caliciviridae infections

Summary

Summary: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review
    Joana Abrantes
    CIBIO UP, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485 661 Vairão, Portugal
    Vet Res 43:12. 2012
  2. pmc Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis
    Manish M Patel
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1224-31. 2008
  3. ncbi Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in U.S. children
    Daniel C Payne
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 368:1121-30. 2013
  4. ncbi Clinical and molecular epidemiology of norovirus infection in childhood diarrhea in China
    Mei Zeng
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Research Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    J Med Virol 84:145-51. 2012
  5. pmc Norovirus vaccine against experimental human Norwalk Virus illness
    Robert L Atmar
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:2178-87. 2011
  6. pmc Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002705. 2012
  7. pmc Severe outcomes are associated with genogroup 2 genotype 4 norovirus outbreaks: a systematic literature review
    Rishi Desai
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:189-93. 2012
  8. pmc Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR
    Tsutomu Kageyama
    Section of Infectious Disease, R and D Center, BML, Kawagoe, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1548-57. 2003
  9. ncbi Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007
    J Joukje Siebenga
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 200:802-12. 2009
  10. ncbi Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Med 9:548-53. 2003

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications268 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review
    Joana Abrantes
    CIBIO UP, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485 661 Vairão, Portugal
    Vet Res 43:12. 2012
    ..This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus...
  2. pmc Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis
    Manish M Patel
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1224-31. 2008
    ....
  3. ncbi Norovirus and medically attended gastroenteritis in U.S. children
    Daniel C Payne
    Epidemiology Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    N Engl J Med 368:1121-30. 2013
    ..Cases of rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis have declined since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines, but the burden of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis in children remains to be assessed...
  4. ncbi Clinical and molecular epidemiology of norovirus infection in childhood diarrhea in China
    Mei Zeng
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Research Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China
    J Med Virol 84:145-51. 2012
    ..The results show that NoV GII.4 2006b was the predominant strain circulating in China between 2008 and 2009...
  5. pmc Norovirus vaccine against experimental human Norwalk Virus illness
    Robert L Atmar
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    N Engl J Med 365:2178-87. 2011
    ..Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. No vaccine is available to prevent norovirus illness or infection...
  6. pmc Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002705. 2012
    ..4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing epitopes and consequently, antibody-driven receptor switching; thus, protective herd immunity is a driving force in norovirus molecular evolution...
  7. pmc Severe outcomes are associated with genogroup 2 genotype 4 norovirus outbreaks: a systematic literature review
    Rishi Desai
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:189-93. 2012
    ..This report reviews published NoV outbreak reports to quantify hospitalization and mortality rates and assess their relationship with outbreak setting, transmission route, and strain...
  8. pmc Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR
    Tsutomu Kageyama
    Section of Infectious Disease, R and D Center, BML, Kawagoe, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1548-57. 2003
    ..Our new assay is free from carryover DNA contamination and detects low copy numbers of NLV RNA. It can be used as a routine assay for diagnosis as well as for elucidation of the epidemiology of NLV infections...
  9. ncbi Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007
    J Joukje Siebenga
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 200:802-12. 2009
    ..4. We studied the global patterns of GII.4 epidemiology in relation to its genetic diversity...
  10. ncbi Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Med 9:548-53. 2003
    ..Of the susceptible population that encoded a functional FUT2 gene, a portion was resistant to infection, suggesting that a memory immune response or some other unidentified factor also affords protection from Norwalk virus infection...
  11. pmc Novel surveillance network for norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks, United States
    Everardo Vega
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1389-95. 2011
    ..4 New Orleans, which first emerged in October 2009. Analysis of the complete capsid and P2 region sequences confirmed that GII.4 New Orleans is distinct from previous GII.4 variants, including GII.4 Minerva (2006b)...
  12. pmc Norovirus-host interaction: multi-selections by human histo-blood group antigens
    Ming Tan
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Trends Microbiol 19:382-8. 2011
    ..A model of this multi-selection of NoVs by HBGAs is proposed...
  13. ncbi Environmental transmission of norovirus gastroenteritis
    Ben Lopman
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States
    Curr Opin Virol 2:96-102. 2012
    ..The relative importance of environmental transmission of virus is yet to be fully quantified but is likely to be substantial and is an important feature that complicates control...
  14. ncbi The roles of Clostridium difficile and norovirus among gastroenteritis-associated deaths in the United States, 1999-2007
    Aron J Hall
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:216-23. 2012
    ..We aimed to describe trends in gastroenteritis deaths across all ages in the United States and specifically estimate the contributions of Clostridium difficile and norovirus...
  15. ncbi Genogroup-specific PCR primers for detection of Norwalk-like viruses
    Shigeyuki Kojima
    Section of Infectious Disease, R and D Center, BML, 1361 1, Matoba, Kawagoe, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
    J Virol Methods 100:107-14. 2002
    ..Therefore, new primer sets are extremely useful for the amplification and rapid diagnosis of nonbacterial gastroenteritis due to NLV as well as for epidemiological studies...
  16. pmc Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II-genotype 4 noroviruses in the United States between 1994 and 2006
    Du Ping Zheng
    Gastroenteritis and Respiratory Viruses Laboratory Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:168-77. 2010
    ..We propose that GII.4 subclusters be defined as having >5% sequence variation between strains. Our data confirm other studies on the rapid emergence and displacement of highly virulent GII.4 strains...
  17. ncbi STAT1-dependent innate immunity to a Norwalk-like virus
    Stephanie M Karst
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 299:1575-8. 2003
    ..The identification of host molecules essential for murine norovirus resistance may provide targets for prevention or control of an important human disease...
  18. pmc Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens: demonstration of a wide spectrum of strain specificities and classification of two major binding groups among multiple binding patterns
    Pengwei Huang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    J Virol 79:6714-22. 2005
    ..The high polymorphism of the human HBGA system, the involvement of multiple epitopes, and the typical protein/carbohydrate interaction between norovirus VLPs and HBGAs provide an explanation for the virus-ligand binding diversities...
  19. pmc Norovirus regulation of the innate immune response and apoptosis occurs via the product of the alternative open reading frame 4
    Nora McFadden
    Section of Virology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002413. 2011
    ..The immune regulatory function of the MNV VF1 protein provide important perspectives for future research into norovirus biology and pathogenesis...
  20. ncbi Emergence of the GII4/2006b variant and recombinant noroviruses in China
    Miao Jin
    National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China
    J Med Virol 80:1997-2004. 2008
    ..This study suggests that continual surveillance focusing on strain variation and dynamic change is important for understanding the epidemiology and development of a strategy for disease control and prevention...
  21. ncbi Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis transmitted by person-to-person contact--United States, 2009-2010
    Mary E Wikswo
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, MS A 34, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    MMWR Surveill Summ 61:1-12. 2012
    ....
  22. ncbi Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus evolution
    Rowena A Bull
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    Trends Microbiol 19:233-40. 2011
    ..These include host receptor recognition, sequence space, duration of herd immunity, and replication kinetics. In this review we discuss recent advancements in our understanding of these four mechanisms in relation to GII.4 evolution...
  23. pmc Genetic diversity and histo-blood group antigen interactions of rhesus enteric caliciviruses
    Tibor Farkas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Virol 84:8617-25. 2010
    ....
  24. ncbi Epidemiologic and molecular trends of "Norwalk-like viruses" associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the United States
    Rebecca L Fankhauser
    Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1-7. 2002
    ..Strain diversity was great: one potential new sequence cluster was implicated in multiple outbreaks, and strains belonging to a tentative new genogroup were identified...
  25. ncbi Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses
    Erwin Duizer
    National Institutes for Public Health and the Environment, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Gen Virol 85:79-87. 2004
    ..Thus, attempts to develop a method for the cultivation of NoV were unsuccessful...
  26. ncbi Impact of an emergent norovirus variant in 2009 on norovirus outbreak activity in the United States
    Catherine Yen
    Epidemic Intelligence Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:568-71. 2011
    ..We collected norovirus outbreak data from 30 states to assess whether this new strain was associated with increased acute gastroenteritis activity. No increase in norovirus outbreaks was observed during the 2009-2010 winter...
  27. pmc Coexistence of multiple genotypes, including newly identified genotypes, in outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to Norovirus in Japan
    Tsutomu Kageyama
    Department of Clinical Genomics, BML, Inc, Matoba 1361 1, Kawagoe, Saitama 350 1101, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 42:2988-95. 2004
    ..On the other hand, single genotypes were observed mostly in outbreaks that originated in semiclosed communities. Thus, the number of NV genotypes in each outbreak depended on the route of transmission...
  28. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of GII.4 noroviruses over a 34-year period
    Karin Bok
    Norovirus Gastroenteritis Unit, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 83:11890-901. 2009
    ..Our analysis of archival GII.4 norovirus strains suggests that this genotype has been circulating for more than three decades and provides new ancestral strain sequences for the analysis of GII.4 evolution...
  29. ncbi Norovirus recombination
    Rowena A Bull
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
    J Gen Virol 88:3347-59. 2007
    ..A total of 20 NoV recombinant types were identified in circulation worldwide. The recombination point is the ORF1/2 overlap in all isolates except one, which demonstrated a double recombination event within the polymerase region...
  30. pmc Incidence of acute gastroenteritis and role of norovirus, Georgia, USA, 2004-2005
    Aron J Hall
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1381-8. 2011
    ..This study demonstrates that noroviruses are leading causes of AGE among persons seeking medical care...
  31. ncbi Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus among hospitalized children in Xi'an, China
    Shuwan Zhang
    The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi an Jiaotong University, Xi an, China
    J Med Virol 83:1476-84. 2011
    ....
  32. pmc Acute gastroenteritis surveillance through the National Outbreak Reporting System, United States
    Aron J Hall
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 19:1305-9. 2013
    ..Data from the first 2 years of surveillance highlight the predominant role of norovirus. The pathogen-specific transmission pathways and exposure settings identified can help inform prevention efforts. ..
  33. ncbi Indications for worldwide increased norovirus activity associated with emergence of a new variant of genotype II.4, late 2012
    J van Beek
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    Euro Surveill 18:8-9. 2013
    ..4 variant, termed Sydney 2012.Healthcare institutions are advised to be prepared fora severe norovirus season...
  34. pmc Novel norovirus recombinants and of GII.4 sub-lineages associated with outbreaks between 2006 and 2010 in Belgium
    Elisabeth Mathijs
    Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Virology and Animal Viral Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Virol J 8:310. 2011
    ....
  35. pmc Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain
    Kevin P Dalton
    Universidad de Oviedo Instituto Universitario de Biotecnología de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:2009-12. 2012
    ..Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen...
  36. pmc Epidemiology of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, United States, 2001-2008
    Aron J Hall
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1566-73. 2012
    ..Interventions to reduce the frequency of foodborne norovirus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production of produce and shellfish...
  37. pmc Phylodynamic reconstruction reveals norovirus GII.4 epidemic expansions and their molecular determinants
    J Joukje Siebenga
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000884. 2010
    ..The observed pattern of continually emerging novel variants of GII.4, causing elevated numbers of infections, is therefore a cause for concern...
  38. pmc Histo-blood group antigens act as attachment factors of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus infection in a virus strain-dependent manner
    Kristina Nyström
    INSERM, U892, Universite de Nantes, Nantes, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002188. 2011
    ..HBGAs thus act as attachment factors facilitating infection, while their polymorphism of expression could contribute to generate genetic resistance to RHDV at the population level...
  39. pmc Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain virus challenge
    Lisa Lindesmith
    School of Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Virol 79:2900-9. 2005
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report characterizing T-cell and cytokine responses following live norovirus challenge...
  40. ncbi A new recombinant Orf virus (ORFV, Parapoxvirus) protects rabbits against lethal infection with rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)
    Joerg Rohde
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Immunology, Paul Ehrlich Str 28, D 72074 Tuebingen, FRG
    Vaccine 29:9256-64. 2011
    ..Collectively, this work adds another example of the successful use of the ORFV vector system for the generation of a recombinant vaccine, and demonstrates its potential as an alternative vaccine to protect rabbits against RHDV infection...
  41. pmc The potential economic value of a human norovirus vaccine for the United States
    Sarah M Bartsch
    Public Health Computational and Operations Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
    Vaccine 30:7097-104. 2012
    ..0 billion, but could save ≤$2.1 billion (48 month duration). Human norovirus vaccination can offer economic value while averting clinical outcomes, depending on price, efficacy, and protection duration...
  42. ncbi Viral load and genotypes of noroviruses in symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Southeastern Brazil
    Débora Maria Pires Gonçalves Barreira
    Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Health Science Center, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Av Marechal Campos 1468, 29043 900 Maruipe, Vitoria, ES, Brazil
    J Clin Virol 47:60-4. 2010
    ..Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major etiological agent of sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide...
  43. pmc Chronic shedders as reservoir for nosocomial transmission of norovirus
    Faizel H A Sukhrie
    Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Screening, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 48:4303-5. 2010
    ..Here, we demonstrate the involvement of three chronic shedders in hospital outbreaks. Combined epidemiological and molecular evidence suggests that in one case, NoV transmission occurred at least 17 days after the first diagnosis...
  44. pmc Effects and clinical significance of GII.4 Sydney norovirus, United States, 2012-2013
    Eyal Leshem
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 19:1231-8. 2013
    ..GII.4 Sydney has become the predominant US NoV outbreak strain during the 2012-13 season, but its emergence did not cause outbreak activity to substantially increase from that of previous seasons. ..
  45. ncbi Predicting susceptibility to norovirus GII.4 by use of a challenge model involving humans
    Robert Frenck
    Division Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, OH, USA
    J Infect Dis 206:1386-93. 2012
    ..We performed the first GII.4 challenge study involving humans and prospectively evaluated the relationship between HBGAs and norovirus infection and associated illness...
  46. pmc The epidemiology of published norovirus outbreaks: a review of risk factors associated with attack rate and genogroup
    J E Matthews
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 140:1161-72. 2012
    ..These results identify important trends for epidemic NoV detection, prevention, and control...
  47. ncbi Genetic analysis of norovirus in children affected with acute gastroenteritis in Beijing, 2004-2007
    Li Guo
    National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052, China
    J Clin Virol 44:94-8. 2009
    ..Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children, but prevalence and circulation of NoVs in China have not been well characterized...
  48. ncbi Noroviruses as a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children in Finland, 2009-2010
    Leena Puustinen
    Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    Scand J Infect Dis 43:804-8. 2011
    ..Norovirus GII.4 continues to be the dominant genotype...
  49. pmc Murine noroviruses bind glycolipid and glycoprotein attachment receptors in a strain-dependent manner
    Stefan Taube
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    J Virol 86:5584-93. 2012
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that MNV strains evolved multiple strategies to bind different glycan receptors on the surface of murine macrophages and that glycan binding contributes to tissue tropism in vivo...
  50. pmc Murine norovirus: a model system to study norovirus biology and pathogenesis
    Christiane E Wobus
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Box 8118, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:5104-12. 2006
  51. ncbi Susceptibility to winter vomiting disease: a sweet matter
    Gustaf E Rydell
    Dept of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Rev Med Virol 21:370-82. 2011
    ..This review discusses the role of host genetics and carbohydrate structures in susceptibility to winter vomiting disease...
  52. ncbi Genomic characterization of swine caliciviruses representing a new genus of Caliciviridae
    Yvan L'homme
    St Hyacinthe Laboratory, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 3400 Blvd Casavant West, St Hyacinthe, QC J2S 8E3, Canada
    Virus Genes 39:66-75. 2009
    ..Based on the genomic analyses presented, the St-Valérien-like viruses are members of a new genus of Caliciviridae for which we propose the name Valovirus...
  53. ncbi Detection of genogroup IV noroviruses in environmental and clinical samples and partial sequencing through rapid amplification of cDNA ends
    G La Rosa
    Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy
    Arch Virol 153:2077-83. 2008
    ....
  54. pmc Prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus infections and coinfections among hospitalized children in northern France
    Adissa Tran
    Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Reims, Service de Microbiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, avenue du Général Koenig, 51092 Reims Cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1943-6. 2010
    ....
  55. pmc Rapid evolution of pandemic noroviruses of the GII.4 lineage
    Rowena A Bull
    School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000831. 2010
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that the ability of the virus to generate genetic diversity is vital for viral fitness...
  56. pmc Murine noroviruses comprising a single genogroup exhibit biological diversity despite limited sequence divergence
    Larissa B Thackray
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Box 8118, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 81:10460-73. 2007
    ..The isolation and characterization of multiple MNV strains illustrate how genetic analysis may underestimate the biological diversity of noroviruses and provide a molecular map for future studies of MNV biology...
  57. ncbi Identification of a distinct common strain of "Norwalk-like viruses" having a global distribution
    J S Noel
    Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 179:1334-44. 1999
    ....
  58. pmc A pandemic strain of calicivirus threatens rabbit industries in the Americas
    Michael T McIntosh
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, P, O, Box 848, Greenport, NY 11944, USA
    Virol J 4:96. 2007
    ..Given its rapid spread, pathogenic nature, and potential to further evolve, possibly broadening its host range to include other genera native to the Americas, RHDVa should be regarded as a threat...
  59. ncbi Viral shape-shifting: norovirus evasion of the human immune system
    Eric F Donaldson
    University of North Carolina, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:231-41. 2010
    ..In this Review, we discuss the molecular and structural mechanisms that facilitate the persistence of noroviruses in human populations...
  60. ncbi Design and evaluation of a primer pair that detects both Norwalk- and Sapporo-like caliciviruses by RT-PCR
    X Jiang
    Center for Pediatric Research, Children s Hospital of the King s Daughters, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk 23510 1001, USA
    J Virol Methods 83:145-54. 1999
    ..This primer pair is useful for broad detection of HuCVs for clinical and epidemiologic studies as well as for environmental monitoring...
  61. pmc Characterization of a rhesus monkey calicivirus representing a new genus of Caliciviridae
    Tibor Farkas
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 82:5408-16. 2008
    ..Although the pathogenicity of TV in rhesus macaques remains to be elucidated, the likelihood of TV causing intestinal infection and the availability of a tissue culture system make this virus a valuable surrogate for human CVs...
  62. ncbi Norwalk virus: how infectious is it?
    Peter F M Teunis
    RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
    J Med Virol 80:1468-76. 2008
    ..Norwalk virus is a valuable model system to study virulence because genetic factors are known for both complete and partial protection; the latter can be quantitatively described as heterogeneity in dose response models...
  63. pmc Binding of Norwalk virus-like particles to ABH histo-blood group antigens is blocked by antisera from infected human volunteers or experimentally vaccinated mice
    Patrick R Harrington
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7435, USA
    J Virol 76:12335-43. 2002
    ....
  64. pmc Detection and molecular characterization of a canine norovirus
    Vito Martella
    University of Bari, Bari, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1306-8. 2008
    ..We identified a novel calicivirus in a pup with enteritis. The isolate was related genetically (90.1% aa identity in the capsid protein) to a lion norovirus strain...
  65. pmc Norovirus GII.4 strain antigenic variation
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Virol 85:231-42. 2011
    ..As with influenza virus, HIV, and hepatitis C virus, norovirus antigenic variation will significantly influence the design of efficacious vaccines and immunotherapeutics against these important human pathogens...
  66. pmc Novel norovirus in dogs with diarrhea
    Joao Rodrigo Mesquita
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:980-2. 2010
    ..We found canine norovirus in 40% and 9% of dogs with and without diarrhea, respectively. The virus was genetically unrelated to other noroviruses and constitutes a tentative new genogroup...
  67. pmc Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden
    Maria Lysén
    Department of Virology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2411-8. 2009
    ..The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated...
  68. pmc Cross-reactivity among several recombinant calicivirus virus-like particles (VLPs) with monoclonal antibodies obtained from mice immunized orally with one type of VLP
    Noritoshi Kitamoto
    School of Humanities for Environmental Policy and Technology, Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo 670 0092, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2459-65. 2002
    ..These strain-, genogroup-, and genus-reactive MAbs will be useful tools for further study of the antigenic and structural topography of the HuCV virion and for diagnostic assays for HuCVs...
  69. pmc Host, weather and virological factors drive norovirus epidemiology: time-series analysis of laboratory surveillance data in England and Wales
    Ben Lopman
    Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Department, Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 4:e6671. 2009
    ..Viral populations are dynamic and evolve under positive selection pressure...
  70. pmc The dynamics of norovirus outbreak epidemics: recent insights
    John A Marshall
    Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 10 Wreckyn Street, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:1141-9. 2011
    ....
  71. ncbi Zoonotic aspects of infections with noroviruses and sapoviruses
    Barbara Regina Bank-Wolf
    Institut fur Virologie, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Justus Liebig Universitat Giessen, Frankfurter Str 107, 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Vet Microbiol 140:204-12. 2010
    ..Accordingly the possible role of noro- and sapoviruses as zoonotic agents needs to be further investigated...
  72. pmc Detection of norovirus-, sapovirus- and rhesus enteric calicivirus-specific antibodies in captive juvenile macaques
    Tibor Farkas
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
    J Gen Virol 91:734-8. 2010
    ..The high prevalence of human and rhesus CV-specific serum antibodies suggests the frequent exposure of colony macaques to enteric CVs including the possibility of CV transmission between human and non-human primate hosts...
  73. ncbi Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: field epidemiology and the management of wild rabbit populations
    B D Cooke
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, Sustainable Ecosystems, G P O Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Rev Sci Tech 21:347-58. 2002
    ..Altering the epidemiology of RHD in this manner would assist the management of wild rabbit populations either for conservation or pest control purposes...
  74. ncbi Co-circulation of widely disparate strains of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus could explain localised epidemicity in the United Kingdom
    N L Forrester
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK
    Virology 393:42-8. 2009
    ....
  75. pmc Norovirus outbreaks from drinking water
    Leena Maunula
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, HUCH Laboratory Diagnostics, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1716-21. 2005
    ..In all but 1 instance, the amplicon sequence was identical to that recovered from the patients. The ubiquity of waterborne norovirus outbreaks calls for measures to monitor water for viruses...
  76. ncbi Identification and characterization of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus genetic variants isolated in Korea
    Jae Ku Oem
    National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Disease Diagnostic Center Division, Anayang, Republic of Korea
    J Vet Med Sci 71:1519-23. 2009
    ..Taken together, the recent RHDVa strains have gradually replaced the original RHDV and are the predominant strains in Korea...
  77. ncbi Recombinant VP60 in the form of virion-like particles as a potential vaccine against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
    Beata Gromadzka
    Department of Molecular Virology, Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 53:371-6. 2006
    ..After immunization the recombinant particles induced RHDV-specific antibodies in rabbits and guinea pigs. Rabbits immunized with the VLPs were fully protected against challenge with a virulent RHDV...
  78. ncbi Molecular and antigenic characterization of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus isolated in Cuba indicates a distinct antigenic subtype
    O Farnos
    Animal Biotechnology Division, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba
    Arch Virol 152:1215-21. 2007
    ..This is the second report on the molecular characterization of RHDVa circulating in the American region...
  79. ncbi Epidemiological, clinical, and molecular features of norovirus infections in western India
    Preeti Chhabra
    Rotavirus Department, National Institute of Virology, Pune, India
    J Med Virol 81:922-32. 2009
    ..b/GII.3 type in 2006-2007. This is the first report that highlights the norovirus epidemiology and strain diversity demonstrating possible circulation of new variants in patients with acute gastroenteritis from western India...
  80. pmc Identification of cross-reactive norovirus CD4+ T cell epitopes
    Anna D LoBue
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7435, USA
    J Virol 84:8530-8. 2010
    ....
  81. ncbi Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of two types of wild rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses characterized the structural features of Lagovirus
    Zhongjun Hu
    National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Protein Cell 1:48-58. 2010
    ..Collectively, our cryo-electron microscopic studies of RHDV provide close insight into the structure of Lagovirus, which is important for functional analysis and better vaccine development in the future...
  82. ncbi Prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic norovirus infection in the community in England
    G Phillips
    Department of Gastrointestinal, Emerging and Zoonotic Infections, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, UK
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1454-8. 2010
    ..More work is needed to understand whether asymptomatic infections are important for norovirus transmission leading to sporadic illness and outbreaks...
  83. ncbi Comparative efficacy of seven hand sanitizers against murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, and GII.4 norovirus
    Geun woo Park
    Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Food Prot 73:2232-8. 2010
    ..2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers...
  84. ncbi Single dose adenovirus vectored vaccine induces a potent and long-lasting immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus after parenteral or mucosal administration
    Erlinda Fernández
    Animal Biotechnology Division, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, PO Box 6162, CP 10600, Havana, Cuba
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 142:179-88. 2011
    ..IgA specific antibodies were only found in saliva of rabbits immunized by intranasal instillation. The feasibility of VP60 production and vaccination of rabbits with replication-defective adenoviral vectors was demonstrated...
  85. pmc Atypical norovirus epidemic in Hong Kong during summer of 2006 caused by a new genogroup II/4 variant
    Eric C M Ho
    Virology Division, Public Health Laboratory Centre, 382 Nam Cheong Street, Shek Kip Mei, Kowloon, Hong Kong
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2205-11. 2007
    ....
  86. pmc Norovirus in captive lion cub (Panthera leo)
    Vito Martella
    University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1071-3. 2007
    ..We report the identification of a novel enteric calicivirus, genetically related to human noroviruses of genogroup IV, in a lion cub that died of severe hemorrhagic enteritis...
  87. ncbi Development of a low-cost, insect larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccine against RHDV
    D M Pérez-Filgueira
    Departamento de Biotecnologia, INIA Autovía A6 Km 7 5, Madrid, Spain
    Virology 364:422-30. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the larva expression system may provide a broad-based strategy for production of recombinant subunit antigens (insectigens) for human or animal medicines, especially when production costs restrain their use...
  88. pmc Epidemiology and genotype analysis of emerging sapovirus-associated infections across Europe
    Sanela Svraka
    Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    J Clin Microbiol 48:2191-8. 2010
    ..The incidence of sapovirus infections in these countries suggests that a substantial part of Europe is affected by this virus...
  89. pmc Heterotypic humoral and cellular immune responses following Norwalk virus infection
    Lisa C Lindesmith
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Virol 84:1800-15. 2010
    ..1-1968-challenged individuals and highlight a potential complication in the design of efficacious norovirus vaccines...
  90. pmc Novel calicivirus identified in rabbits, Michigan, USA
    Ingrid L Bergin
    University of Michigan, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, 1150 W Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1955-62. 2009
    ..Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions...
  91. pmc Endocytosis of murine norovirus 1 into murine macrophages is dependent on dynamin II and cholesterol
    Jeffrey W Perry
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 5622 Medical Sciences Bldg II, 1150 West Medical Center Dr, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 5620, USA
    J Virol 84:6163-76. 2010
    ..Therefore, we conclude that the productive route of MNV-1 entry into murine macrophages is rapid and requires host cholesterol and dynamin II...
  92. pmc Outbreak of canine norovirus infection in young dogs
    Vasileios Ntafis
    Department of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals, Faculty of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
    J Clin Microbiol 48:2605-8. 2010
    ..2/Bari/170/07-4/ITA (94.7% nucleotide identity). The findings demonstrate that canine NoV circulates in dogs in Greece and that it can spread easily across a group of animals...
  93. ncbi Norovirus-host interaction: implications for disease control and prevention
    Ming Tan
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 9:1-22. 2007
    ..This review summarises and discusses recent advances and highlights implications for future studies in the control and prevention of NV gastroenteritis...
  94. ncbi Genetic diversity and recombination of murine noroviruses in immunocompromised mice
    B Muller
    Robert Koch Institute, Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Pathogens, Berlin, Germany
    Arch Virol 152:1709-19. 2007
    ..The discordance of genotype affiliation of some MNVs shown in ORF1 and ORF2 suggests intertypic recombination events in vivo...
  95. pmc Genetic heterogeneity and recombination in canine noroviruses
    Vito Martella
    Department of Veterinary Public Health, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy
    J Virol 83:11391-6. 2009
    ..9% nucleotide identity and 98.9% amino acid identity) identified from oysters in Japan, indicating that similar viruses may be common environmental contaminants...
  96. pmc Pathogenesis and immune responses in gnotobiotic calves after infection with the genogroup II.4-HS66 strain of human norovirus
    M Souza
    Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
    J Virol 82:1777-86. 2008
    ....
  97. ncbi Benign circulation of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus on Lambay Island, Eire
    N L Forrester
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK
    Virology 358:18-22. 2007
    ....
  98. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus strains from the Arabian Peninsula: did RHDV emerge simultaneously in Europe and Asia?
    N L Forrester
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology formerly Institute of Virology, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR, UK
    Virology 344:277-82. 2006
    ....
  99. ncbi Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type
    Anne M Hutson
    Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:1335-7. 2002
    ..096; 95% CI, 0.16-0.56) and symptomatic disease (OR, 0; 95% CI, 0-0.999). This is the first report demonstrating an association between a genetic factor and the risk of NV infection and symptomatic disease...
  100. ncbi Detection of Norwalk-like virus infection aboard two U.S. Navy ships
    Scott Thornton
    Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit No 5, San Diego, CA 92136, USA
    Mil Med 167:826-30. 2002
    ..No point source was found for either ship. The on-site laboratory investigation can provide important information for outbreak control and prevention while new cases are still presenting...
  101. pmc A single amino acid substitution in the murine norovirus capsid protein is sufficient for attenuation in vivo
    D Bailey
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:7725-8. 2008
    ....

Research Grants24

  1. Norwalk-like Viruses and Their Receptors
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific aim 3. To determine the crystal structure of NLV capsid and sub-capsid units in the presence and absence of human histo-blood group antigens. ..
  2. ENTERIC VIRAL INFECTIONS OF CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES
    Karol Sestak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  3. CALICIVIRAL INFECTIONS AND DISEASE IN SOUTHERN INDIA
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  4. Characterization of Human Caliciviruses
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Third International Calicivirus Conference
    Xi Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will publish a proceeding of the meeting as a supplement of the Journal of[unreadable] Infectious Diseases after the meeting. ..
  6. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF NORWALK VIRUS GENOME EXPRESSION
    Michele Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Thus, detailed dissection of the functions of the NV non-structural proteins likely will lead to elucidation of new mechanisms of RNA virus genome expression. ..
  7. ASM Conference on Viral Immune Evasion
    Herbert Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This should foster their career development. ..
  8. Vascular Injury and Atherosclerosis During Herpesvirus *
    Herbert Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This will allow us to manipulate the immune system to prevent atherosclerosis induction by virus infection, and potentially to vaccinate against virus induced atherosclerosis. ..
  9. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE ROTAVIRUSES
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  10. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY AND IMPACT OF HUMAN ASTROVIRUSES
    David Matson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Information regarding type variability, genomic variability, molecular epidemiology, and type-specific immune response to astrovirus are necessary to develop preventive measures including immunization strategies. ..
  11. MECHANISM OF GAMMA-HERPESVIRUS DAF/MCP HOMOLOG
    Herbert Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. CYSTEINE PROTEINASES AS LEISHMANIAL VIRULENCE FACTORS
    LAURENCE BUXBAUM; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..D. and Ph.D. degrees, with thesis research in the GPI anchor of African trypanosomes. He has completed his clinical training in Internal Medicine and a clinical year of Infectious Diseases at the University of Pennsylvania. ..
  13. Regulation of gamma herpesvirus latency and tumorigenesis
    Herbert Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 2: Identify the role of latency and tumor-associated genes in B cell proliferation and survival. Aim 3: Identify the mechanism by which v-Bcl-2 regulates gammaHV68 latency. ..
  14. Norovirus Infection of Dendritic Cells and Macrophages
    Herbert W Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The proposed studies will provide fundamental information about the binding, entry, and uncoating of a very important genus of viruses that incudes many human pathogens. ..
  15. HIV and the Mucosal Immune System:New Vaccine Strategies
    Karol Sestak; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Moreover, this proposed study might identify important correlates of protective immune responses that will be useful in designing effective therapeutic strategies. ..
  16. Search for Infectious Etiology of Wegener's Disease
    Herbert Virgin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The benefits of identifying potential etiologies for Wegener's are great, preliminary data shows that the methods are in hand, and the team assembled is well qualified to undertake the proposed studies. ..
  17. Breast milk: Physiology, Biochemistry and Outcomes
    Ardythe Morrow; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..A list of these publications is found on our society's website (www.isrhml.org.umu.se). [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE ROTAVIRUSES
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. MOLECULAR AND ANTIGENIC ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CALICIVIRUS
    MARY ESTES; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Expression systems of full-length and subgenomic RNAs also will be established in mammalian cell systems that may permit replication of infectious particles in cell culture. ..
  20. SARS Reverse Genetics
    Ralph Baric; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The goal of this application is to establish genetic control over the SARS genome and provide uniform reagents that will be used by other groups throughout the country. ..
  21. Remodeling SARS Coronavirus Genome Regulatory Networks
    Ralph Baric; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. REVERSE GENETICS WITH A CORONAVIRUS INFECTIOUS CONSTRUCT
    Ralph Baric; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The assembly of a full-length TGE construct is an important breakthrough for coronavirus research and will benefit all aspects of coronavirus pathogenesis, molecular biology, epidemiology and biochemistry. ..