superinfection

Summary

Summary: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection and viral diversity
    Kimber L Gross
    San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 18:1513-20. 2004
  2. pmc Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus
    Svetlana Y Folimonova
    Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, USA
    J Virol 84:1314-25. 2010
  3. pmc Host-mediated regulation of superinfection in malaria
    Silvia Portugal
    Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    Nat Med 17:732-7. 2011
  4. ncbi Influenza infection leads to increased susceptibility to subsequent bacterial superinfection by impairing NK cell responses in the lung
    Cherrie Lee Small
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    J Immunol 184:2048-56. 2010
  5. pmc Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral protein
    Svetlana Y Folimonova
    University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida, USA
    J Virol 86:5554-61. 2012
  6. pmc Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfection
    Steffen Wildum
    Department of Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    J Virol 80:8047-59. 2006
  7. pmc The rates of HIV superinfection and primary HIV incidence in a general population in Rakai, Uganda
    Andrew D Redd
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 206:267-74. 2012
  8. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection occurs despite relatively robust neutralizing antibody responses
    Catherine A Blish
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    J Virol 82:12094-103. 2008
  9. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection
    Laura Waters
    Brighton and Sussex University NHS Trust, Lawson Unit, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:42-50. 2012
  10. ncbi Dual HIV-1 infection associated with rapid disease progression
    Geoffrey S Gottlieb
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
    Lancet 363:619-22. 2004

Detail Information

Publications236 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection and viral diversity
    Kimber L Gross
    San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 18:1513-20. 2004
    Sequential acquisition of viral variants, or HIV-1 superinfection, has been proposed to explain the high fractions of recombinant viruses observed in some geographical regions, but only a few cases of superinfection in humans have been ..
  2. pmc Infection with strains of Citrus tristeza virus does not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus
    Svetlana Y Folimonova
    Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, USA
    J Virol 84:1314-25. 2010
    b>Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, ..
  3. pmc Host-mediated regulation of superinfection in malaria
    Silvia Portugal
    Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    Nat Med 17:732-7. 2011
    ..b>Superinfection presents an increased risk of hyperparasitemia and death in less immune individuals but counterintuitively is ..
  4. ncbi Influenza infection leads to increased susceptibility to subsequent bacterial superinfection by impairing NK cell responses in the lung
    Cherrie Lee Small
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
    J Immunol 184:2048-56. 2010
    Influenza viral infection is well-known to predispose to subsequent bacterial superinfection in the lung but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined...
  5. pmc Superinfection exclusion is an active virus-controlled function that requires a specific viral protein
    Svetlana Y Folimonova
    University of Florida, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida, USA
    J Virol 86:5554-61. 2012
    b>Superinfection exclusion, a phenomenon in which a preexisting viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or a closely related virus, has been described for various viruses, including important pathogens of humans, ..
  6. pmc Contribution of Vpu, Env, and Nef to CD4 down-modulation and resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells to superinfection
    Steffen Wildum
    Department of Virology, University of Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany
    J Virol 80:8047-59. 2006
    ..study, we analyzed the kinetics of CD4 down-modulation and the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected T cells to superinfection using proviral HIV-1 constructs containing individual and combined defects in vpu, env, and nef and expressing ..
  7. pmc The rates of HIV superinfection and primary HIV incidence in a general population in Rakai, Uganda
    Andrew D Redd
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 206:267-74. 2012
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection has been documented in high-risk individuals; however, the rate of superinfection among HIV-infected individuals within a general population remains unknown.
  8. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection occurs despite relatively robust neutralizing antibody responses
    Catherine A Blish
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 1024, USA
    J Virol 82:12094-103. 2008
    b>Superinfection by a second human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain indicates that gaps in protective immunity occur during natural infection...
  9. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection
    Laura Waters
    Brighton and Sussex University NHS Trust, Lawson Unit, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:42-50. 2012
    This review describes the nature and frequency of HIV-1 superinfection and provides advice regarding counselling of patients in accordance with national guidelines.
  10. ncbi Dual HIV-1 infection associated with rapid disease progression
    Geoffrey S Gottlieb
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
    Lancet 363:619-22. 2004
    ..Five of these with AIDS endpoints had dual infection with HIV-1: four were cases of coinfection and one was superinfection. In all five, time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS or to CD4+ T-cell count less than 200 cells per microL ..
  11. ncbi Lack of neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 predisposes to superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0679, USA
    Virology 355:1-5. 2006
    Occurrences of HIV-1 superinfection offer a unique opportunity to investigate the correlates of immune protection...
  12. pmc Inhibition of superinfection and the evolution of viral latency
    Thomas W Berngruber
    Centre d Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS, Route de Mende 1919, Montpellier, France
    J Virol 84:10200-8. 2010
    Latent viruses generally defend their host cell against superinfection by nonlatent virulent mutants that could destroy the host cell. Superinfection inhibition thus seems to be a prerequisite for the maintenance of viral latency...
  13. pmc Hepatitis C virus reinfection and superinfection among treated and untreated participants with recent infection
    Jason Grebely
    Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Hepatology 55:1058-69. 2012
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate reinfection and superinfection during treatment for recent hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  14. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus superinfection and recombination: current state of knowledge and potential clinical consequences
    Jason T Blackard
    Research and Evaluation Department, Fenway Community Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:1108-14. 2002
    b>Superinfection with multiple strains or subtypes of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses has been documented...
  15. pmc Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV
    JENNIFER L KELSCHENBACH
    Molecular Virology Division, St Luke s Roosevelt Hospital Center, 432 West 58th Street, New York, NY 10019, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7:380-7. 2012
    ..These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings...
  16. ncbi HIV superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California, San Diego, 92093, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:438-44. 2005
    Worldwide, 16 cases of HIV-1 superinfection in humans have been reported since 2002. Superinfection is defined as the reinfection of an individual who already has an established infection with a heterologous HIV strain...
  17. pmc Naturally occurring swine influenza A virus PB1-F2 phenotypes that contribute to superinfection with Gram-positive respiratory pathogens
    Jenni N Weeks-Gorospe
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    J Virol 86:9035-43. 2012
    ..of primary influenza virus infection, with only limited assessment in models of Streptococcus pneumoniae superinfection. Specifically, these studies have incorporated isogenic viruses that differ in the PB1-F2 expressed, but there ..
  18. pmc HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection
    Debby Basu
    Immunology and Molecular Pathogenesis Graduate Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Retrovirology 9:76. 2012
    The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood...
  19. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection and its implications for vaccine design
    Bhavna H Chohan
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, C3 168, Seattle, WA 98104 1024, USA
    Curr HIV Res 8:596-601. 2010
    HIV-1 superinfection, which refers to a subsequent HIV-1 infection from a different source partner after the first HIV-1 infection is established, has now been well documented in multiple populations...
  20. pmc HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody response
    Valerie Cortez
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002611. 2012
    ..tested against a panel of eight viruses representing four different HIV-1 subtypes at matched time points post-superinfection (~5 years post-initial infection)...
  21. ncbi Frequent HCV reinfection and superinfection in a cohort of injecting drug users in Amsterdam
    Thijs J W van de Laar
    Cluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Hepatol 51:667-74. 2009
    This study investigates the occurrence of HCV reinfection and superinfection among HCV seroconverters participating in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users from 1985 through 2005.
  22. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection despite broad CD8+ T-cell responses containing replication of the primary virus
    Marcus Altfeld
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 420:434-9. 2002
    ..Sequencing of the virus in plasma and cells showed that superinfection with a second clade-B virus was coincident with the loss of immune control...
  23. pmc Analysis of infectious virus clones from two HIV-1 superinfection cases suggests that the primary strains have lower fitness
    Antoinette C van der Kuyl
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Centre for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Retrovirology 7:60. 2010
    Two HIV-1 positive patients, L and P, participating in the Amsterdam Cohort studies acquired an HIV-1 superinfection within half a year from their primary HIV-1 infection (Jurriaans et al., JAIDS 2008, 47:69-73)...
  24. ncbi HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfection
    Davey M Smith
    University of California San Diego, USA
    AIDS 19:1251-6. 2005
    HIV interclade B superinfection has previously been described in individuals initially infected with drug resistant virus who then become superinfected by a drug susceptible strain...
  25. pmc Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. konkukian (serotype H34) superinfection: case report and experimental evidence of pathogenicity in immunosuppressed mice
    E Hernandez
    Laboratoire de Biologie, Hôpital des Armées Begin, Saint Mande, France
    J Clin Microbiol 36:2138-9. 1998
    ..This case is interesting because B. thuringiensis is considered to be a contaminant in laboratories and receives inadequate attention...
  26. pmc CD8+ lymphocytes do not mediate protection against acute superinfection 20 days after vaccination with a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus
    Richard Stebbings
    Division of Immunology, NIBSC, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:12264-72. 2005
    In order to test the hypothesis that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate protection against acute superinfection, we depleted >99% of CD8+ lymphocytes in live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) vaccinees from ..
  27. ncbi Therapy failure resulting from superinfection by a drug-resistant HIV variant
    Marieke Pingen
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Antivir Ther 17:1621-5. 2012
    ..HIV-1-infected patients can be superinfected with additional HIV-1 variants. Therapy failure can be the consequence of an infection with a resistant strain...
  28. ncbi Superinfection of defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with different subtypes of wild-type virus efficiently produces infectious variants with the initial viral phenotypes by complementation followed by recombination
    Yukie Iwabu
    Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Microbes Infect 10:504-13. 2008
    b>Superinfection rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have increasingly been leading to more variation in HIV-1, as evidenced by the emergence of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs)...
  29. pmc Examination of a second region of the HIV type 1 genome reveals additional cases of superinfection
    Anne Piantadosi
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1221. 2008
    HIV-1 superinfection may occur at a rate similar to that of initial infection, raising concerns for HIV-1 vaccine strategies predicated on eliciting immune responses similar to those in natural infection...
  30. pmc Cellular immune responses and susceptibility to HIV-1 superinfection: a case-control study
    Catherine A Blish
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    AIDS 26:643-6. 2012
    ..the effects of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses on the odds of acquiring a second HIV-1 infection (superinfection)...
  31. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection
    Todd M Allen
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:829-35; quiz 836. 2003
    During the past year, a number of reports have described HIV-1 superinfection in human subjects, defined as the reinfection of an individual with a second heterologous strain of HIV-1...
  32. pmc Lowering the threshold of lung innate immune cell activation alters susceptibility to secondary bacterial superinfection
    John Goulding
    Leukocyte Biology Section, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 204:1086-94. 2011
    ..Previous studies have shown that the interaction of CD200R, a myeloid inhibitory receptor, with its ligand, CD200, is critical in the control of innate immune activation in the lung...
  33. pmc Increased susceptibility to bacterial superinfection as a consequence of innate antiviral responses
    Alexander A Navarini
    Institute for Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, Schmelzbergstrasse 12, CH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:15535-9. 2006
    The reason why severe localized or systemic virus infections enhance and aggravate bacterial superinfection is poorly understood...
  34. ncbi Low incidence of HIV-1 superinfection even after episodes of unsafe sexual behavior of homosexual men in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV Infection and AIDS
    Andrea Rachinger
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 203:1621-8. 2011
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection is infection of an HIV-1 seropositive individual with another HIV-1 strain. The rate at which HIV-1 superinfection occurs might be influenced by sexual behavior...
  35. ncbi The latency-associated gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) interferes with superinfection by HSV-1
    Nurith Mador
    Laboratory of Neurovirology, Department of Neurology, and The Agnes Ginges Center for Human Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    J Neurovirol 8:97-102. 2002
    ..Here we present data that indicate yet another independent function of the LAT gene: interference with HSV-1 superinfection of latently infected neurons...
  36. ncbi Sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus superinfection in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected men who have sex with men
    Jade Ghosn
    AP HP, EA MRT 3620, Universite Paris Descartes, Department of Virology, Necker Hospital, Paris, France
    AIDS 22:658-61. 2008
    We report two cases of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) superinfection in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with high-risk sexual behaviour. The two patients had chronic HCV and a history of sexually transmitted infections...
  37. pmc HIV-1 superinfection in the antiretroviral therapy era: are seroconcordant sexual partners at risk?
    Mary S Campbell
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e5690. 2009
    ..been reported to occur both during and after primary infection, but the risks and repercussions of dual and superinfection are incompletely understood...
  38. pmc Exclusion of West Nile virus superinfection through RNA replication
    Gang Zou
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
    J Virol 83:11765-76. 2009
    b>Superinfection exclusion is the ability of an established viral infection to interfere with a second viral infection...
  39. ncbi A sudden rise in viral load is infrequently associated with HIV-1 superinfection
    Suzanne Jurriaans
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:69-73. 2008
    ..increase in the blood plasma HIV-1 viral load in chronically untreated HIV-infected patients and the occurrence of an HIV superinfection, we analyzed the HIV-1 quasispecies in plasma samples before and at peak level in 14 patients.
  40. ncbi Clade B HIV-1 superinfection with wild-type virus after primary infection with drug-resistant clade B virus
    Kersten K Koelsch
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    AIDS 17:F11-6. 2003
    The immunological response to HIV-1 infection has been postulated to impede superinfection with a second virus; however, a few recent reports have documented cases of HIV-1 superinfection in humans either from different viral clades or ..
  41. pmc Wolbachia in the Culex pipiens group mosquitoes: introgression and superinfection
    Thomas Walker
    Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
    J Hered 100:192-6. 2009
    ..pipiens group strains. A line containing both wPip strain variants superinfection was also generated by embryonic cytoplasmic transfer...
  42. pmc Protection against development of otitis media induced by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by both active and passive immunization in a chinchilla model of virus-bacterium superinfection
    L O Bakaletz
    Division of Otologic Research, Department of Otolaryngology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Infect Immun 67:2746-62. 1999
    ..001). Collectively, these data indicate the continued merit of further developing LB1 and LPD-LB1(f)2,1,3 as components of vaccines for otitis media...
  43. ncbi Resistance to superinfection of Vero cells persistently infected with Junin virus
    P Ellenberg
    Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Arch Virol 149:507-22. 2004
    ..with the arenavirus Junin (JUNV), named V3 and V7, were characterized with respect to their resistance to superinfection with homologous and antigenically related viruses...
  44. ncbi HIV-1 superinfection in an HIV-2-infected woman with subsequent control of HIV-1 plasma viremia
    Huldrych F Gunthard
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Clin Infect Dis 48:e117-20. 2009
    A human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected woman experienced asymptomatic superinfection with HIV-1 subtype AG. She did not have cross-neutralizing autologous HIV-1 antibodies before and shortly after HIV-1 superinfection...
  45. ncbi Coinfection and superinfection in patients with long-term, nonprogressive HIV-1 disease
    Concepcion Casado
    Centro Nacional de Microbiologia Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    J Infect Dis 196:895-9. 2007
    ..patient was diagnosed as being already coinfected, on the basis of the first sample analyzed, but a previous superinfection could not be excluded; the second patient was diagnosed as having a superinfection, on the basis of the 9-year ..
  46. ncbi Impact of acute hepatitis C virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection
    Yun Fan Liaw
    Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Gastroenterology 126:1024-9. 2004
    b>Superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not uncommon. Acute hepatitis delta virus (HDV) superinfection is associated with severe and/or progressive liver disease...
  47. pmc Increased susceptibility for superinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae during influenza virus infection is not caused by TLR7-mediated lymphopenia
    Sabine Stegemann
    Otto von Guericke University, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Magdeburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4840. 2009
    ..However, infection with IAV alone is rarely fatal. Instead, death associated with IAV is usually mediated by superinfection with bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  48. ncbi Superinfection with a heterologous HIV strain per se does not lead to faster progression
    Isaac Chun Hai Fung
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom
    Math Biosci 224:1-9. 2010
    It has been suggested that superinfection of HIV positive individuals with heterologous HIV strains could lead to faster progression to AIDS, generating concern over the risks of exposure to new infections in those already infected.
  49. pmc Antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition antibody activity does not correlate with risk of HIV-1 superinfection
    Donald N Forthal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA 92967, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:31-3. 2013
    ..antibody nor cellular immunity elicited by an initial HIV-1 infection is associated with protection against superinfection with a different HIV-1 strain...
  50. pmc Dual infection and superinfection inhibition of epithelial skin cells by two alphaherpesviruses co-occur in the natural host
    Keith W Jarosinski
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e37428. 2012
    Hosts can be infected with multiple herpesviruses, known as superinfection; however, superinfection of cells is rare due to the phenomenon known as superinfection inhibition...
  51. pmc Bacterial superinfection in zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Monir Doudi
    Department of Microbiology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
    Med Sci Monit 18:BR356-61. 2012
    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease. It is generally accepted that bacterial superinfection may play a role in the clinical appearance of the lesions and may delay or prevent the healing process...
  52. pmc HIV-1 superinfection occurs less frequently than initial infection in a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women
    Keshet Ronen
    Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003593. 2013
    HIV superinfection (reinfection) has been reported in several settings, but no study has been designed and powered to rigorously compare its incidence to that of initial infection...
  53. pmc Frequency and implications of HIV superinfection
    Andrew D Redd
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:622-8. 2013
    HIV superinfection occurs when an individual with HIV is infected with a new distinct HIV viral strain. Superinfection has been reported throughout the world, and studies have recorded incidence rates of 0-7·7% per year...
  54. ncbi Fatal fungal superinfection complicating B19 virus-induced massive bone marrow necrosis in sickle-cell disease
    Muriel Fartoukh
    Service de Pneumologie et Unité de Réanimation Respiratoire, Hopital Tenon, Assistance publique Hôpitaux de Paris and université Pierre et Marie Curie, 04 Rue dela Chine, 75020 Paris, France
    Haematologica 91:ECR18. 2006
  55. ncbi Absence of HIV-1 superinfection 1 year after infection between 1985 and 1997 coincides with a reduction in sexual risk behavior in the seroincident Amsterdam cohort of homosexual men
    Andrea Rachinger
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Center of University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1309-15. 2010
    Incidence rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) superinfection differ among cohorts and, as yet, only 2 cohorts of homosexual men have been screened...
  56. ncbi Corneal herpes simplex virus type 1 superinfection in patients with recrudescent herpetic keratitis
    Lies Remeijer
    Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43:358-63. 2002
    ..Recurrences may be caused by reactivation of endogenous HSV-1 or reinfection with exogenous HSV-1. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors involved of HSV-1 superinfection in patients with RHK.
  57. ncbi Corneal superinfection in acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
    R B Vajpayee
    Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
    Cornea 17:614-7. 1998
    ..the clinical profile, microbial spectrum, management modalities, and visual outcome in cases of corneal superinfection that occurred after an epidemic of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis...
  58. ncbi Bacterial superinfection in human tungiasis
    H Feldmeier
    Institute of Social Medicine, Center for Humanities and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Free University of Berlin, Germany
    Trop Med Int Health 7:559-64. 2002
    ..It is endemic in many countries in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa. Although superinfection is a common clinical observation, the frequency and the pattern of bacterial pathogens associated with ..
  59. pmc Recombination in HIV: an important viral evolutionary strategy
    D S Burke
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 3:253-9. 1997
    ..Certain features of HIV replication, such as syncytium formation and transactivation, may be best understood as components of a sexual reproductive cycle. Recombination may be an important HIV evolutionary strategy...
  60. ncbi Hepatitis E superinfection produces severe decompensation in patients with chronic liver disease
    Jeyamani Ramachandran
    Departments of Gastrointestinal Sciences and Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:134-8. 2004
    ..to examine the clinical profile and outcome of patients with chronic liver disease and hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection, and the seroprevalence of hepatitis A and E infections in patients with chronic liver disease and controls in ..
  61. ncbi Naturally arising HIV-1 Nef variants conferring escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes influence viral entry co-receptor expression and susceptibility to superinfection
    Philip Mwimanzi
    Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 403:422-7. 2010
    ..Moreover, the cells expressing the Arg75Thr variant Nef significantly impaired protection from superinfection by CCR5-tropic, but not CXCR4-tropic, viruses...
  62. pmc Evasion of CD8+ T cells is critical for superinfection by cytomegalovirus
    Scott G Hansen
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 Northwest 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Science 328:102-6. 2010
    ..We have demonstrated that superinfection of rhesus CMV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) requires evasion of CD8+ T cell immunity by virally encoded ..
  63. pmc Dynamics of HIV type 1 recombination following superinfection
    Fransje A Koning
    Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:963-70. 2013
    ..a circulating recombinant form 19 (CRF19) virus containing transmitted drug resistance mutations followed by superinfection with "wild-type" subtype B virus...
  64. pmc Chronic HIV-1 infection frequently fails to protect against superinfection
    Anne Piantadosi
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e177. 2007
    Reports of HIV-1 superinfection (re-infection) have demonstrated that the immune response generated against one strain of HIV-1 does not always protect against other strains...
  65. ncbi Defective HIV-1 quasispecies in the form of multiply drug-resistant proviral DNA within cells can be rescued by superinfection with different subtype variants of HIV-1 and by HIV-2 and SIV
    Yudong Quan
    McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B Davis Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 69:21-7. 2014
    ..proviral DNA with other complementary defective proviral DNA or with wild-type viral DNA in the aftermath of superinfection could lead to the rescue of defective provirus and the production of replication-competent virus...
  66. pmc Latent HIV-1 can be reactivated by cellular superinfection in a Tat-dependent manner, which can lead to the emergence of multidrug-resistant recombinant viruses
    Daniel A Donahue
    McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Virol 87:9620-32. 2013
    ..This could occur by superinfection of a latently infected cell...
  67. ncbi Coinfection and superinfection in RNA virus populations: a selection-mutation model
    Joan Saldaña
    Departament d Informàtica i Matemàtica Aplicada, Campus Montilivi, Universitat de Girona, Spain
    Math Biosci 183:135-60. 2003
    ..e., coinfection and superinfection) on the virulence of evolving viral populations...
  68. ncbi Rubella virus-induced superinfection exclusion studied in cells with persisting replicons
    Claudia Claus
    Institute of Virology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    J Gen Virol 88:2769-73. 2007
    For the first time, homologous superinfection exclusion was documented for rubella virus (RUB) by using Vero cells harbouring persisting RUB replicons...
  69. ncbi Does interferon-sparing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based therapy have a role in the management of severe acute hepatitis delta superinfection?
    Zahir Osman Eltahir Babiker
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Delaunays Road, Manchester M8 5RB, UK
    J Med Microbiol 61:1780-3. 2012
    ..TDF-based antiviral therapy was safe and effective in achieving HDV RNA suppression in acute HDV superinfection. Further research into the utility of interferon-sparing TDF-based regimes in the treatment of acute HDV ..
  70. ncbi [The effects of hepatitis E virus superinfection on patients with chronic hepatitis B: a clinico-pathological study]
    Qinghua Shang
    Institute of Liver Disease, Jinan Military Region, The 88th Hospital of the People s Liberation Army, Taian, Shandong Province 271000, China
    Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 41:656-9. 2002
    To observe the effect of hepatitis E virus (HEV) superinfection on hepatic lesion and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
  71. ncbi Perceptions of superinfection risk among gay men with diagnosed HIV who have unprotected anal intercourse
    A Bourne
    Sigma Research, Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J STD AIDS 22:190-3. 2011
    ..men (MSM) with diagnosed HIV who engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) perceive the potential risk of superinfection and how they respond to it...
  72. ncbi Evaluation of pre-screening methods for the identification of HIV-1 superinfection
    Andrea Rachinger
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol Methods 165:311-7. 2010
    ..assay (HMA) and the presence of ambiguity codes in population-based sequences - applied for detection of HIV-1 superinfection. HIV-1 env C2-C4 PCR products generated from 48 serum samples isolated from 24 HIV-1 positive and therapy-naï..
  73. pmc Epstein-Barr virus reactivation after superinfection of the BJAB-B1 and P3HR-1 cell lines with cytomegalovirus
    Rodney Arcenas
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    BMC Microbiol 2:20. 2002
    ..This report aims to examine the in vitro susceptibilities of BJAB-B1 and P3HR-1 cells (EBV positive Burkitt's lymphoma B-cell lines) to a CMV superinfection; and show that EBV reactivation occurs after CMV superinfects these cell lines.
  74. pmc Superinfection drives virulence evolution in experimental populations of bacteria and plasmids
    Jeff Smith
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Evolution 65:831-41. 2011
    ..They also show that symbioses between bacteria and plasmids can evolve to be surprisingly antagonistic...
  75. pmc Macaque long-term nonprogressors resist superinfection with multiple CD8+ T cell escape variants of simian immunodeficiency virus
    Jason T Weinfurter
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Virol 85:530-41. 2011
    ..are therefore still at risk for subsequent infection with divergent viruses, but the barriers to such superinfection remain unclear...
  76. ncbi Acute exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B are rarely associated with superinfection of hepatitis B virus
    J H Kao
    Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Hepatology 34:817-23. 2001
    There are 7 genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Whether superinfection of HBV carriers with different HBV genotypes occurs remains unknown...
  77. ncbi Is HIV superinfection worrisome?
    Jay A Levy
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Lancet 361:98-9. 2003
  78. ncbi Lethal Strongyloides stercoralis superinfection in an immunocompromised patient
    George Kosmadakis
    Department of Nephrology Gregorios Vosnides, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece
    Ren Fail 32:750-2. 2010
    ..A large worm load of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was identified in the sputum. The patient was treated with thiopental 25 mg/kgBW/12 h through a Levine tube and died 24 h later...
  79. pmc Sequence analysis of the dimerization initiation site of concordant and discordant viral variants superinfecting HIV type 1 patients
    Luzia Mayr
    Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:1231-5. 2011
    ....
  80. ncbi Progression of lesions in the respiratory tract of broilers after single infection with Escherichia coli compared to superinfection with E. coli after infection with infectious bronchitis virus
    R Marius Dwars
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 127:65-76. 2009
    ..coli in the respiratory tract of broilers, but rather induces an exaggerated inflammatory response in the airsacs only, which seems to be the mechanism behind the pattern of airsacculitis in commercial poultry in the field...
  81. pmc Expansion of variant diversity associated with a high prevalence of pathogen strain superinfection under conditions of natural transmission
    Massaro W Ueti
    Animal Diseases Research Unit, USDA ARS, Pullman, Washington, USA
    Infect Immun 80:2354-60. 2012
    b>Superinfection occurs when a second, genetically distinct pathogen strain infects a host that has already mounted an immune response to a primary strain...
  82. ncbi HCV superinfection and reinfection
    Jason T Blackard
    Division of Digestive Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH, USA
    Antivir Ther 17:1443-8. 2012
    ..Moreover, individuals with HCV infection may be at risk of HCV superinfection with a second strain of HCV even after the establishment of persistent infection and the development of an ..
  83. ncbi The effect of the time interval between exposures on the susceptibility of chickens to superinfection with Marek's disease virus
    John R Dunn
    USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
    Avian Dis 54:1038-49. 2010
    ..Four experiments were performed to demonstrate superinfection and evaluate the effect of time between challenges on the effect of superinfection with the use of two pairs ..
  84. pmc Rapid increase in total torquetenovirus (TTV) plasma viremia load reveals an apparently transient superinfection by a TTV of a novel group 2 genotype
    Fabrizio Maggi
    Virology Section and Retrovirus Center, Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via San Zeno 35 37, I 56127 Pisa, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2571-4. 2006
    ..The superinfection induced a rapid increase in the plasma TTV load and a decline in immunocomplexed virus...
  85. ncbi Resistance to superinfection by a vigorously replicating, uncloned stock of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) stimulates replication of a live attenuated virus vaccine (SIVmacC8)
    Neil Berry
    Division of Retrovirology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2240-51. 2008
    ..The ability of SIVmacC8 to confer resistance to superinfection with an uncloned ex vivo derivative of SIVmac251 (SIVmac32H/L28) was investigated...
  86. ncbi Isospora belli superinfection in a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis--a diagnostic challenge
    Udayakumar Navaneethan
    Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    J Crohns Colitis 6:236-9. 2012
    ..We report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed Isospora superinfection of the small bowel while receiving systemic corticosteroids for EGE...
  87. ncbi Sirolimus oral ulcer with Cedecea davisae superinfection
    H Mawardi
    Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Transpl Infect Dis 12:446-50. 2010
    ..davisae. According to the literature, this is the first case of C. davisae detected in the oral cavity. Antibiotic therapy led to prompt resolution of this very large ulcer...
  88. ncbi Protection of SIVmac-infected macaque monkeys against superinfection by a simian immunodeficiency virus expressing envelope glycoproteins of HIV type 1
    C S Dunn
    INSERUM U74 et Laboratoire de Virologie, Strasbourg, France
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 13:913-22. 1997
    ..These data indicate that an antiviral response capable of effectively controlling primate lentivirus replication might not necessarily involve the envelope glycoprotein...
  89. ncbi Severe pneumonia caused by Nocardia farcinica and complicated by Staphylococcus haemoliticus superinfection
    P Bruno
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University, Pneumology UOC, Sant Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 15:401-5. 2011
    ..induced a rapid improvement of the clinical picture that was resolved in 6 months. Pneumonia caused by Nocardia farcinica is rare but its identification is necessary to set an appropriate therapy...
  90. ncbi Unsafe sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
    Krishna C Poudel
    Department of International Community Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 0033, Japan
    AIDS Behav 13:1143-50. 2009
    ..Only 41% (50/123) participants knew about the possibility of HIV superinfection. Our results suggest the urgent need of HIV prevention interventions for the Nepalese HIV-positive men.
  91. ncbi Hepatitis E virus superinfection in patients with chronic liver disease
    Saeed S Hamid
    Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Hepatology 36:474-8. 2002
    ..We document that HEV superinfection in 4 of our CLD patients caused severe liver decompensation...
  92. ncbi Dysregulated macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 expression drives illness in bacterial superinfection of influenza
    Caleb C J Zavitz
    Medical Sciences Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    J Immunol 184:2001-13. 2010
    ..A number of mechanisms have been proposed by which influenza may predispose to superinfection with an unrelated or heterologous pathogen, but the subsequent interaction between the host, virus, and ..
  93. ncbi Clearance of HCV RNA following acute hepatitis A superinfection
    B Cacopardo
    Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Via Passo Gravina 187, I 95127 Catania, Italy
    Dig Liver Dis 41:371-4. 2009
    ..Interferon gamma levels were still high 3 months later. We hypothesize that acute hepatitis A virus superinfection during the course of chronic hepatitis C may lead to hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid clearance through an ..
  94. ncbi Pulmonary superinfection by trichomonads in the course of acute respiratory distress syndrome
    Christophe Duboucher
    Department of Pathology, Poissy Saint Germain Hospital, 20 rue Armagis, 78100, Saint Germain en Laye, France
    Lung 185:295-301. 2007
    ..Nevertheless, the question of an active role of trichomonads in the extension of alveolar lesions or in the limitation of recovery is clearly raised...
  95. ncbi Superinfection exclusion in BHK-21 cells persistently infected with Junín virus
    Paula Ellenberg
    Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab II, 4 Piso, C1428BGA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Gen Virol 88:2730-9. 2007
    ..K3 cells were able to exclude superinfection of the homologous JUNV and the antigenically related Tacaribe virus (TCRV), whereas the non-related ..
  96. ncbi HBV superinfection in HCV chronic carriers: a disease that is frequently severe but associated with the eradication of HCV
    Evangelista Sagnelli
    Department of Public Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, 2nd University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    Hepatology 49:1090-7. 2009
    The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) superinfection in hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic carriers was evaluated in a long-term follow-up study on 29 chronic anti-HCV carriers with acute hepatitis B (AVH-B) (Case group BC) and 29 anti-HCV ..
  97. ncbi Recovery of viremic control after superinfection with pathogenic HIV type 1 in a long-term elite controller of HIV type 1 infection
    Andrea Rachinger
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam at the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Infect Dis 47:e86-9. 2008
    ..with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level <50 copies/mL for at least 12 months) who experienced a viremic episode after superinfection regained natural viremic control, although the viral loads in the patient's 2 partners, infected with the same ..
  98. ncbi Profound suppression of chronic hepatitis C following superinfection with hepatitis B virus
    Carla S Coffin
    Liver Unit, Division of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Liver Int 27:722-6. 2007
    ..Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share similar transmission routes; thus, coinfection is frequent. The consequences of acute HBV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C are unknown...
  99. ncbi The ltp gene of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 confers superinfection exclusion to Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis
    Xingmin Sun
    Institute for Microbiology, Federal Research Center for Nutrition and Food, PO Box 6069, D 24121 Kiel, Germany
    Virology 350:146-57. 2006
    ..with infection at the stage of triggering DNA release and injection into the cell, indicating a role of Ltp in superinfection exclusion. Expression of ltp in L...
  100. pmc Bilateral surgically induced necrotising scleritis with secondary superinfection
    M R Vagefi
    Br J Ophthalmol 89:124-5. 2005
  101. pmc Superinfection as a driver of genomic diversification in antigenically variant pathogens
    James E Futse
    Program in Vector Borne Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2123-7. 2008
    ..change needed for a new strain to evade existing immunity and establish coexisting infection, termed strain superinfection. Here, we show that the diversity in the alleles encoding antigenic variants between strains of a highly ..

Research Grants62

  1. Molecular Basis of E. coli Adhesins in Bladder Disorders
    Scott J Hultgren; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 1 investigates mechanisms by which superinfection of UPEC leads to the development of chronic/recurrent infection...
  2. Role of influenza-induced prothrombosis in Streptococcus pyogenes superinfections
    Michael S Chaussee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is typically due to the development of secondary bacterial complications, which is called excess mortality, or superinfection. During the recent flu pandemic, Streptococcus pyogenes caused about 1/3 of the known cases of superinfection...
  3. P.falciparum var gene diversity and malaria control
    KAREN PATRICIA DAY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This repertoire diversity is proposed to allow a superinfection to establish, persist, and transmit in an exposed host...
  4. HIV Envelope-based vaccines from superinfection to elicit neutralizing antibodies
    ANN JONES HESSELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Superinfection (SI) provides a unique immunological setting for studying candidate HIV Envs as potential vaccine components...
  5. INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION BETWEEN RICKETTSIAE IN TICKS
    Abdu F Azad; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peacockii- or R. montanensis-infected ticks thereby prohibiting rickettsial superinfection in the ovaries...
  6. Strategies for Eliciting bnAbs against Conserved HIV-1 Quaternary Epitopes
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, we have identified an acutely infected patient (CAP256) who after superinfection developed broad and potent bnAbs for subtype C isolates that are directed against QNEs...
  7. Bacterial Interference to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection
    BARBARA WELLS TRAUTNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..coli HU2117 will predict success or failure of bladder colonization and prevention of superinfection. The research design is a prospective clinical trial in which all 20 subjects wil receive a study catheter ..
  8. Virologic Correlates of Heterosexual Transmission
    Eric Hunter; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Newly infected partners in couples infected by different strains of HIV-1, are at high risk for superinfection and subsequent virus recombination...
  9. Participation of Mucosal Type I Interferon Signaling in Pulmonary Disease
    Alice S Prince; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abilities to stimulate IFN-[unreadable] production and comparing how they affect susceptibility to bacterial superinfection. We predict that mucosal epithelial IFN-[unreadable] production, possibly through effects in activating ..
  10. C. trachomatis increases transmission of HIV: mechanisms in the endocervix
    Danny J Schust; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The role of co-infection and superinfection with other sexually-transmitted pathogens in HIV transmission is understudied...
  11. Impact of CTL Escape Mutations on HIV-1 Replicative Fitness
    Todd Allen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Finally, HIV superinfection has been associated with overcoming pre-existing immune control and rapid disease progression, likely due to ..
  12. AIDS ASSOCIATED LEUKOPLAKIA--ROLE OF EBV
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We will determine if expression of CD21 contributes to superinfection and whether superinfection induces viral replication...
  13. Treatment of recently acquired hepatitis C virus infection
    GREGORY JOHN DORE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Both superinfection and reinfection with HCV were observed with possible impact on treatment response rates...
  14. OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOME OF DUAL HIV-1 INFECTION
    JAMES IVAN MULLINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a result of co-infection, wherein acquisition of two HIV-1 viral strains occurs during primary infection, or superinfection, wherein a second viral strain infects sometime after primary infection...
  15. Primary Infection Resource Consortium (Pirc)
    SUSAN JANET LITTLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The breadth of the collected data will represent a significant opportunity for consortium investigators to evaluate pressing issues related to HIV transmission, prevention, resistance, superinfection, and eradication.
  16. Characterization of HIV-1 Antibody Responses in Chronically Infected Women
    Julie M Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..also identified individuals with exceptionally broad and potent elite neutralizing activity as a result of superinfection. We hypothesize that the Nab responses in these individuals will be distinct from those of singly-infected ..
  17. ENHANCING COLLECTIN MEDIATED HOST DEFENSE
    Kevan Hartshorn; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..are chosen because they represent individually major causes of serious respiratory infection, and because superinfection with pneumococci is an important complication of IAV infection...
  18. EARLY AND REINFECTION IN HIGH RISK WOMEN
    Julie M Overbaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of early events in HIV infection, including HIV acquisition in the face of an existing HIV infection (superinfection) are needed...
  19. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SINDBIS VIRUS
    James Strauss; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Concomitant with this, the infected cell becomes resistant to superinfection by closely related viruses...
  20. MECHANISM OF BACTERIAL SUPERINFECTION
    BARBARA SANFORD; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..continue study because staphylococcal pneumonia is a well-documented example of a life-threatening bacterial superinfection occurring in patients with complicated influenza...
  21. HTLV-III SEQUENCES AT THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL LEVEL
    JOSEPH MOSCA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..b>Superinfection of these latent HTLV-III LTR containing lines with herpes viruses reactivated the HTLV-III LTR as determined ..
  22. LIVER TRANSPLANT ASSOCIATED CYTOMEGALOVIRUS PREVENTION
    David Snydman; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..increases the mortality of liver transplant patients and may contribute to complicating fungal or parasitic superinfection. All liver transplant recipients have a significant risk of CMV infection; the source of CMV may be either the ..
  23. Interplay of B cells and HIV Leading to Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses
    Pascal Poignard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the development of bNAb responses? - do broad and potent neutralizing responses protect against HIV-1 superinfection? - What are the neutralizing antibody specificities in sera from individuals with broad neutralizing activity? ..
  24. USING SOCIAL NETWORKS TO REDUCE RISKY SEX IN HIV+ WOMEN
    Ralph DiClemente; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Thus, reducing high risk behavior could redeem risk of rapid disease progression by avoiding virulent HIV superinfection. Furthermore, the public health significance of promoting consistent condom use among women living with HIV is ..
  25. NEF GENE OF HIV-1
    Warner Greene; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..While this response likely serves to limit virus superinfection, additional functional effects may occur including alterations in the state of T cell activation...
  26. DELTA HEPATITIS AND LIVER DISEASE IN HEMOPHILIACS
    F Hollinger; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The unique characteristics of HDV is that it is dependent on HBV replication for its expression. Superinfection of hepatitis B patients with HDV often leads to severe and ultimately fatal disease...
  27. The NOSES Trial, Nasal irrigation, Oral steroids, Antibiotics and Subgroup target
    Daniel Merenstein; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Although bacterial superinfection or complications from bacterial infection are relatively rare;treatment is almost always with an antibiotic, ..
  28. HIV-HSV INTERACTIONS IN VITRO
    MARY NIES; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This will be pursued by transfecting ICP4 into both CEM (lymphoid) and U937 (monocytic) cells, followed by superinfection with whole virus HIV-1 and observing for any upregulation in HIV expression...
  29. HIV CYTOPATHICITY--ANTISENSE RNA APPROACH
    Mario Stevenson; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..We hypothesize that superinfection -- unrestricted virus replication and buildup of a toxic viral gene product -- plays a crucial role in the ..
  30. Varicella Zoster Virus:Clinical Implications of Immunity
    Saul Silverstein; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..b>Superinfection of latently infected neurons with an adenovirus encoding the ICP0 of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates ..
  31. Viral-Bacterial Interactions in the Airway Epithelium
    Raymond Pickles; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..that bacterial infections are often made worse by concurrent viral infections, a condition known as "bacterial superinfection". Infection of the human airways by specific viruses (e.g...
  32. RETROVIRUSES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT
    Ann Kiessling; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..to this was female tissues of the AKR strain that express endogenous viral proteins were resistant to superinfection by exogenous virus...
  33. HUMORAL IMMUNITY AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE
    ROY PAGE; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..by ligature placement as before, but extend the protocol to evaluate the consequence of ligature removal and superinfection. We will characterize the subgingival flora at baseline and monitor not only Porphyromonas gingivalis but also ..
  34. EXPRESSION OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS IN HYBRID CELLS
    Ronald Glaser; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..EBV DNA synthesis was observed in virus genome negative Ramos cells after superinfection, thus endogenous EBV DNA is not required for virus replication...
  35. MECHANISMS OF CELL KILLING INDUCED BY RETROVIRUSES
    John Young; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The fourth aim studies whether viral superinfection contributes to the cytopathic effects...
  36. BREEDING & EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY
    Bud Tennant; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..synthetic antivirals and immunomodulators against WHV in infected animals, (2) the study of the coinfection/superinfection of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and WHV for the development of HDV vaccines and antivirals, (3) the ..
  37. Behavioral Therapy Development for Methamphetamine Abuse
    James Peck; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..with unknown or anonymous partners; and decrease likelihood of sexually transmitted infections and potential superinfection with HIV...
  38. Mechanisms Blocking HIV-1 Superinfection
    Robert Grant; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our synergistic approach is designed to provide important novel information that bears directly on HIV-1 epidemiology, protective immunity, and prevention. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  39. AAV-SPECIFIC INTEGRATION AND RESCUE IN HUMAN CELLS
    RICHARD SAMULSKI; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The resulting neo cell lines will then be assayed for rescue upon superinfection with adenovirus...
  40. CANDIDA DIMORPHISM--VIRULENCE & IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTION
    Thomas Rogers; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..the morbidity directly associated with the organism itself is compounded by the increased risk for bacterial superinfection, the significantly compromised nutritional status of the patient, and problems associated with an inability to ..
  41. PROTECTIVE MECHANISMS WITH ATTENUATED LENTIVIRAL VACCINE
    Christopher Miller; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This association between the presence of CTL and the ability to resist superinfection with pathogenic SIV may partially explain the efficacy of attenuated viruses as vaccine in the SIV model, but ..
  42. ENDOTOXIN TOLERANCE AS A MODEL FOR IMMUNE PARALYSIS
    FREDERICK HEINZEL; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..that prevent the immune defects of endotoxin tolerance and thereby reduce susceptibility to nosocomial superinfection. 4) Characterize comparable cytokine and cellular defects in hospitalized patients following cardiac surgery ..
  43. GENETICS OF MYXOPHAGES
    Philip Youderian; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..xanthus lysogen. Mutations will be made in the genes controlling Mx8 superinfection immunity, to understand its novel dosage-dependent mechanism, in the repressor gene, to permit the inducible ..
  44. Acute CTL Escape and Viral Variation in HIV
    Todd Allen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..the role that CD8 responses play in controlling viral replication in the setting of a potential HIV-1 superinfection provides an opportunity to study this...
  45. New Animal and Culture Models to rapidly evaluate infectivity of the vCJD Agent
    Laura Manuelidis; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..to verify the agent-specificity of both the animal and culture vCJD models, 2) to further develop innovative superinfection tests in culture for strain-specific diagnosis of the vCJD agent, and 3) to use direct culture and ..
  46. OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOME OF DUAL HIV-1 INFECTION
    James Mullins; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..from near simultaneous acquisition of two HIV-1 infections (what we will term "co-infection"), or if true superinfection can occur, i.e...
  47. DEVELOPMENT REGULATION OF HIV GENE EXPRESSION & LATENCY
    Steven Zeichner; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..In an analogous fashion, superinfection with DNA virus or immune stimulation are thought to end latency in adults...
  48. CLONING OF THE WERNER'S SYNDROME DEFECT
    GLENNA BURMER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..capable of prolonging lifespan will be identified either by southern hybridization with viral probes or by superinfection with helper virus and rescue of the integrated recombinant retrovirus...
  49. ENHANCING ANTIBODIES IN HIV INFECTION
    Jay Levy; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Finally, the possible involvement of ADE in bringing about superinfection of HIV- infected cells and generation of recombinant virus will be examined...
  50. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF RETROVIRUSES
    John Coffin; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..1) The structure and function of ALV env proteins and their receptors as well as mechanisms of viral entry and superinfection resistance; 2) The specificity and mechanism of viral DNA integration and the role of DNA structure and DNA-..
  51. Defining Immune Deficits in HIV-1 Infected Women
    Catherine A Blish; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Recent reports of HIV-1 superinfection (also called re-infection, defined as infection by a second virus after the first virus is already established ..
  52. WOLBACHIA INFECTIONS AS A VEHICLE FOR GENOME REPLACEMENT
    SCOTT O NEILL; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Specific Aim 4 will characterize key population dynamic parameters associated with environmental conditioning of the CI superinfection phenotype in the mosquito Aedes albopictus.
  53. IMMUNOLOGY OF LARVAL TAPEWORM INFECTION
    Jeffrey Williams; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..they are able to do so in immunologically competent animals, which may show a marked and specific antibody-mediated immunity to superinfection, is a paradox challenging to our understanding of resistance mechanisms in infectious disease.
  54. Detection and Characterization of HIV-1 Intraclade Dual Infection
    David Smith; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..detecting intraclade dual infection, (2) the incidence and prevalence of dual infection (both coinfection and superinfection) among recently and chronically HIV infected individuals, and (3) the clinical and virologic correlates of ..
  55. LABORATORY AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF AIDS
    Paul Volberding; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cell lines our specific goals are to determine whether 1) HIV superinfection of cells pre-infected with CMV enhances HIV replication as compared to cells not preinfected with CMV; 2) CMV ..
  56. HIV-1 Vpr for dNTP Biosynthesis
    Pauline Chugh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..into the long-term survival of viral reservoirs such as macrophage and may explain their susceptibility to superinfection, thus increasing viral diversity...
  57. Ethno-Epidemiology in an Emergent MSM Risk Environment
    Lloyd Goldsamt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..study will inform our understanding of the sexual practices of HIV+ MSM, including sex with HIV- or serostatus unknown partners, risk for STD's, initiation of new drug and sexual practices, and HIV superinfection.
  58. DNA FORMS OF MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUSES
    FAYTH YOSHIMURA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results of these studies will enhance our understanding of the role of apoptosis in the development of neoplastic disease. ..
  59. Epidemiology of HIV-1/HIV-2 Dual Infection
    Geoffrey Gottlieb; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  60. Extrahepatic Replication and Viral Evolution of HCV During HCV/HIV Co-infection
    Jason Blackard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal will provide important data on co-factors of virus transmission and identify potential markers of HCV disease progression and treatment failure. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Eradication of a Primary Filariasis Vector Population at an Endemic Field Site
    STEPHEN LEONARD DOBSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Integration of the vector eradication strategy and the MDA approach will facilitate filariasis elimination in areas where MDA alone has failed. ..
  62. Mechanisms of Feline Lentivirus Control and Interference
    Sue Vandewoude; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..