hemifacial spasm

Summary

Summary: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Levetiracetam in the treatment of idiopathic hemifacial spasm
    Dirk Deleu
    Department of Neurology Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar
    Neurology 62:2134-5. 2004
  2. ncbi Neurovascular compression findings in hemifacial spasm
    Mauricio Campos-Benitez
    Department of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurosurg 109:416-20. 2008
  3. ncbi Microvascular decompression for treating hemifacial spasm: lessons learned from a prospective study of 1,174 operations
    Seung Jae Hyun
    Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon Dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul 135 710, Korea
    Neurosurg Rev 33:325-34; discussion 334. 2010
  4. ncbi The many faces of hemifacial spasm: differential diagnosis of unilateral facial spasms
    Toby C Yaltho
    Parkinson s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Mov Disord 26:1582-92. 2011
  5. ncbi Familial hemifacial spasm and determinants of late onset
    Giovanni Lagalla
    Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Az Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Conca 1, 60020, Ancona, Italy
    Neurol Sci 31:17-22. 2010
  6. ncbi Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type a for patients with painful tic convulsif
    Federico Micheli
    Programa de Parkinson y Movimientos Anormales, Instituto de Neurociencias, Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Clin Neuropharmacol 25:260-2. 2002
  7. ncbi Hemifacial spasm and involuntary facial movements
    N C Tan
    SingHealth Polyclinics Pasir Ris, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
    QJM 95:493-500. 2002
  8. ncbi Hemifacial spasm caused by vertebral artery dolichoectasia
    Ersalan A Rahman
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 133:854-6. 2002
  9. ncbi Safety, effectiveness, and duration of effect of BOTOX after switching from Dysport for blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and hemifacial spasm dystonia, and hemifacial spasm
    Katalin Bihari
    Institute of Neurosurgery, Budapest, Hungary
    Curr Med Res Opin 21:433-8. 2005
  10. ncbi Comparison of two different formulations of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    Chuan Jie Wu
    The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Neurology, Zhengzhou, China
    Turk Neurosurg 21:625-9. 2011

Research Grants

  1. BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN: MECHANISM OF TOXICITY
    BIBHUTI DASGUPTA; Fiscal Year: 1991
  2. CHEMOMYECTOMY FOR EYELID SPASMS
    Linda McLoon; Fiscal Year: 1999
  3. STUDIES OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HEMIFACIAL SPASM
    Aage Moller; Fiscal Year: 1990
  4. CLINICAL CHARACTERIZATION&GENETICS OF OPTIC NERVE DRUSEN
    Bradley Katz; Fiscal Year: 2005

Detail Information

Publications232 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Levetiracetam in the treatment of idiopathic hemifacial spasm
    Dirk Deleu
    Department of Neurology Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar
    Neurology 62:2134-5. 2004
  2. ncbi Neurovascular compression findings in hemifacial spasm
    Mauricio Campos-Benitez
    Department of Surgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurosurg 109:416-20. 2008
    It is generally accepted that hemifacial spasm (HFS) is caused by pulsatile vascular compression upon the facial nerve root exit zone...
  3. ncbi Microvascular decompression for treating hemifacial spasm: lessons learned from a prospective study of 1,174 operations
    Seung Jae Hyun
    Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon Dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul 135 710, Korea
    Neurosurg Rev 33:325-34; discussion 334. 2010
    The authors critically analyzed a large series of patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) under a prospective protocol...
  4. ncbi The many faces of hemifacial spasm: differential diagnosis of unilateral facial spasms
    Toby C Yaltho
    Parkinson s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Mov Disord 26:1582-92. 2011
    b>Hemifacial spasm is defined as unilateral, involuntary, irregular clonic or tonic movement of muscles innervated by the seventh cranial nerve...
  5. ncbi Familial hemifacial spasm and determinants of late onset
    Giovanni Lagalla
    Clinica Neurologica, Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Az Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Conca 1, 60020, Ancona, Italy
    Neurol Sci 31:17-22. 2010
    The role of hypertension in the late onset of hemifacial spasm (HFS) is evaluated in a family, spanning four generations...
  6. ncbi Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type a for patients with painful tic convulsif
    Federico Micheli
    Programa de Parkinson y Movimientos Anormales, Instituto de Neurociencias, Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Clin Neuropharmacol 25:260-2. 2002
    ..Its application has been extended to other disorders. Here, we document the case of a 70-year-old man with hemifacial spasm associated to trigeminal neuralgia secondary to an ectatic basilar artery...
  7. ncbi Hemifacial spasm and involuntary facial movements
    N C Tan
    SingHealth Polyclinics Pasir Ris, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
    QJM 95:493-500. 2002
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by tonic and clonic contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve...
  8. ncbi Hemifacial spasm caused by vertebral artery dolichoectasia
    Ersalan A Rahman
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 133:854-6. 2002
    To display the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities associated with hemifacial spasm caused by compression of the seventh cranial nerve by a dolichoectatic vertebral artery.
  9. ncbi Safety, effectiveness, and duration of effect of BOTOX after switching from Dysport for blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and hemifacial spasm dystonia, and hemifacial spasm
    Katalin Bihari
    Institute of Neurosurgery, Budapest, Hungary
    Curr Med Res Opin 21:433-8. 2005
    Local injection of botulinum toxin type A is first-line treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, and hemifacial spasm; however, there is uncertainty about the optimal dose of toxin for each indication as well as dose-conversion ..
  10. ncbi Comparison of two different formulations of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    Chuan Jie Wu
    The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Department of Neurology, Zhengzhou, China
    Turk Neurosurg 21:625-9. 2011
    ..CA, USA) in the treatment of blepharospasm (BS) and hemifacial spasm (HFS).
  11. ncbi Treatment outcome correlates with knowledge of disease in hemifacial spasm
    Eng King Tan
    Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, National Neuroscience Institute, Duke NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 110:813-7. 2008
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS), a potentially disabling facial condition affects quality of life (QOL) and botulinum toxin is an effective treatment...
  12. ncbi Electrodiagnostic studies of the facial nerve in peripheral facial palsy and hemifacial spasm
    Josep Valls-Sole
    Unitat d EMG, Servei de Neurologia, Hospital Clinic, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036, Spain
    Muscle Nerve 36:14-20. 2007
    ..important aspects in the evaluation of the two most common disorders of the facial nerve: facial palsy and hemifacial spasm. Facial palsy is usually an acute disorder that resolves in a few weeks but, in a number of cases, leads to a ..
  13. ncbi Microsurgical treatment for 55 patients with hemifacial spasm due to cerebellopontine angle tumors
    Hongyan Han
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049, China
    Neurosurg Rev 33:335-9; discussion 339-40. 2010
    Tumor-related hemifacial spasm (HFS) has been found to be rare. During the period from October 1984 to October 2008, we treated 6,910 HFS patients using a microsurgical procedure...
  14. ncbi Is hypertension associated with hemifacial spasm?
    C Colosimo
    Neurology 61:587; author reply 587. 2003
  15. ncbi Hemifacial spasm, glossodynia, and dolichoectasia of the basilar artery
    Ambar Chakravarty
    Department of Neurology, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Science, Calcutta, India
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 21:78-81. 2012
    The case of a 77-year-old hypertensive man presenting with hemifacial spasm and glossodynia is reported. Imaging studies revealed gross dolichoectasia of the vertebrobasilar arterial system with pontine compression...
  16. ncbi Familial hemifacial spasm: report of cases and review of literature
    Hideto Miwa
    Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, 811 1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641 8510, Japan
    J Neurol Sci 193:97-102. 2002
    We describe clinical characteristics of 10 patients (five families) with familial hemifacial spasm, with reviews of 13 patients hitherto reported in the literature...
  17. ncbi Hemifacial spasm associated with an ependymal cyst in the cerebellopontine angle. Case report
    Atsuko Harada
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, Japan
    J Neurosurg 97:482-5. 2002
    No previous case of hemifacial spasm associated with an ependymal cyst has been reported in the literature...
  18. ncbi The patterns and risk factors of hearing loss following microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    Kwang Wook Jo
    Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Irwon dong, Gangnam Gu, Seoul, 135 710, South Korea
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 153:1023-30. 2011
    ....
  19. ncbi The value of abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression surgery for hemifacial spasm
    Ting Ting Ying
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, The Cranial Nerve Disease Center of Shanghai, 1665 KongJiang Rd, Shanghai 200092, China
    Int J Surg 9:347-51. 2011
    ..the electrical stimulation of a branch of facial nerve is a specific electrophysiological feature of primary hemifacial spasm (HFS)...
  20. ncbi [Abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm and long term results]
    Masafumi Fukuda
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, 1 757 Asahimachi dori, Niigata City 951 8585, Japan
    No Shinkei Geka 34:583-9. 2006
    ..abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of postoperative long-term outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS)...
  21. pmc Repeat microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    J A Engh
    University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA 15213, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1574-80. 2005
    To report our experience with repeat microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) in patients who have failed their first operation.
  22. ncbi A reappraisal of the value of lateral spread response monitoring in the treatment of hemifacial spasm by microvascular decompression
    D O Neves
    Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Universit Paris XII, Creteil, France
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:1375-80. 2009
    ..to the electrical stimulation of a facial nerve branch is a specific electrophysiological feature of primary hemifacial spasm (HFS). The curative treatment of HFS is based on surgical microvascular decompression (MVD)...
  23. ncbi Lateral spread response elicited by double stimulation in patients with hemifacial spasm
    Shinya Yamashita
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1 757 Asahimachi dori, Niigata 951 8585, Japan
    Muscle Nerve 25:845-9. 2002
    In patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS), a lateral spread response (or abnormal muscle response) is recorded from facial muscles after facial nerve stimulation. The origin of this response is not completely understood...
  24. ncbi The role of genetic factors in the development of hemifacial spasm: preliminary results
    I B Han
    Department of Neurosurgery, Institute for Clinical Research, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
    Acta Neurochir Suppl 101:107-10. 2008
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) has been reported to result from vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root entry zone. The pathogenesis of HFS is not completely understood...
  25. ncbi Botulinum toxin for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: stability of duration of effect and dosage over time
    G T Drummond
    Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus Unit, University of Alberta, Edmonton
    Can J Ophthalmol 36:398-403. 2001
    ..METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 28 patients (17 with benign essential blepharospasm and 11 with hemifacial spasm) seen between 1989 and 1994 by one ophthalmologist at the botulinum clinic at a university-affiliated ..
  26. ncbi Frequency and prognosis of delayed facial palsy after microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    D J Rhee
    Deparment of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 148:839-43; discussion 843. 2006
    Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) provides a long-term cure rate. Delayed facial palsy (DFP) is not an unusual complication, but it has only been sporadically described in the literature...
  27. ncbi Facial nerve motor-evoked potential monitoring during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    Masafumi Fukuda
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, 1 757 Asahimachi dori, Chuo Ku, Niigata City 951 8585, Japan
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 81:519-23. 2010
    ..determine whether monitoring facial nerve motor-evoked potentials (FNMEPs) elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation during microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is useful for predicting postoperative outcome.
  28. ncbi Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: long-term results from 114 operations performed without neurophysiological monitoring
    Mark Dannenbaum
    Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77096, USA
    J Neurosurg 109:410-5. 2008
    Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve is an effective treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS), but the procedure is associated with a significant risk of complications such as hearing loss and facial weakness...
  29. ncbi Prognostic value of intra-operative abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for long-term outcome of hemifacial spasm
    Jiping Li
    Department of Functional Neurosurgery of Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China
    J Clin Neurosci 19:44-8. 2012
    ..abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring as an indicator of post-operative outcome in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) is under debate...
  30. ncbi Hemifacial spasm in a patient with Marfan syndrome and Chiari I malformation. Case report
    John Braca
    Department of Neurosurgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    J Neurosurg 103:552-4. 2005
    Marfan syndrome, hemifacial spasm, and Chiari malformation are all relatively rare and seemingly separate entities. Marfan syndrome is caused by a defect in the gene that encodes fibrillin and leads to weakness of the artery wall...
  31. ncbi [Delayed facial palsy after microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm due to reactivation of varicella-zoster virus]
    Koji Furukawa
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ehime University, Shitsukawa, Shigenobu cho, Onsen gun, Ehime 791 0295, Japan
    No Shinkei Geka 31:899-902. 2003
    We report a patient suffering from delayed facial palsy after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm, in whom the pathogenesis was proved. A 56-year-old man with a left hemifacial spasm was admitted to our hospital...
  32. ncbi Effectivity of Dysport in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm who experienced failure with Botox
    Samih Badarny
    Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology Department, Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
    Isr Med Assoc J 10:520-2. 2008
    ..Primary therapy failure with botulinum toxin is less common and poorly understood...
  33. ncbi Monitoring of facial muscle motor evoked potentials during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: evidence of changes in motor neuron excitability
    Marshall F Wilkinson
    Centre for Cranial Nerve Disorders, Division of Neurosurgery, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    J Neurosurg 103:64-9. 2005
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is thought to be due to a hyperactive facial motor nucleus consequent to chronic neurovascular contact. The lateral spread (LS) response is presumed to reflect changes in facial motor neuron excitability...
  34. ncbi Re-operation for persistent hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression with the aid of intraoperative monitoring of abnormal muscle response
    Shiting Li
    Department of Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Yangpu District, China
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 152:2113-8. 2010
    Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the only solution that can effectively control hemifacial spasm (HFS). Regarding treatment of the patients who failed the first operation, it is still controversial...
  35. ncbi Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: evaluating outcome prognosticators including the value of intraoperative lateral spread response monitoring and clinical characteristics in 293 patients
    Parthasarathy D Thirumala
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    J Clin Neurophysiol 28:56-66. 2011
    b>Hemifacial spasm is a socially disabling condition that manifests as intermittent involuntary twitching of the eyelid and progresses to muscle contractions of the entire hemiface...
  36. ncbi Case-control study of anxiety symptoms in hemifacial spasm
    Eng King Tan
    Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
    Mov Disord 21:2145-9. 2006
    In a case-control study, we evaluated symptoms in nine different psychological domains in hemifacial spasm (HFS; using the Symptom Checklist-90R [SCL-90R]) and found the anxiety score to be significantly greater in HFS compared to healthy ..
  37. ncbi Quantitative changes in botulinum toxin a treatment over time in patients with essential blepharospasm and idiopathic hemifacial spasm
    Moshe Snir
    Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Am J Ophthalmol 136:99-105. 2003
    To evaluate the quantitative changes in botulinum toxin A (BTA) treatment required over time to achieve relief for 3 to 4 months in patients with essential blepharospasm (EBS) and idiopathic hemifacial spasm (IHFS).
  38. ncbi Treatment of idiopathic hemifacial spasm with radiosurgery or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy: preliminary results
    M F Fraioli
    Department of Neurosciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    Minim Invasive Neurosurg 53:34-6. 2010
    Microvascular decompression in the posterior cranial fossa is the first treatment option for hemifacial spasm. For patients not suitable for surgery because of advanced age, poor general conditions or patients who refuse surgery, ..
  39. ncbi [Delayed hearing loss after microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: report of two cases]
    Keisuke Onoda
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Science, 2 5 1 Shikata cho Okayama City, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    No Shinkei Geka 34:1045-9. 2006
    We report two unusual cases of delayed hearing loss after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm. In the first case, A 59-year-old female noted left hearing loss one week after receiving MVD for left hemifacial spasm...
  40. ncbi Cerebellopontine angle tumors causing hemifacial spasm: types, incidence, and mechanism in nine reported cases and literature review
    Seung Hwan Lee
    Department of Neurosurgery, East West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 152:1901-8. 2010
    Although hemifacial spasm is usually caused by vascular compression around the root exit zone of the facial nerve, it is sometimes brought on by a cerebellopontine angle tumor...
  41. ncbi Hemifacial spasm caused by pontine glioma: case report and review of the literature
    Essam A Elgamal
    Neurosurgery Division 37, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, PO Box 7805, Riyadh 11472, Saudi Arabia
    Neurosurg Rev 28:330-2. 2005
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is an involuntary paroxysmal contractions of the facial musculature, caused generally by vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its root exit zone from the brain stem...
  42. ncbi Remission of hemifacial spasm after proximal occlusion of vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysm with coils: case report
    H Nagashima
    Department of Neurosurgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan
    J Clin Neurosci 8:43-5. 2001
    Intracranial aneurysm is a rare cause of hemifacial spasm and most of the previously reported cases are treated with surgical microvascular decompression...
  43. ncbi Abnormal muscle response monitoring during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    S Yamashita
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 147:933-7; discussion 937-8. 2005
    ..AMR) findings and postoperative results in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). However, there is some debate over the reliability of AMR as an indicator of postoperative outcome...
  44. ncbi Prognostic value of the lateral spread response for intraoperative electromyography monitoring of the facial musculature during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    Doo Sik Kong
    Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    J Neurosurg 106:384-7. 2007
    ..EMG) monitoring of facial musculature during microvascular decompression (MVD) and assessed the predictive value of the lateral spread response (LSR) as a prognostic indicator for the treatment outcome of hemifacial spasm (HFS).
  45. ncbi Health-related quality of life in blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm
    J Reimer
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Hamburg, Hamburg
    Acta Neurol Scand 111:64-70. 2005
    ..Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has become an important outcome criterion of medical interventions, but was hardly studied in patients with facial spasms...
  46. ncbi Bilateral hemifacial spasm: a series of 10 patients with literature review
    Andre Carvalho Felicio
    Department of Neurology, Movement Disorders Unit, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 14:154-6. 2008
    Bilateral hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare movement disorder posing diagnostic doubt with other facial dyskinesias. In this report, we describe clinical, radiological and therapeutic features of 10 patients with bilateral HFS...
  47. ncbi Prognostic value of intra-operative lateral spread response monitoring during microvascular decompression in patients with hemifacial spasm
    Won Il Joo
    Department of Neurosurgery, The Catholic University of Korea, St Mary s Hospital, Seoul, Korea
    J Clin Neurosci 15:1335-9. 2008
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) has characteristic and specific electrophysiological features, primarily the lateral spread response (LSR)...
  48. ncbi Intraoperative monitoring of facial EMG responses during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. Prognostic value for long-term outcome: a study in a 33-patient series
    J Hatem
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique P. Wertheimer, University of Lyon, France
    Br J Neurosurg 15:496-9. 2001
    Lateral spread responses (LSR), an electrophysiological characteristic of hemifacial spasm (HFS), can be recorded during surgery...
  49. ncbi Unusual causes and presentations of hemifacial spasm
    In Bo Han
    Department of Neurosurgery, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Sungnam, Korea
    Neurosurgery 65:130-7; discussion 137. 2009
    To evaluate unusual possible causes and clinical presentations of hemifacial spasm (HFS).
  50. ncbi Hemifacial spasm: intraoperative electromyographic monitoring as a guide for microvascular decompression
    J J Mooij
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital AZG, Groningen University, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Neurosurgery 49:1365-70; discussion 1370-1. 2001
    Microvascular decompression is the logical and well-accepted treatment of choice for hemifacial spasm (HFS). In experienced hands, good to excellent results can be obtained...
  51. ncbi Prospective, randomized, double-blind study, comparing botulinum toxins type a botox and prosigne for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm treatment
    Elizabeth Maria Aparecida Barasnevicius Quagliato
    Neurology Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Clin Neuropharmacol 33:27-31. 2010
    Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is considered an effective treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, but there are few studies to permit a comparison of its different formulations...
  52. ncbi Comparison of preseptal and pretarsal injections of botulinum toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    Raif Cakmur
    Dokuz Eylul Universitesi, Tip Fakultesi, Noroloji Klinigi, Inciralti Izmir, Turkey
    J Neurol 249:64-8. 2002
    ..effect of subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is well known in both blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, the position of the injection sites around the orbicularis oculi may influence the effectiveness and side ..
  53. ncbi Long-term efficacy of botulinum toxin A for treatment of blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and spastic entropion: a multicentre study using two drug-dose escalation indexes
    S Cillino
    Dipartimento Universitario di Neuroscienze Cliniche, Sezione di Oftalmologia, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
    Eye (Lond) 24:600-7. 2010
    ..effectiveness and safety of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) treatment in patients with blepharospasm (BEB), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and entropion (EN) and to use for the first time two modified indexes, 'botulin toxin escalation index-..
  54. ncbi Monitoring of facial evoked EMG for hemifacial spasm: a critical analysis of its prognostic value
    N Kiya
    Department of Neurosurgery, Fujita Health University, School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 143:365-8. 2001
    Microvascular decompression (MVD) has come to stay as an effective way of treating hemifacial spasm. But it remains to be seen how much each of the electrophysiological monitoring techniques (intra-operative) are contributing to its ..
  55. ncbi The potential value of the disappearance of the lateral spread response during microvascular decompression for predicting the clinical outcome of hemifacial spasms: a prospective study
    Chang Hyun Kim
    Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Neurosurgery 67:1581-7; discussion 1587-8. 2010
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a benign, chronic, involuntary movement of the muscles involved in facial expressions that typically begins in the orbicularis oculi and spreads to the other expression muscles over several years.
  56. ncbi Preservation of the lesser occipital nerve during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. Technical note
    Takamitsu Fujimaki
    Department of Neurosurgery, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neurosurg 107:1235-7. 2007
    ..preservation using their technique was attempted in 25 patients who underwent microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. The LON was successfully preserved in 16 of these patients, was impossible to preserve in two patients, and ..
  57. ncbi Gabapentin in the treatment of hemifacial spasm
    O Daniele
    Istituto di Neuropsichiatria Università di Palermo, Italy
    Acta Neurol Scand 104:110-2. 2001
    To evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin in the treatment of hemifacial spasm.
  58. ncbi Surface rendered three-dimensional MR imaging for the evaluation of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm
    Masakazu Ogiwara
    Department of Neurosurgery, Kanto Neurosurgical Hospital, Saitama, Japan
    J Clin Neurosci 11:840-4. 2004
    ..Thirty-one patients with 32 affected nerves manifesting as trigeminal neuralgia (TN, 16 cases), hemifacial spasm (HFS, 14 cases) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (2 cases) underwent microvascular decompression at the Kanto ..
  59. ncbi Pregabalin as add-on treatment to botulinum toxin in idiopathic hemifacial spasm
    Peter P Urban
    Department of Neurology, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, D 55101 Mainz, Germany
    Neurology 66:1781. 2006
  60. ncbi New formulation of BOTOX. Complete antibody-induced therapy failure in hemifacial spasm
    Dirk Dressler
    J Neurol 251:360. 2004
  61. pmc Long term results of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) in the treatment of hemifacial spasm: a report of 175 cases
    S Jitpimolmard
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64:751-7. 1998
    To describe the long term efficacy and side effects of the treatment of hemifacial spasm with Dysport and to evaluate two different sites of injection to hopefully reduce side effects.
  62. ncbi Botulinum toxin therapy of hemifacial spasm: comparing different therapeutic preparations
    K Frei
    The Parkinson s and Movement Disorders Institute, Fountain Valley, CA 97208, USA
    Eur J Neurol 13:30-5. 2006
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary irregular clonic or tonic movements of the muscles innervated by cranial nerve VII on one side of the face, and is most often a result of vascular compression of the facial nerve at ..
  63. ncbi Botulinum toxin: evidence-based medicine criteria in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    W H Jost
    Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Deutsche Klinik für Diagnostik Aukammallee 33 65191 Wiesbaden, Germany
    J Neurol 248:21-4. 2001
    Botulinum A toxin is recognized and approved for symptomatic treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm...
  64. pmc Validation of a short disease specific quality of life scale for hemifacial spasm: correlation with SF-36
    E K Tan
    Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1707-10. 2005
    A short, practical, and validated quality of life (QoL) scale for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is not currently available.
  65. ncbi Botulinum toxin improves quality of life in hemifacial spasm: validation of a questionnaire (HFS-30)
    Eng King Tan
    Department of Neurology and Clinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore
    J Neurol Sci 219:151-5. 2004
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) can be disabling and affect quality of life. There is a lack of a validated scale for evaluating botulinum toxin (BTX) response in HFS.
  66. ncbi Idiopathic hemifacial spasm responsive to zonisamide: a case report
    Antonio Siniscalchi
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology Division, Annunziata Hospital, Cosenza, Italy
    Clin Neuropharmacol 32:230-1. 2009
    We describe a patient with idiopathic hemifacial spasm (HFS) that was responsive to zonisamide treatment.
  67. ncbi Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: a long-term follow-up of 1,169 consecutive cases
    S S Chung
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 77:190-3. 2001
    We analyzed the records of 1,169 patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) and were followed up for more than 6 months from January 1987. The mean follow-up duration was 23...
  68. ncbi A double-blind, randomized, crossover study of prosigne versus botox in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    Carlos R M Rieder
    Department of Neurology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Clin Neuropharmacol 30:39-42. 2007
    ..the recently released Chinese botulinum toxin serotype A (Prosigne) for the treatment of focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm. Determining a more precise role of Prosigne in the treatment of such conditions is of paramount importance, ..
  69. ncbi Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: postoperative neurologic follow-up and evaluation of life quality
    K Heuser
    Division for Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    Eur J Neurol 14:335-40. 2007
    Microvascular decompression (MVD) is an effective and safe treatment in hemifacial spasm (HFS). Postoperative evaluations are usually made by neurosurgeons...
  70. ncbi Botulinum toxin A treatment for primary hemifacial spasm: a 10-year multicenter study
    Giovanni Defazio
    Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, I 70124 Bari, Italy
    Arch Neurol 59:418-20. 2002
    Botulinum toxin A (BTX) is the currently preferred symptomatic treatment for primary hemifacial spasm (HFS), but its long-term efficacy and safety are not known.
  71. ncbi Botulinum toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    C Kenney
    Parkinson s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neural Transm 115:585-91. 2008
    Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm are the two most common craniofacial movement disorders...
  72. ncbi Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: analyses of operative complications in 1582 consecutive patients
    Ryoong Huh
    Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Pochun CHA University, Bundang gu, Sungnam 463 712, South Korea
    Surg Neurol 69:153-7; discussion 157. 2008
    ..Microvascular decompression is the most reliable treatment for HFS, but it may cause complications. The aim was to identify factors affecting the prognosis after MVD and to establish appropriate means to reduce complications...
  73. ncbi Hemifacial spasm: neurovascular compressive patterns and surgical significance
    J S Park
    Samsung Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 150:235-41; discussion 241. 2008
    The aim of this study was to report further investigation of neurovascular compression as a cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS) and to provide useful surgical guidelines by describing the compression patterns.
  74. ncbi Efficacy of levetiracetam in hemifacial spasm: a case report
    Pietro Biagio Carrieri
    Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche Università di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy
    Clin Neuropharmacol 31:187-8. 2008
    Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam in a man with hemifacial spasm (HFS).
  75. ncbi Cerebellopontine angle endodermal cyst presenting with hemifacial spasm
    Prasanna Karki
    Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890 8544, Japan
    Brain Tumor Pathol 28:371-4. 2011
    Intracranial endodermal cysts presenting with hemifacial spasm (HFS) are extremely rare...
  76. ncbi Low-dose botulinum toxin a for treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    Anuchit Poonyathalang
    Jpn J Ophthalmol 49:327-8. 2005
  77. ncbi Microvascular decompression for primary hemifacial spasm. Importance of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring
    M P Sindou
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique, University of Lyon, Lyon, France
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 147:1019-26; discussion 1026. 2005
    ..Increase in latency of Peak V and decrease in amplitude of Peak I are warning-signals of an excessive stretching of the the cochlear nerve and impairment of the cochlear vascular supply, respectively...
  78. ncbi Long-term efficacy of botulinum a toxin for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    Harmeet S Gill
    Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Neurol Sci 37:631-6. 2010
    To determine whether the duration of relief from symptoms in patients with essential blepharospasm (EB) or hemifacial spasm (HFS) who receive serial treatments with botulinum toxin type A (BtA) changes over the long-term.
  79. ncbi Topiramate as treatment for hemifacial spasm
    Hortensia Alonso-Navarro
    Seccion de Neurologia, Hospital Virgen de la Concha, Zamora, Spain
    Clin Neuropharmacol 30:308-9. 2007
    To report a patient with hemifacial spasm (HFS) which improved with topiramate.
  80. ncbi The other Babinski sign in hemifacial spasm
    William Stamey
    Parkinson s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Neurology 69:402-4. 2007
  81. ncbi Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm
    Bor Ren Huang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung University and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kweishan, Taoyan, Taiwan
    J Clin Neurosci 16:209-13. 2009
    ..EMG) of the facial nerve to predict the completeness of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS), and (ii) brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) to predict postoperative hearing disturbance...
  82. ncbi Hemifacial spasm in vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia
    Marina Titlic
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Hospital Split, Croatia
    Acta Neurol Belg 106:23-5. 2006
    Vascular compression of the facial nerve is a well recognized cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS)...
  83. ncbi Post-traumatic hemifacial spasm
    Hung Chen Wang
    Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan
    J Clin Neurosci 13:681-3. 2006
    We report an early-onset post-traumatic hemifacial spasm and discuss possible aetiology. A 20-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for observation because of an injury to the right frontotemporal region, resulting in drowsiness...
  84. ncbi Psychogenic hemifacial spasm
    E K Tan
    Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13:380-4. 2001
    Facial spasms that distort facial expression are typically due to facial dystonia, tics, and hemifacial spasm (HFS). Psychogenic facial spasms, however, have not been well characterized...
  85. pmc Botulinum toxin type B in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm
    C Colosimo
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:687. 2003
  86. ncbi Microvascular decompression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia: three surgical approach variations: technical note
    Tsutomu Hitotsumatsu
    Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Research Institute, National Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka, Japan
    Neurosurgery 53:1436-41; discussion 1442-3. 2003
    ..and the transcondylar fossa approach, for microvascular decompression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, respectively...
  87. ncbi [Efficacy and tolerance of gabapentin in dystonia and hemifacial spasm: a pilot study]
    G Linazasoro Cristóbal
    Centro de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Funcional Clinica Quirón, San Sebastian, 20012, Espana
    Rev Neurol 33:408-10. 2001
    The pharmacological management of dystonia is suboptimal. Focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm can be successfully managed with botulinum toxin injections. The physiopathology of dystonia remains a mystery...
  88. ncbi Role of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging after microvascular decompression of the facial nerve for the treatment of hemifacial spasm
    Jin Woo Chang
    Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Research Institute, BK 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Neurosurgery 50:720-5; discussion 726. 2002
    ..was performed to investigate the role of postoperative three-dimensional short-range magnetic resonance angiography in the prediction of clinical outcomes after microvascular decompression (MVD) for the treatment of hemifacial spasm.
  89. ncbi Demonstration of neurovascular compression in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with surgical findings in 60 consecutive cases
    Hitoshi Fukuda
    Department of Neurological Surgery and Radiology, Kitano Hospital, Osaka, Japan
    Surg Neurol 59:93-9; discussion 99-100. 2003
    ..or exit zone (REZ) of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) preoperatively, although surgical findings have revealed apparent neurovascular compression and its ..
  90. ncbi Fusiform aneurysm of the vertebral artery presenting hemifacial spasm treated by intravascular embolization: case report
    K Sato
    Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Kohnan Hospital, Department of Neuroendovascular Therapy, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Tohoku, Japan
    Surg Neurol 56:52-5. 2001
    BACKGROUND: A rare case of fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm causing hemifacial spasm was successfully treated by intravascular embolization.CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old man presented with left hemifacial spasm persisting for 2 years...
  91. ncbi Arterial hypertension in patients with left primary hemifacial spasm is associated with neurovascular compression of the left rostral ventrolateral medulla
    Tomomi Nakamura
    Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    Eur Neurol 57:150-5. 2007
    ..compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla and arterial hypertension in patients with primary hemifacial spasm. We enrolled 82 patients with primary hemifacial spasm and 82 age- and sex-matched magnetic resonance imaging ..
  92. ncbi Young onset hemifacial spasm
    E K Tan
    Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
    Acta Neurol Scand 114:59-62. 2006
    b>Hemifacial spasm (HFS) frequently affects middle aged individuals and the clinical features and etiology have been well reported. However, there is limited data on the exact pathogenesis in young-onset HFS...
  93. ncbi Evaluation of MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using a balanced fast-field-echo sequence: preliminary findings
    Kazuhiro Tsuchiya
    Department of Radiology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6 20 2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, 181 8611 Tokyo, Japan
    Eur Radiol 14:239-42. 2004
    ..and visualized an acoustic schwannoma in 6 of 44 patients with suspicion and a causative vessel of hemifacial spasm in all of 3 patients in a short scanning time (1 min 53 s)...
  94. ncbi Endoscopically assisted minimally invasive microvascular decompression of hemifacial spasm
    M Badr-El-Dine
    Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
    Otol Neurotol 23:122-8. 2002
    The aim of this study was to assess the use of endoscopy in minimally invasive surgery of the cerebellopontine angle in cases of hemifacial spasm.
  95. ncbi [Microsurgical facial nerve decompression for hemifacial spasm]
    Ronald Moussa
    Service de Neurochirurgie, Hopital Hotel Dieu de France, Beyrouth, Liban
    J Med Liban 54:146-51. 2006
    The results of a series of 8 patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS), treated with microsurgical vascular decompression (MVD) are reported.
  96. ncbi [Preoperative assessment of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm with fusion imaging of 3D MR cisternogram/angiogram]
    Keisuke Onoda
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama City, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    No Shinkei Geka 34:785-91. 2006
    The preoperative assessment of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm has been performed with MRI, but assessment of the compressive status by 2D imaging has a number of limitations...
  97. ncbi Asynchronous blepharospasm, facial and cervical dystonia, and bilateral asynchronous hemifacial spasm
    Bradley J Katz
    John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Mov Disord 22:231-4. 2007
    ..with a facial movement disorder that has characteristics of both blepharospasm and bilateral asynchronous hemifacial spasm. Because of the increased incidence of blepharospasm in patients with hemifacial spasm, our patient's ..
  98. ncbi No clinical or neurophysiological evidence of botulinum toxin diffusion to non-injected muscles in patients with hemifacial spasm
    C Lorenzano
    Department of Neurosciences and Institute Neuromed IRCCS, University of Rome La Sapienza, Roma, Italy
    Neurotox Res 9:141-4. 2006
    ..In patients with hemifacial spasm, we evaluated clinically and neurophysiologically, whether botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) diffuses from the ..
  99. ncbi [Microsurgical vascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. Follow-up over one year, clinical results and prognostic factors. Study of a series of 100 cases]
    V Marneffe
    Service de Neurochirurgie, Clinique Saint Jean, Rue du Marais 104, B 1000 Bruxelles, Belgique
    Neurochirurgie 49:527-35. 2003
    The results of a series of 100 patients operated on for hemifacial spasm (HFS), using microsurgical vascular decompression (MVD), are reported.
  100. ncbi Use of high-dose botulinum A toxin in benign essential blepharospasm: is too high too much?
    Anna L Y Pang
    Department of Neurophthalmology, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 34:441-4. 2006
    ..This study aimed to explore whether high-dose, high-frequency treatments could be used without developing secondary resistance and without significant side-effects in patients refractory to conventional Botox doses...
  101. ncbi [Lacrimal film evaluation of patients with facial dystonia during botulinum toxin type A treatment]
    Patricia Grativol Costa
    Departamento de Oftalmologia, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Arq Bras Oftalmol 69:319-22. 2006
    ..To determine the effect of botulinum toxin injection in the eyelid on lacrimal film in patients with facial dystonia...

Research Grants4

  1. BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN: MECHANISM OF TOXICITY
    BIBHUTI DASGUPTA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..g. blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and strabismus in human patients...
  2. CHEMOMYECTOMY FOR EYELID SPASMS
    Linda McLoon; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and other diseases involving forceful, uncontrolled muscle spasms of the face and neck are extremely debilitating conditions that result in functional blindness, often causing affected persons to withdraw ..
  3. STUDIES OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HEMIFACIAL SPASM
    Aage Moller; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Classical hemifacial spasm (HFS) is in the majority of cases caused by cross-compression of the facial nerve near its entrance to the brainstem by a blood vessel, but its pathophysiology is largely unknown...
  4. CLINICAL CHARACTERIZATION&GENETICS OF OPTIC NERVE DRUSEN
    Bradley Katz; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These data may suggest novel therapies to prevent the visual field loss associated with OND. In addition, these data may yield information about other diseases of the optic nerve. ..