diarrhea

Summary

Summary: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli
    J P Nataro
    Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 11:142-201. 1998
  2. ncbi Functional bowel disorders
    George F Longstreth
    Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California 92120, USA
    Gastroenterology 130:1480-91. 2006
  3. pmc Diarrhea incidence in low- and middle-income countries in 1990 and 2010: a systematic review
    Christa L Fischer Walker
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    BMC Public Health 12:220. 2012
  4. ncbi Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lorna Fewtrell
    Centre for Research into Environment and Health, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:42-52. 2005
  5. ncbi Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome
    Phillip I Tarr
    Division of Gastroenterology, Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8208, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Lancet 365:1073-86. 2005
  6. ncbi A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
    N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
  7. pmc Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children
    Umesh D Parashar
    Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Ricksettial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:565-72. 2003
  8. ncbi Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review
    Val Curtis
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:275-81. 2003
  9. pmc The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya
    Daniel R Feikin
    International Emerging Infections Program Kenya, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nairobi and Kisumu, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 6:e16085. 2011
  10. doi Host and pathogen factors for Clostridium difficile infection and colonization
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave W, Rm L5 06, Montreal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
    N Engl J Med 365:1693-703. 2011

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications350 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli
    J P Nataro
    Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 11:142-201. 1998
    ..Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E...
  2. ncbi Functional bowel disorders
    George F Longstreth
    Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California 92120, USA
    Gastroenterology 130:1480-91. 2006
    ..Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are best identified by symptom-based approaches...
  3. pmc Diarrhea incidence in low- and middle-income countries in 1990 and 2010: a systematic review
    Christa L Fischer Walker
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    BMC Public Health 12:220. 2012
    b>Diarrhea is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries yet updated estimates of diarrhea incidence by age for these countries are greatly needed...
  4. ncbi Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lorna Fewtrell
    Centre for Research into Environment and Health, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:42-52. 2005
    ..There is some evidence of publication bias in the findings from the hygiene and water treatment interventions...
  5. ncbi Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome
    Phillip I Tarr
    Division of Gastroenterology, Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8208, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Lancet 365:1073-86. 2005
    ..The vascular injury leading to HUS is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhoea. The best way to prevent HUS is to prevent primary infection with Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria...
  6. ncbi A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
    N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
    In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
  7. pmc Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children
    Umesh D Parashar
    Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Ricksettial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:565-72. 2003
    ..and deaths caused by rotavirus disease, we reviewed studies published from 1986 to 2000 on deaths caused by diarrhea and on rotavirus infections in children...
  8. ncbi Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review
    Val Curtis
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 3:275-81. 2003
    ..More and better-designed trials are needed to measure the impact of washing hands on diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in developing countries...
  9. pmc The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya
    Daniel R Feikin
    International Emerging Infections Program Kenya, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nairobi and Kisumu, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
    PLoS ONE 6:e16085. 2011
    ..Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions...
  10. doi Host and pathogen factors for Clostridium difficile infection and colonization
    Vivian G Loo
    Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave W, Rm L5 06, Montreal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
    N Engl J Med 365:1693-703. 2011
    Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and the bacterium can also be carried asymptomatically...
  11. doi Fulfilling the promise of rotavirus vaccines: how far have we come since licensure?
    Manish M Patel
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:561-70. 2012
    ..The challenge for policy makers worldwide is to analyse the effect of vaccination in early adopter countries and to assess whether the benefits outweigh the costs and encourage wider dissemination of these vaccines...
  12. pmc Diagnostic microbiologic methods in the GEMS-1 case/control study
    Sandra Panchalingam
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S294-302. 2012
    To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites...
  13. pmc The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries: epidemiologic and clinical methods of the case/control study
    Karen L Kotloff
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Center for Vaccine Development, 685 W Baltimore St, HSF 480, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S232-45. 2012
    b>Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death among children aged <5 years in developing countries...
  14. ncbi Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec
    Jacques Pepin
    Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 41:1254-60. 2005
    Since 2002, an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated-diarrhea (CDAD) associated with a high case-fatality rate has involved >30 hospitals in the province of Quebec, Canada...
  15. pmc The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease
    Jan S Suchodolski
    Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, USA
    PLoS ONE 7:e51907. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders...
  16. pmc Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma
    S A Esrey
    Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Macdonald College, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Canada
    Bull World Health Organ 69:609-21. 1991
    ..Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene...
  17. pmc Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Thomas Clasen
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 334:782. 2007
    ..To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea...
  18. doi Decreased diversity of the fecal Microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
    Ju Young Chang
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:435-8. 2008
    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile (CDAD) is thought to reflect colonization of a disrupted microbial community by the pathogen...
  19. pmc Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries
    Cynthia Boschi-Pinto
    Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 86:710-7. 2008
    ..The major objective of this study is to provide estimates of diarrhoea mortality at country, regional and global level by employing the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) standard...
  20. ncbi Leucovorin and fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer
    A de Gramont
    Service de médecine interne oncologie, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, France
    J Clin Oncol 18:2938-47. 2000
    ..This phase III study investigated the effect of combining oxaliplatin with LV5FU2, with progression-free survival as the primary end point...
  21. pmc The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea
    Kathrin Endt
    Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001097. 2010
    ..typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S...
  22. pmc Healthcare-seeking behaviour for common infectious disease-related illnesses in rural Kenya: a community-based house-to-house survey
    Deron C Burton
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Health Popul Nutr 29:61-70. 2011
    ..Seeking healthcare at health facilities and hospitals varied by syndrome, severity of illness, and characteristics of the patient...
  23. pmc Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey
    Anne Laure Page
    Epicentre, Paris, France
    BMC Public Health 11:389. 2011
    b>Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa...
  24. pmc Systematic review of diarrhea duration and severity in children and adults in low- and middle-income countries
    Laura M Lamberti
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N, Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    BMC Public Health 12:276. 2012
    b>Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally; yet the overall burden of diarrhea in terms of duration and severity has not been quantified...
  25. ncbi Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea: setting our priorities right
    Igor Rudan
    Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, Global Forum for Health Research, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:56-61. 2007
    ..We believe that only in this way will proper attention be given to delivery of proven interventions to reduce the high childhood mortality caused by pneumonia and diarrhoea...
  26. pmc Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults
    Susan M Poutanen
    Department of Microbiology, Toronto Medical Laboratories and Mount Sinai Hospital
    CMAJ 171:51-8. 2004
    Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults. Illness may range from mild watery diarrhea to life-threatening colitis...
  27. ncbi Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles
    Laura E Caulfield
    Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:193-8. 2004
    ..Previous analyses derived the relative risk (RR) of dying as a result of low weight-for-age and calculated the proportion of child deaths worldwide attributable to underweight...
  28. ncbi Escherichia coli in postweaning diarrhea in pigs: an update on bacterial types, pathogenesis, and prevention strategies
    John M Fairbrother
    The Escherichia coli Laboratory, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, 3200 Sicotte, Saint Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 2M2
    Anim Health Res Rev 6:17-39. 2005
    Escherichia coli is one of the most important causes of postweaning diarrhea in pigs. This diarrhea is responsible for economic losses due to mortality, morbidity, decreased growth rate, and cost of medication. The E...
  29. ncbi Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Benjamin F Arnold
    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7360, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:354-64. 2007
    ..The intervention reduced the risk of child diarrhea (pooled relative risk: 0.71, 0.58-0...
  30. pmc Evaluation of the optimal recall period for disease symptoms in home-based morbidity surveillance in rural and urban Kenya
    Daniel R Feikin
    International Emerging Infections Program, Kenya, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
    Int J Epidemiol 39:450-8. 2010
    ..In African settings with poor access to health care, surveillance and surveys of disease burden are often done through home visits. The optimal recall period to capture data on symptoms and health utilization is unknown...
  31. pmc A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between self-reported diarrheal disease and distance from home to water source
    Xia Wang
    School of Medicine, Health Policy, and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:582-4. 2010
    ..45; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.68). There is a need for better designed studies to further elucidate the health impacts on having to carry water home...
  32. doi The streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea: functional analysis of the microbiota, the pathogen's virulence factors, and the host's mucosal immune response
    Patrick Kaiser
    Institute of Microbiology, D BIOL, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Immunol Rev 245:56-83. 2012
    ..To study these mechanisms, the streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea is of great value. Here, we review how S...
  33. doi Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Susanne Hempel
    Southern California Evidence Based Practice Center, RAND Health, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90401, USA
    JAMA 307:1959-69. 2012
    Probiotics are live microorganisms intended to confer a health benefit when consumed. One condition for which probiotics have been advocated is the diarrhea that is a common adverse effect of antibiotic use.
  34. pmc Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon
    Mara Jana Broadhurst
    Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1003000. 2012
    Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity...
  35. pmc Reproduction of mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea and colitis indistinguishable from swine dysentery following experimental inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii" strain 30446
    Joseph E Rubin
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    PLoS ONE 8:e57146. 2013
    Mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, swine dysentery, is a severe production limiting disease of swine. Recently, pigs in western Canada with clinical signs indistinguishable from swine dysentery were observed...
  36. doi Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children
    Joshua Z Goldenberg
    Bastyr University, Seattle, WA, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD006095. 2013
    ..difficile). Probiotics are live organisms thought to balance the gastrointestinal flora...
  37. pmc Intestinal dysbiosis and depletion of butyrogenic bacteria in Clostridium difficile infection and nosocomial diarrhea
    Vijay C Antharam
    College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 51:2884-92. 2013
    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nearly half a million cases of diarrhea and colitis in the United States each year. Although the importance of the gut microbiota in C...
  38. pmc Alternative pathway of complement in children with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome
    Joshua M Thurman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Colorado, Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1920-4. 2009
    b>Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) is a common cause of acute kidney injury in children...
  39. doi A new macrocyclic antibiotic, fidaxomicin (OPT-80), causes less alteration to the bowel microbiota of Clostridium difficile-infected patients than does vancomycin
    Gerald W Tannock
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Microbiology 156:3354-9. 2010
    ..These findings help to explain the substantially reduced rates of relapse following treatment of CDI with fidaxomicin in recent clinical trials...
  40. ncbi [Diarrhea and loss of production on Dutch dairy farms caused by the Schmallenberg virus]
    J Muskens
    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 137:112-5. 2012
    ..GD Veekijker (Animal Health Service) several dairy herds with cows with sudden decreased milk production, watery diarrhea and sometimes fever...
  41. pmc Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans
    P Boerlin
    Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 37:497-503. 1999
    ....
  42. pmc Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention
    Firdausi Qadri
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
    Clin Microbiol Rev 18:465-83. 2005
    ETEC is an underrecognized but extremely important cause of diarrhea in the developing world where there is inadequate clean water and poor sanitation...
  43. ncbi Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease
    Sandra Dial
    Division of Critical Care and Respiratory and Clinical Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
    JAMA 294:2989-95. 2005
    ..Recent reports suggest an increasing occurrence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. We assessed whether the use of gastric acid-suppressive agents is associated with an increased risk in the community...
  44. doi Enhancement of detection and quantification of rotavirus in stool using a modified real-time RT-PCR assay
    Molly M Freeman
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Med Virol 80:1489-96. 2008
    ..This real-time assay is an important addition to the arsenal of molecular tools available to quickly identify rotavirus in stool samples during routine surveillance...
  45. ncbi Campylobacter concisus: an evaluation of certain phenotypic and genotypic characteristics
    J Engberg
    Unit of Gastrointestinal Infections, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Clin Microbiol Infect 11:288-95. 2005
    ..Further evidence is needed to support the possible role of C. concisus as a human enteric pathogen...
  46. pmc The influence of climate variation and change on diarrheal disease in the Pacific Islands
    R B Singh
    Ecology and Health Research Centre, Wellington School of Medicine, Wellington, New Zealand
    Environ Health Perspect 109:155-9. 2001
    ..There have been no previous studies looking specifically at the relationship between climate variability and diarrhea in the Pacific region...
  47. pmc Multi-country analysis of the effects of diarrhoea on childhood stunting
    William Checkley
    Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 37:816-30. 2008
    ..These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher cumulative burden of diarrhoea increases the risk of stunting...
  48. doi Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4
    Holger Rohde
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    N Engl J Med 365:718-24. 2011
    ..In less than a week, these studies revealed that the outbreak strain belonged to an enteroaggregative E. coli lineage that had acquired genes for Shiga toxin 2 and for antibiotic resistance...
  49. doi Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) induce proinflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells
    Bert Devriendt
    Laboratory of Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
    Dev Comp Immunol 34:1175-82. 2010
    ..These results indicate a potential mucosal adjuvant capacity of ETEC-derived flagellin and may improve rational vaccine design against F4(+) ETEC infections...
  50. pmc Seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Karen Levy
    Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 38:1487-96. 2009
    ..We present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the seasonal epidemiology of rotavirus in the tropics, including 26 studies reporting continuous monthly rotavirus incidence for which corresponding climatological data was available...
  51. ncbi Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea
    Vibeke Rosenfeldt
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:411-6. 2002
    Oral bacteriotherapy promotes recovery from acute childhood diarrhea, but few strains have been shown to have therapeutic potentials...
  52. pmc The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000
    Margaret Kosek
    Division of Geographic and International Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 81:197-204. 2003
    ..There has not been a concurrent decrease in morbidity rates attributable to diarrhoea. As population growth is focused in the poorest areas, the total morbidity component of the disease burden is greater than previously...
  53. pmc Pandemic serovars (O3:K6 and O4:K68) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with diarrhea in Mozambique: spread of the pandemic into the African continent
    M Ansaruzzaman
    Laboratory Sciences Division, ICDDR, B Centre for Health and Population Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2559-62. 2005
    ..Ten percent of diarrhea patients from whom no V. parahaemolyticus was cultured were severely dehydrated, but none of the V...
  54. ncbi Sentinel hospital surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea in the People's Republic of China, August 2001-July 2003
    Zhao Yin Fang
    Viral Gastroenteritis Division, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    J Infect Dis 192:S94-9. 2005
    ..From August 2001 through July 2003, prospective hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea among children <5 years of age was conducted in 6 sentinel hospitals...
  55. pmc Monitoring of stool microbiota in subjects with diarrhea indicates distortions in composition
    Volker Mai
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Rm 934 B MSTF, 10 S Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:4550-2. 2006
    We utilized denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling to survey stool microbiota in 175 persons with diarrhea and 113 asymptomatic persons in a diarrhea surveillance study...
  56. ncbi Association between climate variability and hospital visits for non-cholera diarrhoea in Bangladesh: effects and vulnerable groups
    Masahiro Hashizume
    Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 36:1030-7. 2007
    ..We estimated the effects of rainfall and temperature on the number of non-cholera diarrhoea cases and identified population factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
  57. pmc Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development
    Richard L Guerrant
    Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22901, USA
    Nutr Rev 66:487-505. 2008
    ..Further intervention studies are needed to document the relevance of these mechanisms and, most importantly, to interrupt the vicious diarrhea-malnutrition cycle so children may develop their full potential.
  58. pmc Shifting prevalence of major diarrheal pathogens in patients seeking hospital care during floods in 1998, 2004, and 2007 in Dhaka, Bangladesh
    AARON M HARRIS
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:708-14. 2008
    ..05). Our findings demonstrate alterations in clinical features and phenotypic changes of major bacterial pathogens in the recent Bangladesh flood...
  59. doi Molecular detection of porcine kobuviruses in pigs in Korea and their association with diarrhea
    Seong Jun Park
    Department of Veterinary Medicine Virology Lab, Seoul National University, Gwanak Gu, Korea
    Arch Virol 155:1803-11. 2010
    ..Epidemiological studies of porcine kobuvirus linked to diarrhea indicated that porcine kobuvirus infections are endemic in diarrheic pigs in Korea...
  60. pmc Estimating diarrhea mortality among young children in low and middle income countries
    Christa L Fischer Walker
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29151. 2012
    b>Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age, but in many low and middle-income countries where vital registration data are lacking, updated estimates with regard to the ..
  61. doi Effectiveness and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea
    Ener Cagri Dinleyici
    Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease and Intensive Care Unit, Eskisehir, Turkey
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 12:395-410. 2012
    Acute diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality worldwide and probiotics have been proposed as a complementary therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea...
  62. pmc Prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea reduce growth and increase risk of persistent diarrhea in children
    Sean R Moore
    Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Gastroenterology 139:1156-64. 2010
    Prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea (ProD; duration 7-13 days) or persistent diarrhea (PD; duration ≥14 days) are important causes of undernutrition, yet the epidemiology and nutritional impact of ProD are poorly understood.
  63. pmc Pediatric diarrhea in southern Ghana: etiology and association with intestinal inflammation and malnutrition
    Japheth A Opintan
    Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:936-43. 2010
    b>Diarrhea is a major public health problem that affects the development of children. Anthropometric data were collected from 274 children with (N = 170) and without (N = 104) diarrhea...
  64. pmc Epidemiology of rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in Burkina Faso
    Isidore J O Bonkoungou
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CRSBAN UFR SVT, Universite de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
    BMC Pediatr 10:94. 2010
    ..In anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed epidemiology of rotavirus disease among children visiting medical centre due to acute diarrhoea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso...
  65. doi Microscopic colitis
    Darrell S Pardi
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Gastroenterology 140:1155-65. 2011
    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, especially among older persons. Diagnosis requires histologic analysis of colon biopsy samples in the appropriate clinical setting...
  66. pmc Alterations in composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome
    I M Carroll
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7080, USA
    Neurogastroenterol Motil 24:521-30, e248. 2012
    ..We analyzed the composition of the intestinal microbiota in a defined subgroup of IBS patients (diarrhea-predominant IBS, D-IBS) using a technique that provides the deepest characterization available for complex ..
  67. ncbi A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use
    Carlene A Muto
    Division of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:273-80. 2005
    ..difficile infections; of these, 26 resulted in colectomy and 18 resulted in death. We conducted an investigation of a large C. difficile outbreak in our hospital to identify risk factors and characterize the outbreak...
  68. pmc Impact monitoring of the national scale up of zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh: repeat ecologic surveys
    Charles P Larson
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    PLoS Med 6:e1000175. 2009
    Zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea has the potential to save 400,000 under-five lives per year in lesser developed countries...
  69. pmc Arsenic exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhea during infancy in Bangladesh
    Anisur Rahman
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Environ Health Perspect 119:719-24. 2011
    ..An increase in infectious diseases has been proposed as the underlying cause of these associations, but there is no epidemiologic research to support the hypothesis...
  70. pmc Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis
    Christa L Fischer Walker
    Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Med 8:e1000428. 2011
    b>Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries...
  71. pmc The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS): impetus, rationale, and genesis
    Myron M Levine
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 55:S215-24. 2012
    ..2004, various case/control and small cohort studies were undertaken to address the etiology of pediatric diarrhea in developing countries...
  72. ncbi Longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium infection in children in northeastern Brazil
    R D Newman
    Health Alliance International, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
    J Infect Dis 180:167-75. 1999
    ..infection in an endemic setting, describe factors associated with Cryptosporidium-associated persistent diarrhea, and clarify the importance of copathogens in symptomatic cryptosporidiosis...
  73. pmc Two or more enteropathogens are associated with diarrhoea in Mexican children
    Gloria Luz Paniagua
    Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Avenida de Los Barrios, 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, 54090, Estado de Mexico, Mexico
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 6:17. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in Mexico City...
  74. ncbi Preventive zinc supplementation among infants, preschoolers, and older prepubertal children
    Kenneth H Brown
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Food Nutr Bull 30:S12-40. 2009
    ..Zinc supplementation reduced the incidence of diarrhea by approximately 20%, but the impact was limited to studies that enrolled children with a mean initial age ..
  75. ncbi Clinical practice. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
    John G Bartlett
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 0003, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:334-9. 2002
  76. ncbi Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals
    S Johnson
    Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Chicago Health Care System, Lakeside Division, and Northwestern University Medical School, IL 60611, USA
    N Engl J Med 341:1645-51. 1999
    Large outbreaks of diarrhea caused by a newly recognized strain of Clostridium difficile occurred in four hospitals located in different parts of the United States between 1989 and 1992...
  77. pmc Epidemiology of recurrences or reinfections of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
    F Barbut
    Department of Microbiology, Hopital Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France
    J Clin Microbiol 38:2386-8. 2000
    Approximately 15 to 35% of patients with a first episode of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea relapse within 2 months. Between 1994 and 1997, strains from 93 hospitalized patients with C...
  78. pmc Innate immune responses to human rotavirus in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model
    Ana M Gonzalez
    Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
    Immunology 131:242-56. 2010
    ..Stimulation of the anti-inflammatory effects of pDCs after the high dose, without increasing their pro-inflammatory impacts, may be critical to reduce further immunopathology during HRV infection...
  79. doi Decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in El Salvador
    Catherine Yen
    National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:S6-S10. 2011
    ..We further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination.
  80. pmc Prevalence of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea, healthy controls, and the environment
    M J Albert
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3785-90. 2000
    ..Even though aeromonads have been isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, their etiological role in gastroenteritis is unclear...
  81. pmc Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies--an update
    Wolf Peter Schmidt
    Department for Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Int J Epidemiol 40:1678-92. 2011
    ..Challenges include the diagnosis based on self-reported symptoms, the logistical burden of intensive surveillance and the variability of diarrhoea in space, time and person...
  82. pmc Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis
    Perry Hookman
    University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL 33140, USA
    World J Gastroenterol 15:1554-80. 2009
    ..difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal ..
  83. pmc Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for recurrence of Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea
    Ji Won Kim
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 156 707, South Korea
    World J Gastroenterol 16:3573-7. 2010
    To investigate the risk factors for Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) recurrence, and its relationship with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
  84. ncbi Intestinal parasites in patients with diarrhea and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zimbabwe
    T Gumbo
    Department of Infectious Disease, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio, USA
    AIDS 13:819-21. 1999
    To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors for infection associated with diarrhea in HIV-infected patients in Harare, Zimbabwe.
  85. ncbi Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries
    Nikhil Thapar
    Centre for Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London, Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK
    Lancet 363:641-53. 2004
    ..These strategies include vaccines and, most importantly, policies to address persisting inequalities between the developed and developing worlds with respect to nutrition, sanitation, and access to safe drinking water...
  86. ncbi The role of Aeromonas in diarrhea: a review
    A von Graevenitz
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, 8028, Zurich, Switzerland
    Infection 35:59-64. 2007
    ..The consequences for stool bacteriology are discussed...
  87. pmc Identification of an aggregative adhesion fimbria (AAF) type III-encoding operon in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a sensitive probe for detecting the AAF-encoding operon family
    Christine Bernier
    Unité de Pathogénie Bactérienne des Muqueuses, Groupe d Etude des Infections Diarrhéiques GEID, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Infect Immun 70:4302-11. 2002
    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is recognized as an emerging cause of diarrhea in children and adults worldwide, and recent studies have implicated EAEC in persistent diarrhea in patients infected with human immunodeficiency ..
  88. ncbi Quantitative biofilm assay using a microtiter plate to screen for enteroaggregative Escherichia coli
    Naoko Wakimoto
    Department of Pediatrics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890 8520, Japan
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:687-90. 2004
    ..coli strains from children with diarrhea. Bacteria were incubated overnight in high-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium using a polystyrene ..
  89. doi Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes
    Stuart Johnson
    Infectious Disease Section, Loyola University Medical Center, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    J Infect 58:403-10. 2009
    ..New treatment agents that are active against C. difficile, but spare critical components of the normal flora, may decrease the incidence of recurrent CDI...
  90. ncbi Role of rotaviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Tehran, Iran
    A H Zarnani
    Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
    J Clin Virol 29:189-93. 2004
    ..Rotavirus illness is associated with significant cause of morbidity and is a common cause of hospitalization worldwide...
  91. doi Economic healthcare costs of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review
    S S Ghantoji
    University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA
    J Hosp Infect 74:309-18. 2010
    ..Economic healthcare costs of CDI were high for primary and recurrent cases. The high cost associated with CDI justifies the use of additional resources for CDI prevention and control...
  92. pmc Llama-derived single-chain antibody fragments directed to rotavirus VP6 protein possess broad neutralizing activity in vitro and confer protection against diarrhea in mice
    Lorena Garaicoechea
    Instituto de Virologia, CICV y A INTA, CC 25 1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Virol 82:9753-64. 2008
    Group A rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in human infants and newborn animals. Rotavirus virions are triple-layered particles...
  93. ncbi Global etiology of travelers' diarrhea: systematic review from 1973 to the present
    Nipam Shah
    The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:609-14. 2009
    Fifty-one published studies of travelers' diarrhea (TD) were examined to look for regional differences in pathogens identified. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was detected in 1,678/5,518 (30...
  94. doi Clinical and laboratory features of radiologic pneumonia in severely malnourished infants attending an urban diarrhea treatment center in Bangladesh
    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
    Clinical Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:174-7. 2010
    ..Case fatality rate was greater in cases than controls (23% vs. 0%, P = 0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of fast breathing, lower chest wall indrawing, and nasal flaring in diagnosing pneumonia was poor among the cases...
  95. pmc Detection and quantification of 14 Campylobacter species in pet dogs reveals an increase in species richness in feces of diarrheic animals
    Bonnie Chaban
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
    BMC Microbiol 10:73. 2010
    ..To expand our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in dogs, a collection of fecal samples from 70 healthy and 65 diarrheic pet dogs were examined for the presence and levels of 14 Campylobacter species using quantitative PCR...
  96. pmc Causal inference methods to study nonrandomized, preexisting development interventions
    Benjamin F Arnold
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7358, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:22605-10. 2010
    ..01, 95% CI = -0.15, 0.19) or diarrhea (adjusted longitudinal prevalence difference = 0.003, 95% CI = -0.001, 0.008) among children <5 y old...
  97. pmc New variants of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor with attributes of the classical biotype from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Bangladesh
    G Balakrish Nair
    Laboratory Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3296-9. 2002
    ..O1, of the El Tor biotype with attributes of the classical biotype, from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhea in Bangladesh. Twenty-four strains of V...
  98. doi Enteric viruses in pediatric diarrhea in Saudi Arabia
    Hamsa T Tayeb
    Molecular Virology and Infectious Diseases Section, Biological and Medical Research Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    J Med Virol 80:1919-29. 2008
    ..1st, 2002 and August 31st, 2003, a panel of 1,000 stool samples was collected from patients presenting with diarrhea in the three major urban centers of Saudi Arabia; Riyadh, Mecca, and Jeddah...
  99. doi Antiviral activity of quercetin 7-rhamnoside against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
    Hwa Jung Choi
    Natural Medicines Research Centre, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon 305 333, Republic of Korea
    Antiviral Res 81:77-81. 2009
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the predominant cause of severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine. The lack of effective therapeutical treatment underlines the importance of research for new antivirals...
  100. doi Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections
    Lynne V McFarland
    Department of Health Services Research and Development, Puget Sound Veterans Administration Healthcare System, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Anaerobe 15:274-80. 2009
    ..The use of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) has been tested in randomized controlled ..
  101. pmc Lymphocytic colitis: a retrospective clinical study of 199 Swedish patients
    M Olesen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden
    Gut 53:536-41. 2004
    ..Lymphocytic colitis is characterised by chronic diarrhoea and specific microscopic changes in a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa. We report clinical features and treatment outcome in a large patient cohort...

Research Grants80

  1. Understanding/ Treating Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Pediatric Physical Illness
    Eva Szigethy; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Community Participation Research of Breastfeeding Disparities in African American
    Tamar Ringel Kulka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..infections, skin rashes similar to eczema, asthmatic episodes, type I and type II diabetes, episodes of infant diarrhea, and incidents of childhood leukemia and sudden death syndrome...
  3. Fatty acid related regulation of enteric infectious disease
    FREDRICK JON KULL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): According to the World Health Organization, diarrhea caused by enteric infections affects some four billion individuals annually throughout the world, resulting in an estimated four million to six ..
  4. Regulation of the Vibrio cholerae intestinal exit plan
    ANISIA J SILVA BENITEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..such as the toxin co-regulated pilus and cholera toxin, which is largely responsible for the profuse rice-watery diarrhea typical of this disease. At a late stage of infection, V...
  5. Identification and Analysis of Flavivirus Protease and RNA Helicase Inhibitors
    Radhakrishnan Padmanabhan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..reported crystal structures of YFV and DEN2 RNA helicases and those of hepatitis C virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) RdRP for docking studies...
  6. JAMES M COGHILL; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..This process is referred to as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and can result in a severe skin rash, profound diarrhea, or liver injury...
  7. A quantitative proteomics approach to understand viral immune evasion strategies
    Michele E Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Rotavirus infections are the major viral cause of acute vomiting and diarrhea in children under 5 years of age...
  8. SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..the cause of pseudomembranous colitis, which accounts for a quarter of all cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. With the recent emergence of hypervirulent strains, the incidence of C...
  9. Vitamin A adjuvant to enhance gut immunity and rotavirus vaccines in neonates
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Rotavirus (RV) causes diarrhea in infants worldwide with most deaths in Africa and Asia. Newly licensed oral RV vaccines have unproven or lower efficacies in infants in impoverished countries...
  10. New Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Amebiasis
    JOEL F HERBEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Intestinal amebiasis causes debilitating diarrhea and dysentery, while extraintestinal amebiasis occurs when the parasite migrates from the intestinal tract to ..
  11. New drug VS-110 for treating inflammatory bowel diseases
    Jinshyun Ruth Wu-Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Symptoms may include abdominal pain, severe diarrhea and malnutrition. IBD primarily includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)...
  12. John R Grider; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Disorders of any of these components result in abnormal motility patterns that cause diarrhea or constipation and associated disturbances in absorption of nutrients and water from the gut...
  13. Ibis T-6,000 Biosensor System
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..respiratory disease in cancer and transplant patients, intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, diarrhea and colon cancer and prostate cancer...
  14. Irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: the role of gluten intolerance and HLA-DQ2
    MICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is epidemiological evidence of significant overlap between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional chronic diarrhea [FD (Locke et al 2005)]...
  15. Subhadra Evans; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms, which can significantly impact quality of life and ..
  16. Functional Bowel Disorders in Chinese Medicine
    Brian Berman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This is a condition characterized by a syndrome of recurrent abdominal pain, diarrhea and psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety...
  17. Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, and is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world with more than 300,000 cases of C...
  18. Click chemistry for novel antimicrobials against periodontal pathogens
    Valery V Fokin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..are mostly administered systemically, which can have serious side effects, particularly antibiotics- associated diarrhea, that preclude routine use for early stages of periodontal disease...
  19. Chemokine Decoy Receptor: a novel therapy of IBD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..be monitored for body weight and clinical signs of illness: hunched-over appearance, weight loss, loose stools/diarrhea, and bloody stools...
  20. Evaluation of a new class of antimicrobial agents against Clostridium difficile
    SAUL R contact TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..C. difficile, a serious nosocomial cause of diarrhea and intestinal inflammatory disease, has increased significantly in both North America and Europe, causing ..
  21. MOLECULAR REGULATION OF ILEAL/RENAL BILE ACID TRANSPORT
    Benjamin L Shneider; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Inactivating mutations in humans and mice lead to pathologic bile acid induced diarrhea, while partial inhibition of ASBT-mediated transport can be used to treat hypercholesterolemia and cholestasis...
  22. Vanessa Sperandio; Fiscal Year: 2016
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) causes outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide...
  23. ADAM CARL LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2016
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diarrhea causes nearly two million deaths annually in children under five, or one fifth of all child deaths worldwide...
  24. Planning Grant for the Efficacy of Auranofin for the Treatment of Amebiasis
    Sharon L Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will focus on patients >18 years old with symptomatic diarrhea (>2 loose stools for 24 hrs) with E...
  25. Combination Clostridium Difficile Toxin and Adhesin Vaccine
    Ciaran P Kelly; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus, and is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis in the industrialized world with more than 300,000 cases of C...
  26. Jeffrey K Griffiths; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We recently found that 35% of Ugandan children with Cr. diarrhea and cough were PCR sputum-positive, suggesting that respiratory tract (RT) infection occurs frequently in ..
  27. A Trial of Zinc and Micronutrients in Tanzanian Children
    Christopher P Duggan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and blood smear for malaria. The primary outcomes will be the incidence of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections. Secondary outcomes will be weight and length gain...
  28. PLCgamma regulates HNE3 activity through direct binding and dynamic complexes
    NICHOLAS CONSTANTINE ZACHOS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In the intestine, impaired sodium absorption results in decreased water absorption and diarrhea. In diarrheal diseases, elevation of intracellular second messengers, such as calcium (Ca2+), by neurohumoral ..
  29. Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vibrio cholerae is the etiologic agent of cholera, a devastating dehydrating diarrhea disease endemic in many parts of the world, imposing a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, especially on ..
  30. Md Yunus; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..in Bangladesh, some of the most common water related diseases being typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, and diarrhea. While the overall impact of change in the global climate is still uncertain, is it broadly recognized that areas ..
  31. Carla Rothlin; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..IBD is a group of chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by diarrhea, bleeding, abdominal pain, and weight loss...
  32. Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld; Fiscal Year: 2016
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain and diarrhea are among the most frequently reported symptoms in Veterans returning from active duty...
  33. Compounds to treat Helicobacter pylori infection
    Kenneth Coleman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the intestinal flora, avoiding many of the common side effects of broad spectrum antibiotics such as nausea and diarrhea. This provides preliminary validation for the approach to develop specific therapeutics targeting H. pylori...
  34. PA-50/PA-41 antitoxin antibody therapy for C. difficile infection
    William C Olson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause both of hospital-acquired diarrhea and of death due to intestinal infections in the US...
  35. Non-Human Primate Model of Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy
    Karol Sestak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An association between clinical symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss, skin lesions, etc...
  36. ANASTASIA NICKOLAEVNA VLASOVA; Fiscal Year: 2016
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Rotavirus (RV) is a leading global cause of childhood diarrhea. Current attenuated human RV (AttHRV) oral vaccines are effective in infants in developed countries, but for unexplained reasons, they ..
  37. Roma Chilengi; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In Zambia, it is responsible for a third of all diarrhea-associated hospitalization and death in children under 5 years...
  38. Planning a clinical trial of Flash-heated breast milk to decrease morbidity, impr
    Caroline J Chantry; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..foods and contains antibodies and other protective components that protect the infant from common illnesses like diarrhea and upper respiratory infections...
  39. Heterologous abs from llama and chicken egg yolk to prevent rotavirus diarrhea
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..derived from llama heavy chain Abs as an alternative or complementary approach to vaccination for rotavirus (RV) diarrhea prevention and treatment...
  40. International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12, 13 and 14)
    Louis M Weiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..now includes research presentations on Cryptosporidium;the Microsporidia, both causing AIDS associated chronic diarrhea;Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause encephalitis in AIDS patients;and the free-living amebae which cause ..
  41. Amberlyn M Wands; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..applicant): Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is endemic to developing countries, in which acute infectious diarrhea is the second most common cause of childhood death, and millions of traveler's per year from the ..
  42. Effect of a sanitation &nutrition intervention on HIV-exposed infant health
    JEAN HAWES HUMPHREY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Another literature indicates that provision of water and especially sanitation services, reduces diarrhea and enhances child growth, producing increases in WAZ and LAZ by the same order of magnitude as complementary ..
  43. Kara Gross Margolis; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..inflammation occurs in intestinal disorders besides IBD, including necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome;the ENS may contribute to any or all of them...
  44. Lactogenic immunity/probiotics: Effect on neonatal gut immunity
    Linda J Saif; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Breast milk contains maternal antibodies (MatAbs) that promote infant health and moderate diarrhea, and soluble immunomediators (TGF2, IL4, sCD14, etc) whose role is largely unexplored...
  45. Mechanisms of Interleukin-17 Inflammation Induced by Bacteroides fragilis
    CYNTHIA SEARS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with colonic hyperplasia and inflammation (precursor conditions to neoplastic transformation), to inflammatory diarrhea and colitis...
  46. MICHAEL L CAMILLERI; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..BA malabsorption is reported in 20-75% of patients with chronic diarrhea;BA deficiency is reported in rare cases of childhood constipation...
  47. Hanping Feng; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..difficile, an etiologic agent for pseudomembranous colitis, accounts for a quarter cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. With the recent emergence of hypervirulent strains, the incidence of C...
  48. SHIGA-TOXINS: PRE-CLINICAL ANIMAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND THERAPEUTIC TESTING
    Shinichiro Kurosawa; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..coli (EHEC) strains are recognized as the most common cause of outbreaks and regional sporadic cases of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome involving thousands of cases and numerous deaths annually...
  49. Targeting Bacterial Virulence Transcription Factors, a Novel Antibiotic Approach
    George A Garcia; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Relevance In the developing world, severe diarrhea is a killer, taking the lives of 2 to 3 million children every year...
  50. Preclinical development of a novel antibacterial for Clostridium difficile diseas
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Given the increasing prevalence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), including that from highly virulent, toxin-overproducing and/or antibiotic- resistant strains, the need ..
  51. Prema Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..An estimated 1.4 million persons in the United States suffer from IBD. IBD causes severe diarrhea, abdominal pain and increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Importantly, there is no cure for IBD...
  52. Aldebaran M Hofer; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..signals are expected to impact wide-ranging aspects of digestive physiology and barrier function, including control of the maturation of epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis and fluid secretory activity that underlies diarrhea.
  53. Effects of apoptotic epithelial cell engulfment on mucosal inflammation
    Peter B Ernst; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This new information may have therapeutic applications for the prevention or treatment of digestive diseases triggered by infection including inflammatory bowel diseases and infectious diarrhea.
  54. Edward T Ryan; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..disease is the second most common cause of death among children under five years of age globally, and infectious diarrhea is the second leading cause of global morbidity...
  55. Activation of Host-Probiotic Communication by Prebiotic Milk Oligosaccharides
    Helen E Raybould; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..or enriched via prebiotics, has been linked to positive health effects including reduction of gut inflammation, diarrhea and allergic reactions...
  56. JOHN JOSEPH MEKALANOS; Fiscal Year: 2015
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, an acute life-threatening diarrhea disease...
  57. CHARLES MILTON MANSBACH; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..While this works in reducing fat absorption, its side effects of bloating, gas, nd diarrhea limit its usefulness...
  58. Mechanisms of Immune Modulation by Probiotics
    Lijuan Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will use a well-characterized gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of human rotavirus (HRV) infection and diarrhea to identify the mechanisms of lactobacilli's immunostimulating effects through studies of innate and ..
  59. Discovery of Vibrio cholerae factors contributing to virulence in Drosophila.
    ALEXANDRA ELIZABETH PURDY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This disease, characterized by massive water loss and dehydration due to diarrhea, can lead to death in less than 24 hours if rehydration therapy is not initiated immediately. V...
  60. Diagnostic tools to link Bacteroides fragilis toxin isotypes and human disease
    Saraspadee Mootien; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..ETBF has been shown to cause diarrhea as well as bowel inflammation and colitis...
  61. Molecular Mechanism of Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis
    Christopher D Huston; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a single-celled intestinal parasite that causes invasive amebiasis (a disease Characterized by bloody diarrhea and liver abscesses), engulfs killed cells during invasion through host tissues...
  62. MICRONUTRIENTS AND ENTERIC INFECTION IN AFRICAN CHILDREN
    Sherwood Gorbach; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In regions where HIV infection is prevalent, enteric infections and persistent diarrhea have even greater public health importance...
  63. MICRONUTRIENTS AND ENTERIC INFECTION IN AFRICAN CHILDREN
    MICHAEL BENNISH; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In regions where HIV infection is prevalent, enteric infections and persistent diarrhea have even greater public health importance...
  64. Determining vaccine candidacy of LT and STa toxoid fusions against enterotoxigeni
    Weiping Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are categorized as priority B pathogens by NIAID. ETEC-associated diarrhea is responsible for nearly one million deaths each year around the world in addition to causing of illness to ..
  65. Multiplex Screening ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium and E. histolytica
    JOEL F HERBEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..lamblia is most common, while Cryptosporidium spp. stands out as an important cause of chronic diarrhea without effective treatment in AIDS patients...
  66. ABSORPTION, SECRETION, MALABSORPTION AND DIARRHEA
    JOHN FORDTRAN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The major subject of our research is chronic diarrhea, which is important for several reasons. First, the symptom is highly disabling. Second, its etiology may be hard to determine. And third, current therapies often do not bring relief...
  67. Transmission and the respiratory tract in cryptosporidiosis
    Jeffrey Griffiths; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Cryptosporidiosis is a clinically significant cause of diarrhea. The infection can be life-threatening in individuals with immunodeficiencies because of the severity and ..
  68. ENTERIC VIRAL INFECTIONS OF CAPTIVE RHESUS MACAQUES
    Karol Sestak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Rotaviruses are the most common etiological agents of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide...
  69. INDO-US Collaboration to Develop Rotavirus Vaccines
    Pratima Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Disease burden studies have established rotavirus as an important cause of diarrhea and death in Indian children...
  70. Childhood Illness and Risk Perception: Opportunity to Improve Handwashing
    Pavani Kalluri Ram; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children less than five years old, causing about 2 million deaths annually...
  71. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea in Children in South India
    Honorine Ward; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..particularly permeability and carbohydrate absorption, in children with either rotaviral or cryptosporidial diarrhea and no other detected enteric infection...
  72. GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SHIGA-LIKE TOXINS
    Stephen Calderwood; Fiscal Year: 1993
    Infectious diarrhea remains an important cause of human morbidity and mortality. Detailed understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis for specific agents of diarrhea should allow the rational design of safe and effective vaccines...
  73. Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus as a SARS Model
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The lung is the target organ related to the disease manifestations, although diarrhea occurs in some patients...
  74. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF GUT/NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS
    Aaron Vinik; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The major symptoms of neuroendocrine tumors are flushing and diarrhea. The precise pharmacology and pathophysiology of these symptoms remain obscure...