- CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988
J S Garner
Hospital Infections Program, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia
Am J Infect Control 16:128-40. 1988
..Other hospitals may wish to adopt or modify them for use in their nosocomial infections surveillance programs...
- Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea
Christa L Fischer Walker
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Lancet 381:1405-16. 2013
Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality...
- Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia
Croatian Centre for Global Health, University of Split Medical School, Split, Croatia
Bull World Health Organ 86:408-16. 2008
Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0...
- A distinct lineage of CD4 T cells regulates tissue inflammation by producing interleukin 17
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Nat Immunol 6:1133-41. 2005
..Thus, IL-17 expression characterizes a unique T helper lineage that regulates tissue inflammation...
- Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production
Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8057, USA
J Clin Invest 103:779-88. 1999
..IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses...
- Community case management of fever due to malaria and pneumonia in children under five in Zambia: a cluster randomized controlled trial
Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
PLoS Med 7:e1000340. 2010
b>Pneumonia and malaria, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children under five in Zambia, often have overlapping clinical manifestations...
- Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age
Department of Medical Stastistics, Epidemiology and Medical Infomatics, School of Public Health Andrija Stampar, Zagreb, Croatia
Bull World Health Organ 82:895-903. 2004
Clinical pneumonia (defined as respiratory infections associated with clinical signs of pneumonia, principally pneumonia and bronchiolitis) in children under five years of age is still the leading cause of childhood mortality in the ..
- Association of diagnostic coding with trends in hospitalizations and mortality of patients with pneumonia, 2003-2009
Peter K Lindenauer
Baystate Medical Center, 280 Chestnut St, Springfield, MA 01199, USA
JAMA 307:1405-13. 2012
Recent reports suggest that the mortality rate of patients hospitalized with pneumonia has steadily declined...
- Viral etiology of severe pneumonia among Kenyan infants and children
James A Berkley
Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
JAMA 303:2051-7. 2010
b>Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative estimates of the contribution of causative pathogens to the burden of disease are essential for targeted vaccine development.
- Viral infection in patients with severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission
Sang Ho Choi
Department of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:325-32. 2012
The role of viruses in pneumonia in adults and the impact of viral infection on mortality have not been elucidated. Previous studies have significant limitations in that they relied predominantly on upper respiratory specimens.
- Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?
Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Division of Woman and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Lancet 381:1417-29. 2013
..b>Pneumonia and diarrhoea are the two leading causes of death in this age group and have overlapping risk factors...
- Community-acquired pneumonia
Pneumology Department, Clinic Institute of Thorax ICT, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS Biomedical Investigation Institute, Barcelona, Spain
Minerva Anestesiol 77:196-211. 2011
..advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in ..
- U.S. hospitalizations for pneumonia after a decade of pneumococcal vaccination
Marie R Griffin
Department of Preventive Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
N Engl J Med 369:155-63. 2013
..By 2004, hospitalizations associated with pneumonia from any cause had also declined markedly among young children...
- Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea: setting our priorities right
Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative, Global Forum for Health Research, Geneva, Switzerland
Lancet Infect Dis 7:56-61. 2007
Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease cause almost half of all child deaths globally. Effective interventions against these conditions are available and could prevent about two-thirds of these deaths...
- Acute kidney injury in non-severe pneumonia is associated with an increased immune response and lower survival
The CRISMA Laboratory, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
Kidney Int 77:527-35. 2010
..associated with acute kidney injury in 1836 hospitalized patients with community-acquired severe and non-severe pneumonia. Acute kidney injury developed in 631 patients of whom 329 had severe and 302 had non-severe sepsis...
- IL-6 is an antiinflammatory cytokine required for controlling local or systemic acute inflammatory responses
Immunology and Infection Program, Department of Pathology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 Canada
J Clin Invest 101:311-20. 1998
- Inhaled corticosteroid use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia
Pharmacoepidemiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Ross 4 29, Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, PQ, Quebec, H3A 1A1 Canada
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:162-6. 2007
..Inhaled corticosteroids are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
- Standardized interpretation of paediatric chest radiographs for the diagnosis of pneumonia in epidemiological studies
Initiative for Vaccine Research, Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
Bull World Health Organ 83:353-9. 2005
Although radiological pneumonia is used as an outcome measure in epidemiological studies, there is considerable variability in the interpretation of chest radiographs...
- Diagnoses and timing of 30-day readmissions after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
JAMA 309:355-63. 2013
..rates of 30-day readmission after hospitalization for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (MI), or pneumonia, further information is needed about readmission diagnoses, readmission timing, and the relationship of both to ..
- Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia: increased microbiological yield with new diagnostic methods
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Clin Infect Dis 50:202-9. 2010
The microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still not well characterized...
- Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is TLR4/MyD88 and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling dependent
University of Orleans and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR6218, Molecular Immunology and Embryology, France
J Immunol 180:1169-78. 2008
- Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children
K R Smith
Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley 94720 7360, USA
Thorax 55:518-32. 2000
..infections in young children, which is focused on, but not confined to, acute lower respiratory infection and pneumonia in children under two years in less developed countries...
- Mouse pulmonary dose- and time course-responses induced by exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Dale W Porter
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Toxicology 269:136-47. 2010
..Furthermore, the observation that MWCNT reach the pleura after aspiration exposure indicates that more extensive investigations are needed to fully assess if pleural penetration results in any adverse health outcomes...
- Acute lower respiratory tract infection
Joseph P Mizgerd
Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences Program, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
N Engl J Med 358:716-27. 2008
- Pneumonia and pneumonia related mortality in patients with COPD treated with fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroid and long acting β2 agonist: observational matched cohort study (PATHOS)
Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
BMJ 346:f3306. 2013
To investigate the occurrence of pneumonia and pneumonia related events in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated with two different fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroid/long acting β2 agonist.
- Pneumonia risk in COPD patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids alone or in combination: TORCH study results
GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 3398, USA
Eur Respir J 34:641-7. 2009
..in COPD Health (TORCH) study, we analysed and identified potential risk factors for adverse event reports of pneumonia in this randomised, double-blind trial comparing twice-daily inhaled salmeterol (SAL) 50 microg, fluticasone ..
- Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia
Rajan P Adhikari
Integrated Biotherapeutics Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS ONE 7:e38567. 2012
..is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S...
- Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells and the diagnosis of pneumonia
Service de Reanimation Medicale, Hopital Central, Nancy, France
N Engl J Med 350:451-8. 2004
The diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pneumonia in patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation remain a difficult challenge...
- Understanding careseeking for child illness in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and conceptual framework based on qualitative research of household recognition and response to child diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria
Christopher J Colvin
Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, Falmouth 5 49, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
Soc Sci Med 86:66-78. 2013
Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria are the largest contributors to childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa...
- Comparative effects of inhaled diesel exhaust and ambient fine particles on inflammation, atherosclerosis, and vascular dysfunction
Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987, USA
Inhal Toxicol 22:738-53. 2010
- Reported pneumonia in patients with COPD: findings from the INSPIRE study
Peter M A Calverley
Clinical Science Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool L9 7AL, England
Chest 139:505-12. 2011
b>Pneumonia is an important complication of COPD and is reported more often in patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Little is known about the clinical course and factors predisposing to pneumonia in patients with COPD...
- Diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of hospitalization with pneumonia: a population-based case-control study
Jette B Kornum
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
Diabetes Care 31:1541-5. 2008
To examine whether diabetes is a risk factor for hospitalization with pneumonia and to assess the impact of A1C level on such risk.
- The effect of case management on childhood pneumonia mortality in developing countries
Public Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Int J Epidemiol 39:i155-71. 2010
..the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) with parameters of effectiveness of existing interventions, we conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing the effect of pneumonia case management on mortality from childhood pneumonia.
- Community case management of pneumonia: at a tipping point?
David R Marsh
Save the Children USA, Amherst, MA, USA
Bull World Health Organ 86:381-9. 2008
b>Pneumonia is the leading cause of child mortality globally...
- Effect of reduction in household air pollution on childhood pneumonia in Guatemala (RESPIRE): a randomised controlled trial
Kirk R Smith
Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 7360, USA
Lancet 378:1717-26. 2011
b>Pneumonia causes more child deaths than does any other disease. Observational studies have indicated that smoke from household solid fuel is a significant risk factor that affects about half the world's children...
- Incidence, seasonality and mortality associated with influenza pneumonia in Thailand: 2005-2008
James Mark Simmerman
International Emerging Infections Program, Thailand Ministry of Public Health United States Centers for Disease Control Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand
PLoS ONE 4:e7776. 2009
..Prospective data from multiple years are needed to develop vaccine policy and treatment guidelines, and improve pandemic preparedness...
- A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks
Chiu wing Lam
JSC Toxicology Group, Space Life Sciences, NASA Johnson Space Center, Wyle Laboratories and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas 77058, USA
Crit Rev Toxicol 36:189-217. 2006
..Therefore, CNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment could have adverse effects on human health...
- Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis
Department of Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, One Medical Center Boulevard, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
Arch Intern Med 169:219-29. 2009
Recent studies have suggested a possible association between pneumonia and the use of inhaled corticosteroids...
- Blocking IL-17A promotes the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis via TGF-beta1-dependent and -independent mechanisms
Molecular Immunology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, People s Republic of China
J Immunol 187:3003-14. 2011
- Uric acid is a danger signal activating NALP3 inflammasome in lung injury inflammation and fibrosis
University of Orleans and CNRS, Orleans, France
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:903-13. 2009
..The molecular mechanisms by which lung injury triggers IL-1beta production, inflammation, and fibrosis remain poorly understood...
- Contrasting effects of CCR5 and CCR2 deficiency in the pulmonary inflammatory response to influenza A virus
T C Dawson
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7525, USA
Am J Pathol 156:1951-9. 2000
- Pathological versus protective functions of IL-22 in airway inflammation are regulated by IL-17A
Gregory F Sonnenberg
Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Exp Med 207:1293-305. 2010
- Air pollution and hospital admissions for pneumonia in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan
Hui Feng Chiu
Institute of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Inhal Toxicol 21:32-7. 2009
..to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and hospital admissions for pneumonia in Taipei, Taiwan...
- IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling and the inflammasome are essential in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Embryology, University of Orleans and CNRS, Orleans, France
J Clin Invest 117:3786-99. 2007
..In conclusion, bleomycin-induced lung pathology required the inflammasome and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling, and IL-1 represented a critical effector of pathology and therapeutic target of chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis...
- Respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia
Pulmonary Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel
Chest 138:811-6. 2010
..has increased the identification of respiratory viruses (RVs) in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
- Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs
Robert J F Laheij
Department of Gastroenterology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
JAMA 292:1955-60. 2004
..Reduction of gastric acid secretion by acid-suppressive therapy allows pathogen colonization from the upper gastrointestinal tract. The bacteria and viruses in the contaminated stomach have been identified as species from the oral cavity...
- Serum glucose levels for predicting death in patients admitted to hospital for community acquired pneumonia: prospective cohort study
Philipp M Lepper
Department of Internal Medicine V, University Hospital of Saarland, D 66421, Homburg, Germany
BMJ 344:e3397. 2012
To examine whether acute dysglycaemia predicts death in people admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia.
- Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD and the risk of serious pneumonia
Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and of Medicine, Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Research Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Thorax 68:1029-36. 2013
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are known to increase the risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
- An administrative claims model for profiling hospital 30-day mortality rates for pneumonia patients
Dale W Bratzler
Oklahoma Foundation for Medical Quality, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of America
PLoS ONE 6:e17401. 2011
Outcome measures for patients hospitalized with pneumonia may complement process measures in characterizing quality of care...
- Use of acid-suppressive drugs and risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Chun Sick Eom
Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
CMAJ 183:310-9. 2011
..randomized controlled trials have yielded inconsistent findings about the association between the use of acid-suppressive drugs and the risk of pneumonia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize this association.
- Novel murine model of chronic granulomatous lung inflammation elicited by carbon nanotubes
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 3E 149 Brody Medical Sciences Building, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 45:858-66. 2011
..The establishment of such a model provides an important platform for mechanistic studies on the persistence of granuloma...
- Effect of case management on neonatal mortality due to sepsis and pneumonia
Anita K M Zaidi
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
BMC Public Health 11:S13. 2011
..We have estimated the effect of providing oral, or injectable antibiotics at home or in first-level facilities, and of in-patient hospital care on neonatal mortality from pneumonia and sepsis for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).
- Community case management of severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in children aged 2-59 months in Haripur district, Pakistan: a cluster randomised trial
Save the Children US, Pakistan Country Office, Islamabad, Pakistan
Lancet 378:1796-803. 2011
First dose oral co-trimoxazole and referral are recommended for WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Difficulties with referral compliance are reported in many low-resource settings, resulting in low access to appropriate treatment...
- Effect of pneumonia case management on mortality in neonates, infants, and preschool children: a meta-analysis of community-based trials
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Lancet Infect Dis 3:547-56. 2003
b>Pneumonia still causes around two million deaths among children annually (20% of all child deaths). Any intervention that would affect pneumonia mortality is of great public health importance...
- Dexamethasone and length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Sabine C A Meijvis
Department of Internal Medicine, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Netherlands
Lancet 377:2023-30. 2011
Whether addition of corticosteroids to antibiotic treatment benefits patients with community-acquired pneumonia who are not in intensive care units is unclear...
- Severity assessment tools for predicting mortality in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Systematic review and meta-analysis
James D Chalmers
University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
Thorax 65:878-83. 2010
International guidelines recommend a severity-based approach to management in community-acquired pneumonia. CURB65, CRB65 and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) are the most widely recommended severity scores...
- The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Project: a 21st century childhood pneumonia etiology study
Orin S Levine
Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Clin Infect Dis 54:S93-101. 2012
The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is a 7-country, standardized, comprehensive evaluation of the etiologic agents causing severe pneumonia in children from developing countries...
- Efficacy of corticosteroids in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized double-blinded clinical trial
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Wilhelminalaan 15, 1812 JD Alkmaar, The Netherlands
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 181:975-82. 2010
Some studies have shown a beneficial effect of corticosteroids in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), possibly by diminishing local and systemic antiinflammatory host response.
- Unusual inflammatory and fibrogenic pulmonary responses to single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice
Anna A Shvedova
Health Effects Laboratory Div, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289:L698-708. 2005
..Equal doses of ultrafine carbon black particles or fine crystalline silica (SiO2) did not induce granulomas or alveolar wall thickening and caused a significantly weaker pulmonary inflammation and damage...
- British Thoracic Society guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in children: update 2011
Oxford Children s Hospital, The John Radcliffe, Headington, Oxford, UK
Thorax 66:ii1-23. 2011
The British Thoracic Society first published management guidelines for community acquired pneumonia in children in 2002 and covered available evidence to early 2000...
- Pneumonia in severely malnourished children in developing countries - mortality risk, aetiology and validity of WHO clinical signs: a systematic review
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
Clinical Science Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Trop Med Int Health 14:1173-89. 2009
To quantify the degree by which moderate and severe degrees of malnutrition increase the mortality risk in pneumonia, to identify potential differences in the aetiology of pneumonia between children with and without severe malnutrition, ..
- Pulmonary adenoma susceptibility 1 (Pas1) locus affects inflammatory response
Durvanei Augusto Maria
Laboratorio de Immunogenetica, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Oncogene 22:426-32. 2003
..These results provide a model to explore the mechanism underlying inherited predisposition to lung cancer in the context of a link to inflammation...
- Stroke-induced immunodeficiency promotes spontaneous bacterial infections and is mediated by sympathetic activation reversal by poststroke T helper cell type 1-like immunostimulation
Department of Experimental Neurology, Charite Hospital, Humboldt University, Schumannstrasse 20 21, D 10098 Berlin, Germany
J Exp Med 198:725-36. 2003
..3 d after ischemia, all animals developed spontaneous septicemia and pneumonia. Stroke induced an extensive apoptotic loss of lymphocytes and a shift from T helper cell (Th)1 to Th2 cytokine ..
- Severe sepsis in community-acquired pneumonia: when does it happen, and do systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria help predict course?
606 Scaife Hall, The CRISMA Laboratory, Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3550 Terrace St, Pittsburgh, PA 15261
Chest 129:968-78. 2006
..onset and timing of severe sepsis during the hospital course for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
- The anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediator resolvin E1 protects mice from bacterial pneumonia and acute lung injury
Department of Anesthesiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
J Immunol 184:836-43. 2010
Whereas pneumonia is the most common cause of death and disability worldwide, most cases of pneumonia spontaneously resolve. Mechanisms that promote pneumonia resolution remain to be determined...
- Tidal volume lower than 6 ml/kg enhances lung protection: role of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal
Pier Paolo Terragni
Dipartimento di Anestesiologia e Medicina degli Stati Critici, Universita di Torino, Ospedale S Giovanni Battista Molinette, Corso Dogliotti 14, Turin, Italy
Anesthesiology 111:826-35. 2009
..The authors verified whether VT lower than 6 ml/kg may enhance lung protection and that consequent respiratory acidosis may be managed by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal...
- Impact of trough IgG on pneumonia incidence in primary immunodeficiency: A meta-analysis of clinical studies
Jordan S Orange
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Clin Immunol 137:21-30. 2010
..To address this question, all available studies evaluating trough IgG and pneumonia incidence in PIDD patients with hypogammaglobulinemia receiving IVIG were quantitatively combined by meta-..
- Pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
Clin Infect Dis 46:S378-85. 2008
..support of an aging, often chronically ill population, has resulted in a large increase in cases of MRSA pneumonia in the health care setting. In addition, community-acquired MRSA pneumonia has become more prevalent...
- Clinical and economic consequences of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical School, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792, USA
Crit Care Med 33:2184-93. 2005
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. The clinical and economic consequences of VAP are unclear, with a broad range of values reported in the literature
- Can lay community health workers be trained to use diagnostics to distinguish and treat malaria and pneumonia in children? Lessons from rural Uganda
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda
Trop Med Int Health 16:1234-42. 2011
To determine the competence of community health workers (CHWs) to correctly assess, classify and treat malaria and pneumonia among under-five children after training.
- New perspectives on community-acquired pneumonia in 388 406 patients. Results from a nationwide mandatory performance measurement programme in healthcare quality
Thoraxzentrum Ruhrgebiet, Kliniken für Pneumologie und Infektiologie, Herne und Bochum, Germany
Thorax 64:1062-9. 2009
The database of the German programme for quality in healthcare including data of every hospitalised patient with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) during a 2-year period (n = 388 406 patients in 2005 and 2006) was analysed.
- Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles
Laura E Caulfield
Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 80:193-8. 2004
..Previous analyses derived the relative risk (RR) of dying as a result of low weight-for-age and calculated the proportion of child deaths worldwide attributable to underweight...
- U.K. Controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase for pleural infection
Nicholas A Maskell
Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine, Churchill Hospital Site, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
N Engl J Med 352:865-74. 2005
..This use is based on small trials that did not have the statistical power to evaluate accurately important clinical outcomes, including safety. We conducted a trial to clarify the therapeutic role of intrapleural streptokinase...
- Lung epithelial apoptosis in influenza virus pneumonia: the role of macrophage-expressed TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
University of Giessen Lung Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
J Exp Med 205:3065-77. 2008
..of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a murine model of influenza-induced pneumonia. Using CC-chemokine receptor 2-deficient (CCR2(-/-)) mice characterized by defective inflammatory macrophage ..
- The relation between hyperglycemia and outcomes in 2,471 patients admitted to the hospital with community-acquired pneumonia
Finlay A McAlister
2E3 24 WMC, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7
Diabetes Care 28:810-5. 2005
To examine whether hyperglycemia at the time of presentation was associated with outcomes in patients admitted to non-intensive care settings with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
- Recurrent community-acquired pneumonia in patients starting acid-suppressing drugs
Dean T Eurich
Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Am J Med 123:47-53. 2010
..proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2s) increase risk of community-acquired pneumonia. To test this hypothesis, we examined a prospective population-based cohort predisposed to pneumonia: elderly ..
- Community-acquired pneumonia as an emergency: time for an aggressive intervention to lower mortality
Thoraxzentrum Ruhrgebiet, Kliniken für Pneumologie und Infektiologie, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Herne und Augusta Kranken Anstalt Bochum, Bergstrasse 26, 44791 Bochum, Germany
Eur Respir J 38:253-60. 2011
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the major contemporary acute life-threatening conditions...
- The impact of benzodiazepines on occurrence of pneumonia and mortality from pneumonia: a nested case-control and survival analysis in a population-based cohort
Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Thorax 68:163-70. 2013
..Here, we determined the effect of community use of benzodiazepines on the occurrence of, and mortality following, pneumonia.
- Relationship between hospital readmission and mortality rates for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia
Harlan M Krumholz
Department of Internal Medicine Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 1 Church St, Ste 200, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
JAMA 309:587-93. 2013
..and 30-day, all-cause, risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The evaluation of hospital performance as measured by RSMRs and RSRRs has not been well characterized.
- Outpatient treatment of children with severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in four countries: the MASS study
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Trop Med Int Health 16:995-1006. 2011
A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated home-based treatment of WHO-defined severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin was equivalent to hospital-based therapy and parenteral antibiotics...
- Impact of social factors on risk of readmission or mortality in pneumonia and heart failure: systematic review
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390 8889, USA
J Gen Intern Med 28:269-82. 2013
Readmission and mortality after hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and heart failure (HF) are publically reported...
- Time to clinical stability in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: implications for practice guidelines
E A Halm
Department of Health Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
JAMA 279:1452-7. 1998
Many groups have developed guidelines to shorten hospital length of stay in pneumonia in order to decrease costs, but the length of time until a patient hospitalized with pneumonia becomes clinically stable has not been established.
- Prevalence of herpes and respiratory viruses in induced sputum among hospitalized children with non typical bacterial community-acquired pneumonia
Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China
PLoS ONE 8:e79477. 2013
Few comprehensive studies have searched for viruses in infants and young children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China...
- Development of a clinical score (A2DS2) to predict pneumonia in acute ischemic stroke
Centre for Stroke Research Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
Stroke 43:2617-23. 2012
Poststroke pneumonia is a potentially preventable complication after stroke associated with poor outcome. We developed and externally validated a prognostic score for predicting risk of pneumonia after ischemic stroke.
- Cardiac complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: incidence, timing, risk factors, and association with short-term mortality
Vicente F Corrales-Medina
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Circulation 125:773-81. 2012
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) affects >5 million adults each year in the United States...
- Effect of age, polymicrobial disease, and maternal HIV status on treatment response and cause of severe pneumonia in South African children: a prospective descriptive study
Lisa M McNally
Centre for International Child Health and Development, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK
Lancet 369:1440-51. 2007
HIV-related pneumonia is the main cause of paediatric hospital admissions in southern Africa...
- Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults in Europe: a literature review
Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Ciber de enfermedades respiratorias CIBERES, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Thorax 68:1057-65. 2013
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in adults, particularly in the elderly.
- Effectiveness of community case management of severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in children aged 2-59 months in Matiari district, rural Pakistan: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Division of Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Lancet 379:729-37. 2012
b>Pneumonia is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years...
- Obesity and risk of subsequent hospitalisation with pneumonia
J B Kornum
Dept of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
Eur Respir J 36:1330-6. 2010
Obesity may be associated with increased risk of pneumonia, but available data on this relationship are sparse and inconsistent...
- Healthcare-seeking behaviour for common infectious disease-related illnesses in rural Kenya: a community-based house-to-house survey
Deron C Burton
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
J Health Popul Nutr 29:61-70. 2011
..Healthcare sought for acute episodes of diarrhoea or fever in the past two weeks or pneumonia in the past year was evaluated...
- Therapeutic potential of bacteriophage in treating Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-mediated lobar pneumonia in mice
Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
J Med Microbiol 57:1508-13. 2008
..pneumoniae-mediated lobar pneumonia in mice. Mice were challenged by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with bacteria (10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1))...
- IL-17A-producing gammadelta T and Th17 lymphocytes mediate lung inflammation but not fibrosis in experimental silicosis
Sandra Lo Re
Louvain Centre for Toxicology and applied Pharmacology, de Duve Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
J Immunol 184:6367-77. 2010
..Although the acute alveolitis induced by silica is IL-17A dependent, this cytokine appears dispensable for the development of the late inflammatory and fibrotic lung responses to silica...
- Cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum in 3 patients with 2009 Influenza A(H1N1)v severe pneumonia
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Jerez, Spain
J Infect Dev Ctries 5:540-3. 2011
Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)v pneumonia has led to a notable increase of admissions to intensive care units. A cytokine-mediated inflammatory response has been well documented in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome...
- Prevalence and prognostic implications of dysphagia in elderly patients with pneumonia
Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Mataro, Barcelona, Spain
Age Ageing 39:39-45. 2010
..oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common condition among the elderly but not systematically explored...
- Predictors of death in under-five children with diarrhoea admitted to a critical care ward in an urban hospital in Bangladesh
Mohammod J Chisti
Clinical Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Acta Paediatr 100:e275-9. 2011
..To evaluate the clinical and laboratory predictors of death in hospitalized under-five children with diarrhoea...
- A preliminary study of pneumonia etiology among hospitalized children in Kenya
Laura L Hammitt
Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Clin Infect Dis 54:S190-9. 2012
b>Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in the developing world. Higher-quality etiological data are required to reduce this mortality burden.
- Cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers to predict short- and long-term survival in community-acquired pneumonia: Results from the German Competence Network, CAPNETZ
Medical Clinic I, Rheinisch Westfälische Technische Hochschule University Aachen, Germany
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1426-34. 2010
Several new biomarkers are related to mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
- Amoebal pathogens as emerging causal agents of pneumonia
Infectious Diseases Service, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:260-80. 2010
Despite using modern microbiological diagnostic approaches, the aetiological agents of pneumonia remain unidentified in about 50% of cases...
- Cardiac complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
Vicente F Corrales-Medina
Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
PLoS Med 8:e1001048. 2011
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. CAP can trigger acute cardiac events...
- Distinguishing malaria from severe pneumonia among hospitalized children who fulfilled integrated management of childhood illness criteria for both diseases: a hospital-based study in Mozambique
Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain
Am J Trop Med Hyg 85:626-34. 2011
Malaria and severe pneumonia in hospitalized young children may show striking clinical similarities, making differential diagnosis challenging...
- Predictors and outcomes of respiratory failure among hospitalized pneumonia patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in Taiwan
Yu San Chien
Field Epidemiology Training Program, Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan, ROC
J Infect 60:168-74. 2010
..We characterized the clinical features of the hospitalized pneumonia patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in Taiwan and elucidated the risk of those patients for developing respiratory ..