viremia

Summary

Summary: The presence of viruses in the blood.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Dengue viremia titer, antibody response pattern, and virus serotype correlate with disease severity
    D W Vaughn
    Department of Virus Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:2-9. 2000
  2. ncbi Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205 USA
    Nat Med 9:727-8. 2003
  3. pmc Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy
    Sarah Palmer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3879-84. 2008
  4. ncbi Cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients despite long-standing suppression of viremia
    Samanta Simioni
    Department of Neurology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
    AIDS 24:1243-50. 2010
  5. pmc The first T cell response to transmitted/founder virus contributes to the control of acute viremia in HIV-1 infection
    Nilu Goonetilleke
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DS, England, UK
    J Exp Med 206:1253-72. 2009
  6. ncbi High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever
    Daniel H Libraty
    Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue N, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1165-8. 2002
  7. pmc Initial B-cell responses to transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1: virion-binding immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies followed by plasma anti-gp41 antibodies with ineffective control of initial viremia
    Georgia D Tomaras
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 82:12449-63. 2008
  8. pmc Kinetics of viremia and NS1 antigenemia are shaped by immune status and virus serotype in adults with dengue
    Vianney Tricou
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1309. 2011
  9. pmc New real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay with single-copy sensitivity for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma
    Sarah Palmer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4531-6. 2003
  10. ncbi Genetic and immunologic heterogeneity among persons who control HIV infection in the absence of therapy
    Florencia Pereyra
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:563-71. 2008

Detail Information

Publications358 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Dengue viremia titer, antibody response pattern, and virus serotype correlate with disease severity
    D W Vaughn
    Department of Virus Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
    J Infect Dis 181:2-9. 2000
    b>Viremia titers in serial plasma samples from 168 children with acute dengue virus infection who were enrolled in a prospective study at 2 hospitals in Thailand were examined to determine the role of virus load in the pathogenesis of ..
  2. ncbi Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205 USA
    Nat Med 9:727-8. 2003
    ..been unclear how stable this latent reservoir is and whether its persistence reflects replenishment by low-level viremia. Here we show that even in treated patients who have had no detectable viremia for as long as 7 years, the ..
  3. pmc Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy
    Sarah Palmer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3879-84. 2008
    Residual viremia can be detected in most HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy despite suppression of plasma RNA to <50 copies per ml, but the source and duration of this viremia is currently unknown...
  4. ncbi Cognitive dysfunction in HIV patients despite long-standing suppression of viremia
    Samanta Simioni
    Department of Neurology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland
    AIDS 24:1243-50. 2010
    ..To determine the prevalence of cognitive complaints and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in a cohort of aviremic HIV-positive patients. To evaluate the relevance of the HIV dementia scale to detect HANDs...
  5. pmc The first T cell response to transmitted/founder virus contributes to the control of acute viremia in HIV-1 infection
    Nilu Goonetilleke
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DS, England, UK
    J Exp Med 206:1253-72. 2009
    ..These included clusters of mutations in envelope that were targeted by NAbs, a few isolated sites that reverted to the consensus sequence, and bystander mutations in linkage with T cell-driven escape...
  6. ncbi High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever
    Daniel H Libraty
    Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue N, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1165-8. 2002
    ..Free sNS1 levels in plasma correlated with viremia levels and were higher in patients with DHF than in those with DF...
  7. pmc Initial B-cell responses to transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1: virion-binding immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies followed by plasma anti-gp41 antibodies with ineffective control of initial viremia
    Georgia D Tomaras
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 82:12449-63. 2008
    ..viral load (VL) ramp-up in acute infection, and we have modeled the antibody effect on the kinetics of plasma viremia. The first detectable B-cell response was in the form of immune complexes 8 days after plasma virus detection, ..
  8. pmc Kinetics of viremia and NS1 antigenemia are shaped by immune status and virus serotype in adults with dengue
    Vianney Tricou
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Program, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1309. 2011
    ..Exploring the relationships between virological features of infection with patient immune status and outcome may help to identify predictors of disease severity and enable rational therapeutic strategies...
  9. pmc New real-time reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR assay with single-copy sensitivity for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma
    Sarah Palmer
    HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4531-6. 2003
    ..for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA are needed to detect, quantify, and characterize persistent viremia in patients who are receiving antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma HIV-1 RNA levels are suppressed to less ..
  10. ncbi Genetic and immunologic heterogeneity among persons who control HIV infection in the absence of therapy
    Florencia Pereyra
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:563-71. 2008
    ..The mechanisms behind this outcome remain largely unknown, and a better understanding of them will likely influence future vaccine strategies...
  11. pmc Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein NS1 reveals circulation of the antigen in the blood during the acute phase of disease in patients experiencing primary or secondary infections
    Sophie Alcon
    Unité des Arbovirus et Virus des Fièvres Hémorragiques, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Clin Microbiol 40:376-81. 2002
    ..Furthermore, NS1 circulation in the bloodstream of patients during the clinical phase of the disease suggests a contribution of the nonstructural protein to dengue virus pathogenesis...
  12. ncbi Persistence of HIV in gut-associated lymphoid tissue despite long-term antiretroviral therapy
    Tae Wook Chun
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:714-20. 2008
    ..virus (HIV) persists in peripheral blood mononuclear cells despite sustained, undetectable plasma viremia resulting from long-term antiretroviral therapy...
  13. pmc Kinetics of plasma viremia and soluble nonstructural protein 1 concentrations in dengue: differential effects according to serotype and immune status
    Huynh T L Duyen
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    J Infect Dis 203:1292-300. 2011
    We describe the magnitude and kinetics of plasma viremia and nonstructural protein 1 (sNS1) levels in sequential samples from 167 children with acute dengue, enrolled early in a community study in Vietnam...
  14. ncbi Differing influences of virus burden and immune activation on disease severity in secondary dengue-3 virus infections
    Daniel H Libraty
    Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1213-21. 2002
    ..DHF was associated with higher mean plasma viremia early in illness and earlier peak plasma interferon-gamma levels...
  15. ncbi Relationship of preexisting dengue virus (DV) neutralizing antibody levels to viremia and severity of disease in a prospective cohort study of DV infection in Thailand
    Timothy P Endy
    Division of Virology, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Ft Detrick, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:990-1000. 2004
    ..Most DHF cases occur after sequential heterotypic DV infections. The role of preexisting humoral immunity in modifying severity of dengue disease is not well understood...
  16. pmc Persistent low-level viremia in HIV-1 elite controllers and relationship to immunologic parameters
    Florencia Pereyra
    The Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harvard, 149 13th St, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Infect Dis 200:984-90. 2009
    ..control virus replication to levels below the limits of detection by commercial assays, but the actual level of viremia in these individuals is not well defined...
  17. pmc DNA and virus particle vaccination protects against acquisition and confers control of viremia upon heterologous simian immunodeficiency virus challenge
    Vainav Patel
    Human Retrovirus Section, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:2975-80. 2013
    ..vaccinated with DNA vectors expressing SIVmac239 antigens developed potent immune responses able to reduce viremia upon high-dose SIVmac251 challenge...
  18. pmc Treatment intensification does not reduce residual HIV-1 viremia in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    J B Dinoso
    Departmentsof Medicine and Pharmacology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9403-8. 2009
    In HIV-1-infected individuals on currently recommended antiretroviral therapy (ART), viremia is reduced to <50 copies of HIV-1 RNA per milliliter, but low-level residual viremia appears to persist over the lifetimes of most infected ..
  19. pmc Absence of detectable HIV-1 viremia after treatment cessation in an infant
    Deborah Persaud
    From the Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore D P, C Z, Y H C, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick M P, and the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda T W C all in Maryland the Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson H G the University of California San Diego, La Jolla, and the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego M S, D R and the Department of Pediatrics, Program in Molecular Medicine, and Center for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester K L
    N Engl J Med 369:1828-35. 2013
    ..This case suggests that very early ART in infants may alter the establishment and long-term persistence of HIV-1 infection. ..
  20. ncbi Relationship between pre-existing viral reservoirs and the re-emergence of plasma viremia after discontinuation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy
    T W Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 6:757-61. 2000
    ..resting CD4+ T cell compartment of HIV-1-infected individuals as well as its involvement in the rebound of plasma viremia after discontinuation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)...
  21. pmc Mamu-B*08-positive macaques control simian immunodeficiency virus replication
    John T Loffredo
    Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin Madison, 555 Science Drive, Madison, WI 53711, USA
    J Virol 81:8827-32. 2007
    ..00001). Mamu-B*08 was also associated with a 7.34-fold decrease in chronic phase viremia (P = 0.002)...
  22. pmc Passive neutralizing antibody controls SHIV viremia and enhances B cell responses in infant macaques
    Cherie T Ng
    Pathobiology Program, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Med 16:1117-9. 2010
    ..All of the macaques rapidly developed neutralizing antibodies and had significantly reduced plasma viremia for six months...
  23. ncbi Viral reservoirs, residual viremia, and the potential of highly active antiretroviral therapy to eradicate HIV infection
    Lin Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:22-8. 2008
    Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce HIV-1 viremia to levels that are below the limit of detection of clinical assays, the virus persists in reservoirs, and trace levels of free virions can be found in the ..
  24. pmc Depletion of CD4⁺ T cells abrogates post-peak decline of viremia in SIV-infected rhesus macaques
    Alexandra M Ortiz
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:4433-45. 2011
    ..Compared with undepleted animals, CD4+ lymphocyte-depleted RMs showed a similar peak of viremia, but did not manifest any post-peak decline of virus replication despite CD8+ T cell- and B cell-mediated SIV-..
  25. pmc Impact of low-level-viremia on HIV-1 drug-resistance evolution among antiretroviral treated-patients
    Constance Delaugerre
    Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Saint Louis APHP, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 7:e36673. 2012
    ..defined as viral load (pVL) above 500 copies/ml (c/mL), but few resistance data are available at low-level viremia (LLV)...
  26. pmc Hepatitis C virus-multispecific T-cell responses without viremia or seroconversion among Egyptian health care workers at high risk of infection
    Sayed F Abdelwahab
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:780-6. 2012
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) has been reported among exposed individuals without viremia or seroconversion...
  27. pmc Rebound of plasma viremia following cessation of antiretroviral therapy despite profoundly low levels of HIV reservoir: implications for eradication
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    AIDS 24:2803-8. 2010
    Sustained suppression of plasma viremia in HIV-infected individuals is attainable with antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, eradication of virus that would allow discontinuation of ART has been hampered by the persistence of HIV ..
  28. ncbi Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission
    W K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 42:367-75. 2005
    The ability of the invading NY99 strain of West Nile virus (WNV) to elicit an elevated viremia response in California passerine birds was critical for the effective infection of Culex mosquitoes...
  29. pmc Viremia and drug resistance among HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment: a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa
    Ziad El-Khatib
    Division of Global Health IHCAR, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    AIDS 24:1679-87. 2010
    We assessed risk factors for viremia and drug resistance among long-term recipients of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa.
  30. pmc Short-course raltegravir intensification does not reduce persistent low-level viremia in patients with HIV-1 suppression during receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy
    D McMahon
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:912-9. 2010
    ..suppresses but does not eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in infected persons, and low-level viremia can be detected despite years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy...
  31. ncbi Exposure to hepatitis C virus induces cellular immune responses without detectable viremia or seroconversion
    Maged Al-Sherbiny
    Egyptian Reference Diagnostic Center, VACSERA, Cairo, Egypt
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:44-9. 2005
    ..We speculate induced CMI clears HCV sometimes when anti-HCV is not detectable, and HCV-specific CMI is a useful surrogate marker for exposure to HCV...
  32. ncbi Slow clearance of human parvovirus B19 viremia following acute infection
    Anna Lindblom
    Department of Medicine, Infectious Disease Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1201-3. 2005
    ..These findings challenge our current conception of the virus' pathogenesis and have implications for the management of the infection...
  33. pmc Viremia copy-years predicts mortality among treatment-naive HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy
    Michael J Mugavero
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:927-35. 2011
    ..We evaluated the cumulative effect of exposure to HIV replication on mortality following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  34. pmc Amplified transmission of HIV-1: comparison of HIV-1 concentrations in semen and blood during acute and chronic infection
    Christopher D Pilcher
    Center for Infectious Diseases, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7030, USA
    AIDS 21:1723-30. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to compare viral dynamics in blood and semen between subjects with antibody negative, acute HIV-1 infection and other subjects with later stages of infection...
  35. ncbi Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever among adults: clinical outcomes related to viremia, serotypes, and antibody response
    Adriana O Guilarde
    Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saude Publica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Brazil
    J Infect Dis 197:817-24. 2008
    ..In Brazil, the disease burden predominantly affects adults, with an increasing trend toward progression to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) noted...
  36. ncbi A dengue fever viremia model in mice shows reduction in viral replication and suppression of the inflammatory response after treatment with antiviral drugs
    Wouter Schul
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Chromos, Singapore
    J Infect Dis 195:665-74. 2007
    ..beta and - gamma receptors, were injected with unadapted dengue virus, resulting in a dose-dependent transient viremia lasting several days and peaking on day 3 after infection...
  37. ncbi Dynamics of HIV viremia and antibody seroconversion in plasma donors: implications for diagnosis and staging of primary HIV infection
    Eberhard W Fiebig
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    AIDS 17:1871-9. 2003
    ..The characterization of primary HIV infection by the analysis of serial plasma samples from newly infected persons using multiple standard viral assays...
  38. pmc Determination of virus burst size in vivo using a single-cycle SIV in rhesus macaques
    Hannah Yuan Chen
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:19079-84. 2007
    ....
  39. ncbi CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load
    Photini Kiepiela
    HIV Pathogenesis Programme, Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4013, South Africa
    Nat Med 13:46-53. 2007
    ..Of the HIV proteins targeted, only Gag-specific responses were associated with lowering viremia. Env-specific and Accessory/Regulatory protein-specific responses were associated with higher viremia...
  40. ncbi Virologic and immunologic consequences of discontinuing combination antiretroviral-drug therapy in HIV-infected patients with detectable viremia
    S G Deeks
    University of California, San Francisco, and San Francisco General Hospital, USA
    N Engl J Med 344:472-80. 2001
    ..In many patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, therapy with potent antiretroviral drugs does not result in complete suppression of HIV replication. The effect of cessation of therapy in these patients is unknown...
  41. pmc A simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaque model to study viral reservoirs that persist during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jason B Dinoso
    Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:9247-57. 2009
    ..highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs, suppresses viremia below the clinical limit of detection (50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml), but latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells ..
  42. pmc Evidence for persistent low-level viremia in individuals who control human immunodeficiency virus in the absence of antiretroviral therapy
    Hiroyu Hatano
    San Francisco General Hospital, Building 80, Ward 84, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Virol 83:329-35. 2009
    ..The degree to which these individuals have residual plasma viremia has not been well defined...
  43. pmc The gut mucosal viral reservoir in HIV-infected patients is not the major source of rebound plasma viremia following interruption of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Paula Lerner
    Dept of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, GBSF, Room 5511, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Virol 85:4772-82. 2011
    ..analysis of rebound virus suggested that GALT was not the major contributor to the postinterruption plasma viremia nor were GALT HIV reservoirs rapidly replaced by HIV rebound variants...
  44. pmc Rapid perturbation in viremia levels drives increases in functional avidity of HIV-specific CD8 T cells
    Selena Vigano
    Service of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003423. 2013
    ..These results provide insights on the relationships between functional avidity, viremia, T-cell exhaustion and TCR renewal of antiviral CD8 T cell responses.
  45. pmc Frequent longitudinal sampling of hepatitis C virus infection in injection drug users reveals intermittently detectable viremia and reinfection
    Kimberly Page
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 56:405-13. 2013
    Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection and intercalation (ie, intermittent recurrent bouts of viremia with homologous virus interspersed with aviremic periods) requires extensive and frequent evaluation and viral sequencing.
  46. pmc DNA vaccines expressing different forms of simian immunodeficiency virus antigens decrease viremia upon SIVmac251 challenge
    Margherita Rosati
    Human Retrovirus Section, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, Bldg 535, Rm 210, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA
    J Virol 79:8480-92. 2005
    ..immunospot values for Gag and Env as well as gag-specific T-helper responses correlated with control of viremia. Our data show that the combinations of DNA vaccines producing native and modified forms of antigens elicit more ..
  47. pmc A randomized controlled trial of chloroquine for the treatment of dengue in Vietnamese adults
    Vianney Tricou
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e785. 2010
    ..There is currently no licensed antiviral drug for treatment of dengue. Chloroquine (CQ) inhibits the replication of dengue virus (DENV) in vitro...
  48. pmc Cellular levels of HIV unspliced RNA from patients on combination antiretroviral therapy with undetectable plasma viremia predict the therapy outcome
    Alexander O Pasternak
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 4:e8490. 2009
    ..therapy (cART), the standard of care for HIV-1 infection, is considered to be successful when plasma viremia remains below the detection limit of commercial assays...
  49. ncbi Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)
    Nicole Nemeth
    National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Arch Virol 154:783-9. 2009
    ..Chronicity of WNV infection in some tissues, but not blood, supports the predation mechanism of WNV overwintering, but not recrudescence. RNA persistence impacts interpretation and etiologic determination of avian mortality...
  50. ncbi GM-CSF fused with GP3 and GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus increased the immune responses and protective efficacy against virulent PRRSV challenge
    Xinglong Wang
    Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases Diagnostic and Immunology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
    Virus Res 143:24-32. 2009
    ..Following challenge with PRRSV, piglets inoculated with recombinant rAd-GF35 had lighter clinical signs, lower viremia and less gross lesion of lungs, as compared to that of rAd-GP35 immunized group...
  51. pmc Valproic acid without intensified antiviral therapy has limited impact on persistent HIV infection of resting CD4+ T cells
    Nancy M Archin
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    AIDS 22:1131-5. 2008
    ..Valproic acid and intensified antiretroviral therapy may deplete resting CD4+ T-cell HIV infection. We tested the ability of valproic acid to deplete resting CD4+ T-cell infection in patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy...
  52. pmc Both viremia and cytokine levels associate with the lack of severe disease in secondary dengue 1 infection among adult Chinese patients
    Yangbo Tang
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou 8th People s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e15631. 2010
    ..and immunological mechanisms which may account for this unexpected clinical observation, we assessed dengue viremia, type I interferon and inflammatory cytokine levels in these patients...
  53. pmc Clinical and virological factors associated with viremia in pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus infection
    Herman Tse
    State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    PLoS ONE 6:e22534. 2011
    ..of patients suffering from severe pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 viral infection, although the significance of viremia had not been previously studied...
  54. pmc Escape from CD8(+) T cell responses in Mamu-B*00801(+) macaques differentiates progressors from elite controllers
    Philip A Mudd
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53711, USA
    J Immunol 188:3364-70. 2012
    ..By contrast, virus in elite controller macaques showed little evidence of variation in epitopes recognized by immunodominant CD8(+) T lymphocytes, implying that these cells play a role in viral control...
  55. ncbi Innate immunity in human immunodeficiency virus infection: effect of viremia on natural killer cell function
    Shyam Kottilil
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIH, 9000 Wiscoinsin Avenue, Building 10, Room 6A08A, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1038-45. 2003
    We examined the effect of viremia on cell contact and soluble factor-mediated suppression of endogenous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals by autologous natural killer (NK) and ..
  56. pmc Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia and provirus in resting CD4+ T cells reveals a novel source of residual viremia in patients on antiretroviral therapy
    Timothy P Brennan
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:8470-81. 2009
    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia to clinically undetectable levels. Despite this dramatic reduction, some virus is present in the blood...
  57. pmc TT virus in the nasal secretions of children with acute respiratory diseases: relations to viremia and disease severity
    Fabrizio Maggi
    Virology Section and Retrovirus Center, Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via San Zeno 37, I 56127 Pisa, Italy
    J Virol 77:2418-25. 2003
    ..Furthermore, group 4 TTV was detected almost exclusively in children with BP...
  58. pmc Relationship between residual plasma viremia and the size of HIV proviral DNA reservoirs in infected individuals receiving effective antiretroviral therapy
    Tae Wook Chun
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:135-8. 2011
    Residual plasma viremia (<50 copies/mL) persists in certain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the relationship between the degree of residual plasma viremia, the ..
  59. ncbi Incidence of BK with tacrolimus versus cyclosporine and impact of preemptive immunosuppression reduction
    Daniel C Brennan
    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Am J Transplant 5:582-94. 2005
    Our purposes were to determine the incidence of BK viruria, viremia or nephropathy with tacrolimus (FK506) versus cyclosporine (CyA) and whether intensive monitoring and discontinuation of mycophenolate (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA), upon ..
  60. pmc The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer-cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia
    Enrico Brunetta
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy
    Blood 114:3822-30. 2009
    ..NK-cell dysregulation, which precedes the down-modulation of CD56 mostly occurring in patients with chronic HIV-1 viremia. The combined detection of Siglec-7 and CD56 allows the identification of 2 new pathologic NK-cell subsets ..
  61. ncbi Clearance of hepatitis C viremia associated with cellular immunity in the absence of seroconversion in the hepatitis C incidence and transmission in prisons study cohort
    Jeffrey J Post
    Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Infect Dis 189:1846-55. 2004
    ..Four cases of HCV viremia with subsequent viral clearance, but without biochemical hepatitis or anti-HCV seroconversion, are reported from ..
  62. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses containing replication of the primary virus
    Marcus Altfeld
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 420:434-9. 2002
    ..The lack of cross-protective immunity for closely related HIV-1 strains, despite persistent recognition of multiple CD8 epitopes, has important implications for public health and vaccine development...
  63. ncbi Broad repertoire of the CD4+ Th cell response in spontaneously controlled hepatitis C virus infection includes dominant and highly promiscuous epitopes
    Julian Schulze zur Wiesch
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, USA
    J Immunol 175:3603-13. 2005
    ..hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific Th cell response is regarded as essential to the immunological control of HCV viremia. The aim of this study was to comprehensively define the breadth and specificity of dominant HCV-specific CD4(+) ..
  64. pmc Enhancing SIV-specific immunity in vivo by PD-1 blockade
    Vijayakumar Velu
    Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Nature 458:206-10. 2009
    ....
  65. ncbi Effect of coinfection with GB virus C on survival among patients with HIV infection
    J Xiang
    Department of Internal Medicine and Research, Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the University of Iowa College of Medicine, USA
    N Engl J Med 345:707-14. 2001
    ..RESULTS: Of 362 HIV-infected patients, 144 (39.8 percent) had GBV-C viremia in two tests. Forty-one of the patients with GBV-C viremia (28...
  66. ncbi Dengue Virus (DV) enhancing antibody activity in preillness plasma does not predict subsequent disease severity or viremia in secondary DV infection
    Kamolwish Laoprasopwattana
    Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, 01655, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:510-9. 2005
    ..Preexisting nonneutralizing antibodies to DV that enhance the infection of Fc gamma receptor-bearing cells have been implicated in DV pathogenesis...
  67. ncbi Prevalence and predictive value of intermittent viremia with combination hiv therapy
    D V Havlir
    University of California, San Diego, 150 W Washington, Suite 100, San Diego, CA 92103, USA
    JAMA 286:171-9. 2001
    ..suppression (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) with antiretroviral therapy, intermittent episodes of low-level viremia have been correlated with slower decay rates of latently infected cells and increased levels of viral evolution, ..
  68. ncbi Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species
    Nicole Nemeth
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Wildl Dis 42:1-13. 2006
    ..Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os ..
  69. pmc Macaques vaccinated with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239Delta nef delay acquisition and control replication after repeated low-dose heterologous SIV challenge
    Matthew R Reynolds
    AIDS Vaccine Research Laboratory, 555 Science Dr, Madison, WI 53711, USA
    J Virol 84:9190-9. 2010
    ..Overall, our results suggest that a well-designed HIV vaccine might both reduce the rate of acquisition and control viral replication...
  70. ncbi Different European-type vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus have different immunological properties and confer different protection to pigs
    I Diaz
    Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal CReSA, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
    Virology 351:249-59. 2006
    ..After a challenge with a virulent Spanish strain, one vaccine (V3) protected piglets against viremia while the other (V1) did not. The vaccine V3 induced the highest IFN-gamma-SC frequencies...
  71. pmc An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of dengue virus
    Zheng Yin
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Singapore, 138670, Singapore
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20435-9. 2009
    ..Treatment of DENV-infected mice with NITD008 suppressed peak viremia, reduced cytokine elevation, and completely prevented the infected mice from death...
  72. ncbi Eastern equine encephalitis virus in birds: relative competence of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)
    N Komar
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:387-91. 1999
    ..than in various native candidate reservoir birds, we compared their respective intensities and durations of viremia. Viremias are more intense and longer lasting in starlings than in robins and other birds...
  73. pmc Rift Valley fever virus vaccine lacking the NSs and NSm genes is safe, nonteratogenic, and confers protection from viremia, pyrexia, and abortion following challenge in adult and pregnant sheep
    Brian H Bird
    Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS G 14, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Virol 85:12901-9. 2011
    ..As expected, all 3 sham-vaccinated controls experienced viremia, fetal death, and abortion postchallenge...
  74. ncbi Replication-competent HIV strains infect HIV controllers despite undetectable viremia (ANRS EP36 study)
    Aurelia Lamine
    INSERM U802, Paris XI University, Bicetre, France
    AIDS 21:1043-5. 2007
    ..The vif and vpr genes were normal. Infection with HIV-1 variants with attenuated replicative capacity cannot be a general factor accounting for undetectable viraemia in HIV controllers...
  75. ncbi Development of an experimental inactivated PRRSV vaccine that induces virus-neutralizing antibodies
    Merijn Vanhee
    Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Res 40:63. 2009
    ..5 log(2), and the duration of the viremia was reduced to an average of 1 week...
  76. ncbi Monitoring of clinical and laboratory data in two cases of imported Lassa fever
    Herbert Schmitz
    Department of Virology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str 74, 20359 Hamburg, Germany
    Microbes Infect 4:43-50. 2002
    ..Patient 1 had an initial virus load of 10(6) S RNA copies/ml as measured by real-time RT-PCR. Viremia increased steadily and reached a plateau of approximately 10(8)-10(9) copies/ml 4 days before death, while IFN-..
  77. pmc Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia with reverse transcriptase and integrase inhibitors, CD4+ T-cell recovery, and viral rebound upon interruption of therapy in a new model for HIV treatment in the humanized Rag2-/-{gamma}c-
    Shailesh K Choudhary
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599, USA
    J Virol 83:8254-8. 2009
    ..combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in humanized (hu-) Rag2(-/-)gamma(c)(-/-) mice allows suppression of viremia below the limits of detection and recovery of CD4(+) cells, while interruption of ART results in viral rebound ..
  78. ncbi Infection with GB virus C and reduced mortality among HIV-infected patients
    H L Tillmann
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany
    N Engl J Med 345:715-24. 2001
    ..We investigated the relation between coinfection with GBV-C and the long-term outcome in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
  79. ncbi rDEN4delta30, a live attenuated dengue virus type 4 vaccine candidate, is safe, immunogenic, and highly infectious in healthy adult volunteers
    Anna P Durbin
    Center for Immunization Research, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:710-8. 2005
    ..The live attenuated dengue virus type 4 (DEN-4) vaccine candidate virus rDEN4 Delta 30 was previously found to be safe and immunogenic at a dose of 10(5) plaque-forming units (pfu)...
  80. ncbi Donor origin of BK virus in renal transplantation and role of HLA C7 in susceptibility to sustained BK viremia
    Daniel L Bohl
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Am J Transplant 5:2213-21. 2005
    ..However, all 11 recipients with sustained BK viremia received kidneys from donors lacking HLA C7, and 10 recipients also lacked C7...
  81. pmc Comparison of two dengue NS1 rapid tests for sensitivity, specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses
    Vianney Tricou
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, 190 Ben Ham Tu, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    BMC Infect Dis 10:142. 2010
    ..The detection of DENV NS1 on rapid lateral flow tests offers a fast route to a presumptive dengue diagnosis but careful evaluations are urgently needed as more and more people use them...
  82. pmc In vivo CD8+ T-cell suppression of siv viremia is not mediated by CTL clearance of productively infected cells
    Joseph K Wong
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000748. 2010
    ..These observations have important implications for future strategies to augment immune control of HIV...
  83. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD8+ T(EMRA) cells in early infection are linked to control of HIV-1 viremia and predict the subsequent viral load set point
    John W Northfield
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, United Kingdom
    J Virol 81:5759-65. 2007
    ..of different CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets responding to HIV-1 in early infection with future control of HIV-1 viremia. Our results demonstrate that both a larger proportion and an absolute number of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) CCR7(-) ..
  84. pmc CD27 deficiency is associated with combined immunodeficiency and persistent symptomatic EBV viremia
    Joris M van Montfrans
    Departments of Pediatric Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children s Hospital University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:787-793.e6. 2012
    ..On the basis of its function and expression pattern, we considered CD27 a candidate gene in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia...
  85. ncbi Experimental infection of rhesus macaques with West Nile virus: level and duration of viremia and kinetics of the antibody response after infection
    Marion S Ratterree
    Division of Veterinary Medicine, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University, Covington, Louisiana, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:669-76. 2004
    ..We experimentally infected 5 rhesus macaques with WNV, to determine the level and duration of viremia, the kinetics of the humoral immune response, and the sensitivity of various assay systems for detecting WNV in ..
  86. ncbi Maximal predicted duration of viremia in bluetongue virus-infected cattle
    R S Singer
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana 61802, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 13:43-9. 2001
    ..Precise determination of the maximal duration of infectious viremia is essential to the development of an appropriate quarantine period prior to movement of animals from BTV-endemic ..
  87. pmc Viremia and nasal and rectal shedding of rotavirus in gnotobiotic pigs inoculated with Wa human rotavirus
    M S Azevedo
    Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
    J Virol 79:5428-36. 2005
    ..investigate if attenuated and virulent human rotavirus (HRV) strains cause upper respiratory tract infections or viremia in gnotobiotic pigs, we inoculated them with attenuated or virulent HRV intranasally, intravenously, or orally or ..
  88. ncbi A PCV2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against PCV2b or combined PCV2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent PCV2, PRRSV and PPV infection
    Tanja Opriessnig
    Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
    Vaccine 31:487-94. 2013
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the ability of PCV2a- and PCV2b-based vaccines to control PCV2b viremia in a challenge model that mimics the U.S. field situation...
  89. pmc JC virus antibody and viremia as predictors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals
    Raphael P Viscidi
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:711-5. 2011
    We examined whether prediagnostic John Cunningham virus (JCV) antibodies and viremia are predictors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in 83 PML cases and 240 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease-matched controls...
  90. pmc Vaccination against heterologous R5 clade C SHIV: prevention of infection and correlates of protection
    Samir K Lakhashe
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22010. 2011
    ..Upon high-dose SHIV rechallenge, all controls became infected, whereas some vaccinees remained aviremic. Peak viremia was inversely correlated with both cellular immunity (p<0.001) and cross-nAb titers (p<0.001)...
  91. ncbi Viraemia and clinical disease in Dorset Poll sheep following vaccination with live attenuated bluetongue virus vaccines serotypes 16 and 4
    Eva Veronesi
    Institute for Animal Health, Vector Borne Disease Programme, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, GU24 ONF, UK
    Vaccine 28:1397-403. 2010
    ..The implications of these results are discussed with reference to the current outbreaks of BTV occurring in northern Europe and in relation to the future development of vaccines for this virus...
  92. pmc Ex vivo analysis of human memory CD4 T cells specific for hepatitis C virus using MHC class II tetramers
    Cheryl L Day
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Partners AIDS Research Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:831-42. 2003
    ..In subjects who spontaneously resolved HCV viremia, but not in those with chronic progressive infection, HCV tetramer-labeled cells could be isolated by magnetic ..
  93. ncbi Toward a detailed characterization of feline immunodeficiency virus-specific T cell immune responses and mediated immune disorders
    R Paillot
    Discovery Research, MERIAL S A S, 254 rue Marcel Mérieux BP 7009, 69342 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 106:1-14. 2005
    ..Interestingly, this study confirmed the strong similarity between FIV and HIV pathogenesis...
  94. ncbi Modification of dengue virus strains by passage in primary dog kidney cells: preparation of candidate vaccines and immunization of monkeys
    Kenneth H Eckels
    Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:12-6. 2003
    ..Vaccine candidates were compared with unmodified parent viruses by measuring viremia and immune responses...
  95. pmc Cytomegalovirus viremia as a risk factor for mortality prior to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected gold miners in South Africa
    Katherine Fielding
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 6:e25571. 2011
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for increased mortality among HIV-infected individuals in the developing world...
  96. ncbi Dengue viremia in blood donors identified by RNA and detection of dengue transfusion transmission during the 2007 dengue outbreak in Puerto Rico
    Susan L Stramer
    Scientific Support Office, American Red Cross, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877, USA
    Transfusion 52:1657-66. 2012
    ..In 2007, a total of 10,508 suspected dengue cases were reported in Puerto Rico. Blood donations were tested for dengue virus (DENV) RNA and recipients of RNA-positive donations traced to assess transfusion transmission...
  97. ncbi Dengue virus infection and immune response in humanized RAG2(-/-)gamma(c)(-/-) (RAG-hu) mice
    Jes G Kuruvilla
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, 1619 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 1619, USA
    Virology 369:143-52. 2007
    ..To evaluate susceptibility to dengue viral infection, humanized mice were challenged with DEN-2 serotype. Viremia lasting up to 3 weeks was detected in infected mice with viral titers reaching up to 10(6.3) RNA copies/ml...
  98. pmc Host response dynamics following lethal infection of rhesus macaques with Zaire ebolavirus
    Hideki Ebihara
    Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Veterinary Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:S991-9. 2011
    ..These results highlight the pathological analogies between EHF and severe sepsis and not only contribute to our understanding of the pathogenic process, but will also help to establish novel postexposure treatment modalities...
  99. pmc Identification of unique hepatitis C virus quasispecies in the central nervous system and comparative analysis of internal translational efficiency of brain, liver, and serum variants
    Daniel M Forton
    Hepatology Section, Division of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 10th Floor, QEQM Building, St Mary s Hospital, South Wharf Road, London W2 1NY, United Kingdom
    J Virol 78:5170-83. 2004
    ....
  100. ncbi Role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia and HCV genotype in the immune recovery from highly active antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals
    Giorgio Antonucci
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, L Spallanzani, Rome, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 40:e101-9. 2005
    The roles of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia and HCV genotype in the immune response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are poorly understood...
  101. pmc Efficacy of a tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccine (DENVax) in Cynomolgus macaques
    Jorge E Osorio
    Inviragen, Inc, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:978-87. 2011
    ..Subcutaneous injection of the DENVax formulations was well-tolerated. Low levels of viremia of only one of the four vaccine viruses were detected yet virus neutralizing antibody titers were induced against ..

Research Grants76

  1. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..be observed in animals in which viral loads are reduced or undetectable compared to animals that have persistent viremia and progress to AIDS...
  2. Dengue Infected Endothelial Cells Enhance Immune Cell Activation
    Erich R Mackow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..i. Our findings suggest that DV infected ECs contribute to viremia, viral dissemination and the presentation of DV antigens on ECs that make them targets of antibodies and immune ..
  3. Mechanism(s) of Hepatocyte Transformation by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein
    Ourania M Andrisani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Impact: High level of viremia in chronic HBV patients is a risk factor for progression to HCC...
  4. Nanomedicine and NeuroAIDS
    Howard E Gendelman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Eliminating residual infection despite ART affected suppression of plasma viremia is our project goal...
  5. HIV and CD16+ monocytes as cellular reservoir &HIV/pulmonary hypertension
    Sharilyn Almodovar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..After seroconversion, and suppression of HIV viral loads by HAART, patients may undergo a phase of sub-clinical viremia (HIV residual replication)...
  6. VEE Virus Infection on the Mosquito Vector
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..rodent-borne, subtype ID VEEV strains periodically adapt for efficient equine replication and high titer viremia induction to generate epidemic strains and amplification cycles that spillover to infect humans...
  7. GB Virus C and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Risk and Prognosis
    Jack T Stapleton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Specific Aim 1, we will determine whether GBV-C viremia is associated with the risk of developing NHL by using an existing clinic-based case-control study of 2500 cases ..
  8. Mosquito Saliva in Dengue Virus Pathogenesis
    REBECCA R RICO-HESSE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in these mice, due to mosquito saliva components;the mice develop the typical "saddleback", prolonged viremia and rash that occurs in humans, before going on to develop severe disease, or DHF...
  9. Effects of Ethanol on Proteasome-HCV Core Protein Interactions
    NATALIA ALEKSANDR OSNA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    In HCV infection, about 70% of patients develop persistent viremia and chronic course of infection. Alcohol abuse strongly accelerates the progression of HCV infection...
  10. Optimized Adaptation of Simian-tropic R5 HIV Clade C to Pig-tailed Macaques
    RUTH MARGRIT RUPRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Unlike RMs, PMs lack a TRIM5 isoform, which may explain why PMs supported limited acute viremia of unmodified HIV-1 in earlier studies...
  11. In vivo phenotypic effects of naturally occuring sequence variations in WNV
    Robin M Moudy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that WN02 viruses are transmitted by Culex mosquitoes two to four days earlier and cause significantly higher viremia titers and mortality in house sparrows than NY99 viruses...
  12. Oral Vaccination for AIDS Prevention in Rhesus Macaques
    Anna Aldovini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..predominantly via the intramuscular route, do not protect from chronic infection but provide a reduction in the viremia set point and a delay of progression to AIDS...
  13. Blood brain barrier immune compromise in NeuroAIDS
    Georgette D Kanmogne; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..demonstrated that Fludarabine, a specific STAT1 inhibitor, reduced inflammation and viral infectivity, reduced viremia, gliosis and macrophage infiltration in the brain of HIV encephalitic mice...
  14. Persistent hepatitis C virus replication and T cell immunity in pregnancy
    Christopher M Walker; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by stable lifelong viremia and a substantially increased risk of serious progressive liver disease...
  15. Virologic and Serologic Outcomes of Persons with HIV and HBV co-infection on Mono
    JUDITH ANN ABERG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..genotype for markers of prognosis and perform resistance testing on those who never suppress or have rebound HBV viremia on therapy...
  16. Mechanisms of COPD Subphenotype Development
    MICHAEL BRADLEY DRUMMOND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the levels with presence of obstruction, HRCT quantification of airways remodeling/emphysema and serum levels of viremia. We will identify 20 individuals initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in the setting of clinical care and ..
  17. Pathogenesis of HCV in a Novel Mouse Model
    Lishan Su; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We also show that DKO-hu-HSC mice support HIV-1 infection with high viremia in the PB/plasma. Human CD4+ T cells are gradually depleted by HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner...
  18. Genotyping and Phenotyping the Hepatitis C Drug Target NS5A
    ROBERT T STRIKER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The VA currently cares for ~210,000 patients with chronic HCV viremia, the largest population of HCV patients in any one US health care system...
  19. Targeting_the_Source_of_Persistent_HIV_Viremia
    Sarah Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Current antiretroviral therapy is not curative and does not eradicate HIV-1 viremia. Rather, the virus persists and is merely suppressed during therapy. The source and dynamics of this persistent viremia is currently unknown...
  20. Immune Response to Polyomavirus Infection
    RAPHAEL PAUL VISCIDI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In national databases, 4.6 to 9.2% of U.S. kidney transplants are complicated by BKV-nephropathy or BK viremia that requires therapeutic intervention...
  21. MODULATION OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY BY DENGUE VIRUS
    Ana Fernandez-Sesma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Dengue virus (DenV) is a devastating human pathogen that causes disease and viremia in millions of people worldwide every year. But very little is known about the initiation of immunity by DenV...
  22. Immunosuppressive pathways in acute HIV infection
    Nina Bhardwaj; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Studies of the events that transpire from initial infection to onset of plasma viremia are essential to understanding why effective immune responses are not induced soon after virus transmission and ..
  23. A New Insight into HIV-1 Latency Through a Novel in Vitro System
    Fabio Romerio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that can re-emerge in the context of inadequate therapy or poor compliance, and is responsible for the rebound viremia observed following structured therapy interruption...
  24. Persistent hepatitis C virus replication and T cell immunity in pregnancy
    Christopher M Walker; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by stable life long viremia and a substantially increased risk of serious progressive liver disease. HCV persists in part because T cell immunity fails...
  25. PRIMARY HIV PREVENTION IN PREGNANT AND LACTATING UGANDAN WOMEN:A RANDOMIZED TRIAL
    Jaco Homsy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pregnancy or breastfeeding puts mothers and babies at high risk for vertical HIV transmission because of the peak viremia that follows incident HIV infection in the mother...
  26. Discovery and Assessment of Genetic Determinants of HCV and HIV Control
    Arthur Y Kim; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Through a variety of immune evasion mechanisms these pathogens establish long-term chronic viremia in their infected hosts, leading to immune destruction in the case of HIV-1 and liver disease and hepatocellular ..
  27. Development of a Novel, Chimeric Chikungunya Vaccine
    Richard Kinney; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..promising strains will then be tested extensively in mice for immunogenicity and efficacy in preventing disease, viremia and mortality...
  28. Determining the role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) in HIV-1 infection
    Devi SenGupta; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition to control of viremia, Dr...
  29. VZV in the enteric nervous system: pathogenesis and consequences
    Michael D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) Can a viremia establish latent VZV infection of enteric neurons? We will determine whether VZV-infected T lymphocytes release ..
  30. Chimeric Alphavirus Vaccines for Chikungunya
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..efficiently in Vero cells, and are highly attenuated yet rapidly immunogenic and efficacious in preventing viremia and disease...
  31. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies
    Stephen J Forman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..for PBSC donors for augmenting transfer of CMV immunity to the patient with the goal of limiting post-HCT viremia. The investigators in this grant will be supported by three cores...
  32. CAUSES OF AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH DEATH DURING LONG TERM HAART IN AFRICA
    Christopher J Hoffmann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This data will be used to model the independent contributions of specific exposures such as HIV viremia, CD4 count, missed visits, and self initiated treatment interruption on death...
  33. A phase I/II trial of silymarin for chronic liver diseases
    RAJENDER KUCHIKULLA REDDY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These effects could influence HCV by modulating fibrosis and/or viremia. SPECIFIC AIMS: (1) to determine the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single oral dose ..
  34. Identification and eradication of HIV tissue reservoirs in a relevant animal mode
    Binhua Ling; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using a novel combination of RT inhibitors and integrase inhibitors we will reduce viremia to <10 RNA copies/ml in plasma of treated NP...
  35. Innate Immunity and SIV Infection
    Aftab A Ansari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tissues (GALT) play a critical role during the acute infection period that delivers an imprint on the level of viremia, setting of the viral load set point and rate of disease progression both in HIV-1 infected humans and the SIV ..
  36. Advancing clemizole for hepatitis C: towards a pre-IND package
    Jeffrey S Glenn; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Finally, an overseas pilot study in 3 patients exhibited clearance of viremia following twice daily oral 100 mg clemizole for one month, without evidence of drug resistance...
  37. Role of NK Cells in GBV-B Infection: Modeling HCV Clearance and Control
    ROGER KEITH REEVES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..During the natural disease course of HCV infection, many individuals clear the virus after an acute viremia, while others develop chronic disease resulting in cirrhosis of the liver or hepatocellular carcinoma, but the ..
  38. A model for developmental IFN gene regulation in the virus-infected fetus
    Raymond R Rowland; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The pattern of gene expression will be correlated with viremia and PRRSV-specific antibody...
  39. Control of CMV infection post-HCT using attenuated MVA-based CMV subunit vaccine
    Don J Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..use of antiviral drugs including ganciclovir (GCV) and foscarnet (FOS) to control cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients...
  40. CMV Entry-Specific Neutralizing Antibody in Primary Infection in Transplantation
    Margaret L Green; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a recent work in CMV vaccines demonstrates an inverse correlation between antibody levels and duration of viremia after primary infection...
  41. Host Genetic Factors to Combat Lassa Hemorrhagic Fever
    Michael B Oldstone; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mutations in LARGE are found in LASV survivors. Since high viremia (>9 logs of plaque forming units [PFU/ml of sera]) is routinely associated with signs of severe LASV infection ..
  42. Vaccination against mucosal HIV clade C transmission
    RUTH MARGRIT RUPRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The 4x nmAb combination prevented infection in 3 out of 4 monkey infants, whereas all controls had high peak viremia after oral SHIVenvC challenge...
  43. Primate Model Towards HIV Eradication Strategies
    RAYMOND FELIX SCHINAZI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Thus, this project aims to determine whether there is a limitation to suppression of residual viremia with antiviral drug combinations and whether eradication will also require "induction" strategies for ..
  44. HHV-6 and CNS disease following stem cell transplant
    Danielle Zerr; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..While antiviral therapy may abrogate viremia and detectable levels of virus in CSF, the toxicity of the drugs of choice, ganciclovir and foscamet, are high ..
  45. Studies of Natural SIV Infection of Sooty Mangabeys
    Guido Silvestri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Understanding the reasons why SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain healthy despite high viremia is a key unanswered question in contemporary AIDS research, with important ramifications in terms of HIV ..
  46. Using adenoviral vectors to express broadly neutralizing anti-gp160 antibodies
    Shan Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..New developments in HAART have given rise to increasing numbers of patients with undetectable viremia, higher CD4+ T-cell counts, better quality of life, and overall improved survival...
  47. Mechanisms and optimization of epitope presentation by HIV-infectable cell subset
    Sylvie Le Gall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project summary/abstract HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) play a critical role in containing HIV viremia in acute infection or in situation of spontaneous control, rendering them attractive candidates for vaccine strategies...
  48. Selection of RNA aptamers against Ebola virus GP2
    WENDY JEAN MAURY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The development of EBOV GP2 aptamers should prove highly successful in transiently reducing viremia in the infected individual...
  49. Sigma virus in Drosophila: a model system for the evolution of virulence
    Marta L Wayne; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Next, we manipulate viremia via artificial selection in D. melanogaster, contrasting outcomes under biparental vs...
  50. Control and manipulation of HIV-specific CD8 T-cell effector responses
    LAURA MARY MCLANE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that specifically target cytolytic CD8+ T-cell populations since these cells are important for control of viremia during acute and chronic HIV infection...
  51. Novel Vaccine Technology for Chikungunya
    Scott C Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in nonendemic locations, the vaccine must also be incapable of infecting mosquito vectors in the event that viremia occurs in a vaccinee with impaired host defense...
  52. Impact of Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant on HIV-1 Reservoir Dynamics
    TIMOTHY JENSEN HENRICH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for hematologic malignancy on peripheral blood and bone marrow reservoir size, 2) study the changes in residual viremia, lymphocyte activation, and HIV-specific immune responses before and after chemotherapy, and, 3) investigate the ..
  53. Lethal H5N1 Virus Infection and Respiratory Disorders
    Fadi Xu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..strain) but not HK486 virus (a nonlethal one) led to remarkable dHVR and dHCVR 2-3 days post-infection without viremia and killed the mice 8 days post-infection...
  54. Genetic viral and host adaptations to breach species barriers of HCV
    Alexander Ploss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We demonstrate that blunting antiviral immunity in mice expressing human CD81 and OCLN results in low level, viremia over several weeks...
  55. Mechanisms of T cell dysfunction in Hepatitis C virus persistence
    HENRY THOMAS RADZIEWICZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We hypothesize that an inability to clear HCV viremia in the majority of infected patients is due to overexpression of the PD-1/PD-L1 co-inhibitory system...
  56. HIV Tat &Cocaine-Mediated induction of Astrogliosis: Role of ER Stress in HAND
    Shilpa J Buch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is well-recognized that despite near complete suppression of viremia in the face of ART, early viral proteins such as HIV Tat are found lurking in tissue sites, thereby contributing ..
  57. Cloning, characterization and in vivo testing of mucosally transmitted SIV
    George M Shaw; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathways of virus diversification and adaptation between transmission and the establishment of set-point viremia as a prelude to homologous and heterologous vaccine-challenge studies...
  58. Role of Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue in HIV Persistence
    Joseph K Wong; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that large numbers of infected cells are retained in GALT even after 10 years of successful suppression of viremia. Our preliminary data in patients on suppressive ART confirm a reservoir of infected cells in GALT that may ..
  59. Mechanism of alphavirus packaging: designing of pseudoinfectious viruses
    ILYA V FROLOV; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..or exclusively (strategy 2) in the form of non-infectious, genome-free virus-like particles and, thus, develop no viremia in vivo...
  60. Oxidized HDL in the intersection of HIV, immune activation and atherosclerosis
    Theodoros Kelesidis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..affects the life cycle of HIV-1 and leads to reduced antiviral responses of cytotoxic CD8 T cells and increased viremia that drives immune activation and inflammation...
  61. Novel mechanisms of HIV resistance to RTIs
    NICOLAS P SLUIS-CREMER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..therapy (oftentimes before recognized polymerase domain mutations), and is associated with a greater increase in viremia than any of the recognized thymidine analog mutations that confer AZT resistance...
  62. Rapid FISH Detection of EBV-infected Cells
    RAYMOND PRESTON STOWE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have new data which shows that aged subjects have plasma viremia (EBV DNA)...
  63. HOST COMPETENCE FACTORS AFFECT ARBOVIRUS TRANSMISSION
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Vertebrate host competence factors of survival, viremia and antibody production impact the force of WEE and SLE transmission...
  64. EXPERIMENTAL MODELS AND CLINICAL VIROLOGY OF HEPATITIS C
    Nelson Fausto; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..HCV infection is characterized by persistent viremia and often progressive liver disease...
  65. Nipah virus and Hendra virus Peptide Therapeutics
    Christopher Broder; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These viruses cause viremia and systemic infections in the host, and the incubation period in animals and humans is relatively long (several ..
  66. ROLE OF CD4+ TH1 LYMPHOCYTES IN PROTECTION AGAINST EIAV
    Travis McGuire; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The decrease of initial plasma viremia to undetectable levels in infected horses is associated with the appearance of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL),..
  67. Dynamics of SHIV clade C and S mansoni coinfection
    Ruth Ruprecht; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Pilot studies show that S. mansoni co-infection intensifies SHIV clade C viremia. We therefore postulate that chronic helminth infection will exacerbate SHIV clade C-induced pathology...
  68. PRIMARY VZV INFECTION/IMMUNITY
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..guinea pig model of VZV because of its value for the analysis of VZV immunity and its potential for studies using viremia as a biological marker in primary VZV infection...
  69. EIAV vector targeting dendritic cells to induce CTL
    ROBERT MEALEY; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This conclusion is based on the temporal association between viremia control in lentiviral infections and the appearance of CTL, and on other correlations between CTL and low HIV-1 ..
  70. Natural History and Pathogenesis of WNV in Viremic Dono*
    Michael Busch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..By the time symptoms appear, viremia has typically cleared and immune responses evolved, making it difficult to accurately characterize the clinical ..
  71. Mechanisms for SIV evasion of vaccine immunity: Role of FasL-mediated cell death
    CHARLES PAUZA; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..lymphocytes that are mounting anti-viral immune responses may be important in the failure to contain the initial viremia, and may ead to the establishment of persistent infection with chronic disease...
  72. MACROPHAGE ANTIGEN PROCESSING OF HIV SUBTYPES
    Kenneth Knox; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..from applicant?s abstract) CD8+, MHC-1 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are responsible for controlling viremia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
  73. HCV PATHOGENESIS IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
    David Gretch; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Preliminary studies have indicated that infection is typically manifested by persistence of high titered viremia suggesting high levels of ongoing viral replication for prolonged periods of time in these patients...
  74. Impact of GBV-C infection on perinatal HIV transmission
    Robert Remis; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Eight of 10 studies to date found that GBV-C viremia reduced HIV-related mortality or improved therapeutic response; these results are unlikely artefactual...
  75. ADOPTIVE TRANSFER OF CD8+ CTLS TO CONTROL EIAV
    ROBERT MEALEY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..control of EIAV, a lentivirus of horses which cause a persistent infection characterized by recurrent episodes of viremia with concurrent fever, thrombocytopenia, and anemia...
  76. Viral/Immune parameters of Dengue and WNV in donors: blood safety implications
    MICHAEL PAUL BUSCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in endemic countries, two clusters of TT-DENV were recently reported, and we have documented high rates of viremia in blood donors in Central/South America and Puerto Rico (PR), a US territory whose blood supply is run by the ..