Genomes and Genes
Summary: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.
Publications236 found, 100 shown here
- HIV-1 superinfection and viral diversityKimber L Gross
San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
AIDS 18:1513-20. 2004Sequential acquisition of viral variants, or HIV-1 superinfection, has been proposed to explain the high fractions of recombinant viruses observed in some geographical regions, but only a few cases of superinfection in humans have been ..
- Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virusSvetlana Y Folimonova
Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, USA
J Virol 84:1314-25. 2010b>Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, ..
- Host-mediated regulation of superinfection in malariaSilvia Portugal
Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
Nat Med 17:732-7. 2011..b>Superinfection presents an increased risk of hyperparasitemia and death in less immune individuals but counterintuitively is ..
- Influenza infection leads to increased susceptibility to subsequent bacterial superinfection by impairing NK cell responses in the lungCherrie Lee Small
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
J Immunol 184:2048-56. 2010Influenza viral infection is well-known to predispose to subsequent bacterial superinfection in the lung but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined...
- Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral proteinSvetlana Y Folimonova
University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida, USA
J Virol 86:5554-61. 2012b>Superinfection exclusion, a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or a closely related virus, has been described for various viruses, including important pathogens of humans, ..
- Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfectionSteffen Wildum
Department of Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
J Virol 80:8047-59. 2006..study, we analyzed the kinetics of CD4 down-modulation and the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected T cells to superinfection using proviral HIV-1 constructs containing individual and combined defects in vpu, env, and nef and expressing ..
- The rates of HIV superinfection and primary HIV incidence in a general population in Rakai, UgandaAndrew D Redd
Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Infect Dis 206:267-74. 2012Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection has been documented in high-risk individuals; however, the rate of superinfection among HIV-infected individuals within a general population remains unknown.
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection occurs despite relatively robust neutralizing antibody responsesCatherine A Blish
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
J Virol 82:12094-103. 2008b>Superinfection by a second human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain indicates that gaps in protective immunity occur during natural infection...
- HIV-1 superinfectionLaura Waters
Brighton and Sussex University NHS Trust, Lawson Unit, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK
Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:42-50. 2012This review describes the nature and frequency of HIV-1 superinfection and provides advice regarding counselling of patients in accordance with national guidelines.
- Dual HIV-1 infection associated with rapid disease progressionGeoffrey S Gottlieb
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
Lancet 363:619-22. 2004..Five of these with AIDS endpoints had dual infection with HIV-1: four were cases of coinfection and one was superinfection. In all five, time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS or to CD4+ T-cell count less than 200 cells per microL ..
- Lack of neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 predisposes to superinfectionDavey M Smith
University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
Virology 355:1-5. 2006Occurrences of HIV-1 superinfection offer a unique opportunity to investigate the correlates of immune protection...
- Inhibition of superinfection and the evolution of viral latencyThomas W Berngruber
Centre d Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS, Route de Mende 1919, Montpellier, France
J Virol 84:10200-8. 2010Latent viruses generally defend their host cell against superinfection by nonlatent virulent mutants that could destroy the host cell. Superinfection inhibition thus seems to be a prerequisite for the maintenance of viral latency...
- Hepatitis C virus reinfection and superinfection among treated and untreated participants with recent infectionJason Grebely
Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Hepatology 55:1058-69. 2012The purpose of the study was to evaluate reinfection and superinfection during treatment for recent hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
- Human immunodeficiency virus superinfection and recombination: current state of knowledge and potential clinical consequencesJason T Blackard
Research and Evaluation Department, Fenway Community Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
Clin Infect Dis 34:1108-14. 2002b>Superinfection with multiple strains or subtypes of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses has been documented...
- Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIVJENNIFER L KELSCHENBACH
Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center, 432 West 58th Street, New York, NY 10019, USA
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7:380-7. 2012..These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings...
- HIV superinfectionDavey M Smith
University of California, San Diego, 92093, USA
J Infect Dis 192:438-44. 2005Worldwide, 16 cases of HIV-1 superinfection in humans have been reported since 2002. Superinfection is defined as the reinfection of an individual who already has an established infection with a heterologous HIV strain...
- Naturally occurring swine influenza A virus PB1-F2 phenotypes that contribute to superinfection with Gram-positive respiratory pathogensJenni N Weeks-Gorospe
Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
J Virol 86:9035-43. 2012..of primary influenza virus infection, with only limited assessment in models of Streptococcus pneumoniae superinfection. Specifically, these studies have incorporated isogenic viruses that differ in the PB1-F2 expressed, but there ..
- HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfectionDebby Basu
Immunology and Molecular Pathogenesis Graduate Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Retrovirology 9:76. 2012The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood...
- HIV-1 superinfection and its implications for vaccine designBhavna H Chohan
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, C3 168, Seattle, WA 98104 1024, USA
Curr HIV Res 8:596-601. 2010HIV-1 superinfection, which refers to a subsequent HIV-1 infection from a different source partner after the first HIV-1 infection is established, has now been well documented in multiple populations...
- HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody responseValerie Cortez
Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002611. 2012..tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection)...
- Frequent HCV reinfection and superinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users in AmsterdamThijs J W van de Laar
Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Hepatol 51:667-74. 2009This study investigates the occurrence of HCV reinfection and superinfection among HCV seroconverters participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users from 1985 through 2005.
- HIV-1 superinfection despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses containing replication of the primary virusMarcus Altfeld
Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
Nature 420:434-9. 2002..Sequencing of the virus in plasma and cells showed that superinfection with a second clade-B virus was coincident with the loss of immune control...
- Analysis of infectious virus clones from two HIV-1 superinfection cases suggests that the primary strains have lower fitnessAntoinette C van der Kuyl
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Retrovirology 7:60. 2010Two HIV-1 positive patients, L and P, participating in the Amsterdam Cohort studies acquired an HIV-1 superinfection within half a year from their primary HIV-1 infection (Jurriaans et al., JAIDS 2008, 47:69-73)...
- HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfectionDavey M Smith
University of California San Diego, USA
AIDS 19:1251-6. 2005HIV interclade B superinfection has previously been described in individuals initially infected with drug resistant virus who then become superinfected by a drug susceptible strain...
- Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. konkukian (serotype H34) superinfection: case report and experimental evidence of pathogenicity in immunosuppressed miceE Hernandez
Laboratoire de Biologie, Hôpital des Armées Begin, Saint Mande, France
J Clin Microbiol 36:2138-9. 1998..This case is interesting because B. thuringiensis is considered to be a contaminant in laboratories and receives inadequate attention...
- CD8+ lymphocytes do not mediate protection against acute superinfection 20 days after vaccination with a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virusRichard Stebbings
Division of Immunology, NIBSC, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, United Kingdom
J Virol 79:12264-72. 2005In order to test the hypothesis that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate protection against acute superinfection, we depleted >99% of CD8+ lymphocytes in live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) vaccinees from ..
- Therapy failure resulting from superinfection by a drug-resistant HIV variantMarieke Pingen
Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Antivir Ther 17:1621-5. 2012..HIV-1-infected patients can be superinfected with additional HIV-1 variants. Therapy failure can be the consequence of an infection with a resistant strain...
- Superinfection of defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with different subtypes of wild-type virus efficiently produces infectious variants with the initial viral phenotypes by complementation followed by recombinationYukie Iwabu
Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Microbes Infect 10:504-13. 2008b>Superinfection rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have increasingly been leading to more variation in HIV-1, as evidenced by the emergence of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs)...
- Examination of a second region of the HIV type 1 genome reveals additional cases of superinfectionAnne Piantadosi
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1221. 2008HIV-1 superinfection may occur at a rate similar to that of initial infection, raising concerns for HIV-1 vaccine strategies predicated on eliciting immune responses similar to those in natural infection...
- Cellular immune responses and susceptibility to HIV-1 superinfection: a case-control studyCatherine A Blish
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
AIDS 26:643-6. 2012..the effects of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses on the odds of acquiring a second HIV-1 infection (superinfection)...
- HIV-1 superinfectionTodd M Allen
Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:829-35; quiz 836. 2003During the past year, a number of reports have described HIV-1 superinfection in human subjects, defined as the reinfection of an individual with a second heterologous strain of HIV-1...
- Lowering the threshold of lung innate immune cell activation alters susceptibility to secondary bacterial superinfectionJohn Goulding
Leukocyte Biology Section, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, United Kingdom
J Infect Dis 204:1086-94. 2011..Previous studies have shown that the interaction of CD200R, a myeloid inhibitory receptor, with its ligand, CD200, is critical in the control of innate immune activation in the lung...
- Increased susceptibility to bacterial superinfection as a consequence of innate antiviral responsesAlexander A Navarini
Institute for Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15535-9. 2006The reason why severe localized or systemic virus infections enhance and aggravate bacterial superinfection is poorly understood...
- Low incidence of HIV-1 superinfection even after episodes of unsafe sexual behavior of homosexual men in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV Infection and AIDSAndrea Rachinger
Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Infect Dis 203:1621-8. 2011Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection is infection of an HIV-1 seropositive individual with another HIV-1 strain. The rate at which HIV-1 superinfection occurs might be influenced by sexual behavior...
- The latency-associated gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) interferes with superinfection by HSV-1Nurith Mador
Laboratory of Neurovirology, Department of Neurology, and The Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
J Neurovirol 8:97-102. 2002..Here we present data that indicate yet another independent function of the LAT gene: interference with HSV-1 superinfection of latently infected neurons...
- Sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus superinfection in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected men who have sex with menJade Ghosn
AP HP, EA MRT 3620, Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Virology, Necker Hospital, Paris, France
AIDS 22:658-61. 2008We report two cases of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) superinfection in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with high-risk sexual behaviour. The two patients had chronic HCV and a history of sexually transmitted infections...
- HIV-1 superinfection in the antiretroviral therapy era: are seroconcordant sexual partners at risk?Mary S Campbell
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS ONE 4:e5690. 2009..been reported to occur both during and after primary infection, but the risks and repercussions of dual and superinfection are incompletely understood...
- Exclusion of West Nile virus superinfection through RNA replicationGang Zou
State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
J Virol 83:11765-76. 2009b>Superinfection exclusion is the ability of an established viral infection to interfere with a second viral infection...
- A sudden rise in viral load is infrequently associated with HIV-1 superinfectionSuzanne Jurriaans
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:69-73. 2008..increase in the blood plasma HIV-1 viral load in chronically untreated HIV-infected patients and the occurrence of an HIV superinfection, we analyzed the HIV-1 quasispecies in plasma samples before and at peak level in 14 patients.
- Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection with drug-resistant clade B virusKersten K Koelsch
University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
AIDS 17:F11-6. 2003The immunological response to HIV-1 infection has been postulated to impede superinfection with a second virus; however, a few recent reports have documented cases of HIV-1 superinfection in humans either from different viral clades or ..
- Wolbachia in the Culex pipiens group mosquitoes: introgression and superinfectionThomas Walker
Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
J Hered 100:192-6. 2009..pipiens group strains. A line containing both wPip strain variants superinfection was also generated by embryonic cytoplasmic transfer...
- Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfectionL O Bakaletz
Division of Otologic Research, Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
Infect Immun 67:2746-62. 1999..001). Collectively, these data indicate the continued merit of further developing LB1 and LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 as components of vaccines for otitis media...
- Resistance to superinfection of Vero cells persistently infected with Junin virusP Ellenberg
Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Arch Virol 149:507-22. 2004..with the arenavirus Junin (JUNV), named V3 and V7, were characterized with respect to their resistance to superinfection with homologous and antigenically related viruses...
- HIV-1 superinfection in an HIV-2-infected woman with subsequent control of HIV-1 plasma viremiaHuldrych F Gunthard
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Clin Infect Dis 48:e117-20. 2009A human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected woman experienced asymptomatic superinfection with HIV-1 subtype AG. She did not have cross-neutralizing autologous HIV-1 antibodies before and shortly after HIV-1 superinfection...
- Coinfection and superinfection in patients with long-term, nonprogressive HIV-1 diseaseConcepcion Casado
Centro Nacional de Microbiologia Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
J Infect Dis 196:895-9. 2007..patient was diagnosed as being already coinfected, on the basis of the first sample analyzed, but a previous superinfection could not be excluded; the second patient was diagnosed as having a superinfection, on the basis of the 9-year ..
- Impact of acute hepatitis C virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infectionYun Fan Liaw
Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Gastroenterology 126:1024-9. 2004b>Superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not uncommon. Acute hepatitis delta virus (HDV) superinfection is associated with severe and/or progressive liver disease...
- Increased susceptibility for superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae during influenza virus infection is not caused by TLR7-mediated lymphopeniaSabine Stegemann
Otto von Guericke University, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Magdeburg, Germany
PLoS ONE 4:e4840. 2009..However, infection with IAV alone is rarely fatal. Instead, death associated with IAV is usually mediated by superinfection with bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae...
- Superinfection with a heterologous HIV strain per se does not lead to faster progressionIsaac Chun Hai Fung
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
Math Biosci 224:1-9. 2010It has been suggested that superinfection of HIV positive individuals with heterologous HIV strains could lead to faster progression to AIDS, generating concern over the risks of exposure to new infections in those already infected.
- Antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition antibody activity does not correlate with risk of HIV-1 superinfectionDonald N Forthal
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA 92967, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:31-3. 2013..antibody nor cellular immunity elicited by an initial HIV-1 infection is associated with protection against superinfection with a different HIV-1 strain...
- Dual infection and superinfection inhibition of epithelial skin cells by two alphaherpesviruses co-occur in the natural hostKeith W Jarosinski
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e37428. 2012Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition...
- Bacterial superinfection in zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasisMonir Doudi
Department of Microbiology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Med Sci Monit 18:BR356-61. 2012Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease. It is generally accepted that bacterial superinfection may play a role in the clinical appearance of the lesions and may delay or prevent the healing process...
- HIV-1 superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan womenKeshet Ronen
Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 9:e1003593. 2013HIV superinfection (reinfection) has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection...
- Frequency and implications of HIV superinfectionAndrew D Redd
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Lancet Infect Dis 13:622-8. 2013HIV superinfection occurs when an individual with HIV is infected with a new distinct HIV viral strain. Superinfection has been reported throughout the world, and studies have recorded incidence rates of 0-7·7% per year...
- Fatal fungal superinfection complicating B19 virus-induced massive bone marrow necrosis in sickle-cell diseaseMuriel Fartoukh
Service de Pneumologie et Unité de Réanimation Respiratoire, Hopital Tenon, Assistance publique Hôpitaux de Paris and université Pierre et Marie Curie, 04 Rue dela Chine, 75020 Paris, France
Haematologica 91:ECR18. 2006
- Absence of HIV-1 superinfection 1 year after infection between 1985 and 1997 coincides with a reduction in sexual risk behavior in the seroincident Amsterdam cohort of homosexual menAndrea Rachinger
Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center of University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Clin Infect Dis 50:1309-15. 2010Incidence rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection differ among cohorts and, as yet, only 2 cohorts of homosexual men have been screened...
- Corneal herpes simplex virus type 1 superinfection in patients with recrudescent herpetic keratitisLies Remeijer
Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:358-63. 2002..Recurrences may be caused by reactivation of endogenous HSV-1 or reinfection with exogenous HSV-1. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors involved of HSV-1 superinfection in patients with RHK.
- Corneal superinfection in acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitisR B Vajpayee
Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Cornea 17:614-7. 1998..the clinical profile, microbial spectrum, management modalities, and visual outcome in cases of corneal superinfection that occurred after an epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis...
- Bacterial superinfection in human tungiasisH Feldmeier
Institute of Social Medicine, Center for Humanities and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Free University of Berlin, Germany
Trop Med Int Health 7:559-64. 2002..It is endemic in many countries in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. Although superinfection is a common clinical observation, the frequency and the pattern of bacterial pathogens associated with ..
- Recombination in HIV: an important viral evolutionary strategyD S Burke
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 3:253-9. 1997..Certain features of HIV replication, such as syncytium formation and transactivation, may be best understood as components of a sexual reproductive cycle. Recombination may be an important HIV evolutionary strategy...
- Hepatitis E superinfection produces severe decompensation in patients with chronic liver diseaseJeyamani Ramachandran
Departments of Gastrointestinal Sciences and Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:134-8. 2004..to examine the clinical profile and outcome of patients with chronic liver disease and hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection, and the seroprevalence of hepatitis A and E infections in patients with chronic liver disease and controls in ..
- Naturally arising HIV-1 Nef variants conferring escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes influence viral entry co-receptor expression and susceptibility to superinfectionPhilip Mwimanzi
Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 403:422-7. 2010..Moreover, the cells expressing the Arg75Thr variant Nef significantly impaired protection from superinfection by CCR5-tropic, but not CXCR4-tropic, viruses...
- Evasion of CD8+ T cells is critical for superinfection by cytomegalovirusScott G Hansen
Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
Science 328:102-6. 2010..We have demonstrated that superinfection of rhesus CMV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) requires evasion of CD8+ T cell immunity by virally encoded ..
- Dynamics of HIV type 1 recombination following superinfectionFransje A Koning
Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, London, UK
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:963-70. 2013..a circulating recombinant form 19 (CRF19) virus containing transmitted drug resistance mutations followed by superinfection with "wild-type" subtype B virus...
- Chronic HIV-1 infection frequently fails to protect against superinfectionAnne Piantadosi
Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 3:e177. 2007Reports of HIV-1 superinfection (re-infection) have demonstrated that the immune response generated against one strain of HIV-1 does not always protect against other strains...
- Defective HIV-1 quasispecies in the form of multiply drug-resistant proviral DNA within cells can be rescued by superinfection with different subtype variants of HIV-1 and by HIV-2 and SIVYudong Quan
McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
J Antimicrob Chemother 69:21-7. 2014..proviral DNA with other complementary defective proviral DNA or with wild-type viral DNA in the aftermath of superinfection could lead to the rescue of defective provirus and the production of replication-competent virus...
- Latent HIV-1 can be reactivated by cellular superinfection in a Tat-dependent manner, which can lead to the emergence of multidrug-resistant recombinant virusesDaniel A Donahue
McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
J Virol 87:9620-32. 2013..This could occur by superinfection of a latently infected cell...
- Coinfection and superinfection in RNA virus populations: a selection-mutation modelJoan Saldaña
Departament d Informàtica i Matemàtica Aplicada, Campus Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, Spain
Math Biosci 183:135-60. 2003..e., coinfection and superinfection) on the virulence of evolving viral populations...
- Rubella virus-induced superinfection exclusion studied in cells with persisting repliconsClaudia Claus
Institute of Virology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
J Gen Virol 88:2769-73. 2007For the first time, homologous superinfection exclusion was documented for rubella virus (RUB) by using Vero cells harbouring persisting RUB replicons...
- Does interferon-sparing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based therapy have a role in the management of severe acute hepatitis delta superinfection?Zahir Osman Eltahir Babiker
Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunays Road, Manchester M8 5RB, UK
J Med Microbiol 61:1780-3. 2012..TDF-based antiviral therapy was safe and effective in achieving HDV RNA suppression in acute HDV superinfection. Further research into the utility of interferon-sparing TDF-based regimes in the treatment of acute HDV ..
- [The effects of hepatitis E virus superinfection on patients with chronic hepatitis B: a clinico-pathological study]Qinghua Shang
Institute of Liver Disease, Jinan Military Region, The 88th Hospital of the People s Liberation Army, Taian, Shandong Province 271000, China
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 41:656-9. 2002To observe the effect of hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection on hepatic lesion and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
- Perceptions of superinfection risk among gay men with diagnosed HIV who have unprotected anal intercourseA Bourne
Sigma Research, Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Int J STD AIDS 22:190-3. 2011..men (MSM) with diagnosed HIV who engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) perceive the potential risk of superinfection and how they respond to it...
- Evaluation of pre-screening methods for the identification of HIV-1 superinfectionAndrea Rachinger
Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Virol Methods 165:311-7. 2010..assay (HMA) and the presence of ambiguity codes in population-based sequences - applied for detection of HIV-1 superinfection. HIV-1 env C2-C4 PCR products generated from 48 serum samples isolated from 24 HIV-1 positive and therapy-naï..
- Epstein-Barr virus reactivation after superinfection of the BJAB-B1 and P3HR-1 cell lines with cytomegalovirusRodney Arcenas
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
BMC Microbiol 2:20. 2002..This report aims to examine the in vitro susceptibilities of BJAB-B1 and P3HR-1 cells (EBV positive Burkitt's lymphoma B-cell lines) to a CMV superinfection; and show that EBV reactivation occurs after CMV superinfects these cell lines.
- Superinfection drives virulence evolution in experimental populations of bacteria and plasmidsJeff Smith
Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Evolution 65:831-41. 2011..They also show that symbioses between bacteria and plasmids can evolve to be surprisingly antagonistic...
- Macaque long-term nonprogressors resist superinfection with multiple CD8+ T cell escape variants of simian immunodeficiency virusJason T Weinfurter
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
J Virol 85:530-41. 2011..are therefore still at risk for subsequent infection with divergent viruses, but the barriers to such superinfection remain unclear...
- Acute exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B are rarely associated with superinfection of hepatitis B virusJ H Kao
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Hepatology 34:817-23. 2001There are 7 genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Whether superinfection of HBV carriers with different HBV genotypes occurs remains unknown...
- Is HIV superinfection worrisome?Jay A Levy
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
Lancet 361:98-9. 2003
- Lethal Strongyloides stercoralis superinfection in an immunocompromised patientGeorge Kosmadakis
Department of Nephrology Gregorios Vosnides, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece
Ren Fail 32:750-2. 2010..A large worm load of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was identified in the sputum. The patient was treated with thiopental 25 mg/kgBW/12 h through a Levine tube and died 24 h later...
- Sequence analysis of the dimerization initiation site of concordant and discordant viral variants superinfecting HIV type 1 patientsLuzia Mayr
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:1231-5. 2011....
- Progression of lesions in the respiratory tract of broilers after single infection with Escherichia coli compared to superinfection with E. coli after infection with infectious bronchitis virusR Marius Dwars
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Vet Immunol Immunopathol 127:65-76. 2009..coli in the respiratory tract of broilers, but rather induces an exaggerated inflammatory response in the airsacs only, which seems to be the mechanism behind the pattern of airsacculitis in commercial poultry in the field...
- Expansion of variant diversity associated with a high prevalence of pathogen strain superinfection under conditions of natural transmissionMassaro W Ueti
Animal Diseases Research Unit, USDA ARS, Pullman, Washington, USA
Infect Immun 80:2354-60. 2012b>Superinfection occurs when a second, genetically distinct pathogen strain infects a host that has already mounted an immune response to a primary strain...
- HCV superinfection and reinfectionJason T Blackard
Division of Digestive Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH, USA
Antivir Ther 17:1443-8. 2012..Moreover, individuals with HCV infection may be at risk of HCV superinfection with a second strain of HCV even after the establishment of persistent infection and the development of an ..
- The effect of the time interval between exposures on the susceptibility of chickens to superinfection with Marek's disease virusJohn R Dunn
USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
Avian Dis 54:1038-49. 2010..Four experiments were performed to demonstrate superinfection and evaluate the effect of time between challenges on the effect of superinfection with the use of two pairs ..
- Rapid increase in total torquetenovirus (TTV) plasma viremia load reveals an apparently transient superinfection by a TTV of a novel group 2 genotypeFabrizio Maggi
Virology Section and Retrovirus Center, Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via San Zeno 35 37, I 56127 Pisa, Italy
J Clin Microbiol 44:2571-4. 2006..The superinfection induced a rapid increase in the plasma TTV load and a decline in immunocomplexed virus...
- Resistance to superinfection by a vigorously replicating, uncloned stock of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) stimulates replication of a live attenuated virus vaccine (SIVmacC8)Neil Berry
Division of Retrovirology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, UK
J Gen Virol 89:2240-51. 2008..The ability of SIVmacC8 to confer resistance to superinfection with an uncloned ex vivo derivative of SIVmac251 (SIVmac32H/L28) was investigated...
- Isospora belli superinfection in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic challengeUdayakumar Navaneethan
Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
J Crohns Colitis 6:236-9. 2012..We report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed Isospora superinfection of the small bowel while receiving systemic corticosteroids for EGE...
- Sirolimus oral ulcer with Cedecea davisae superinfectionH Mawardi
Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Transpl Infect Dis 12:446-50. 2010..davisae. According to the literature, this is the first case of C. davisae detected in the oral cavity. Antibiotic therapy led to prompt resolution of this very large ulcer...
- Protection of SIVmac-infected macaque monkeys against superinfection by a simian immunodeficiency virus expressing envelope glycoproteins of HIV type 1C S Dunn
INSERUM U74 et Laboratoire de Virologie, Strasbourg, France
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 13:913-22. 1997..These data indicate that an antiviral response capable of effectively controlling primate lentivirus replication might not necessarily involve the envelope glycoprotein...
- Severe pneumonia caused by Nocardia farcinica and complicated by Staphylococcus haemoliticus superinfectionP Bruno
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University, Pneumology UOC, Sant Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 15:401-5. 2011..induced a rapid improvement of the clinical picture that was resolved in 6 months. Pneumonia caused by Nocardia farcinica is rare but its identification is necessary to set an appropriate therapy...
- Unsafe sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men in Kathmandu Valley, NepalKrishna C Poudel
Department of International Community Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 0033, Japan
AIDS Behav 13:1143-50. 2009..Only 41% (50/123) participants knew about the possibility of HIV superinfection. Our results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention interventions for the Nepalese HIV-positive men.
- Hepatitis E virus superinfection in patients with chronic liver diseaseSaeed S Hamid
Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Hepatology 36:474-8. 2002..We document that HEV superinfection in 4 of our CLD patients caused severe liver decompensation...
- Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenzaCaleb C J Zavitz
Medical Sciences Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
J Immunol 184:2001-13. 2010..A number of mechanisms have been proposed by which influenza may predispose to superinfection with an unrelated or heterologous pathogen, but the subsequent interaction between the host, virus, and ..
- Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfectionB Cacopardo
Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Via Passo Gravina 187, I 95127 Catania, Italy
Dig Liver Dis 41:371-4. 2009..Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an ..
- Pulmonary superinfection by trichomonads in the course of acute respiratory distress syndromeChristophe Duboucher
Department of Pathology, Poissy Saint Germain Hospital, 20 rue Armagis, 78100, Saint Germain en Laye, France
Lung 185:295-301. 2007..Nevertheless, the question of an active role of trichomonads in the extension of alveolar lesions or in the limitation of recovery is clearly raised...
- Superinfection exclusion in BHK-21 cells persistently infected with Junín virusPaula Ellenberg
Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab II, 4 Piso, C1428BGA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Gen Virol 88:2730-9. 2007..K3 cells were able to exclude superinfection of the homologous JUNV and the antigenically related Tacaribe virus (TCRV), whereas the non-related ..
- HBV superinfection in HCV chronic carriers: a disease that is frequently severe but associated with the eradication of HCVEvangelista Sagnelli
Department of Public Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, 2nd University of Naples, Naples, Italy
Hepatology 49:1090-7. 2009The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) superinfection in hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic carriers was evaluated in a long-term follow-up study on 29 chronic anti-HCV carriers with acute hepatitis B (AVH-B) (Case group BC) and 29 anti-HCV ..
- Recovery of viremic control after superinfection with pathogenic HIV type 1 in a long-term elite controller of HIV type 1 infectionAndrea Rachinger
Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam at the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Clin Infect Dis 47:e86-9. 2008..with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level <50 copies/mL for at least 12 months) who experienced a viremic episode after superinfection regained natural viremic control, although the viral loads in the patient's 2 partners, infected with the same ..
- Profound suppression of chronic hepatitis C following superinfection with hepatitis B virusCarla S Coffin
Liver Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Liver Int 27:722-6. 2007..Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share similar transmission routes; thus, coinfection is frequent. The consequences of acute HBV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C are unknown...
- The ltp gene of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 confers superinfection exclusion to Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactisXingmin Sun
Institute for Microbiology, Federal Research Center for Nutrition and Food, PO Box 6069, D 24121 Kiel, Germany
Virology 350:146-57. 2006..with infection at the stage of triggering DNA release and injection into the cell, indicating a role of Ltp in superinfection exclusion. Expression of ltp in L...
- Bilateral surgically induced necrotising scleritis with secondary superinfectionM R Vagefi
Br J Ophthalmol 89:124-5. 2005
- Superinfection as a driver of genomic diversification in antigenically variant pathogensJames E Futse
Program in Vector Borne Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2123-7. 2008..change needed for a new strain to evade existing immunity and establish coexisting infection, termed strain superinfection. Here, we show that the diversity in the alleles encoding antigenic variants between strains of a highly ..
- Molecular Basis of E. coli Adhesins in Bladder DisordersScott J Hultgren; Fiscal Year: 2013..Aim 1 investigates mechanisms by which superinfection of UPEC leads to the development of chronic/recurrent infection...
- Role of influenza-induced prothrombosis in Streptococcus pyogenes superinfectionsMichael S Chaussee; Fiscal Year: 2012..is typically due to the development of secondary bacterial complications, which is called excess mortality, or superinfection. During the recent flu pandemic, Streptococcus pyogenes caused about 1/3 of the known cases of superinfection...
- P.falciparum var gene diversity and malaria controlKAREN PATRICIA DAY; Fiscal Year: 2013..This repertoire diversity is proposed to allow a superinfection to establish, persist, and transmit in an exposed host...
- HIV Envelope-based vaccines from superinfection to elicit neutralizing antibodiesANN JONES HESSELL; Fiscal Year: 2013..b>Superinfection (SI) provides a unique immunological setting for studying candidate HIV Envs as potential vaccine components...
- INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN RICKETTSIAE IN TICKSAbdu F Azad; Fiscal Year: 2013..peacockii- or R. montanensis-infected ticks thereby prohibiting rickettsial superinfection in the ovaries...
- Strategies for Eliciting bnAbs against Conserved HIV-1 Quaternary EpitopesAbraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2013..For example, we have identified an acutely infected patient (CAP256) who after superinfection developed broad and potent bnAbs for subtype C isolates that are directed against QNEs...
- Bacterial Interference to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract InfectionBARBARA WELLS TRAUTNER; Fiscal Year: 2013..coli HU2117 will predict success or failure of bladder colonization and prevention of superinfection. The research design is a prospective clinical trial in which all 20 subjects wil receive a study catheter ..
- Virologic Correlates of Heterosexual TransmissionEric Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2013..Newly infected partners in couples infected by different strains of HIV-1, are at high risk for superinfection and subsequent virus recombination...
- Participation of Mucosal Type I Interferon Signaling in Pulmonary DiseaseAlice S Prince; Fiscal Year: 2010..abilities to stimulate IFN-[unreadable] production and comparing how they affect susceptibility to bacterial superinfection. We predict that mucosal epithelial IFN-[unreadable] production, possibly through effects in activating ..
- C. trachomatis increases transmission of HIV: mechanisms in the endocervixDanny J Schust; Fiscal Year: 2011..The role of co-infection and superinfection with other sexually-transmitted pathogens in HIV transmission is understudied...
- Impact of CTL Escape Mutations on HIV-1 Replicative FitnessTodd Allen; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, HIV superinfection has been associated with overcoming pre-existing immune control and rapid disease progression, likely due to ..
- AIDS ASSOCIATED LEUKOPLAKIA--ROLE OF EBVNancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004..We will determine if expression of CD21 contributes to superinfection and whether superinfection induces viral replication...
- Treatment of recently acquired hepatitis C virus infectionGREGORY JOHN DORE; Fiscal Year: 2013..Both superinfection and reinfection with HCV were observed with possible impact on treatment response rates...
- OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOME OF DUAL HIV-1 INFECTIONJAMES IVAN MULLINS; Fiscal Year: 2013..a result of co-infection, wherein acquisition of two HIV-1 viral strains occurs during primary infection, or superinfection, wherein a second viral strain infects sometime after primary infection...
- Primary Infection Resource Consortium (Pirc)SUSAN JANET LITTLE; Fiscal Year: 2013..The breadth of the collected data will represent a significant opportunity for consortium investigators to evaluate pressing issues related to HIV transmission, prevention, resistance, superinfection, and eradication.
- Characterization of HIV-1 Antibody Responses in Chronically Infected WomenJulie M Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013..also identified individuals with exceptionally broad and potent elite neutralizing activity as a result of superinfection. We hypothesize that the Nab responses in these individuals will be distinct from those of singly-infected ..
- ENHANCING COLLECTIN MEDIATED HOST DEFENSEKevan Hartshorn; Fiscal Year: 2001..are chosen because they represent individually major causes of serious respiratory infection, and because superinfection with pneumococci is an important complication of IAV infection...
- EARLY AND REINFECTION IN HIGH RISK WOMENJulie M Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013..of early events in HIV infection, including HIV acquisition in the face of an existing HIV infection (superinfection) are needed...
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SINDBIS VIRUSJames Strauss; Fiscal Year: 2000..Concomitant with this, the infected cell becomes resistant to superinfection by closely related viruses...
- MECHANISM OF BACTERIAL SUPERINFECTIONBARBARA SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 1991..continue study because staphylococcal pneumonia is a well-documented example of a life-threatening bacterial superinfection occurring in patients with complicated influenza...
- HTLV-III SEQUENCES AT THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL LEVELJOSEPH MOSCA; Fiscal Year: 1991..b>Superinfection of these latent HTLV-III LTR containing lines with herpes viruses reactivated the HTLV-III LTR as determined ..
- LIVER TRANSPLANT ASSOCIATED CYTOMEGALOVIRUS PREVENTIONDavid Snydman; Fiscal Year: 1991..increases the mortality of liver transplant patients and may contribute to complicating fungal or parasitic superinfection. All liver transplant recipients have a significant risk of CMV infection; the source of CMV may be either the ..
- Interplay of B cells and HIV Leading to Broad Neutralizing Antibody ResponsesPascal Poignard; Fiscal Year: 2013..the development of bNAb responses? - do broad and potent neutralizing responses protect against HIV-1 superinfection? - What are the neutralizing antibody specificities in sera from individuals with broad neutralizing activity? ..
- USING SOCIAL NETWORKS TO REDUCE RISKY SEX IN HIV+ WOMENRalph DiClemente; Fiscal Year: 1999..Thus, reducing high risk behavior could redeem risk of rapid disease progression by avoiding virulent HIV superinfection. Furthermore, the public health significance of promoting consistent condom use among women living with HIV is ..
- NEF GENE OF HIV-1Warner Greene; Fiscal Year: 1999..While this response likely serves to limit virus superinfection, additional functional effects may occur including alterations in the state of T cell activation...
- DELTA HEPATITIS AND LIVER DISEASE IN HEMOPHILIACSF Hollinger; Fiscal Year: 1990..The unique characteristics of HDV is that it is dependent on HBV replication for its expression. Superinfection of hepatitis B patients with HDV often leads to severe and ultimately fatal disease...
- The NOSES Trial, Nasal irrigation, Oral steroids, Antibiotics and Subgroup targetDaniel Merenstein; Fiscal Year: 2009..Although bacterial superinfection or complications from bacterial infection are relatively rare;treatment is almost always with an antibiotic, ..
- HIV-HSV INTERACTIONS IN VITROMARY NIES; Fiscal Year: 1993..This will be pursued by transfecting ICP4 into both CEM (lymphoid) and U937 (monocytic) cells, followed by superinfection with whole virus HIV-1 and observing for any upregulation in HIV expression...
- HIV CYTOPATHICITY--ANTISENSE RNA APPROACHMario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 1993..We hypothesize that superinfection -- unrestricted virus replication and buildup of a toxic viral gene product -- plays a crucial role in the ..
- Varicella Zoster Virus:Clinical Implications of ImmunitySaul Silverstein; Fiscal Year: 2003..b>Superinfection of latently infected neurons with an adenovirus encoding the ICP0 of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates ..
- Viral-Bacterial Interactions in the Airway EpitheliumRaymond Pickles; Fiscal Year: 2006..that bacterial infections are often made worse by concurrent viral infections, a condition known as "bacterial superinfection". Infection of the human airways by specific viruses (e.g...
- RETROVIRUSES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE TRACTAnn Kiessling; Fiscal Year: 1992..to this was female tissues of the AKR strain that express endogenous viral proteins were resistant to superinfection by exogenous virus...
- HUMORAL IMMUNITY AND PERIODONTAL DISEASEROY PAGE; Fiscal Year: 1999..by ligature placement as before, but extend the protocol to evaluate the consequence of ligature removal and superinfection. We will characterize the subgingival flora at baseline and monitor not only Porphyromonas gingivalis but also ..
- EXPRESSION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS IN HYBRID CELLSRonald Glaser; Fiscal Year: 1980..EBV DNA synthesis was observed in virus genome negative Ramos cells after superinfection, thus endogenous EBV DNA is not required for virus replication...
- MECHANISMS OF CELL KILLING INDUCED BY RETROVIRUSESJohn Young; Fiscal Year: 2003..The fourth aim studies whether viral superinfection contributes to the cytopathic effects...
- BREEDING & EXPERIMENTAL FACILITYBud Tennant; Fiscal Year: 1999..synthetic antivirals and immunomodulators against WHV in infected animals, (2) the study of the coinfection/superinfection of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and WHV for the development of HDV vaccines and antivirals, (3) the ..
- Behavioral Therapy Development for Methamphetamine AbuseJames Peck; Fiscal Year: 2005..with unknown or anonymous partners; and decrease likelihood of sexually transmitted infections and potential superinfection with HIV...
- Mechanisms Blocking HIV-1 SuperinfectionRobert Grant; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our synergistic approach is designed to provide important novel information that bears directly on HIV-1 epidemiology, protective immunity, and prevention. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- AAV-SPECIFIC INTEGRATION AND RESCUE IN HUMAN CELLSRICHARD SAMULSKI; Fiscal Year: 1992..The resulting neo cell lines will then be assayed for rescue upon superinfection with adenovirus...
- CANDIDA DIMORPHISM--VIRULENCE & IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIONThomas Rogers; Fiscal Year: 1992..the morbidity directly associated with the organism itself is compounded by the increased risk for bacterial superinfection, the significantly compromised nutritional status of the patient, and problems associated with an inability to ..
- PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS WITH ATTENUATED LENTIVIRAL VACCINEChristopher Miller; Fiscal Year: 2002..This association between the presence of CTL and the ability to resist superinfection with pathogenic SIV may partially explain the efficacy of attenuated viruses as vaccine in the SIV model, but ..
- ENDOTOXIN TOLERANCE AS A MODEL FOR IMMUNE PARALYSISFREDERICK HEINZEL; Fiscal Year: 2003..that prevent the immune defects of endotoxin tolerance and thereby reduce susceptibility to nosocomial superinfection. 4) Characterize comparable cytokine and cellular defects in hospitalized patients following cardiac surgery ..
- GENETICS OF MYXOPHAGESPhilip Youderian; Fiscal Year: 2003..xanthus lysogen. Mutations will be made in the genes controlling Mx8 superinfection immunity, to understand its novel dosage-dependent mechanism, in the repressor gene, to permit the inducible ..
- Acute CTL Escape and Viral Variation in HIVTodd Allen; Fiscal Year: 2007..the role that CD8 responses play in controlling viral replication in the setting of a potential HIV-1 superinfection provides an opportunity to study this...
- New Animal and Culture Models to rapidly evaluate infectivity of the vCJD AgentLaura Manuelidis; Fiscal Year: 2009..to verify the agent-specificity of both the animal and culture vCJD models, 2) to further develop innovative superinfection tests in culture for strain-specific diagnosis of the vCJD agent, and 3) to use direct culture and ..
- OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOME OF DUAL HIV-1 INFECTIONJames Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2004..from near simultaneous acquisition of two HIV-1 infections (what we will term "co-infection"), or if true superinfection can occur, i.e...
- DEVELOPMENT REGULATION OF HIV GENE EXPRESSION & LATENCYSteven Zeichner; Fiscal Year: 1990..In an analogous fashion, superinfection with DNA virus or immune stimulation are thought to end latency in adults...
- CLONING OF THE WERNER'S SYNDROME DEFECTGLENNA BURMER; Fiscal Year: 1992..capable of prolonging lifespan will be identified either by southern hybridization with viral probes or by superinfection with helper virus and rescue of the integrated recombinant retrovirus...
- ENHANCING ANTIBODIES IN HIV INFECTIONJay Levy; Fiscal Year: 1992..Finally, the possible involvement of ADE in bringing about superinfection of HIV- infected cells and generation of recombinant virus will be examined...
- MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF RETROVIRUSESJohn Coffin; Fiscal Year: 2000..1) The structure and function of ALV env proteins and their receptors as well as mechanisms of viral entry and superinfection resistance; 2) The specificity and mechanism of viral DNA integration and the role of DNA structure and DNA-..
- Defining Immune Deficits in HIV-1 Infected WomenCatherine A Blish; Fiscal Year: 2010..Recent reports of HIV-1 superinfection (also called re-infection, defined as infection by a second virus after the first virus is already established ..
- WOLBACHIA INFECTIONS AS A VEHICLE FOR GENOME REPLACEMENTSCOTT O NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2000..Specific Aim 4 will characterize key population dynamic parameters associated with environmental conditioning of the CI superinfection phenotype in the mosquito Aedes albopictus.
- IMMUNOLOGY OF LARVAL TAPEWORM INFECTIONJeffrey Williams; Fiscal Year: 1980..they are able to do so in immunologically competent animals, which may show a marked and specific antibody-mediated immunity to superinfection, is a paradox challenging to our understanding of resistance mechanisms in infectious disease.
- Detection and Characterization of HIV-1 Intraclade Dual InfectionDavid Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009..detecting intraclade dual infection, (2) the incidence and prevalence of dual infection (both coinfection and superinfection) among recently and chronically HIV infected individuals, and (3) the clinical and virologic correlates of ..
- LABORATORY AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF AIDSPaul Volberding; Fiscal Year: 1992..peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cell lines our specific goals are to determine whether 1) HIV superinfection of cells pre-infected with CMV enhances HIV replication as compared to cells not preinfected with CMV; 2) CMV ..
- HIV-1 Vpr for dNTP BiosynthesisPauline Chugh; Fiscal Year: 2007..into the long-term survival of viral reservoirs such as macrophage and may explain their susceptibility to superinfection, thus increasing viral diversity...
- Ethno-Epidemiology in an Emergent MSM Risk EnvironmentLloyd Goldsamt; Fiscal Year: 2007..study will inform our understanding of the sexual practices of HIV+ MSM, including sex with HIV- or serostatus unknown partners, risk for STD's, initiation of new drug and sexual practices, and HIV superinfection.
- DNA FORMS OF MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUSESFAYTH YOSHIMURA; Fiscal Year: 2007..The results of these studies will enhance our understanding of the role of apoptosis in the development of neoplastic disease. ..
- Epidemiology of HIV-1/HIV-2 Dual InfectionGeoffrey Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- Extrahepatic Replication and Viral Evolution of HCV During HCV/HIV Co-infectionJason Blackard; Fiscal Year: 2007..This proposal will provide important data on co-factors of virus transmission and identify potential markers of HCV disease progression and treatment failure. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Eradication of a Primary Filariasis Vector Population at an Endemic Field SiteSTEPHEN LEONARD DOBSON; Fiscal Year: 2010..Integration of the vector eradication strategy and the MDA approach will facilitate filariasis elimination in areas where MDA alone has failed. ..
- Mechanisms of Feline Lentivirus Control and InterferenceSue Vandewoude; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..