- Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli
J P Nataro
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 11:142-201. 1998
..Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E...
- Functional bowel disorders
George F Longstreth
Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California 92120, USA
Gastroenterology 130:1480-91. 2006
..Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are best identified by symptom-based approaches...
- Diarrhea incidence in low- and middle-income countries in 1990 and 2010: a systematic review
Christa L Fischer Walker
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
BMC Public Health 12:220. 2012
b>Diarrhea is recognized as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries yet updated estimates of diarrhea incidence by age for these countries are greatly needed...
- Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Centre for Research into Environment and Health, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 5:42-52. 2005
..There is some evidence of publication bias in the findings from the hygiene and water treatment interventions...
- Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome
Phillip I Tarr
Division of Gastroenterology, Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8208, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Lancet 365:1073-86. 2005
..The vascular injury leading to HUS is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhoea. The best way to prevent HUS is to prevent primary infection with Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria...
- A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
Vivian G Loo
Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
- Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children
Umesh D Parashar
Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Division of Viral and Ricksettial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 9:565-72. 2003
..and deaths caused by rotavirus disease, we reviewed studies published from 1986 to 2000 on deaths caused by diarrhea and on rotavirus infections in children...
- Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 3:275-81. 2003
..More and better-designed trials are needed to measure the impact of washing hands on diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in developing countries...
- The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya
Daniel R Feikin
International Emerging Infections Program Kenya, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Nairobi and Kisumu, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
PLoS ONE 6:e16085. 2011
..Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions...
- Host and pathogen factors for Clostridium difficile infection and colonization
Vivian G Loo
Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Centre, 687 Pine Ave W, Rm L5 06, Montreal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
N Engl J Med 365:1693-703. 2011
Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and the bacterium can also be carried asymptomatically...
- Fulfilling the promise of rotavirus vaccines: how far have we come since licensure?
Manish M Patel
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Lancet Infect Dis 12:561-70. 2012
..The challenge for policy makers worldwide is to analyse the effect of vaccination in early adopter countries and to assess whether the benefits outweigh the costs and encourage wider dissemination of these vaccines...
- Diagnostic microbiologic methods in the GEMS-1 case/control study
Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Clin Infect Dis 55:S294-302. 2012
To understand the etiology of moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we performed a comprehensive case/control study of children aged <5 years at 7 sites...
- The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) of diarrheal disease in infants and young children in developing countries: epidemiologic and clinical methods of the case/control study
Karen L Kotloff
Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Center for Vaccine Development, 685 W Baltimore St, HSF 480, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Clin Infect Dis 55:S232-45. 2012
b>Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death among children aged <5 years in developing countries...
- Emergence of fluoroquinolones as the predominant risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a cohort study during an epidemic in Quebec
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
Clin Infect Dis 41:1254-60. 2005
Since 2002, an epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated-diarrhea (CDAD) associated with a high case-fatality rate has involved >30 hospitals in the province of Quebec, Canada...
- The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease
Jan S Suchodolski
Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, USA
PLoS ONE 7:e51907. 2012
..The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders...
- Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
BMJ 334:782. 2007
..To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhoea...
- Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma
S A Esrey
Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Macdonald College, McGill University, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Canada
Bull World Health Organ 69:609-21. 1991
..Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene...
- Decreased diversity of the fecal Microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
Ju Young Chang
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
J Infect Dis 197:435-8. 2008
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile (CDAD) is thought to reflect colonization of a disrupted microbial community by the pathogen...
- Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries
Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Bull World Health Organ 86:710-7. 2008
..The major objective of this study is to provide estimates of diarrhoea mortality at country, regional and global level by employing the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) standard...
- The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea
Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
PLoS Pathog 6:e1001097. 2010
..typhimurium diarrhea. This pathogen is a common cause of diarrhea in humans world-wide. S. typhimurium (S...
- Leucovorin and fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer
A de Gramont
Service de médecine interne oncologie, Hopital Saint Antoine, Paris, France
J Clin Oncol 18:2938-47. 2000
..This phase III study investigated the effect of combining oxaliplatin with LV5FU2, with progression-free survival as the primary end point...
- Healthcare-seeking behaviour for common infectious disease-related illnesses in rural Kenya: a community-based house-to-house survey
Deron C Burton
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
J Health Popul Nutr 29:61-70. 2011
..Seeking healthcare at health facilities and hospitals varied by syndrome, severity of illness, and characteristics of the patient...
- Systematic review of diarrhea duration and severity in children and adults in low- and middle-income countries
Laura M Lamberti
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N, Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
BMC Public Health 12:276. 2012
b>Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally; yet the overall burden of diarrhea in terms of duration and severity has not been quantified...
- Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey
Anne Laure Page
Epicentre, Paris, France
BMC Public Health 11:389. 2011
b>Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa...
- Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea: setting our priorities right
Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, Global Forum for Health Research, Geneva, Switzerland
Lancet Infect Dis 7:56-61. 2007
..We believe that only in this way will proper attention be given to delivery of proven interventions to reduce the high childhood mortality caused by pneumonia and diarrhoea...
- Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults
Susan M Poutanen
Department of Microbiology, Toronto Medical Laboratories and Mount Sinai Hospital
CMAJ 171:51-8. 2004
Clostridium difficile is the most important cause of nosocomial diarrhea in adults. Illness may range from mild watery diarrhea to life-threatening colitis...
- Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles
Laura E Caulfield
Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 80:193-8. 2004
..Previous analyses derived the relative risk (RR) of dying as a result of low weight-for-age and calculated the proportion of child deaths worldwide attributable to underweight...
- Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Southern California Evidence Based Practice Center, RAND Health, 1776 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90401, USA
JAMA 307:1959-69. 2012
Probiotics are live microorganisms intended to confer a health benefit when consumed. One condition for which probiotics have been advocated is the diarrhea that is a common adverse effect of antibiotic use.
- Escherichia coli in postweaning diarrhea in pigs: an update on bacterial types, pathogenesis, and prevention strategies
John M Fairbrother
The Escherichia coli Laboratory, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire, Universite de Montreal, 3200 Sicotte, Saint Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 2M2
Anim Health Res Rev 6:17-39. 2005
Escherichia coli is one of the most important causes of postweaning diarrhea in pigs. This diarrhea is responsible for economic losses due to mortality, morbidity, decreased growth rate, and cost of medication. The E...
- Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon
Mara Jana Broadhurst
Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 8:e1003000. 2012
Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a leading cause of morbidity amongst rhesus monkeys kept in captivity...
- A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between self-reported diarrheal disease and distance from home to water source
School of Medicine, Health Policy, and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:582-4. 2010
..45; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.68). There is a need for better designed studies to further elucidate the health impacts on having to carry water home...
- Reproduction of mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea and colitis indistinguishable from swine dysentery following experimental inoculation with "Brachyspira hampsonii" strain 30446
Joseph E Rubin
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
PLoS ONE 8:e57146. 2013
Mucohaemorrhagic diarrhea caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, swine dysentery, is a severe production limiting disease of swine. Recently, pigs in western Canada with clinical signs indistinguishable from swine dysentery were observed...
- Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Benjamin F Arnold
Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 7360, USA
Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:354-64. 2007
..The intervention reduced the risk of child diarrhea (pooled relative risk: 0.71, 0.58-0...
- Intestinal dysbiosis and depletion of butyrogenic bacteria in Clostridium difficile infection and nosocomial diarrhea
Vijay C Antharam
College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
J Clin Microbiol 51:2884-92. 2013
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes nearly half a million cases of diarrhea and colitis in the United States each year. Although the importance of the gut microbiota in C...
- Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children
Joshua Z Goldenberg
Bastyr University, Seattle, WA, USA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD006095. 2013
..difficile). Probiotics are live organisms thought to balance the gastrointestinal flora...
- The streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea: functional analysis of the microbiota, the pathogen's virulence factors, and the host's mucosal immune response
Institute of Microbiology, D BIOL, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Immunol Rev 245:56-83. 2012
..To study these mechanisms, the streptomycin mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea is of great value. Here, we review how S...
- Evaluation of the optimal recall period for disease symptoms in home-based morbidity surveillance in rural and urban Kenya
Daniel R Feikin
International Emerging Infections Program, Kenya, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya
Int J Epidemiol 39:450-8. 2010
..In African settings with poor access to health care, surveillance and surveys of disease burden are often done through home visits. The optimal recall period to capture data on symptoms and health utilization is unknown...
- Alternative pathway of complement in children with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome
Joshua M Thurman
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Colorado, Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1920-4. 2009
b>Diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) is a common cause of acute kidney injury in children...
- A new macrocyclic antibiotic, fidaxomicin (OPT-80), causes less alteration to the bowel microbiota of Clostridium difficile-infected patients than does vancomycin
Gerald W Tannock
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Microbiology 156:3354-9. 2010
..These findings help to explain the substantially reduced rates of relapse following treatment of CDI with fidaxomicin in recent clinical trials...
- [Diarrhea and loss of production on Dutch dairy farms caused by the Schmallenberg virus]
Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 137:112-5. 2012
..GD Veekijker (Animal Health Service) several dairy herds with cows with sudden decreased milk production, watery diarrhea and sometimes fever...
- Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
J Clin Microbiol 37:497-503. 1999
- Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Clin Microbiol Rev 18:465-83. 2005
ETEC is an underrecognized but extremely important cause of diarrhea in the developing world where there is inadequate clean water and poor sanitation...
- Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease
Division of Critical Care and Respiratory and Clinical Research, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec
JAMA 294:2989-95. 2005
..Recent reports suggest an increasing occurrence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. We assessed whether the use of gastric acid-suppressive agents is associated with an increased risk in the community...
- Enhancement of detection and quantification of rotavirus in stool using a modified real-time RT-PCR assay
Molly M Freeman
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
J Med Virol 80:1489-96. 2008
..This real-time assay is an important addition to the arsenal of molecular tools available to quickly identify rotavirus in stool samples during routine surveillance...
- Campylobacter concisus: an evaluation of certain phenotypic and genotypic characteristics
Unit of Gastrointestinal Infections, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
Clin Microbiol Infect 11:288-95. 2005
..Further evidence is needed to support the possible role of C. concisus as a human enteric pathogen...
- Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4
Institute of Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
N Engl J Med 365:718-24. 2011
..In less than a week, these studies revealed that the outbreak strain belonged to an enteroaggregative E. coli lineage that had acquired genes for Shiga toxin 2 and for antibiotic resistance...
- Multi-country analysis of the effects of diarrhoea on childhood stunting
Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD21205, USA
Int J Epidemiol 37:816-30. 2008
..These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher cumulative burden of diarrhoea increases the risk of stunting...
- The influence of climate variation and change on diarrheal disease in the Pacific Islands
R B Singh
Ecology and Health Research Centre, Wellington School of Medicine, Wellington, New Zealand
Environ Health Perspect 109:155-9. 2001
..There have been no previous studies looking specifically at the relationship between climate variability and diarrhea in the Pacific region...
- Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) induce proinflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells
Laboratory of Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
Dev Comp Immunol 34:1175-82. 2010
..These results indicate a potential mucosal adjuvant capacity of ETEC-derived flagellin and may improve rational vaccine design against F4(+) ETEC infections...
- Seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Berkeley, USA
Int J Epidemiol 38:1487-96. 2009
..We present a systematic review and meta-analysis on the seasonal epidemiology of rotavirus in the tropics, including 26 studies reporting continuous monthly rotavirus incidence for which corresponding climatological data was available...
- Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development
Richard L Guerrant
Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22901, USA
Nutr Rev 66:487-505. 2008
..Further intervention studies are needed to document the relevance of these mechanisms and, most importantly, to interrupt the vicious diarrhea-malnutrition cycle so children may develop their full potential.
- Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness
James G Kahn
Philip R Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e31316. 2012
Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts...
- The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000
Division of Geographic and International Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
Bull World Health Organ 81:197-204. 2003
..There has not been a concurrent decrease in morbidity rates attributable to diarrhoea. As population growth is focused in the poorest areas, the total morbidity component of the disease burden is greater than previously...
- Estimating diarrhea mortality among young children in low and middle income countries
Christa L Fischer Walker
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e29151. 2012
b>Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age, but in many low and middle-income countries where vital registration data are lacking, updated estimates with regard to the ..
- Interim evaluation of a large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme on childhood diarrhea and respiratory disease in rural Bangladesh
Tarique Md Nurul Huda
International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh
Soc Sci Med 75:604-11. 2012
..This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age...
- Association between climate variability and hospital visits for non-cholera diarrhoea in Bangladesh: effects and vulnerable groups
Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
Int J Epidemiol 36:1030-7. 2007
..We estimated the effects of rainfall and temperature on the number of non-cholera diarrhoea cases and identified population factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
- Effectiveness and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute infectious diarrhea
Ener Cagri Dinleyici
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease and Intensive Care Unit, Eskisehir, Turkey
Expert Opin Biol Ther 12:395-410. 2012
Acute diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of morbidity, hospitalization and mortality worldwide and probiotics have been proposed as a complementary therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhea...
- Molecular detection of porcine kobuviruses in pigs in Korea and their association with diarrhea
Seong Jun Park
Department of Veterinary Medicine Virology Lab, Seoul National University, Gwanak Gu, Korea
Arch Virol 155:1803-11. 2010
..Epidemiological studies of porcine kobuvirus linked to diarrhea indicated that porcine kobuvirus infections are endemic in diarrheic pigs in Korea...
- Shifting prevalence of major diarrheal pathogens in patients seeking hospital care during floods in 1998, 2004, and 2007 in Dhaka, Bangladesh
AARON M HARRIS
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:708-14. 2008
..05). Our findings demonstrate alterations in clinical features and phenotypic changes of major bacterial pathogens in the recent Bangladesh flood...
- Sentinel hospital surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea in the People's Republic of China, August 2001-July 2003
Zhao Yin Fang
Viral Gastroenteritis Division, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People s Republic of China
J Infect Dis 192:S94-9. 2005
..From August 2001 through July 2003, prospective hospital-based surveillance for rotavirus diarrhea among children <5 years of age was conducted in 6 sentinel hospitals...
- Pandemic serovars (O3:K6 and O4:K68) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with diarrhea in Mozambique: spread of the pandemic into the African continent
Laboratory Sciences Division, ICDDR, B Centre for Health and Population Research, GPO Box 128, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
J Clin Microbiol 43:2559-62. 2005
..Ten percent of diarrhea patients from whom no V. parahaemolyticus was cultured were severely dehydrated, but none of the V...
- Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea
Research Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark
Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:411-6. 2002
Oral bacteriotherapy promotes recovery from acute childhood diarrhea, but few strains have been shown to have therapeutic potentials...
- Monitoring of stool microbiota in subjects with diarrhea indicates distortions in composition
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Rm 934 B MSTF, 10 S Pine St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
J Clin Microbiol 44:4550-2. 2006
We utilized denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling to survey stool microbiota in 175 persons with diarrhea and 113 asymptomatic persons in a diarrhea surveillance study...
- Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Bradley C Johnston
The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Room 2420, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
Ann Intern Med 157:878-88. 2012
Antibiotic treatment may disturb the resistance of gastrointestinal flora to colonization. This may result in complications, the most serious of which is Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD).
- Pediatric diarrhea in southern Ghana: etiology and association with intestinal inflammation and malnutrition
Japheth A Opintan
Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:936-43. 2010
b>Diarrhea is a major public health problem that affects the development of children. Anthropometric data were collected from 274 children with (N = 170) and without (N = 104) diarrhea...
- Prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea reduce growth and increase risk of persistent diarrhea in children
Sean R Moore
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Gastroenterology 139:1156-64. 2010
Prolonged episodes of acute diarrhea (ProD; duration 7-13 days) or persistent diarrhea (PD; duration ≥14 days) are important causes of undernutrition, yet the epidemiology and nutritional impact of ProD are poorly understood.
- Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea
Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL60637, USA
J Clin Gastroenterol 45:S149-53. 2011
..b>Diarrhea is a symptom, and not a disease...
- Alterations in composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome
I M Carroll
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7080, USA
Neurogastroenterol Motil 24:521-30, e248. 2012
..We analyzed the composition of the intestinal microbiota in a defined subgroup of IBS patients (diarrhea-predominant IBS, D-IBS) using a technique that provides the deepest characterization available for complex ..
- Microscopic colitis
Darrell S Pardi
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Gastroenterology 140:1155-65. 2011
Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, especially among older persons. Diagnosis requires histologic analysis of colon biopsy samples in the appropriate clinical setting...
- Epidemiology of rotavirus infection among young children with acute diarrhoea in Burkina Faso
Isidore J O Bonkoungou
Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, CRSBAN UFR SVT, Universite de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
BMC Pediatr 10:94. 2010
..In anticipation of vaccine introduction, we assessed epidemiology of rotavirus disease among children visiting medical centre due to acute diarrhoea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso...
- Impact monitoring of the national scale up of zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh: repeat ecologic surveys
Charles P Larson
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
PLoS Med 6:e1000175. 2009
Zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea has the potential to save 400,000 under-five lives per year in lesser developed countries...
- Arsenic exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhea during infancy in Bangladesh
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Environ Health Perspect 119:719-24. 2011
..An increase in infectious diseases has been proposed as the underlying cause of these associations, but there is no epidemiologic research to support the hypothesis...
- Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis
Christa L Fischer Walker
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
PLoS Med 8:e1000428. 2011
b>Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries...
- A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use
Carlene A Muto
Division of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:273-80. 2005
..difficile infections; of these, 26 resulted in colectomy and 18 resulted in death. We conducted an investigation of a large C. difficile outbreak in our hospital to identify risk factors and characterize the outbreak...
- The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS): impetus, rationale, and genesis
Myron M Levine
Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Clin Infect Dis 55:S215-24. 2012
..2004, various case/control and small cohort studies were undertaken to address the etiology of pediatric diarrhea in developing countries...
- Preventive zinc supplementation among infants, preschoolers, and older prepubertal children
Kenneth H Brown
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Food Nutr Bull 30:S12-40. 2009
..Zinc supplementation reduced the incidence of diarrhea by approximately 20%, but the impact was limited to studies that enrolled children with a mean initial age ..
- Longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium infection in children in northeastern Brazil
R D Newman
Health Alliance International, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
J Infect Dis 180:167-75. 1999
..infection in an endemic setting, describe factors associated with Cryptosporidium-associated persistent diarrhea, and clarify the importance of copathogens in symptomatic cryptosporidiosis...
- Two or more enteropathogens are associated with diarrhoea in Mexican children
Gloria Luz Paniagua
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Avenida de Los Barrios, 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, 54090, Estado de Mexico, Mexico
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 6:17. 2007
..The purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in Mexico City...
- Clinical practice. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
John G Bartlett
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 0003, USA
N Engl J Med 346:334-9. 2002
- Progress and barriers for the control of diarrhoeal disease
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Lancet 376:63-7. 2010
- Innate immune responses to human rotavirus in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model
Ana M Gonzalez
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
Immunology 131:242-56. 2010
..Stimulation of the anti-inflammatory effects of pDCs after the high dose, without increasing their pro-inflammatory impacts, may be critical to reduce further immunopathology during HRV infection...
- Epidemiology of recurrences or reinfections of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
Department of Microbiology, Hopital Saint Antoine, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France
J Clin Microbiol 38:2386-8. 2000
Approximately 15 to 35% of patients with a first episode of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea relapse within 2 months. Between 1994 and 1997, strains from 93 hospitalized patients with C...
- Epidemics of diarrhea caused by a clindamycin-resistant strain of Clostridium difficile in four hospitals
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Chicago Health Care System, Lakeside Division, and Northwestern University Medical School, IL 60611, USA
N Engl J Med 341:1645-51. 1999
Large outbreaks of diarrhea caused by a newly recognized strain of Clostridium difficile occurred in four hospitals located in different parts of the United States between 1989 and 1992...
- Decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in El Salvador
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:S6-S10. 2011
..We further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination.
- Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies--an update
Wolf Peter Schmidt
Department for Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Int J Epidemiol 40:1678-92. 2011
..Challenges include the diagnosis based on self-reported symptoms, the logistical burden of intensive surveillance and the variability of diarrhoea in space, time and person...
- Prevalence of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea, healthy controls, and the environment
M J Albert
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
J Clin Microbiol 38:3785-90. 2000
..Even though aeromonads have been isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, their etiological role in gastroenteritis is unclear...
- Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL 33140, USA
World J Gastroenterol 15:1554-80. 2009
..difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal ..
- Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for recurrence of Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea
Ji Won Kim
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 156 707, South Korea
World J Gastroenterol 16:3573-7. 2010
To investigate the risk factors for Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) recurrence, and its relationship with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
- Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries
Centre for Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London, Queen Mary School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of London, London, UK
Lancet 363:641-53. 2004
..These strategies include vaccines and, most importantly, policies to address persisting inequalities between the developed and developing worlds with respect to nutrition, sanitation, and access to safe drinking water...
- Intestinal parasites in patients with diarrhea and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zimbabwe
Department of Infectious Disease, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio, USA
AIDS 13:819-21. 1999
To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors for infection associated with diarrhea in HIV-infected patients in Harare, Zimbabwe.
- The role of Aeromonas in diarrhea: a review
A von Graevenitz
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, 8028, Zurich, Switzerland
Infection 35:59-64. 2007
..The consequences for stool bacteriology are discussed...
- Identification of an aggregative adhesion fimbria (AAF) type III-encoding operon in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a sensitive probe for detecting the AAF-encoding operon family
Unité de Pathogénie Bactérienne des Muqueuses, Groupe d Etude des Infections Diarrhéiques GEID, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Infect Immun 70:4302-11. 2002
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is recognized as an emerging cause of diarrhea in children and adults worldwide, and recent studies have implicated EAEC in persistent diarrhea in patients infected with human immunodeficiency ..
- Quantitative biofilm assay using a microtiter plate to screen for enteroaggregative Escherichia coli
Department of Pediatrics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890 8520, Japan
Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:687-90. 2004
..coli strains from children with diarrhea. Bacteria were incubated overnight in high-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium using a polystyrene ..
- Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes
Infectious Disease Section, Loyola University Medical Center, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
J Infect 58:403-10. 2009
..New treatment agents that are active against C. difficile, but spare critical components of the normal flora, may decrease the incidence of recurrent CDI...
- Prospective case-control study of the association between common enteric protozoal parasites and diarrhea in Bangladesh
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Clin Infect Dis 48:1191-7. 2009
The parasitic causes of diarrhea have historically been identified by use of microscopy; however, the use of this technique does not allow one to distinguish between subspecies or genotypes of parasites...
- Role of rotaviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Tehran, Iran
A H Zarnani
Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
J Clin Virol 29:189-93. 2004
..Rotavirus illness is associated with significant cause of morbidity and is a common cause of hospitalization worldwide...
- Economic healthcare costs of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review
S S Ghantoji
University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA
J Hosp Infect 74:309-18. 2010
..Economic healthcare costs of CDI were high for primary and recurrent cases. The high cost associated with CDI justifies the use of additional resources for CDI prevention and control...
- Global etiology of travelers' diarrhea: systematic review from 1973 to the present
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, USA
Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:609-14. 2009
Fifty-one published studies of travelers' diarrhea (TD) were examined to look for regional differences in pathogens identified. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was detected in 1,678/5,518 (30...
- Clinical and laboratory features of radiologic pneumonia in severely malnourished infants attending an urban diarrhea treatment center in Bangladesh
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
Clinical Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:174-7. 2010
..Case fatality rate was greater in cases than controls (23% vs. 0%, P = 0.04). The sensitivity and specificity of fast breathing, lower chest wall indrawing, and nasal flaring in diagnosing pneumonia was poor among the cases...
- Detection and quantification of 14 Campylobacter species in pet dogs reveals an increase in species richness in feces of diarrheic animals
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
BMC Microbiol 10:73. 2010
..To expand our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in dogs, a collection of fecal samples from 70 healthy and 65 diarrheic pet dogs were examined for the presence and levels of 14 Campylobacter species using quantitative PCR...
- Llama-derived single-chain antibody fragments directed to rotavirus VP6 protein possess broad neutralizing activity in vitro and confer protection against diarrhea in mice
Instituto de Virologia, CICV y A INTA, CC 25 1712 Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
J Virol 82:9753-64. 2008
Group A rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea in human infants and newborn animals. Rotavirus virions are triple-layered particles...