smallpox

Summary

Summary: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Anne W Rimoin
    University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16262-7. 2010
  2. ncbi Proteome-wide analysis of the serological response to vaccinia and smallpox
    D Huw Davies
    Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proteomics 7:1678-86. 2007
  3. pmc On the origin of smallpox: correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records
    Yu Li
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15787-92. 2007
  4. ncbi Modified vaccinia Ankara: potential as an alternative smallpox vaccine
    Lewis H McCurdy
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3017, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:1749-53. 2004
  5. pmc Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011
  6. pmc Inhibition of NK cell activity by IL-17 allows vaccinia virus to induce severe skin lesions in a mouse model of eczema vaccinatum
    Yuko Kawakami
    Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1219-25. 2009
  7. pmc Safety, immunogenicity, and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjects
    Richard N Greenberg
    Infectious Diseases Division, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0093, USA
    J Infect Dis 207:749-58. 2013
  8. ncbi Daniel Bernoulli's epidemiological model revisited
    Klaus Dietz
    Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Westbahnhofstr 55, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
    Math Biosci 180:1-21. 2002
  9. ncbi Smallpox: anything to declare?
    Geoffrey L Smith
    Department of Virology, The Wright Fleming Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1P6, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:521-7. 2002
  10. pmc Nonhuman primates are protected from smallpox virus or monkeypox virus challenges by the antiviral drug ST-246
    John Huggins
    U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2620-5. 2009

Detail Information

Publications283 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Major increase in human monkeypox incidence 30 years after smallpox vaccination campaigns cease in the Democratic Republic of Congo
    Anne W Rimoin
    University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16262-7. 2010
    ..population that is immunologically naïve to orthopoxviruses has increased significantly due to cessation of mass smallpox vaccination campaigns...
  2. ncbi Proteome-wide analysis of the serological response to vaccinia and smallpox
    D Huw Davies
    Center for Virus Research, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proteomics 7:1678-86. 2007
    The eradication of smallpox by vaccination with vaccinia virus was probably one of the greatest achievements of vaccinology. However, the immunological basis of this protection is not fully understood...
  3. pmc On the origin of smallpox: correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records
    Yu Li
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Centers for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15787-92. 2007
    Human disease likely attributable to variola virus (VARV), the etiologic agent of smallpox, has been reported in human populations for >2,000 years. VARV is unique among orthopoxviruses in that it is an exclusively human pathogen...
  4. ncbi Modified vaccinia Ankara: potential as an alternative smallpox vaccine
    Lewis H McCurdy
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3017, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:1749-53. 2004
    Despite the declaration of smallpox eradication in 1980, the existence of variola stockpiles and the threat of bioterrorism demand that immunity to smallpox through vaccination be maintained...
  5. pmc Smallpox vaccines: targets of protective immunity
    Bernard Moss
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Immunol Rev 239:8-26. 2011
    The eradication of smallpox, one of the great triumphs of medicine, was accomplished through the prophylactic administration of live vaccinia virus, a comparatively benign relative of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox...
  6. pmc Inhibition of NK cell activity by IL-17 allows vaccinia virus to induce severe skin lesions in a mouse model of eczema vaccinatum
    Yuko Kawakami
    Division of Cell Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Exp Med 206:1219-25. 2009
    ..have renewed efforts to better understand poxvirus pathogenesis and to develop a safer vaccine against smallpox. Individuals with atopic dermatitis are excluded from smallpox vaccination because of their propensity to develop ..
  7. pmc Safety, immunogenicity, and surrogate markers of clinical efficacy for modified vaccinia Ankara as a smallpox vaccine in HIV-infected subjects
    Richard N Greenberg
    Infectious Diseases Division, University of Kentucky School of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 0093, USA
    J Infect Dis 207:749-58. 2013
    ..immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons are at higher risk for serious complications associated with traditional smallpox vaccines. Alternative smallpox vaccines with an improved safety profile would address this unmet medical need.
  8. ncbi Daniel Bernoulli's epidemiological model revisited
    Klaus Dietz
    Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Westbahnhofstr 55, 72070 Tübingen, Germany
    Math Biosci 180:1-21. 2002
    The seminal paper by Daniel Bernoulli published in 1766 is put into a new perspective. After a short account of smallpox inoculation and of Bernoulli's life, the motivation for that paper and its impact are described...
  9. ncbi Smallpox: anything to declare?
    Geoffrey L Smith
    Department of Virology, The Wright Fleming Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1P6, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:521-7. 2002
    b>Smallpox was eradicated in 1977, but it remains a concern owing to the potential use of the causative agent variola virus in bioterrorism...
  10. pmc Nonhuman primates are protected from smallpox virus or monkeypox virus challenges by the antiviral drug ST-246
    John Huggins
    U S Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2620-5. 2009
    ..The data indicate that oral dosing once per day with ST-246 protects animals from poxvirus disease, as measured by reductions in viral load and numbers of lesions and enhancement of survival...
  11. pmc Cowpox virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model of hemorrhagic smallpox
    Reed F Johnson
    Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Virology 418:102-12. 2011
    Hemorrhagic smallpox was a rare but severe manifestation of variola virus infection that resulted in nearly 100% mortality...
  12. ncbi One time intranasal vaccination with a modified vaccinia Tiantan strain MVTT(ZCI) protects animals against pathogenic viral challenge
    Wenbo Yu
    AIDS Center and Modern Virology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, PR China
    Vaccine 28:2088-96. 2010
    ..Based on the vaccinia Tiantan (VTT) strain, which was historically used to eradicate the smallpox in China, we generated a modified VTT (MVTT(ZCI)) by removing the hemagglutinin gene and an 11,944bp genomic ..
  13. pmc Smallpox vaccines for biodefense
    Richard B Kennedy
    Mayo Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN 55905, USA
    Vaccine 27:D73-9. 2009
    Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia...
  14. pmc Control of vaccinia virus skin lesions by long-term-maintained IFN-gamma+TNF-alpha+ effector/memory CD4+ lymphocytes in humans
    Bénédicte Puissant-Lubrano
    INSERM U945, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 120:1636-44. 2010
    Vaccinia virus (VV) vaccination is used to immunize against smallpox and historically was considered to have been successful if a skin lesion formed at the vaccination site...
  15. ncbi Safety and immunogenicity of IMVAMUNE, a promising candidate as a third generation smallpox vaccine
    Jens Vollmar
    Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Vaccine 24:2065-70. 2006
    A Phase I trial was performed to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of the third generation smallpox vaccine MVA-BN (IMVAMUNE), a highly attenuated clone derived from the Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara strain 571, in naive and pre-..
  16. ncbi Individual-based computational modeling of smallpox epidemic control strategies
    Donald S Burke
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E5527, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 13:1142-9. 2006
    ..bioterrorism, the authors developed an individual-based (or "agent-based") computational model of smallpox epidemic transmission and control...
  17. pmc The effectiveness of contact tracing in emerging epidemics
    Don Klinkenberg
    Theoretical Epidemiology, Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 1:e12. 2006
    ..With these insights we explain why contact tracing was and will be effective for control of smallpox and SARS, only partially effective for foot-and-mouth disease, and likely not effective for influenza.
  18. ncbi Genome sequence diversity and clues to the evolution of variola (smallpox) virus
    Joseph J Esposito
    Biotechnology Core Facility Branch, Division of Scientific Resources, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Science 313:807-12. 2006
    Comparative genomics of 45 epidemiologically varied variola virus isolates from the past 30 years of the smallpox era indicate low sequence diversity, suggesting that there is probably little difference in the isolates' functional gene ..
  19. ncbi Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses
    Anton Mayr
    Institute of Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases of the Veterinary, Faculty of the Ludwig Maximilian, University of Munich, Weiheimer Strasse 1, 823 19, Starnberg, Germany
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 26:423-30. 2003
    ..Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals...
  20. pmc Genome-wide association study of antibody response to smallpox vaccine
    Inna G Ovsyannikova
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Vaccine 30:4182-9. 2012
    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of antibody levels in a multi-ethnic group of 1071 healthy smallpox vaccine recipients...
  21. pmc Forecasting the geographical spread of smallpox cases by air travel
    R F Grais
    Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 131:849-57. 2003
    Instituting air travel restrictions to slow the geographical spread of smallpox cases would have significant consequences and present serious logistical concerns...
  22. ncbi Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccination
    Mary G Reynolds
    Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop G 43, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Trends Microbiol 20:80-7. 2012
    ..in human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) prompts the question of whether cessation of smallpox vaccination is driving the phenomenon, and if so, why is re-emergence not universal throughout the historic ..
  23. pmc Smallpox vaccine with integrated IL-15 demonstrates enhanced in vivo viral clearance in immunodeficient mice and confers long term protection against a lethal monkeypox challenge in cynomolgus monkeys
    Rafal J Zielinski
    Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 1374, USA
    Vaccine 28:7081-91. 2010
    Despite the eradication of smallpox, there is heightened concern that it could be reintroduced as a result of intentional release of Variola major virus through an act of bioterrorism...
  24. ncbi Emergence and reemergence of smallpox: the need for development of a new generation smallpox vaccine
    Sergei N Shchelkunov
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Vaccine 29:D49-53. 2011
    The review summarizes the archive data on smallpox, history of ancient civilizations, and the most recent data on the genome organization of orthopoxviruses, their evolutionary relationships, and the time points of smallpox emergence...
  25. ncbi A model for a smallpox-vaccination policy
    Samuel A Bozzette
    RAND Center for Domestic and International Health Security, Santa Monica, Calif, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:416-25. 2003
    The new reality of biologic terrorism and warfare has ignited a debate about whether to reintroduce smallpox vaccination.
  26. pmc Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and trafficking
    Min Fang
    Immune Cell Development and Host Defense Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    J Exp Med 207:2369-81. 2010
    ..We show that mice genetically resistant to mousepox (the mouse parallel of human smallpox) lose resistance at mid-age...
  27. pmc Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon
    M I Meltzer
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atalnta, Georgia 30333
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:959-69. 2001
    We constructed a mathematical model to describe the spread of smallpox after a deliberate release of the virus...
  28. ncbi Analyzing bioterror response logistics: the case of smallpox
    Edward H Kaplan
    Yale School of Management, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, Box 208200, New Haven, CT 06520 8200, USA
    Math Biosci 185:33-72. 2003
    To evaluate existing and alternative proposals for emergency response to a deliberate smallpox attack, we embed the key operational features of such interventions into a smallpox disease transmission model...
  29. pmc What was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefense
    Donald K Milton
    Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA, USA
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:150. 2012
    ..The mode of smallpox transmission was never conclusively established...
  30. pmc An attenuated LC16m8 smallpox vaccine: analysis of full-genome sequence and induction of immune protection
    Shigeru Morikawa
    Department of Virology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Tokyo, Japan
    J Virol 79:11873-91. 2005
    The potential threat of smallpox bioterrorism has made urgent the development of lower-virulence vaccinia virus vaccines...
  31. ncbi LC16m8: an attenuated smallpox vaccine
    Julie Kenner
    VaxGen Inc, USA
    Vaccine 24:7009-22. 2006
    The frequency of moderate to severe adverse reactions associated with smallpox vaccines currently stockpiled in the US, and the continued threat of bioterrorism have prompted the development of effective vaccines with improved safety ..
  32. pmc Rapid protection in a monkeypox model by a single injection of a replication-deficient vaccinia virus
    Patricia L Earl
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 3210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:10889-94. 2008
    The success of the World Health Organization smallpox eradication program three decades ago resulted in termination of routine vaccination and consequent decline in population immunity...
  33. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine in vaccinia-naive adults
    Jeffrey S Kennedy
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:1395-402. 2011
    LC16m8 is an attenuated cell culture-adapted Lister vaccinia smallpox vaccine missing the B5R protein and licensed for use in Japan.
  34. ncbi Tecovirimat for smallpox infections
    T C Bolken
    SIGA Technologies, Inc, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA
    Drugs Today (Barc) 46:109-17. 2010
    ..Currently, there is a need to develop safe and effective inhibitors for poxvirus-induced diseases such as smallpox caused by variola, which is a potential biological warfare agent...
  35. pmc Immunity from smallpox vaccine persists for decades: a longitudinal study
    Dennis D Taub
    Laboratory of Immunology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224 6825, USA
    Am J Med 121:1058-64. 2008
    The threat of smallpox resulting from bioterrorist action has prompted a reassessment of the level of immunity in current populations.
  36. ncbi Variola virus immune evasion proteins
    Lance R Dunlop
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 220 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Microbes Infect 5:1049-56. 2003
    Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, encodes approximately 200 proteins. Over 80 of these proteins are located in the terminal regions of the genome, where proteins associated with host immune evasion are encoded...
  37. ncbi Smallpox
    Sarah D Nafziger
    Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th Street South Jefferson Tower North 266, Birmingham, AL 35249 7013, USA
    Crit Care Clin 21:739-46, vii. 2005
    b>Smallpox is a highly infectious disease, which, in 1980, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization as a result of successful vaccination campaigns...
  38. ncbi The cause of death in smallpox: an examination of the pathology record
    David Barrett Martin
    Francis E Warren Air Force Base, WY 82005, USA
    Mil Med 167:546-51. 2002
    Because the cause of death in smallpox remains controversial, the human pathology record was examined.
  39. ncbi Protective immunity following vaccination: how is it defined?
    Ian J Amanna
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Hum Vaccin 4:316-9. 2008
    ..breakthrough pioneered by Edward Jenner over 200 years ago when he developed the world's first vaccine against smallpox. To this day, vaccination remains the most effective means available for combating infectious disease...
  40. ncbi Can postexposure vaccination against smallpox succeed?
    Philip P Mortimer
    Virus Reference Division, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 36:622-9. 2003
    What can be achieved by the vaccination of individuals exposed to smallpox virus after release of the virus by bioterrorists? There exist several past sources of information on postexposure vaccination failures from which it may be ..
  41. ncbi Postexposure immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara or conventional Lister vaccine provides solid protection in a murine model of human smallpox
    Nir Paran
    Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, Israel
    J Infect Dis 199:39-48. 2009
    Decades after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, the potential of the deliberate release of pathogenic orthopoxviruses has forced a reconsideration of using these extremely efficient human vaccines...
  42. ncbi Transmission potential of smallpox: estimates based on detailed data from an outbreak
    Martin Eichner
    Department of Medical Biometry, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany
    Am J Epidemiol 158:110-7. 2003
    ..of variola virus by bioterrorists have rekindled interest in the parameters that govern the transmissibility of smallpox. Here, the authors estimate by maximum likelihood the parameters of the spread of smallpox from historical data ..
  43. pmc A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding Phase II study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of the third generation smallpox vaccine candidate IMVAMUNE
    Alfred von Krempelhuber
    Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Vaccine 28:1209-16. 2010
    IMVAMUNE is a Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-based virus that is being developed as a safer 3rd generation smallpox vaccine...
  44. pmc Protective immunity against secondary poxvirus infection is dependent on antibody but not on CD4 or CD8 T-cell function
    Vijay Panchanathan
    Infection and Immunology Group, Division of Immunology and Genetics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Mills Road, Acton, ACT 0200, Australia
    J Virol 80:6333-8. 2006
    Renewed interest in smallpox and the need for safer vaccines have highlighted our lack of understanding of the requirements for protective immunity...
  45. pmc Developing new smallpox vaccines
    S R Rosenthal
    CBER Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:920-6. 2001
    New stockpiles of smallpox vaccine are required as a contingency for protecting civilian and military personnel against deliberate dissemination of smallpox virus by terrorists or unfriendly governments...
  46. ncbi Smallpox vaccination: comparison of self-reported and electronic vaccine records in the millennium cohort study
    Cynthia A LeardMann
    Department of Defense, Center for Deployment Health Research, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California, USA
    Hum Vaccin 3:245-51. 2007
    ..the US Government implemented policy to immunize health workers, first responders, and military personnel against smallpox in preparation for a possible bioterrorist attack...
  47. ncbi Transmission potential of smallpox in contemporary populations
    R Gani
    Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton, Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK
    Nature 414:748-51. 2001
    Despite eradication, smallpox still presents a risk to public health whilst laboratory stocks of virus remain. One factor crucial to any assessment of this risk is R0, the average number of secondary cases infected by each primary case...
  48. pmc Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of subunit-based smallpox vaccines using variola major antigens
    Pavlo Sakhatskyy
    Laboratory of Nucleic Acid Vaccines, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Virology 371:98-107. 2008
    The viral strain responsible for smallpox infection is variola major (VARV)...
  49. pmc The smallpox vaccine induces an early neutralizing IgM response
    Juan E Moyron-Quiroz
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Vaccine 28:140-7. 2009
    ..after immunization with vaccinia virus (VacV) is known to be sufficient to confer host protection against VacV or smallpox. In humans it has been shown that such anti-VacV antibody production can be sustained for decades...
  50. ncbi Clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin: a literature review
    Robert J Hopkins
    DynPort Vaccine Company, Frederick, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:819-26. 2004
    ..reports describe clinical efficacy of intramuscular vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) for complications of smallpox vaccination, prophylaxis of individuals with contraindications to vaccination, and prevention of smallpox among ..
  51. ncbi Activity of vaccinia virus-neutralizing antibody in the sera of smallpox vaccinees
    Kendra M Viner
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 502 Johnson Pavilion, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6073, USA
    Microbes Infect 7:579-83. 2005
    Individuals vaccinated against smallpox maintain substantial antiviral antibody responses for many years after vaccination...
  52. ncbi Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in a pre-event vaccination program. Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC)
    Melinda Wharton
    Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Center for Infectious Diseases, USA
    MMWR Recomm Rep 52:1-16. 2003
    ..Vaccinia [smallpox] vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP], 2001. MMWR 2001;50[No...
  53. pmc The immunology of smallpox vaccines
    Richard B Kennedy
    Mayo Clinic Vaccine Research Group, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 21:314-20. 2009
    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and ..
  54. pmc Discovery of antivirals against smallpox
    Stephen C Harrison
    Harvard Medical School, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seeley Mudd Building, Room 130, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:11178-92. 2004
  55. pmc Modelling responses to a smallpox epidemic taking into account uncertainty
    J Legrand
    Epidemiology and Information Sciences, INSERM U444, CHU Saint Antoine, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 27 rue Chaligny, 75012 Paris, France
    Epidemiol Infect 132:19-25. 2004
    ..In order to assess the key parameters for the control of a smallpox outbreak in a large city (2 million inhabitants), we built a stochastic model to simulate the course of an ..
  56. pmc Population-level differences in disease transmission: a Bayesian analysis of multiple smallpox epidemics
    Bret D Elderd
    Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Electronic address
    Epidemics 5:146-56. 2013
    ..method, we fit spatial and non-spatial susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) models to a series of 13 smallpox outbreaks...
  57. ncbi Looking back at smallpox
    Mike Bray
    Biodefense Clinical Research Branch, Office of Clinical Research, Office of the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:882-9. 2004
    b>Smallpox apparently arose through transfer of variola virus to humans from another animal species...
  58. pmc Smallpox research activities: U.S. interagency collaboration, 2001
    James W Leduc
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:743-5. 2002
  59. ncbi Clinical responses to undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine
    Sharon E Frey
    Department of Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1265-74. 2002
    To evaluate the potential to increase the supply of smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus), we compared the response to vaccination with 10(8.1), 10(7.2), and 10(7.0) plaque-forming units (pfu) of vaccinia virus per milliliter.
  60. pmc Critical role of perforin-dependent CD8+ T cell immunity for rapid protective vaccination in a murine model for human smallpox
    Melanie Kremer
    Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, University of Munich LMU, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002557. 2012
    ..mechanism(s) of rapidly protective vaccinia virus immunization using mousepox as surrogate model for human smallpox. We found that fast protection against lethal systemic poxvirus disease solely depended on CD4 and CD8 T cell ..
  61. pmc In vitro characterization of a nineteenth-century therapy for smallpox
    William Arndt
    Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e32610. 2012
    In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada...
  62. ncbi Dose-related effects of smallpox vaccine
    Sharon E Frey
    Department of Medicine, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:1275-80. 2002
    ....
  63. ncbi Mousepox, a small animal model of smallpox
    David Esteban
    Biology Department, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 890:177-98. 2012
    ....
  64. ncbi Biological agents as weapons 1: smallpox and botulism
    Michael Whitby
    Infection Management Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD
    Med J Aust 176:431-3. 2002
    ..2. The four biological agents of most concern are smallpox virus, botulinum toxin, and anthrax and plague bacteria. 3...
  65. ncbi The use of smallpox virus as a biological weapon: the vaccination situation in France
    D Levy-Bruhl
    Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice, France
    Euro Surveill 6:171-8. 2001
    ..Even in the case of a real threat, the vaccination of frontline healthcare personnel, and in particular of contacts of cases, must be given priority...
  66. pmc Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar
    Robert A Pol
    Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, P, O, Box 30 001, Groningen RB 9700, The Netherlands
    World J Surg Oncol 10:148. 2012
    ..Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar...
  67. ncbi The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism
    P Berche
    INSERM U411, , 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75015 Paris, France
    Trends Microbiol 9:15-8. 2001
    b>Smallpox (variola) was a devastating disease with a high case-fatality rate. Although the disease was eradicated in 1977, the remaining stocks of smallpox virus constitute one of the most dangerous threats to humanity...
  68. pmc Comparative pathology of smallpox and monkeypox in man and macaques
    J A Cann
    Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, USA
    J Comp Pathol 148:6-21. 2013
    In the three decades since the eradication of smallpox and cessation of routine vaccination, the collective memory of the devastating epidemics caused by this orthopoxvirus has waned, and the human population has become increasingly ..
  69. ncbi Smallpox eradication: lessons learnt from a success story
    R N Basu
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases, New Delhi, India
    Natl Med J India 19:33-6. 2006
  70. ncbi Smallpox vaccination: a review, part I. Background, vaccination technique, normal vaccination and revaccination, and expected normal reactions
    Vincent A Fulginiti
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:241-50. 2003
    Because smallpox could be a factor in bioterrorism, the United States has provided guidelines for smallpox vaccination of certain members of the population, including health care workers and first responders, as well as military personnel...
  71. ncbi Third-generation smallpox vaccines: challenges in the absence of clinical smallpox
    Clement A Meseda
    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, USFDA, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Future Microbiol 5:1367-82. 2010
    b>Smallpox, a disease caused by variola virus, is estimated to have killed hundreds of millions to billions of people before it was certified as eradicated in 1980...
  72. pmc Lessons from the eradication of smallpox: an interview with D. A. Henderson
    D A Henderson
    Center for Health Security, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 368:20130113. 2013
    It has been more than 35 years since the last naturally occurring case of smallpox. Sufficient time has passed to allow an objective overview of what were the key factors in the success of the eradication effort and what lessons smallpox ..
  73. ncbi Logistics in smallpox: the legacy
    John Wickett
    World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Vaccine 29:D131-4. 2011
    Logistics, defined as "the time-related positioning of resources" was critical to the implementation of the smallpox eradication strategy of surveillance and containment...
  74. ncbi Smallpox transmission risks: how bad?
    Laura H Kahn
    Science 297:50-1. 2002
  75. ncbi Antiviral prophylaxis of smallpox
    Mike Bray
    Biodefense Clinical Research Branch, Office of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:1-5. 2004
    Proof-of-concept studies suggest that current defences against smallpox could be strengthened by supplementing vaccination with antiviral drug prophylaxis, based on aerosolized or orally available forms of the long-acting medication ..
  76. ncbi Expected adverse events in a mass smallpox vaccination campaign
    Alex R Kemper
    Division of General Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
    Eff Clin Pract 5:84-90. 2002
    Recent anthrax attacks in the United States have raised concern about the nation's vulnerability to a smallpox attack...
  77. ncbi Ocular complications of smallpox vaccination
    Jay S Pepose
    Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, Missouri 63017, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 136:343-52. 2003
    To describe the ocular complications of smallpox vaccination and to discuss potential therapeutic options.
  78. pmc Contingency planning for a deliberate release of smallpox in Great Britain--the role of geographical scale and contact structure
    Thomas House
    Warwick Mathematics Institute and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
    BMC Infect Dis 10:25. 2010
    In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies...
  79. ncbi Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features
    D A Henderson
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Med Health R I 85:107-8. 2002
  80. ncbi Countering the posteradication threat of smallpox and polio
    D A Henderson
    The Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:79-83. 2002
    After eradication, there is a small but finite risk that smallpox and/or poliomyelitis viruses could accidentally escape from a laboratory or be released intentionally...
  81. ncbi [Biohazards due to Orthopoxvirus: should we re-vaccinate against smallpox?]
    A J Georges
    Centre International de Recherche Medicale de Franceville, Gabon
    Med Trop (Mars) 59:483-7. 1999
    Although the WHO declared global smallpox eradication in 1980, the Orthopoxvirus remains a source of concern for several reasons...
  82. ncbi Diagnosis, management, and containment of smallpox infections
    Tener Goodwin Veenema
    Center for High Risk Children and Youth, University of Rochester School of Nursing, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box SON, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Disaster Manag Response 1:8-13. 2003
    ..b>Smallpox poses a serious bioterrorist threat to the US population at this time...
  83. ncbi Smallpox vaccination policy--the need for dialogue
    Anthony S Fauci
    N Engl J Med 346:1319-20. 2002
  84. ncbi Bioterrorism. How devastating would a smallpox attack really be?
    Martin Enserink
    Science 296:1592-5. 2002
  85. ncbi Smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon: myth or menace?
    Dennis J Cleri
    Department of Medicine, Seton Hall University School of Graduate Medical Education, South Orange, NJ 07079, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 20:329-57, ix. 2006
  86. ncbi Mass vaccination and surveillance/containment in the eradication of smallpox
    J M Lane
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 304:17-29. 2006
    The Smallpox Eradication Program, initiated by the WHO in 1966, was originally based on mass vaccination...
  87. ncbi Smallpox virus destruction and the implications of a new vaccine
    D A Henderson
    Center for Biosecurity of UPMC, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 9:163-8. 2011
    The World Health Assembly is scheduled to decide in May 2011 whether the 2 known remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus are to be destroyed or retained...
  88. pmc Shared modes of protection against poxvirus infection by attenuated and conventional smallpox vaccine viruses
    Igor M Belyakov
    Molecular Immunogenetics and Vaccine Research Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9458-63. 2003
    The concern about bioterrorism with smallpox has raised the possibility of widespread vaccination, but the greater prevalence of immunocompromised individuals today requires a safer vaccine, and the mechanisms of protection are not well ..
  89. ncbi Stamping out fires! Controlling smallpox with targeted mass vaccination
    Joseph R Egan
    Health Protection Agency, Salisbury, UK
    Med Decis Making 31:69-78. 2011
    More than 30 years have now passed since the last naturally occurring case of smallpox; however, the variola virus still exists in at least 2 locations...
  90. pmc Public health, culture, and colonial medicine: smallpox and variolation in Palestine during the British Mandate
    Nadav Davidovitch
    Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Scicences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Public Health Rep 122:398-406. 2007
  91. ncbi Smallpox: a disease and a weapon
    Ken Alibek
    George Mason University, National Center for Biodefense, 10900 University Blvd MSN 4E3, Manassas, Virginia 20110, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 8:S3-8. 2004
  92. pmc Serological responses in humans to the smallpox vaccine LC16m8
    Benjamin F Johnson
    Section of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 92:2405-10. 2011
    In response to potential bioterrorism with smallpox, members of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces were vaccinated with vaccinia virus (VACV) strain LC16m8, an attenuated smallpox vaccine derived from VACV strain Lister...
  93. ncbi Biodefense. Smallpox vaccines: looking beyond the next generation
    Martin Enserink
    Science 304:809. 2004
  94. pmc Smallpox vaccines induce antibodies to the immunomodulatory, secreted vaccinia virus complement control protein
    Joan E Adamo
    Laboratory of DNA Viruses, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research CBER, US Food and Drug Administration FDA, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Gen Virol 90:2604-8. 2009
    ..immune globulin was used to screen the secreted proteins from cells infected with Dryvax or the candidate smallpox vaccine LC16m8 to determine whether the protective humoral response included antibodies against secreted viral ..
  95. ncbi A review of the smallpox vaccine adverse events active surveillance system
    Tracy N Thomas
    National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:S212-20. 2008
    In response to concern about smallpox possibly being used as a biological weapon, the President of the United States launched the National Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program on 13 December 2002...
  96. ncbi Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships
    Victoria A Olson
    Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Gen Virol 90:792-8. 2009
    b>Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication...
  97. ncbi Phenotypic and genetic diversity of the traditional Lister smallpox vaccine
    Aude Garcel
    Laboratoire de Virologie, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées Emile Pardé, 24 Avenue des Maquis du Gresivaudan, BP87, Grenoble 38702, France
    Vaccine 27:708-17. 2009
    As an initial step in the development of a second-generation smallpox vaccine derived from the Lister strain, to be prepared for a variola virus threat, diversity of the traditional vaccine was examined by characterizing a series of ten ..
  98. ncbi Preventing second-generation infections in a smallpox bioterror attack
    Edward H Kaplan
    Yale School of Management and the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8200, USA
    Epidemiology 15:264-70. 2004
    ..model for the prevention of second-generation infections by different vaccination strategies in the event of a smallpox bioterror attack...
  99. ncbi The strategic use of novel smallpox vaccines in the post-eradication world
    Joseph W Golden
    Department of Molecular Virology, Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 10:1021-35. 2011
    ..is a need to maintain a comprehensive defense strategy to counter the low-probability, high-impact threat of smallpox, as well as the ongoing threat of naturally occurring orthopoxvirus disease...
  100. pmc Mucosal immunization induces a higher level of lasting neutralizing antibody response in mice by a replication-competent smallpox vaccine: vaccinia Tiantan strain
    Bin Lu
    AIDS Center and Modern Virology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Hubei 430072, China
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:970424. 2011
    The possible bioterrorism threat using the variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, has promoted us to further investigate the immunogenicity profiles of existing vaccines...
  101. ncbi Responses to smallpox vaccine
    Jeffrey A Frelinger
    N Engl J Med 347:689-90; author reply 689-90. 2002

Research Grants72

  1. Pheresis Treatment of Bioterrorism-Induced Sepsis
    Stephen Ash; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Viral bioterrorism agents such as smallpox can also induce Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and septic shock because of secondary bacterial ..
  2. CFI Pathogen Inactivation Technology
    Trevor P Castor; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..such as West Nile and the breaking Mexican swine flu, and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the safety of the human plasma supply chain...
  3. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae genera of Class I dsDNA viruses, which include HSV-1, HSV-2, HSV-8, VZV, EBV, smallpox, Vaccinia, cowpox, and HPV...
  4. VACCINE INDUCED IMMUNITY IN THE YOUNG AND AGED
    Rafi Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the elucidation of: (i) the dynamics of antigen-specific T cell responses in humans vaccinated with YFV-17D and smallpox, (ii) innate immune mechamisms by which YFV-17D acts to launch a broad and robust T cell immunity, (iii) genomic ..
  5. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diseases associated with the Poxviridae (smallpox, vaccinia and cowpox viruses), and Herpesviridae (HSV-1, HSV-2, HSV-8, VZV, EBV) dsDNA viruses represent major worldwide public health problems...
  6. Salmonella Vaccines Against Bacterial Enteropathogens
    Roy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If successful, this vaccine(s) should have a societal public health benefit of a magnitude similar to the impact of the smallpox vaccine.
  7. Programming of Protective CD8 T-Cell Memory by Live and Adjuvanted Subunit Vaccin
    Marulasiddappa Suresh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Live attenuated vaccines have been highly effective in controlling human infections such as smallpox, yellow fever, measles, mumps, rubella, and chicken pox...
  8. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Infectious agents identified to pose the greatest potential threat (Category "A" agents) include Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella ..
  9. Protective orthopox immunization in normals and patients with cancer or eczema
    Ellis Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    While worldwide eradication of smallpox represents a major accomplishment of medicine in the 20th century, use of this virus as a bioterrorism agent against our largely disease-susceptible civilian population could result in unprecedented ..
  10. Development of an effective genital herpes vaccine
    William P Halford; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Live vaccinia virus (the original vaccine) was used to end smallpox epidemics...
  11. Immune Mechanisms That Control Ectromelia Virus Infection
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Second, mousepox disease is remarkably similar to that of human monkeypox and smallpox. Third, some mouse strains are resistant to ECTV while others are highly susceptible, analogous to natural ..
  12. Host defense against poxviruses and viral immune evasion
    Liang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..pathogenesis and its interface with the host immune system are of importance because of the threat of using smallpox as a bioterror weapon, the need for improved vaccination strategies to minimize vaccine-associated complications, ..
  13. Encapsidation of the poxvirus genome
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The fear that smallpox might be used as a bioterrorist weapon, and the recognition that monkeypox virus is a cause of human morbidity ..
  14. The Pox Virion Molecular Interactome
    Paul D Gershon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Smallpox has, historically, been one of the great killers of mankind...
  15. ASM Conference on Viral Genome Replication
    Sean P J Whelan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Viral vaccines have proved effective in controlling many diseases and have resulted in the global eradication of smallpox. Rinderpest, will shortly be the second infection eradicated by vaccination and this will hopefully be followed ..
  16. CFI Inactivation of Human Plasma
    TREVOR CASTOR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are also a number of emerging viruses such as West Nile and a number of potential bioterrorism pathogens such as smallpox that are of concern to the safety of the human plasma supply...
  17. Mechanisms of pox virus motility and release
    Daniel Kalman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..magnitude and promotes survival in lethally infected mice, suggesting a possible utility of this drug in treating smallpox or complications associated with vaccination...
  18. Identification of New Antigens for a Plague Vaccine
    Ashok K Chopra; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Historically, plague is one of the most devastating epidemic diseases known to mankind (second only to smallpox), resulting overall in more than 200 million deaths related to three recorded plague pandemics. Since Y...
  19. Skin Defense by Antimicrobial Peptides
    Richard L Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The later impacts the capacity to administer live viral vaccines such as the smallpox vaccine...
  20. Dermatotropic cellular immune responses induced by a novel smallpox vaccine
    Stephen R Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We further hypothesize that vaccination with the experimental smallpox vaccine modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) by the ID, subcutaneous (SC), and epicutaneous routes has a similar ..
  21. Stage-Specific Inhibitors of Orthopoxviruses
    John H Connor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Orthopoxviruses are a genus of viruses that include monkeypox, variola (the causative agent of smallpox) and vaccinia...
  22. Study of gamma interferon agonists/mimetics
    Howard M Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of mice against vaccinia and ectromelia viruses with a view toward an IFN and SOCS-1 antagonist drug against smallpox. We hypothesize that our small peptide IFN mimetics and SOSC-1 antagonist represent novel antivirals against ..
  23. Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Poxvirus Type I Interferon Binding Protein
    Luis J Sigal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and the mouse pathogen Ectromelia virus (ECTV) that causes mousepox in mice and is an outstanding model for human smallpox. All OPVs encode a highly conserved (~87% identical residues) Type 1 interferon (T1-IFN) binding protein (herein ..
  24. Mechanisms of humoral immunity development and function to the smallpox vaccine
    SHANE P CROTTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have spent substantial effort demonstrating that the smallpox vaccine elicits lifelong immunological memory in human (JI 2003, Clin Vaccine Imm 2007) and the human neutralizing antibody response is ..
  25. Therapeutics that target processivity complex proteins of pox and other viruses
    ROBERT PAUL RICCIARDI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Novel and safe therapeutics that block infection by variola, the causative agent of smallpox, are essential for a rapid response to bioterrorism...
  26. Clinical Development of Combination Plague/Smallpox Vaccine
    CHARALAMBOS PARTIDOS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Plague and smallpox could be devastating bioweapons if intentionally released. A release of 50 kg of Y...
  27. Mechanisms of vaccinia virus dissemination
    HERVE F AGAISSE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The Orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae includes both the causative agent of smallpox, variola virus, and the vaccine strain used for smallpox eradication, Vaccinia virus...
  28. XVII International Poxvirus, Asfivirus and Indorviurs Symposium
    Bertram L Jacobs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..through NIH, has mobilized efforts to develop an effective response to the public health concerns regarding smallpox and monkeypox and the need to rapidly translate the recent advances in poxvirus molecular biology into new, safe ..
  29. Evasion of antiviral protection by poxvirus-encoded interferon antagonists
    Sergei V Kotenko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..designed to study molecular mechanisms of IFN inhibition by IFN antagonists from YLDV, Vaccinia virus, and Variola virus, the causative agent of a devastating smallpox disease, and to develop improved treatment for poxviral infections.
  30. Structure-function studies on IL-18, IL-18 binding proteins and receptors
    Junpeng Deng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Poxviruses, including the smallpox (variola) virus, also express functional IL-18BP homologues to evade IL-18-mediated host immune responses...
  31. Poxvirus Modulation of Immune Responses
    Janice S Blum; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Description: The potential for widespread dissemination of lethal poxviruses such as smallpox during bioterrorism has led to renewed scientific efforts to understand the pathogenesis of this virus and related orthopoxviruses...
  32. Development of a therapy for Smallpox, Vaccinia, and Monkeypox
    Alexander Rich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This collaboration has as its goal the development of therapies for three different poxvirus diseases, including smallpox, perhaps the most dreaded agent in bioterrorism...
  33. Ontology-based Information Network to Support Vaccine Research
    Yongqun He; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Project Summary (Abstract): Since the introduction of Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine in 1796, vaccines have proven invaluable for their ability to stimulate the immune system and to confer protection against pathogenic organisms...
  34. Vaccine Renaissance Conference at the Institute for Immunology and Informatics
    ANNE SEARLS DEGROOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Diseases such as polio, measles, mumps, tetanus and smallpox have nearly been eradicated by the use of vaccines...
  35. Poxvirus interface with skin immune system, development of anti-poxvirus drugs
    Liang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..infection (molluscum contagiosum) to a catastrophic systemic illness signaled by a generalized pustular rash (smallpox)...
  36. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism of MVA-induced NF-kappaB Activation
    Stefani Martin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the properties of the MVA virus is important as MVA is currently being studied as a safe vaccine vector for smallpox and additional viruses, including HIV and malaria...
  37. Cross-reactive HERV immunity to combat HIV-1 infection
    Donald E Mosier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The result will be "cross-protective" immunity, as best exemplified by the eradication of smallpox by vaccination with the related cowpox virus.
  38. Machine Learning Analysis of Genetic Modulators of Vaccine Immune Response
    BRETT MCKINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..strategy to identify interacting susceptibility loci in polygenic biological endpoints, with a focus on smallpox and anthrax vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) and variation in serologic antibody response...
  39. SNPs in Handling of Small Pox Antivirals and Other Drugs
    Sanjay Nigam; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..they mediate nephrotoxicity of the antivirals cidofovir and adefovir, drugs which could be used in the event of a smallpox epidemic...
  40. Negative regulation of Plasma cells by CD28 and B7 molecules
    Joshy Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..For instance, humans immunized with smallpox vaccine exhibit stable levels of neutralizing antibodies in their serum for over 75 years...
  41. Smallpox vaccine and vaccinia complement control protein
    STUART ISAACS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..poxvirus genes that encode complement control proteins (CCP) are ideal candidates with which to further attenuate smallpox vaccines...
  42. INNATE IMMUNE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM BY ORTHOPOXVIRUS PROTEINS
    Anthony R French; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Unlike smallpox, these viruses cannot be eradicated by vaccination;their animal vectors have ongoing contact with humans;and they ..
  43. Cytokine Signaling Network Response to Smallpox Vaccine
    BRETT MCKINNEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The identification of the molecular and cellular basis for adverse events observed in patients immunized against smallpox is of great public health interest. This is especially true today given efforts to defend the U.S...
  44. EMERGEncy ID Net Study
    DAVID ANDREW TALAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..acute pyelonephritis;specific host gene responses to infections;emergency physicians'(EPs) attitudes towards smallpox vaccination and perceived risk of a bioterrorist threat;and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant ..
  45. Sustainable Air Disinfection Technology Innovations for Resources Limited Setting
    STEPHEN NORMAN RUDNICK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..including smallpox and anthrax.
  46. Pathogenesis of Vaccinia virus keratitis
    Curtis R Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Project Summary Although Smallpox no longer naturally circulates it remains a potential threat as a biological weapon. Currently, Smallpox is listed as the most important viral bioweapon by the United States...
  47. Identifying the role of 4-1BB in generation and persistence of VACV-CD8 memory
    Yuan Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by applicant): Vaccinia virus (VACV) affords long-lasting protection against variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VACV- specific CD8 memory T cells contribute to protection but their molecular control is not fully understood...
  48. Mechanisms for NK Cell Activation in Vaccinia Virus Control
    Yiping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vaccinia virus (VV) is the live smallpox vaccine responsible for the successful eradication of smallpox worldwide...
  49. ST-246 treatment of smallpox vaccine-related adverse events
    Douglas W Grosenbach; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated but remains a credible threat to the security of the United States due to its potential use as an agent of terror or biowarfare...
  50. Behavioral Epidemiology: Applications of Agent-Based Modeling to Infectious Disea
    Joshua M Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..pioneer in this innovative field, and has directed successful multi-disciplinary agent modeling projects on Smallpox, Archaeology, Economics, and Civil Violence, as recounted in his book, Generative Social Science: Studies in ..
  51. The Birth of Vaccination
    ANDREA A RUSNOCK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The result will be a definitive r-interpretation of the early history of smallpox vaccination and a new understanding of one of the major revolutions in medicine.
  52. Behavioral Epidemiology: Applications of Agent-Based Modeling to Infectious Disea
    Joshua M Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pioneer in this innovative field, and has directed successful multi-disciplinary agent modeling projects on Smallpox, Archaeology, Economics, and Civil Violence, as recounted in his book, Generative Social Science: Studies in ..
  53. Uncovering poxvirus proteins involved in regulating the IMV to EV transition
    Brian M Ward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the most notorious member variola, the causative agent of smallpox, was eradicated from natural infection, there are still concerns about a clandestine release during a biological ..
  54. Evolutionary potential of a model poxvirus
    Nels C Elde; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 2 investigates the evolution of K3L from smallpox, a devastating human pathogen...
  55. Emergence of Human Monkeypox in Central Africa
    ANNE WALSH RIMOIN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Human monkeypox(MPX) is a smallpox-likedisease primarily reported in the rainforestsof CentralAfrica...
  56. Vaccinia Proteome Affinity Reagents From Phage Display
    Philip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..high affinity binding partner, or "Artificial Antibody" (ArtAb), for each protein in the vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) proteome...
  57. Optimizing the formulation of a protein based smallpox vaccine
    Stuart N Isaacs; Fiscal Year: 2012
    This proposal, in response to RFA AI-07-003, is for the development of a future generation smallpox vaccine that can be safely administered to a diverse population...
  58. Bioinformatics Strategies: Biodefense Vaccine Research
    Jason H Moore; Fiscal Year: 2012
    Infectious bioterrorism agents such as smallpox and anthrax represent a critical public health concern...
  59. Vidarabine Prodrugs as Anti-Pox Virus Agents
    John Hilfinger; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Working Group for Civilian Biodefense has identified smallpox as one of the most serious biological agents that could cause disease and deaths in sufficient numbers to cripple a city ..
  60. Study of monkeypox virus in rodents
    R Buller; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Unlike smallpox, person-to-person transmission of monkeypox virus is very inefficient, and there is rarely more than three ..
  61. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ORAL DRUG FOR SMALLPOX TREATMENT
    George Painter; Fiscal Year: 2007
    An orally active antiviral drug for the treatment of smallpox infection resulting from biowarfare or bioterrorism is needed as an alternative therapy for the estimated 40 million Americans who cannot be safely vaccinated...
  62. Genetic variants associated with smallpox vaccine immune response heterogeneity
    Gregory Poland; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This contract will study the genetic variants associated with smallpox vaccine immune response heterogeneity
  63. Genetic Risk for Smallpox Vaccine Related to Myocarditis
    Deborah A Nickerson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This contract will study the genetic risk for smallpox vaccine related to myocarditis
  64. ANALOGS OF HPMPA FOR TREATMENT OF SMALLPOX
    Karl Hostetler; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Antiviral drugs for smallpox are urgently needed because vaccination with "Dryvax" is unsafe for many people and because IL-4-containing poxviruses can subvert vaccine-induced protection...
  65. Poxvirus adverse effects on cardiac cells and the heart
    Barbara Sherry; Fiscal Year: 2005
    In response to concerns that bioterrorists may release smallpox virus in the United States, the government has implemented a multi-stage vaccination program...
  66. Adjuvants for Agile Vaccine Development
    Philip Felgner; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..For example the live attenuated smallpox and F...
  67. Development of an VEE Replicon Vaccine Against Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The objective of the proposed research is to develop a safe and effective vaccine for smallpox using a single-cycle, alphavirus replicon vaccine vector that has been derived from attenuated strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) ..
  68. Host proteins in Vaccinia viral membrane biogenesis
    Victor Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..as it represents the model system to understand poxviruses that include variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. A key phase of viral replication involves the acquisition of membranes, as this event transforms non-infectious ..
  69. Bacterial Commensal Vector Delivery/Smallpox Vaccine
    Dennis Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Smallpox is widely considered to be the most serious threat for use as a potential agent of biowarfare...
  70. Dose Optimization, Production & Tox Testing of Replicon-Vaccines for Smallpox
    Kurt Kamrud; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..applicant): The objective of the proposed research is to optimize a safe and effective multi-antigen vaccine for smallpox using a single-cycle, replication-incompetent, alphavirus replicon vaccine vector that has been derived from ..
  71. Improving Absorption and Targeting of Antiviral Drugs
    John Hilfinger; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..has targeted research and development of therapeutics, vaccines, adjuvants/immunostimulants, and diagnostics for smallpox (variola)...
  72. Risk Factors for Eczema Vaccinatum in Atopic Dermatitis
    Walter Holleran; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Renewed concern that smallpox virus might be employed as a bioterrorism agent has led to an early implementation of a limited vaccination program...