
- Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: explaining worldwide patterns of human genetic variation using a coalescent-based serial founder model of migration outward from Africa
Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2218, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16057-62. 2009
..have discovered three trends in summary statistics as a function of increasing geographic distance from East Africa: a decrease in heterozygosity, an increase in linkage disequilibrium (LD), and a decrease in the slope of the ..
- Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: review of achievements and potential
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA
Med Vet Entomol 21:2-21. 2007
..This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years...
- Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa?
Department of Public Health, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Bull World Health Organ 80:384-91. 2002
..To elucidate the conditions in which mass treatment with ivermectin reduces the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus sufficiently to eliminate infection from an African community...
- Sampling-based approach to determining outcomes of patients lost to follow-up in antiretroviral therapy scale-up programs in Africa
Elvin H Geng
JAMA 300:506-7. 2008
- Clinical implications of HIV and hepatitis B co-infection in Asia and Africa
Christopher J Hoffmann
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Lancet Infect Dis 7:402-9. 2007
..of chronic liver disease and liver-related death worldwide, with the majority of these cases occurring in areas of Africa and Asia where HBV prevalence is high...
- The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa
J F Trape
Laboratoire de Paludologie, Institut de recherche pour le developpement IRD, formerly ORSTOM, Dakar, Senegal
Am J Trop Med Hyg 64:12-7. 2001
..Between 1978 and 1988 Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine has been reported in all countries of tropical Africa. Despite the intensification of resistance during the last 2 decades, chloroquine remains in 2000 the first-line ..
- Onchocerciasis: the clinical and epidemiological burden of skin disease in Africa
M E Murdoch
Department of Biology, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BB, UK
Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:283-96. 2002
..8; P<0.001). Cutaneous onchocerciasis was found to be a common problem in many endemic areas in Africa which do not have high levels of onchocercal blindness...
- Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa
Frank C Tanser
Malaria Research Lead Programme, Medical Research Council, Overport, Durban, South Africa
Lancet 362:1792-8. 2003
..Climate change is likely to affect transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. We quantitatively estimated current malaria exposure and assessed the potential effect of projected climate scenarios on malaria transmission...
- Genital herpes has played a more important role than any other sexually transmitted infection in driving HIV prevalence in Africa
Laith J Abu-Raddad
Statistical Center for HIV Aids Research and Prevention, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS ONE 3:e2230. 2008
..The potential impact of these interventions requires a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the synergy between HIV and HSV-2 at the population level...
- Methodological challenges of genome-wide association analysis in Africa
Yik Ying Teo
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
Nat Rev Genet 11:149-60. 2010
Medical research in Africa has yet to benefit from the advent of genome-wide association (GWA) analysis, partly because the genotyping tools and statistical methods that have been developed for European and Asian populations struggle to ..
- Sample registration of vital events with verbal autopsy: a renewed commitment to measuring and monitoring vital statistics
Philip W Setel
Department of Epidemiology and MEASURE Evaluation, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA
Bull World Health Organ 83:611-7. 2005
..Nonetheless, interest in establishing SVR is rapidly growing in Africa and Asia...
- Remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial analysis for schistosomiasis epidemiology and ecology in Africa
Ministry of Health, P O Box 30205, 10101 Lusaka, Zambia
Parasitology 136:1683-93. 2009
..information systems (GIS), to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in Africa, has steadily grown...
- Public spending on health care in Africa: do the poor benefit?
World Bank, Latin America and Caribbean Region, Washington DC, USA
Bull World Health Organ 78:66-74. 2000
..The constraints that prevent the poor from taking advantage of these services must also be addressed if the public subsidies are to be effective in reaching the poor...
- Microbial translocation, the innate cytokine response, and HIV-1 disease progression in Africa
Andrew D Redd
Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6718-23. 2009
..However, this phenomenon's role in HIV-1 disease in Africa is unknown...
- The stigma of being HIV-positive in Africa
William W Rankin
Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance, San Francisco, California, USA
PLoS Med 2:e247. 2005
- Emerging non-communicable disease epidemic in Africa: preventive measures from the WHO Regional Office for Africa
Department of Physiology, Orotta School of Medicine Asmara, Eritrea
Ethn Dis 16:521-6. 2006
The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) commissioned a study to compile and analyze published reports on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Africa to build evidence on the burden of NCDs in the region...
- The entomological inoculation rate and Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children
D L Smith
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 16, 16 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Nature 438:492-5. 2005
..The results have important implications for public health interventions: the success of malaria control will depend heavily on whether efforts are targeted at those who are most at risk of infection...
- Resurgence of blackwater fever in long-term European expatriates in Africa: report of 21 cases and review
Clinique de Réanimation des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Groupe Hospitalier Bichat Claude Bernard, Paris, France
Clin Infect Dis 32:1133-40. 2001
..We report 21 cases of BWF seen in France from 1990 through 1999 in European expatriates who lived in sub-Saharan Africa. All patients had macroscopic hemoglobinuria, jaundice, and anemia...
- Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century
Kevin M De Cock
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Lancet 360:67-72. 2002
Approaches to the prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa have been heavily based on early experiences and policies from industrialised countries, where the disease affects specific risk groups...
- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor residual spraying in Africa: how can it be used for malaria control?
Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:249-63. 2007
..This article discusses the controversy surrounding the use of DDT for IRS; its effective implementation in Africa; recommendations for deployment today, and training, monitoring, and research needs for effective and sustainable ..
- Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review
Eline L Korenromp
World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland
Trop Med Int Health 9:1050-65. 2004
To review the impact of malaria control on haemoglobin (Hb) distributions and anaemia prevalences in children under 5 in malaria-endemic Africa.
- Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia
Karen I Barnes
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
Malar J 8:S8. 2009
..At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria as a cornerstone of ..
- Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics
Esther E Freeman
Harvard Medical School, Francis Weld Peabody Society, 260 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Sex Transm Infect 83:i17-24. 2007
..To understand the changing impact of herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV incidence over time in four sub-Saharan African cities, using simulation models...
- Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa
James A G Whitworth
The Wellcome Trust, London, UK
Lancet 372:1590-3. 2008
- Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa
Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia, University of Pavia, Italy
Nat Genet 23:437-41. 1999
The out-of-Africa scenario has hitherto provided little evidence for the precise route by which modern humans left Africa...
- Virologic and immunologic determinants of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Africa
S A Allen
Department of Epidemiology and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:901-10. 2001
More than 80% of the world's HIV-infected adults live in sub-Saharan Africa, where heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of spread...
- Timing of C4 grass expansion across sub-Saharan Africa
Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
J Hum Evol 53:549-59. 2007
..Changes included major shifts in floral composition-characterized in Africa by shrinking of forests and emergence of C(4) grasses and more open landscapes-followed by large-scale ..
- Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at human G6PD: recent origin of alleles that confer malarial resistance
S A Tishkoff
Department of Biology, Biology Psychology Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Science 293:455-62. 2001
..These results support the hypothesis that malaria has had a major impact on humans only since the introduction of agriculture within the past 10,000 years and provide a striking example of the signature of selection on the human genome...
- The health worker shortage in Africa: are enough physicians and nurses being trained?
School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
Bull World Health Organ 87:225-30. 2009
To estimate systematically the inflow and outflow of health workers in Africa and examine whether current levels of pre-service training in the region suffice to address this serious problem, taking into account population increases and ..
- The high burden of cholera in children: comparison of incidence from endemic areas in Asia and Africa
Jacqueline L Deen
International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e173. 2008
..Cholera remains an important public health problem. Yet there are few reliable population-based estimates of laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence in endemic areas around the world...
- Rheumatic and nonrheumatic valvular heart disease: epidemiology, management, and prevention in Africa
Mohammed Rafique Essop
Division of Cardiology, Baragwanath Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Circulation 112:3584-91. 2005
Unlike the Western world, valvular disease ranks among the major cardiovascular afflictions in Africa. Acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic valvular disease in their most virulent form are still commonly encountered and impose a ..
- Clonal expansion of sequence type (ST-)5 and emergence of ST-7 in serogroup A meningococci, Africa
, World Organization Collaborating Center, , France imtssa meningo free fr
Emerg Infect Dis 7:849-54. 2001
One hundred four serogroup A meningococci in our collection, isolated in Africa from 1988 to 1999, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
- Addressing inequalities in research capacity in Africa
BMJ 331:705-6. 2005
- Accuracy of visual screening for cervical neoplasia: Results from an IARC multicentre study in India and Africa
Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Int J Cancer 110:907-13. 2004
..0-91.3% for VILI. VILI had a significantly higher sensitivity than VIA in detecting HSIL, but specificity was similar. VILI appears to be a more accurate visual test for use in screening and treatment programs in low-resource settings...
- Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa
Simon I Hay
TALA Research Group in the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
Nat Rev Microbiol 3:81-90. 2005
Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa's malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates...
- Diabetes in Africa. Diabetes microvascular and macrovascular disease in Africa
Jean Claude Mbanya
Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Specialities, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Cameroon
J Cardiovasc Risk 10:97-102. 2003
This review on the prevalence and characteristics of diabetes micro- and macrovascular disease in Africa is based on a bibliographical Medline search and diabetes conference proceedings of published data over the past decade...
- History of click-speaking populations of Africa inferred from mtDNA and Y chromosome genetic variation
Sarah A Tishkoff
Department of Biology, University of Maryland, USA
Mol Biol Evol 24:2180-95. 2007
Little is known about the history of click-speaking populations in Africa. Prior genetic studies revealed that the click-speaking Hadza of eastern Africa are as distantly related to click speakers of southern Africa as are most other ..
- Vibrio cholerae O1 hybrid El Tor strains, Asia and Africa
Emerg Infect Dis 14:987-8. 2008
- Mapping and estimating the population at risk from lymphatic filariasis in Africa
S W Lindsay
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham, UK
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:37-45. 2000
Lymphatic filariasis remains a major public health problem in Africa and is 1 of the World Health Organization's 6 diseases targeted for global eradication...
- Where is the meningitis belt? Defining an area at risk of epidemic meningitis in Africa
Anna M Molesworth
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:242-9. 2002
Mapping an area at risk of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis in Africa has significant implications for their prevention and case treatment, through the targeted development of improved surveillance systems and control policies...
- Annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa: literature survey, Internet access and review
S I Hay
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94:113-27. 2000
..of the formal and informal literature on annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rates (EIR) across Africa from 1980 onwards...
- Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review
Janet Maia Wojcicki
University of California, San Francisco, USA
J Biosoc Sci 37:1-36. 2005
..of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower ..
- Preventing childhood malaria in Africa by protecting adults from mosquitoes with insecticide-treated nets
Gerry F Killeen
Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, Ifakara, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania
PLoS Med 4:e229. 2007
Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest...
- Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa
Iruka N Okeke
Department of Biology, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 13:1640-6. 2007
..of fecal-orally transmitted pathogens is inadequate in many developing countries, in particular, in sub-Saharan Africa. Acquired resistance to antimicrobial drugs is becoming more prevalent among Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella ..
- Assessment of the drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates from africa by using a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase immunodetection assay and an inhibitory maximum effect model for precise measurement of the 50-percent inhibitory conc
Centre National de Référence du Paludisme, Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard and Université René Descartes, Paris, France
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3343-9. 2006
The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements...
- Tuberculosis in Africa--combating an HIV-driven crisis
Richard E Chaisson
Center for Tuberculosis Research at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
N Engl J Med 358:1089-92. 2008
- Differential susceptibility to hypertension is due to selection during the out-of-Africa expansion
J Hunter Young
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS Genet 1:e82. 2005
..susceptibility to hypertension is due to differential exposure to selection pressures during the out-of-Africa expansion...
- Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa
A P Hardon
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School for Social Science Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
AIDS Care 19:658-65. 2007
Adherence levels in Africa have been found to be better than those in the US. However around one out of four ART users fail to achieve optimal adherence, risking drug resistance and negative treatment outcomes...
- Removing user fees for primary care in Africa: the need for careful action
Centre for Health Policy University of Witwatersrand, PO Box 1038, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
BMJ 331:762-5. 2005
- Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial
Jairam R Lingappa
University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
PLoS ONE 3:e1411. 2008
Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus...
- Cross-species infection of blood parasites between resident and migratory songbirds in Africa
Department of Animal Ecology, Ecology Building, Lund University, Sweden
Mol Ecol 11:1545-54. 2002
..We mapped transmission events, e.g. the occurrence of the parasite lineages in resident bird species in Europe or Africa, onto a phylogenetic tree...
- The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe and Asia
Institut Pasteur, Centre de Référence des Arbovirus et Fièvres Hémorragiques Virales, Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Lyon, France
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:195-221. 2002
- The role of birds in the ecology of West Nile virus in Europe and Africa
Kimron Veterinary Institute, Beit Dagan 50250, Israel
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267:309-22. 2002
..Knowledge of the routes taken by birds migrating between Africa and Europe will therefore help in selecting sites where attempts to isolate viruses will be most fruitful...
- On the distribution and genetic differentiation of Anopheles gambiae s.s. molecular forms
Alessandra della Torre
Sezione di Parassitologia, Dipartimento di Scienze di Sanità Pubblica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:755-69. 2005
..and dynamics, also in view of the possible consequences on the transmission of human pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa. Preliminary results and perspectives of the use of transposable element insertion sites as markers of genetic ..
- Improving mothers' access to PMTCT programs in West Africa: a public health perspective
IRD, UMR 145, IRD Université de Montpellier CreCSS, MMSH, 5 Rue du Chateau de l Horloge, 13094 Aix en Provence cedex 2, France
Soc Sci Med 69:807-12. 2009
..evidence collected during 15 years of PMTCT implementation, childcare research and treatment programs in West Africa. The analysis aims to identify the social issues that explain the gap between PMTCT program aims and achievements ..
- HIV-1/AIDS and the control of other infectious diseases in Africa
Elizabeth L Corbett
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Lancet 359:2177-87. 2002
The effect of HIV-1 on other infectious diseases in Africa is an increasing public health concern...
- Environmental risk and meningitis epidemics in Africa
Anna M Molesworth
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Emerg Infect Dis 9:1287-93. 2003
- A serostatus-based approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Africa
Kevin M De Cock
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Lancet 362:1847-9. 2003
- Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa (DART): a randomised non-inferiority trial
MRC Clinical Trials Unit, 222 Euston Road, London NW1 2DA, UK
Lancet 375:123-31. 2010
HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often managed without routine laboratory monitoring in Africa; however, the effect of this approach is unknown...
- The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data
Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e626. 2010
Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent.
- Risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in Africa: the INTERHEART Africa study
Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa
Circulation 112:3554-61. 2005
..the impact of modifiable CVD risk factors on myocardial infarction (MI) has not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
- Malaria risk in travelers
Helena Hervius Askling
Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, Sweden
Emerg Infect Dis 11:436-41. 2005
..travelers varied from 1 per 100,000 travelers to Central America and the Caribbean to 357 per 100,000 in central Africa. Travelers to East Africa had the highest adjusted odds ratio (OR = 341, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 134-886) ..
- Bladder cancer in Africa: update
N G el-Mawla
Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Semin Oncol 28:174-8. 2001
..Primary prevention could be possible if the parasite is eliminated nationwide. Chemoprevention using retinoids or cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors is a possible alternative. Semin Oncol 28:174-178...
- Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa
Rebecca S Levine
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus Program, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
PLoS ONE 2:e176. 2007
..Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this ..
- The importance of the period of malarial infection during pregnancy on birth weight in tropical Africa
Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Paris, France
Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:849-54. 2007
..Malaria prevention policies should be started early in pregnancy, especially by implementing the systematic use of insecticide-treated nets...
- Malaria: a changed climate in Africa?
Nature 427:690-1. 2004
- Reducing the burden of childhood malaria in Africa: the role of improved
Maria E Rafael
RAND Corporation, 1776 Main Street, PO Box 2138, Santa Monica, California 90401 2138, USA
Nature 444:39-48. 2006
- Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa
Bixby Population Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 1690, USA
Bull World Health Organ 83:274-9. 2005
..Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment ..
- Sickle cell disease in Africa
Hematology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, Bamako, Mali
Curr Opin Hematol 9:111-6. 2002
b>Africa is the main birthplace of sickle mutations; the number of newborns affected by sickle cell disease is estimated at 200,000 per year...
- Apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele distribution in the world. Is APOE*4 a 'thrifty' allele?
R M Corbo
Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
Ann Hum Genet 63:301-10. 1999
..The absence of the association of APOE*4 with CAD and AD in Sub-Saharan Africans, and its presence in African Americans, seems to confirm this hypothesis...
- Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans
Center for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics, University of California, Irvine, 92697 3940, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:171-6. 2003
..However, it is not easy to account for the fact that only two mtDNA lineages (M and N) left Africa to colonize Eurasia and that lineages A, C, D, and G show a 5-fold enrichment from central Asia to Siberia...
- Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe
CIRAD EMVT, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA30 G, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Vet Res 35:325-37. 2004
..Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe...
- Mitochondrial evidence for the origin of hamadryas baboons
Derek E Wildman
Department of Anthropology, New York Univesity, USA
Mol Phylogenet Evol 32:287-96. 2004
Baboons (Mammalia: Primates, Papio) are found primarily on the continent of Africa, but the range of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) extends to the Arabian Peninsula, and the origin of Arabian populations is unclear...
- Development of sero-diagnostic and molecular tools for the control of important tick-borne pathogens of cattle in Africa
S P Morzaria
International Livestock Research Institute ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya
Parassitologia 41:73-80. 1999
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a major economic constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. ILRI is focussing on developing a range of products, such as vaccines, diagnostics and decision support services to underpin ..
- Evidence for the involvement of VAR2CSA in pregnancy-associated malaria
Centre for Medical Parasitology, Dept of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Panum Institute 24 2, Blegdamsvej 3, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
J Exp Med 200:1197-203. 2004
..manner; (c) that high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels can be found in pregnant women from both West and East Africa; and (d) that women with high plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA IgG give birth to markedly heavier babies and have a ..
- Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world
Murray B Isman
Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Annu Rev Entomol 51:45-66. 2006
- Monitoring and evaluation of programmes to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV in Africa
Clinical Trials Area, Westat, Rockville, Maryland, USA
BMJ 334:1143-6. 2007
- Mental health policy development in Africa
Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Bull World Health Organ 78:475-82. 2000
..Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity...
- Multivitamins, nutrition, and antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease in Africa
N Engl J Med 351:78-80. 2004
- An ecomorphological model of the initial hominid dispersal from Africa
S C Anton
Center for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
J Hum Evol 43:773-85. 2002
..extent of the early Pleistocene dispersal of Homo erectus to estimate diffusion coefficients of early Homo from Africa. These diffusion coefficients indicate more rapid and efficient dispersals than those calculated for fossil Macaca ..
- Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: incidence, causes and risk factors
Dominique J Pepper
Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
BMC Infect Dis 10:83. 2010
..Despite the availability of antiretroviral and antituberculosis treatment in Africa, clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment remains a frequent reason for hospital admission...
- Molecular surveillance of meningococcal meningitis in Africa
Dominique A Caugant
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Meningococci, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Vaccine 25:A8-11. 2007
..Monitoring of the clones responsible for meningococcal disease provides important insights on the biology and epidemiology of this most serious pathogen...
- Hospice and palliative care development in Africa: a multi-method review of services and experiences
International Observatory on End of Life Care, Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
J Pain Symptom Manage 33:698-710. 2007
There is a paucity of information on hospice and palliative care provision in Africa and only a weak evidence base upon which to build policy and practice development...
- Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans
Michael P Richards
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16034-9. 2009
..As Oase 1 was close in time to the last Neanderthals, these data may indicate a significant dietary shift associated with the changing population dynamics of modern human emergence in Europe...
- Association of microsatellite variations of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (Pfnhe-1) gene with reduced in vitro susceptibility to quinine: lack of confirmation in clinical isolates from Africa
Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Unité de Recherche sur le Paludisme, Antananarivo, Madagascar, France
Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:782-7. 2010
..falciparum isolates from Africa. Because we did not include any isolate of Asian origin in our series, these results did not exclude the ..
- Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis
Global Equity Initiative, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Lancet 364:1984-90. 2004
..Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors...
- Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics
W J Murphy
Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Science 294:2348-51. 2001
..and other placentals, at about 103 million years, and may be accounted for by the separation of South America and Africa in the Cretaceous...
- Rabies control in rural Africa: evaluating strategies for effective domestic dog vaccination
Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK
Vaccine 27:152-60. 2009
..Domestic dog rabies has been increasing across most of sub-Saharan Africa indicating that dog vaccination programmes to date have been inadequate...
- Mapping Africa's advanced public health education capacity: the AfriHealth project
C B IJsselmuiden
Council on Health Research for Development, Geneva, Switzerland
Bull World Health Organ 85:914-22. 2007
Literature on human resources for health in Africa has focused on personal health services. Little is known about graduate public health education. This paper maps "advanced" public health education in Africa...
- "Rapid-impact interventions": how a policy of integrated control for Africa's neglected tropical diseases could benefit the poor
David H Molyneux
Lymphatic Filariasis Support Centre at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
PLoS Med 2:e336. 2005
- The prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review
Quinette A Louw
Division of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 19063, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa
BMC Musculoskelet Disord 8:105. 2007
..Anecdotally, there is a general assumption that LBP prevalence in Africa is comparatively lower than in developed countries...
- Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa
A L Roca
Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Science 293:1473-7. 2001
Elephants from the tropical forests of Africa are morphologically distinct from savannah or bush elephants...
- Underreported threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Africa
Yanis Ben Amor
Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York 10025, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 14:1345-52. 2008
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Africa may be more prevalent than previously appreciated. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs...
- Clinical features and etiology of pneumonia in acid-fast bacillus sputum smear-negative HIV-infected patients hospitalized in Asia and Africa
Institut Pasteur, France
AIDS 22:1323-32. 2008
..To determine the main causes of acid-fast bacillus sputum smear-negative pneumonia in Asian and African HIV-infected patients..