west nile fever

Summary

Summary: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000607. 2009
  2. pmc The lectin pathway of complement activation contributes to protection from West Nile virus infection
    Anja Fuchs
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 412:101-9. 2011
  3. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
  4. ncbi Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses
    John S Mackenzie
    Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia
    Nat Med 10:S98-109. 2004
  5. pmc Phylogeography of West Nile virus: from the cradle of evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
    Fiona J May
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 85:2964-74. 2011
  6. ncbi West Nile virus: review of the literature
    Lyle R Petersen
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    JAMA 310:308-15. 2013
  7. pmc Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Science 334:323-7. 2011
  8. pmc Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus
    Nicholas Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:311-22. 2003
  9. pmc West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe
    Z Hubalek
    Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
    Emerg Infect Dis 5:643-50. 1999
  10. pmc B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 77:2578-86. 2003

Detail Information

Publications273 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000607. 2009
    ....
  2. pmc The lectin pathway of complement activation contributes to protection from West Nile virus infection
    Anja Fuchs
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Virology 412:101-9. 2011
    ..We conclude that MBL-mediated recognition and lectin pathway activation have important yet subordinate functions in protecting against WNV infection and disease...
  3. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
  4. ncbi Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses
    John S Mackenzie
    Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia
    Nat Med 10:S98-109. 2004
    ....
  5. pmc Phylogeography of West Nile virus: from the cradle of evolution in Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas
    Fiona J May
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 85:2964-74. 2011
    ..In contrast to previous suggestions, an isolate from the epidemic in Israel in 1998 was not the direct progenitor of the NA epidemic; rather, both epidemics originated from the same (unknown) location...
  6. ncbi West Nile virus: review of the literature
    Lyle R Petersen
    Division of Vector Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA
    JAMA 310:308-15. 2013
    ..Since its introduction in North America in 1999, West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States...
  7. pmc Globalization, land use, and the invasion of West Nile virus
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    Science 334:323-7. 2011
    ..This research provides a framework for predicting and preventing the emergence of foreign vector-borne pathogens...
  8. pmc Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus
    Nicholas Komar
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:311-22. 2003
    ..Persistent WNV infections were found in tissues of 16 surviving birds. Our observations shed light on transmission ecology of WNV and will benefit surveillance and control programs...
  9. pmc West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe
    Z Hubalek
    Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
    Emerg Infect Dis 5:643-50. 1999
    ..densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever.
  10. pmc B cells and antibody play critical roles in the immediate defense of disseminated infection by West Nile encephalitis virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 77:2578-86. 2003
    ..We conclude that antibodies and B cells play a critical early role in the defense against disseminated infection by WNV...
  11. ncbi A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus
    Laura D Kramer
    The Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 53:61-81. 2008
    ..Vector control strategies, vaccines, and antivirals, which now must be considered on a global scale, are also discussed...
  12. pmc West Nile virus: immunity and pathogenesis
    Stephanie M Lim
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Viruses 3:811-28. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc Unifying the spatial epidemiology and molecular evolution of emerging epidemics
    Oliver G Pybus
    Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15066-71. 2012
    ..More generally, our approach demonstrates that easily obtainable genetic data can be used to measure the spatial dynamics of natural populations that are otherwise difficult or costly to quantify...
  14. pmc Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe
    Tamas Bakonyi
    University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:618-23. 2006
    ..The emergence of an exotic WNV strain in Hungary emphasizes the role of migrating birds in introducing new viruses to Europe...
  15. pmc Evolution of new genotype of West Nile virus in North America
    Allison R McMullen
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:785-93. 2011
    ..Thus, WNV continues to evolve in North America, as demonstrated by selection of this new genotype. Continued surveillance of the virus is essential as it continues to evolve in the New World...
  16. pmc A temporal role of type I interferon signaling in CD8+ T cell maturation during acute West Nile virus infection
    Amelia K Pinto
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002407. 2011
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that cell non-autonomous type I IFN signaling shapes maturation of antiviral CD8(+) T cell response at a stage distinct from the initial priming event...
  17. pmc Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination
    Marina De Filette
    Laboratory of Gene Therapy, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, Heidestraat 19, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Vet Res 43:16. 2012
    ..This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections...
  18. pmc Toll-like receptor 3 has a protective role against West Nile virus infection
    Stephane Daffis
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 82:10349-58. 2008
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that TLR3 serves a protective role against WNV in part, by restricting replication in neurons...
  19. ncbi West Nile virus: an overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in contrast to its spread in the Americas
    H G Zeller
    Institut Pasteur, National Reference Center for Arboviruses, 21 Avenue Tony Garnier, 69365 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:147-56. 2004
    ..Nevertheless, outbreaks of WN virus remain unpredictable. Further coordinated studies are needed for a better understanding of the ecology and the pathogenicity of the WN virus...
  20. pmc Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival
    Melanie A Samuel
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:13350-61. 2005
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that IFN-alpha/beta controls WNV infection by restricting tropism and viral burden and by preventing death of infected neurons...
  21. pmc 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap by West Nile virus evades ifit1-dependent and -independent mechanisms of host restriction in vivo
    Kristy J Szretter
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United Stated of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002698. 2012
    ....
  22. pmc Neuronal CXCL10 directs CD8+ T-cell recruitment and control of West Nile virus encephalitis
    Robyn S Klein
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 79:11457-66. 2005
    ....
  23. pmc Genetic characterization of West Nile virus lineage 2, Greece, 2010
    Anna Papa
    Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:920-2. 2011
    ..The virus showed closest genetic relationship to the lineage 2 strain that emerged in Hungary in 2004; increased virulence may be associated with amino acid substitution H249P...
  24. ncbi Epidemiological history and phylogeography of West Nile virus lineage 2
    Massimo Ciccozzi
    Department of Infectious, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy
    Infect Genet Evol 17:46-50. 2013
    ..The epidemiological implications and clinical consequences of lineage 1 and 2 cocirculation deserve further investigations...
  25. pmc Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus
    Theodore Oliphant
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Med 11:522-30. 2005
    ..In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against WNV infection in humans...
  26. pmc Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease
    Edward B Hayes
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1167-73. 2005
    ..This review highlights new information regarding the epidemiology and dynamics of WNV transmission, providing a new platform for further research into preventing and controlling WNV disease...
  27. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus isolates, Italy, 2008-2009
    Giada Rossini
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:903-6. 2011
    ..On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, the strains isolated constitute a distinct group within the western Mediterranean cluster...
  28. ncbi Phylogeography and epidemiological history of West Nile virus genotype 1a in Europe and the Mediterranean basin
    Gianguglielmo Zehender
    Department of Clinical Sciences L Sacco, University of Milan, c o Ospedale L Sacco, Via G B Grassi 74, Milan, Italy
    Infect Genet Evol 11:646-53. 2011
    ....
  29. pmc Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating white storks
    Mertyn Malkinson
    Kirmon Veterinary Institute, Beit Dagan, Isreal
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:392-7. 2002
    ..Since these storks were migrating southwards for the first time and had not flown over Israel, we assume that they had become infected with WNV at some point along their route of migration in Europe...
  30. ncbi Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48910, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:268-78. 2009
    ..pipiens became infected from feeding on just a few species of birds, including American robins (35%), blue jays (17%, Cyanocitta cristata), and house finches (15%, Carpodacus mexicanus)...
  31. ncbi A newly emergent genotype of West Nile virus is transmitted earlier and more efficiently by Culex mosquitoes
    Robin M Moudy
    Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Road, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:365-70. 2007
    ..These results suggest a model for the displacement of the NY99 genotype, where earlier transmission of WN02 viruses leads to higher WN02 infection rates in avian reservoir hosts...
  32. ncbi West Nile virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States
    Edward B Hayes
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Annu Rev Med 57:181-94. 2006
    ..This paper reviews new information on the epidemiology and clinical aspects of WNV disease derived from greatly expanded surveillance and research on WNV during the past six years...
  33. ncbi Genetic and phenotypic variation of West Nile virus in New York, 2000-2003
    Gregory D Ebel
    Arbovirus Laboratories, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 5668 State Farm Road, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:493-500. 2004
    ..This genotype seems to possess an advantage over previously recognized WNV strains in mosquito transmission phenotype...
  34. pmc Outbreak of West Nile virus infection in Greece, 2010
    Kostas Danis
    Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece
    Emerg Infect Dis 17:1868-72. 2011
    ..Advanced age and a history of heart disease were independently associated with death, emphasizing the need for prevention of this infection in persons with these risk factors...
  35. ncbi West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations
    Shannon L LaDeau
    Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Washington, DC 20008, USA
    Nature 447:710-3. 2007
    ..Our findings demonstrate the potential impacts of an invasive species on a diverse faunal assemblage across broad geographical scales, and underscore the complexity of subsequent community response...
  36. ncbi The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999
    D Nash
    Communicable Disease Program, New York City Department of Health, New York 10013, USA
    N Engl J Med 344:1807-14. 2001
    ..The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause...
  37. pmc Temperature, viral genetics, and the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens mosquitoes
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000092. 2008
    ....
  38. ncbi Evidence of West Nile virus lineage 2 circulation in Northern Italy
    G Savini
    Istituto G Caporale Teramo, Via Campo Boario, 64100 Teramo, Italy
    Vet Microbiol 158:267-73. 2012
    ..In this situation comprehensive investigations on the occurrence, ecology, and epidemiology of these different WNV strains circulating in Italy become the highest priority...
  39. ncbi Circulation of West Nile virus lineage 1 and 2 during an outbreak in Italy
    F Magurano
    Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Disease, Rome, Italy
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:E545-7. 2012
    ..In two case, WNV RNA was detected in urine, suggesting renal involvement. Sequence analysis showed lineage 1 and 2 circulation...
  40. pmc Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease
    Edward B Hayes
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1174-9. 2005
    ....
  41. pmc Molecular evolution of West Nile virus in a northern temperate region: Connecticut, USA 1999-2008
    Philip M Armstrong
    Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, USA
    Virology 417:203-10. 2011
    ..Despite ongoing evolution of WNV, most amino acid variants occurred at low frequencies and were transient in the virus population...
  42. pmc The stoichiometry of antibody-mediated neutralization and enhancement of West Nile virus infection
    Theodore C Pierson
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 1:135-45. 2007
    ..Thus, neutralization is best described by a model requiring "multiple hits" with the cumulative functional outcome determined by interplay between antibody affinity and epitope accessibility...
  43. pmc West Nile virus infection activates the unfolded protein response, leading to CHOP induction and apoptosis
    Guruprasad R Medigeshi
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 N W 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Virol 81:10849-60. 2007
    ....
  44. pmc Role of CD8+ T cells in control of West Nile virus infection
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 78:8312-21. 2004
    ..Collectively, our experiments suggest that, while specific antibody is responsible for terminating viremia, CD8(+) T cells have an important function in clearing infection from tissues and preventing viral persistence...
  45. pmc West Nile virus recombinant DNA vaccine protects mouse and horse from virus challenge and expresses in vitro a noninfectious recombinant antigen that can be used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
    B S Davis
    Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Virol 75:4040-7. 2001
    ..This recombinant antigen has great potential to become the antigen of choice and will facilitate the standardization of reagents and implementation of WN virus surveillance in the United States and elsewhere...
  46. pmc Envelope protein glycosylation status influences mouse neuroinvasion phenotype of genetic lineage 1 West Nile virus strains
    David W C Beasley
    Department of Pathology, Cancer Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    J Virol 79:8339-47. 2005
    ..Therefore, the enhanced virulence of North American WNV strains compared with other Old World lineage 1 strains is at least partly mediated by envelope protein glycosylation...
  47. pmc Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows
    Aaron C Brault
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:2161-8. 2004
    ..These results suggest that genetic alterations in NY99 WNV are responsible for the crow-virulent phenotype and that increased replication of this strain in crows could spread WNV in North America...
  48. pmc West Nile virus and its emergence in the United States of America
    Kristy O Murray
    University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA
    Vet Res 41:67. 2010
    ..The purpose of this review is to present recent information on the epidemiology and pathogenicity of WNV since its emergence in North America...
  49. pmc Dysregulation of TLR3 impairs the innate immune response to West Nile virus in the elderly
    Kok Fai Kong
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8031, USA
    J Virol 82:7613-23. 2008
    ..This alteration of the innate immune response with aging may contribute to the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and suggests a possible mechanism for the increased severity of WNV infection in older individuals...
  50. ncbi Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): a bridge vector of West Nile virus to humans
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    J Med Entomol 45:125-8. 2008
    ..This is the first report of a WNV-infected Cx. pipiens mosquito collected during an epidemic of WNV that was found to have bitten a human. These results fulfill a criterion for incrimination of Cx. pipiens as a bridge vector...
  51. pmc Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission
    A Marm Kilpatrick
    Consortium for Conservation Medicine, New York, NY 10001, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 273:2327-33. 2006
    ....
  52. pmc Resistance to alpha/beta interferon is a determinant of West Nile virus replication fitness and virulence
    Brian C Keller
    Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 9048, USA
    J Virol 80:9424-34. 2006
    ..Consistent with this finding, the virulence of MAD78 was unmasked upon infection of mice lacking IFNAR. Thus, control of the innate host response and IFN actions is a key feature of WNV pathogenesis and replication fitness...
  53. ncbi Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype
    David W C Beasley
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0609, USA
    Virology 296:17-23. 2002
    ..Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses...
  54. pmc IL-1R1 is required for dendritic cell-mediated T cell reactivation within the CNS during West Nile virus encephalitis
    Douglas M Durrant
    Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 210:503-16. 2013
    ..These data indicate that IL-1R1 signaling promotes virologic control during WNV infection specifically within the CNS via modulation of CD11c(+) cell-mediated T cell reactivation at this site...
  55. pmc IL-1β signaling promotes CNS-intrinsic immune control of West Nile virus infection
    HILARIO J RAMOS
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1003039. 2012
    ....
  56. pmc West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a model for West Nile encephalitis
    S Y Xiao
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 7:714-21. 2001
    ..Hamsters offer an inexpensive model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of WN virus encephalitis...
  57. ncbi Effects of temperature on the transmission of west nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    William K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases, Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Med Entomol 43:309-17. 2006
    ..Temperatures in the United States during the epidemic summers of 2002-2004 indicated that WNV dispersal and resulting epicenters were linked closely to above-average summer temperatures...
  58. ncbi The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere
    Duane J Gubler
    Asia Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology, and Pharmacology, John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1039-46. 2007
    ....
  59. pmc The structural immunology of antibody protection against West Nile virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Immunol Rev 225:212-25. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss the structural, molecular, and immunologic basis for antibody-mediated protection against WNV, and its implications for novel therapeutic or vaccine strategies...
  60. pmc Horizontal and vertical transmission of West Nile virus genotype NY99 by Culex salinarius and genotypes NY99 and WN02 by Culex tarsalis
    John F Anderson
    Department of Entomology and Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 86:134-9. 2012
    ..Our findings do not support the previously published hypothesis that genotype NY99 was replaced in the New World by WN02 because of a shorter extrinsic incubation of WN02...
  61. pmc Virulence determinants between New York 99 and Kunjin strains of West Nile virus
    Michelle Audsley
    Centre for Infectious Disease Research, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
    Virology 414:63-73. 2011
    ..Our results identify the 5'UTR and NS proteins as WNV virulence determinants and confirm a role for the NS2A in WNV cytopathicity and virulence...
  62. pmc Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion
    Melanie A Samuel
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 660 S Euclid Ave, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 80:9349-60. 2006
  63. pmc IPS-1 is essential for the control of West Nile virus infection and immunity
    Mehul S Suthar
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000757. 2010
    ..Our data define an innate/adaptive immune interface mediated through IPS-1-dependent RLR signaling that regulates the quantity, quality, and balance of the immune response to WNV infection...
  64. pmc Ly6c+ "inflammatory monocytes" are microglial precursors recruited in a pathogenic manner in West Nile virus encephalitis
    Daniel R Getts
    The Discipline of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    J Exp Med 205:2319-37. 2008
    ..Therefore, CCL2-dependent inflammatory monocyte migration is critical for increases in microglia during WNV infection and may also play a pathogenic role during WNV encephalitis...
  65. pmc CD8+ T cells mediate recovery and immunopathology in West Nile virus encephalitis
    Yang Wang
    Division of Immunology and Genetics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
    J Virol 77:13323-34. 2003
    ..Using high doses of virus in CD8-deficient mice leads to increased survival. These results provide evidence that CD8(+) T cells are involved in both recovery and immunopathology in WNV infection...
  66. pmc Chemokine receptor Ccr2 is critical for monocyte accumulation and survival in West Nile virus encephalitis
    Jean K Lim
    Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 186:471-8. 2011
    ..We conclude that Ccr2 mediates highly selective peripheral blood monocytosis during WNV infection of mice and that this is critical for accumulation of monocytes in the brain...
  67. ncbi Recombinant West Nile virus envelope protein E and domain III expressed in insect larvae protects mice against West Nile disease
    Julio Alonso-Padilla
    Departamento de Biotecnologia, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria INIA, Ctra Coruña Km 7 5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Vaccine 29:1830-5. 2011
    ..These results indicate that the insect-derived antigens tested may constitute potential vaccine candidates to be further evaluated...
  68. pmc Fine-scale variation in vector host use and force of infection drive localized patterns of West Nile virus transmission
    Gabriel L Hamer
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23767. 2011
    ..Rather, robust assessment of local transmission risk should incorporate heterogeneity in vector host feeding and variation in vertebrate reservoir competence at the spatial scale of vector-host interaction...
  69. ncbi The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere
    Margo A Brinton
    Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 56:371-402. 2002
    ..Aspects of virion structure, the viral replication cycle, viral protein function, genome structure, conserved viral elements, host factors, virus-host interactions, and vaccines are discussed in this review...
  70. pmc A critical role for induced IgM in the protection against West Nile virus infection
    Michael S Diamond
    Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Ave, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Exp Med 198:1853-62. 2003
    ..Thus, the induction of a specific, neutralizing IgM response early in the course of WNV infection limits viremia and dissemination into the central nervous system, and protects against lethal infection...
  71. pmc Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies from individuals infected with West Nile Virus
    Mark Throsby
    Crucell Holland B V, P O Box 2048, 2301 CA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Virol 80:6982-92. 2006
    ....
  72. ncbi Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States
    Brian F Allan
    Department of Biology, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1137, Saint Louis, MO, 63130, USA
    Oecologia 158:699-708. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that conservation of avian diversity might help ameliorate the current West Nile virus epidemic in the USA...
  73. pmc Toll-like receptor 7 mitigates lethal West Nile encephalitis via interleukin 23-dependent immune cell infiltration and homing
    Terrence Town
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Immunity 30:242-53. 2009
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that TLR7 and IL-23-dependent WNV responses represent a vital host defense mechanism that operates by affecting immune cell homing to infected target cells...
  74. pmc The innate immune adaptor molecule MyD88 restricts West Nile virus replication and spread in neurons of the central nervous system
    Kristy J Szretter
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 84:12125-38. 2010
    ..Our experiments suggest that MyD88 restricts WNV by inhibiting replication in subsets of cells and modulating expression of chemokines that regulate immune cell migration into the central nervous system...
  75. pmc Regional differences in the association between land cover and West Nile virus disease incidence in humans in the United States
    Sarah E Bowden
    Eugene P Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 84:234-8. 2011
    ..pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus) in the Northeast and Cx. tarsalis in the Western United States...
  76. pmc Persistence of virus-specific immune responses in the central nervous system of mice after West Nile virus infection
    Barbara S Stewart
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA
    BMC Immunol 12:6. 2011
    ..We previously demonstrated that WNV persists in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice for up to 6 months post-inoculation. We hypothesized that the CNS immune response is ineffective in clearing the virus...
  77. pmc Infection and injury of neurons by West Nile encephalitis virus
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Departments of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 77:13203-13. 2003
    ....
  78. pmc Progress on the development of therapeutics against West Nile virus
    Michael S Diamond
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States
    Antiviral Res 83:214-27. 2009
    ..This review describes the current state of knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and immunobiology of WNV infection, and highlights progress toward an effective therapy...
  79. pmc Evaluation of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG enzyme immunoassays in serologic diagnosis of West Nile Virus infection
    G Tardei
    Institute of Virology, Bucharest, Romania
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2232-9. 2000
    ..Anti-WN virus IgM antibody in acute-phase samples did not cross-react significantly with flaviviruses in other antigenic groups...
  80. pmc Inhibitor of κB kinase epsilon (IKK(epsilon)), STAT1, and IFIT2 proteins define novel innate immune effector pathway against West Nile virus infection
    Olivia Perwitasari
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:44412-23. 2011
    ..Our results define an IFN-induced IKKε signaling pathway of specific STAT1 phosphorylation and IFIT2 expression that imparts innate antiviral immunity to restrict WNV infection and control viral pathogenesis...
  81. ncbi Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases
    William K Reisen
    Center for Vectorborne Diseases and Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Annu Rev Entomol 55:461-83. 2010
    ....
  82. pmc CCR5 deficiency is a risk factor for early clinical manifestations of West Nile virus infection but not for viral transmission
    Jean K Lim
    Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:178-85. 2010
    ....
  83. pmc Persistence of virus-reactive serum immunoglobulin m antibody in confirmed west nile virus encephalitis cases
    John T Roehrig
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:376-9. 2003
    ..Of those patients bled, 7 (60%) of 12 had anti-WNV IgM at approximately 500 days after onset. Clinicians should be cautious when interpreting serologic results from early season WNV IgM-positive patients...
  84. pmc IL-10 signaling blockade controls murine West Nile virus infection
    Fengwei Bai
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000610. 2009
    ..In conclusion, IL-10 signaling plays a negative role in immunity against WNV infection, and blockade of IL-10 signaling by genetic or pharmacologic means helps to control viral infection, suggesting a novel anti-WNV therapeutic strategy...
  85. pmc West Nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct antiviral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection
    James D Brien
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Immunol 181:8568-75. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate the role of direct effector function of Ag-specific CD4 T cells in preventing severe WNV disease...
  86. pmc Dead bird clusters as an early warning system for West Nile virus activity
    Farzad Mostashari
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York 10013, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:641-6. 2003
    ..This adaptation of the scan statistic could also be useful in other infectious disease surveillance systems, including those for bioterrorism...
  87. pmc Persistence of West Nile virus in the central nervous system and periphery of mice
    Kim K Appler
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10649. 2010
    ..i. in mice with subclinical infections. These results have implications for WNV-infected humans. In particular, immunosuppressed patients, organ transplantation, and long term sequelae may be impacted by WNV persistence...
  88. pmc Maturation of West Nile virus modulates sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization
    Steevenson Nelson
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000060. 2008
    ..Thus, in addition to a role in facilitating viral entry, changes in E protein arrangement associated with maturation modulate neutralization sensitivity and introduce an additional layer of complexity into humoral immunity against WNV...
  89. ncbi Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus)
    Nicole Nemeth
    National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    Arch Virol 154:783-9. 2009
    ..Chronicity of WNV infection in some tissues, but not blood, supports the predation mechanism of WNV overwintering, but not recrudescence. RNA persistence impacts interpretation and etiologic determination of avian mortality...
  90. pmc Cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against West Nile virus infection by interferon-dependent and -independent mechanisms
    Stephane Daffis
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e106. 2007
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against WNV infection through both IFN-dependent and -independent programs...
  91. pmc Matrix metalloproteinase 9 facilitates West Nile virus entry into the brain
    Penghua Wang
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Virol 82:8978-85. 2008
    ..These data suggest that MMP9 plays a role in mediating WNV entry into the central nervous system and that strategies to interrupt this process may influence the course of West Nile encephalitis...
  92. pmc Chemokine receptor CCR5 promotes leukocyte trafficking to the brain and survival in West Nile virus infection
    William G Glass
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1087-98. 2005
    ..We conclude that CCR5 is a critical antiviral and survival determinant in WNV infection of mice that acts by regulating trafficking of leukocytes to the infected brain...
  93. pmc West Nile virus infection modulates human brain microvascular endothelial cells tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules: Transmigration across the in vitro blood-brain barrier
    Saguna Verma
    Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, Asia Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, John A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
    Virology 385:425-33. 2009
    ....
  94. pmc West Nile virus
    Shannan L Rossi
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Clin Lab Med 30:47-65. 2010
    ..This article reviews the current literature summarizing the molecular virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, immunology, and protective measures against WNV and WNV infections in humans...
  95. ncbi Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease - United States, 1999-2008
    Nicole P Lindsey
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
    MMWR Surveill Summ 59:1-17. 2010
    ..Less than 1% of infected persons develop neuroinvasive disease, which typically presents as encephalitis, meningitis, or acute flaccid paralysis...
  96. ncbi Detection of West Nile virus lineage 2 in mosquitoes during a human outbreak in Greece
    A Papa
    Department of Microbiology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1176-80. 2011
    ....
  97. pmc Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States
    Charles S Apperson
    Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4:71-82. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that vector species for West Nile virus may preferentially feed upon certain avian hosts...
  98. pmc West Nile virus genetic diversity is maintained during transmission by Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes
    Doug E Brackney
    Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24466. 2011
    ..Together, these data suggest that the complexity of WNV populations are not significantly diminished during the extrinsic incubation period of mosquitoes...
  99. pmc Human monoclonal antibodies against West Nile virus induced by natural infection neutralize at a postattachment step
    Matthew R Vogt
    Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 83:6494-507. 2009
    ..CR4348 and CR4354 human MAbs neutralize infection at a postattachment step in the viral life cycle, likely by inhibiting acid-induced fusion within the endosome...
  100. pmc Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections
    Guiming Wang
    Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 10:38. 2010
    ..Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios...
  101. pmc Beta interferon controls West Nile virus infection and pathogenesis in mice
    Helen M Lazear
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 85:7186-94. 2011
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that IFN-β controls WNV pathogenesis by restricting infection in key cell types and by modulating T cell regulatory networks...

Research Grants63

  1. Epidemiology of Yellow Fever in the Americas
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Most of the work will be done in laboratories at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Center for Tropical Diseases; but a small portion will be done at the Evandro Chagas Institute in Belem, Brazil. ..
  2. West Nile Virus Life Cycle in Flavivirus-Resistant Cells
    Pei Yong Shi; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. A Novel Method of Generating Hepatitis C Virus-Like Particles using Lentivirus
    Boro Dropulic; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..but also for a wide range of other viral diseases of clinical interest such as hepatitis C, yellow fever, West Nile fever, dengue fever, and influenza...
  4. Mosquito Vector Control Using Bt Coupled to Seed Oil Bodies
    Mohd Amir Abdullah; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Mosquitoes are the insect vectors for numerous blood-borne human diseases including malaria, West Nile fever, yellow fever, and dengue that cause millions of deaths each year worldwide...
  5. Antiviral Immunity in Mosquitoes
    Kevin M Myles; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, mosquito-borne viral diseases like West Nile fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya fever are transmitted to humans only when the pathogen is able to overcome ..
  6. HOST COMPETENCE FACTORS AFFECT ARBOVIRUS TRANSMISSION
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Studies will assess how alternating sequential infections between vertebrate and vector species that are part of the natural transmission cycle may alter virus genetics and fitness. ..
  7. ARBOVIRUS PERSISTENCE IN SEASONAL WETLANDS
    William Reisen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Virus ecology at wetlands in the Coachella Valley of southeastern California with consistent enzootic activity will be compared with wetlands in the southern San Joaquin Valley where virus activity currently is intermittent. ..
  8. Development of Novel Antiviral Agents VS West Nile Virus
    Michael Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. INTERFERON IN MODULATING DENGUE VIRUS INFECTION
    Michael Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  10. Epidemiology of Arboviral Encephalomyelitis in Houston
    Kristy Murray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Her time will be directed toward completion of the specific aims of this proposal and her PhD. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  11. WORLD REFERENCE CENTER FOR ARBOVIRUSES
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  12. A randomized trial of influenza vaccination of Hutterite children
    Mark Loeb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We believe that the trial we propose will lead to important data that can inform policy on influenza immunization strategy. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  13. MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF DENGUE EPIDEMIC POTENTIAL
    Barry Beaty; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These proposed studies will also provide invaluable information concerning the application of developed new technologies and approaches to other vector borne diseases of current and future public health importance. ..
  14. ECOLOGY AND GENETICS OF VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    Scott Weaver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This information will be invaluable in targeting prevention and control resources, especially for obtaining maximum benefit in developing countries with limited resources. ..
  15. Mosquito Reservoir for Bunyavirus Transeasonality
    Barry Beaty; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5 8 i0 12 _ .... 13 }_..... 22 25 pages*) -_ / __-.... 29 39 Phase I, II, or III clerical 39 39 45 45 46 Check if [] Appendix is included 10 Form Page 3 3b. ..
  16. Salivary Potentiation of Arboviral Infections
    Stephen Higgs; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This knowledge may contribute towards the development of a mouse model for human dengue infections. ..
  17. GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF EPIDEMIC ALPHAVIRUS TRANSMISSION
    Stephen Higgs; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  18. Zoonotic Avian Influenza: The Human-Animal Interface in the US and Asia
    Richard Bowen; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  19. VIRUS EXPRESSION SYSTEMS IN VECTOR BIOLOGY
    Barry Beaty; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Transduction of such effector molecules into vector populations could provide novel control mechanisms for vector-borne diseases. ..
  20. LIVE, ATTENUATED, RECOMBINANT VACCINE - WEST NILE VIRUS
    Thomas Monath; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  21. Natural History and Pathogenesis of WNV in Viremic Dono*
    Michael Busch; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. Functional analysis of flavivirus genetic resistance.
    Margo A Brinton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research is relevant to understanding individual variation in the response to flavivirus infections among humans. ..
  23. West Nile Virus: Epidemiology and Mosquito Competence
    Alan D T Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..S. during the 2006-2011 transmission seasons;3. Investigate the mechanism of attenuation of neuroinvasiveness of mouse attenuated WNV isolates;4. Correlate WNV phenotype in vertebrate cells with mosquito vector infection. ..
  24. Mechanisms of apoptosis in the central nervous system
    Kenneth Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In addition, the proposed studies will evaluate the role of these genes and pathways as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. ..
  25. Natural history of acute and chronic HCV in blood donors
    Michael Busch; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These investigations will yield important insights into HCV pathogenesis and clarify the natural history of disease for the large number of HCV infected persons identified through donor screening. ..
  26. Anitviral Activity of Thioaptamers Against West Nile Virus
    Alan Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Development of a new model of viral hemorrhagic fever.
    MARGO BRINTON; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  28. West Nile Viral Determinants of Avian Pathogenesis
    AARON BRAULT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, fundamental knowledge of viral replication and pathogenesis will provide insight for the development of vaccine and antiviral strategies. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. OVERWINTERING AND TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS OF SLE VIRUS
    Alan Barrett; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Epidemic-causing potential of this virus will be determined by titre and duration of viremia in chickens. Patterns of distribution of virus variants will be determined by SSCP. ..
  30. Oas-1 gene transgenic mice for WNV research.
    MARGO BRINTON; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  31. Analysis of SNPs Associated With WNV-Induced Disease
    MARGO BRINTON; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Further analyses will include fine mapping and sequencing of the causative mutation(s). ..
  32. West Nile Virus Genotypic Affect on Host Competence
    AARON BRAULT; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Mechanisms and clinical effects of microchimerism in transfused trauma patients
    MICHAEL PAUL BUSCH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..TA-MC also offers an opportunity to better understand, and potentially exploit, injury-induced tolerance for future therapeutic purposes. ..
  34. Mechanisms of virus-induced apoptosis in neurons and CNS
    Kenneth L Tyler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..pathways involved, as well as an easily accessible in mouse model of CNS apoptosis that allows rapid testing of results obtained in cell culture for their significance on the pathogenesis of CNS viral disease in vivo ..
  35. Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of West Nile virus, Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico
    Bradley Blitvich; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This information will help determine why there has not been an epidemic of WNV in the YP, and will identify risk factors associated with WNV disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Antivirals Targeting Flavivirus Envelope Proteins
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This project will provide clinicians and public health officials with new means to manage natural, accidental and intentional flavivirus outbreaks. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Chemokines and lymphocyte trafficking into the CNS
    Robyn Klein; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..As evidenced by almost nine years of research in the neurosciences, the applicant remains firmly committed to a long-term career in basic science investigation. ..
  38. Development of West Nile virus surveillance systems and
    Larry Clark; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study will provide both a risk management simulation model and empirical surveillance system. ..
  39. A Drosophila model of Batten Disease
    Robert Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The specific aims of the proposal are: 1. Determine the phenotypic consequences of removing DmPPT1 function by gene mutation. 2. Determine the phenotypic consequences of disrupting DmPPT1 function by RNA interference. ..
  40. Attenuated West Nile virus envelope protein mutants
    David Beasley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will identify E protein residues that can impart an attenuated phenotype and these will be exploited for WNV vaccine development in a subsequent R01 grant application. ..
  41. Training Program in Neurovirology
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  42. Short Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms in Cytomegalovirus
    James Bale; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Characterizing HCM' strains by STR analysis will facilitate future studies of HCMV evolution and will provide a novel means t to fingerprint HCMV strains. ..
  43. MECHANISM OF INTERFERON ACTION
    CHARLES SAMUEL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, elucidation of the actions of IFN at the molecular level is of importance in view of potential applications of interferon in the clinic. ..
  44. A Novel Family of Anticoagulants from Ixodes scapularis
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will relate structure and function, and provide a rational basis for selecting anticoagulant molecules for Phase II animal studies. ..
  45. MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS FOR TICK VECTORS
    HARRY HUTCHESON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..I.) pacificus and I. (Ixodiopsis) woodi using 3 B. burgdorferi strains from the northeastern, southeastern, and western regions of the USA. ..
  46. Microfilarial enhancement of Dengue transmission
    JEFFERSON VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  47. NEURONAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY IN HIV DEMENTIA
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  48. Population dynamics of sporogony in Thailand
    JEFFERSON VAUGHAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  49. Vaccination Against Ixodes scapularis Tick Bites
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The commercial market would overlap with the market for LYMErix, a Glaxo SmithKline human Lyme disease vaccine, and the currently approved canine Lyme disease vaccines...
  50. Regulation of Capsule Biosynthesis in N. meningitidis
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  51. Arbovirus quasispecies-impact of arthropod transmission
    GREGORY EBEL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. Blood Brain Barrier Physiology and HIV Dementia
    HOWARD GENDELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The data acquired could provide new insights and therapeutic intervention strategies for monocyte BBB trafficking during progressive HIV-1 infection in brain tissue. ..
  53. MENINGOCOCCAL LIPOOLIGOSACCHARIDE & MUCOSAL PATHOGENESIS
    David Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The studies will also continue to define differences between enteric endotoxin and the unique structure and biology of meningococcal endotoxin. ..
  54. Lyme Disease Diagnostics Using In Vivo Expressed Borrelia Burgdorferi Antigens
    Michel Ledizet; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Identification and characterization of these proteins will set the stage for the development of improved serologic tests for Lyme disease in both early and late stage infection. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. Spread of Lyme borreliosis bacteria in the U.S.
    Durland Fish; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. Symposium on the Landscape Ecology of Infectious Disease
    MICHAEL WIMBERLY; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  57. VENUE OF AMPLIFICATION OF EEE OUTBREAKS
    Andrew Spielman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The research seeks a general definition of reservoir capacity and anticipates contributing to improved suppression of EEEV outbreaks. ..
  58. Recombinant antibodies as an anti-microbial shield
    Alexander Pereboev; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..To test the concept of a gene-therapy approach of the recAb anti-microbial defense in animal model. ..
  59. Risk of Blood Borne Transmission of CJD
    Shimian Zou; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Publishanddisseminateresultsof thestudy. ..
  60. Glioma Therapeutics Targeting Glioma Pathogenesis-related Protein
    Nathalie Bonafe; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our project is designed to develop new therapeutics to combat the highly aggressive and invasive malignant behavior of brain tumors. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Innate Intracellular Response to West Nile Virus
    Brenda Fredericksen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..A more complete understanding of the innate intracellular response to WNV will aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to combat WNV infections. [unreadable] [unreadable]..