visceral leishmaniasis

Summary

Summary: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives
    P Desjeux
    Department of Control, Prevention and Elimination CDS CPE, Cluster of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization WHO, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27:305-18. 2004
  2. ncbi Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas
    Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa
    Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology Prof Paulo de Góes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Vaccine 27:3505-12. 2009
  3. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control?
    Francois Chappuis
    Travel and Migration Medicine Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, 24 Rue Micheli du Crest, CH 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:873-82. 2007
  4. pmc Control of visceral leishmaniasis in latin america-a systematic review
    Gustavo A S Romero
    Nucleo de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Brazil
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e584. 2010
  5. pmc Splenic accumulation of IL-10 mRNA in T cells distinct from CD4+CD25+ (Foxp3) regulatory T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis
    Susanne Nylen
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:805-17. 2007
  6. ncbi Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis
    R J Quinnell
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Parasitology 136:1915-34. 2009
  7. pmc Macrophage microbicidal mechanisms in vivo: reactive nitrogen versus oxygen intermediates in the killing of intracellular visceral Leishmania donovani
    H W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, Cornell University Medical College, New York 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 189:741-6. 1999
  8. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda
    Philippe J Guerin
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:494-501. 2002
  9. ncbi Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis
    Amanda C Stanley
    Immunology and Infection Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 85:138-47. 2007
  10. ncbi Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review
    Ralph Lainson
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Belem, PA, Brazil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100:811-27. 2005

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives
    P Desjeux
    Department of Control, Prevention and Elimination CDS CPE, Cluster of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization WHO, Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27:305-18. 2004
    Leishmaniasis represents a complex of diseases with an important clinical and epidemiological diversity. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is of higher priority than cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as it is a fatal disease in the absence of ..
  2. ncbi Decrease of the incidence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis after dog vaccination with Leishmune in Brazilian endemic areas
    Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa
    Department of General Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology Prof Paulo de Góes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Vaccine 27:3505-12. 2009
    Leishmune, the first prophylactic vaccine licensed against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), has been used in Brazil since 2004, where seropositive dogs are sacrificed in order to control human visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  3. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control?
    Francois Chappuis
    Travel and Migration Medicine Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, 24 Rue Micheli du Crest, CH 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:873-82. 2007
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic protozoan disease that is transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Poor and neglected populations in East Africa and the Indian sub-continent are particularly affected...
  4. pmc Control of visceral leishmaniasis in latin america-a systematic review
    Gustavo A S Romero
    Nucleo de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Brazil
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e584. 2010
    While three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties...
  5. pmc Splenic accumulation of IL-10 mRNA in T cells distinct from CD4+CD25+ (Foxp3) regulatory T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis
    Susanne Nylen
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:805-17. 2007
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening disease characterized by uncontrolled parasitization of the spleen, liver, and bone marrow...
  6. ncbi Transmission, reservoir hosts and control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis
    R J Quinnell
    Institute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
    Parasitology 136:1915-34. 2009
    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important disease of humans and dogs. Here we review aspects of the transmission and control of ZVL...
  7. pmc Macrophage microbicidal mechanisms in vivo: reactive nitrogen versus oxygen intermediates in the killing of intracellular visceral Leishmania donovani
    H W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, Cornell University Medical College, New York 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 189:741-6. 1999
    ....
  8. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda
    Philippe J Guerin
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:494-501. 2002
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis is common in less developed countries, with an estimated 500000 new cases each year. Because of the diversity of epidemiological situations, no single diagnosis, treatment, or control will be suitable for all...
  9. ncbi Balancing immunity and pathology in visceral leishmaniasis
    Amanda C Stanley
    Immunology and Infection Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia
    Immunol Cell Biol 85:138-47. 2007
    Experimental visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by infection with Leishmania donovani results in the development of organ-specific immunity in the two main target tissues of infection, the spleen and the liver...
  10. ncbi Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review
    Ralph Lainson
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto Evandro Chagas, Belem, PA, Brazil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100:811-27. 2005
    An historical review is given of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Brazil...
  11. pmc Effectiveness and safety of liposomal amphotericin B for visceral leishmaniasis under routine program conditions in Bihar, India
    Prabhat K Sinha
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Science, Patna, Bihar, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:357-64. 2010
    ..the effectiveness and safety of 20 mg/kg body weight of liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. The treatment success rates for the intention-to-treat, per protocol, and intention-to-treat worse-case ..
  12. ncbi The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide
    P Desjeux
    Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response, Epidemic Disease Control, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:239-43. 2001
    ..While some risk factors are related to a specific eco-epidemiological entity, others affect all forms of leishmaniasis. Risk factors are reviewed here entity by entity...
  13. pmc Posttranscriptional regulation of II10 gene expression allows natural killer cells to express immunoregulatory function
    Asher Maroof
    Immunology and Infection Unit, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, York YO10 5YW, UK
    Immunity 29:295-305. 2008
    ..To formally test this hypothesis, we employed a well-defined experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis. Our data demonstrated that NKp46(+)CD49b(+)CD3(-) NK cells were recruited to the spleen and into hepatic ..
  14. ncbi Immunoactivation and immunopathogeny during active visceral leishmaniasis
    Hiro Goto
    Laboratory of Seroepidemiology and Immunobiology, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 51:241-6. 2009
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex...
  15. ncbi Interleukin-10 and the pathogenesis of human visceral leishmaniasis
    Susanne Nylen
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Bldg 4 RmB1 12, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 4 Center Drive MSC0425, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    Trends Immunol 28:378-84. 2007
    ..underlying the failure to control the growth and systemic spread of Leishmania parasites in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are not well understood...
  16. ncbi Canine leishmaniasis
    Jorge Alvar
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, Servicio de Parasitologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
    Adv Parasitol 57:1-88. 2004
    ..reservoir of the parasite and play a key role in transmission to humans, in which the parasite produces visceral leishmaniasis. The increasing awareness that control of the human disease depends on effective control of canine ..
  17. ncbi Combination therapy for visceral leishmaniasis
    Johan van Griensven
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Lancet Infect Dis 10:184-94. 2010
    Combination therapy for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis has increasingly been advocated as a way to increase treatment efficacy and tolerance, reduce treatment duration and cost, and limit the emergence of drug resistance...
  18. ncbi Identification of a novel G245R polymorphism in the IL-2 receptor beta membrane proximal domain associated with human visceral leishmaniasis
    B Bucheton
    1INSERM U399 Immunologie et Génétique des Maladies Parasitaires, Faculté de médecine La Timone, Marseille, France
    Genes Immun 8:79-83. 2007
    ..2%, the IL-2-Rbeta G245R was identified in a population of Eastern Sudan exposed to a severe outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a disease associated with a marked depression of T-cell antigen-specific responses...
  19. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: trends and challenges
    Ana Nilce Silveira Maia-Elkhoury
    Departamento de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministerio da Saude, Brasilia, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 24:2941-7. 2008
    The urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been related to environmental changes, migration, interaction and spread of sylvatic reservoirs and infected dogs to areas with no transmission, and adaptation of the vector ..
  20. ncbi Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) reveals genetically isolated populations between and within the main endemic regions of visceral leishmaniasis
    Katrin Kuhls
    Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene Parasitology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dorotheenstr 96, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Microbes Infect 9:334-43. 2007
    ..donovani, L. archibaldi, L. infantum and L. chagasi from major endemic regions of visceral leishmaniasis. Population structures were inferred by combination of Bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches...
  21. pmc Prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs living in an area of canine leishmaniasis endemicity using PCR on several tissues and serology
    L Solano-Gallego
    Departament de Farmacologia i Terapeutica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
    J Clin Microbiol 39:560-3. 2001
    ..The results showed that the majority of dogs living in an area where canine leishmaniasis is endemic are infected by Leishmania and that the prevalence of infection is much greater than the prevalence of overt Leishmania-related disease...
  22. ncbi Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection in northwest Ethiopia
    Zewdu Hurissa
    University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia
    Trop Med Int Health 15:848-55. 2010
    To describe the clinical presentation of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and factors associated with poor outcome in northwest Ethiopia.
  23. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: revisiting paradigms of epidemiology and control
    Filipe Dantas-Torres
    Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Av Moraes Rego s n, 50670 420 Recife, Brazil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 48:151-6. 2006
    ..years, despite the known underestimation of cases, Brazil registered a marked increase in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis. The main goal of this review is to reflect on some aspects of this zoonosis in Brazil and also to ..
  24. ncbi Effect of dose and route of inoculation on the generation of CD4+ Th1/Th2 type of immune response in murine visceral leishmaniasis
    Sukhbir Kaur
    Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
    Parasitol Res 103:1413-9. 2008
    A potential vaccine candidate for visceral leishmaniasis should favour the development of CD4+ Th1 type of immune response which is further dependent on the dose of antigen and the route of inoculation...
  25. ncbi Does the Leishmania major paradigm of pathogenesis and protection hold for New World cutaneous leishmaniases or the visceral disease?
    Diane McMahon-Pratt
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Immunol Rev 201:206-24. 2004
    ..These variations not only point to interesting features of the host-pathogen interaction and immunobiology of this genus of parasitic protozoa, but also have important implications for immunotherapy and vaccine development...
  26. ncbi Recombinant Leishmania tarentolae expressing the A2 virulence gene as a novel candidate vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis
    Amir Mizbani
    Molecular Immunology and Vaccine Research Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
    Vaccine 28:53-62. 2009
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniasis. To date, there is no effective vaccine against this disease...
  27. pmc Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in experimental visceral leishmaniasis and IL-10 receptor blockade as immunotherapy
    Henry W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Infect Immun 70:6284-93. 2002
    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages...
  28. ncbi Infectiousness in a cohort of brazilian dogs: why culling fails to control visceral leishmaniasis in areas of high transmission
    Orin Courtenay
    Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 186:1314-20. 2002
    The elimination of seropositive dogs in Brazil has been used to control zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis but with little success...
  29. ncbi Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala Azar Medical Research Centre, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 6:849-54. 2001
    ..Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days)...
  30. pmc Leish-111f, a recombinant polyprotein vaccine that protects against visceral Leishmaniasis by elicitation of CD4+ T cells
    Rhea N Coler
    Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia St, Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Infect Immun 75:4648-54. 2007
    ..In this study we demonstrate that Leish-111f is also a vaccine antigen candidate against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum...
  31. pmc Of cattle, sand flies and men: a systematic review of risk factor analyses for South Asian visceral leishmaniasis and implications for elimination
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e599. 2010
    Studies performed over the past decade have identified fairly consistent epidemiological patterns of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent.
  32. pmc Immunity to a salivary protein of a sand fly vector protects against the fatal outcome of visceral leishmaniasis in a hamster model
    Regis Gomes
    Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, CEP 40296 710 Salvador, Brazil
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7845-50. 2008
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease for humans, and no vaccine is currently available. Sand fly salivary proteins have been associated with protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  33. ncbi Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis infection in dogs immunized with purified excreted secreted antigens of Leishmania infantum promastigotes
    Jean Loup Lemesre
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR 008 Pathogénie des Trypanosomatidae, 911 Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Vaccine 23:2825-40. 2005
    ..infantum-infected CM-DM were co-cultured with autologous lymphocytes. Overall, our results support the view that a LiESAp vaccine might be useful in a promising vaccination approach against natural L. infantum infection...
  34. ncbi Kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 DNA vaccination induces complete protection against both pentavalent antimonial-sensitive and -resistant strains of Leishmania donovani that correlates with inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and IL-4 generation: ev
    Rajatava Basu
    Department of Immunology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata
    J Immunol 174:7160-71. 2005
    ..of Leishmania donovani strains resistant to pentavalent antimonials (SbV), the first line of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis worldwide, accounts for decreasing efficacy of chemotherapeutic interventions...
  35. pmc Measurement of recent exposure to Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian visceral Leishmaniasis, by using human antibody responses to sand fly saliva
    Meredith F Clements
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:801-7. 2010
    ..argentipes were investigated using serum samples from regions of India endemic and non-endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). By pre-adsorbing the sera against the saliva of the competing human-biting but non-VL vector P...
  36. pmc NK cell activation in visceral leishmaniasis requires TLR9, myeloid DCs, and IL-12, but is independent of plasmacytoid DCs
    Ulrike Schleicher
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Freiburg, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Exp Med 204:893-906. 2007
    ..first direct evidence that mDCs are essential for eliciting NK cell cytotoxicity and IFN-gamma release in vivo and demonstrates that TLR9, mDCs, and IL-12 are functionally linked to the activation of NK cells in visceral leishmaniasis.
  37. pmc Sand fly salivary proteins induce strong cellular immunity in a natural reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis with adverse consequences for Leishmania
    Nicolas Collin
    Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000441. 2009
    Immunity to a sand fly salivary protein protects against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in hamsters...
  38. pmc Murine visceral leishmaniasis: IgM and polyclonal B-cell activation lead to disease exacerbation
    Eszter Deak
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:1355-68. 2010
    In visceral leishmaniasis, the draining LN (DLN) is the initial site for colonization and establishment of infection after intradermal transmission by the sand fly vector; however, little is known about the developing immune response ..
  39. pmc Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with the LACK antigen protects against murine visceral leishmaniasis
    Blaise Dondji
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
    Infect Immun 73:5286-9. 2005
    ..Comparable levels of protection were found for mice boosted with either LACK-WR or LACK-MVA, supporting the use of an attenuated vaccinia virus-based vaccine against human visceral leishmaniasis.
  40. ncbi Leishmaniasis and poverty
    Jorge Alvar
    Communicable Diseases, Neglected Tropical Diseases Control, World Health Organization, 20 Ave Appia, CH 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Trends Parasitol 22:552-7. 2006
    ..Public investment in treatment and control would decrease the leishmaniasis disease burden and help to alleviate poverty...
  41. ncbi Forum: geographic spread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Introduction
    Guilherme L Werneck
    Departamento de Endemias Samuel Pessoa, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 24:2937-40. 2008
    The geographic spread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been described since the early 1980s...
  42. ncbi The hamster as a model of human visceral leishmaniasis: progressive disease and impaired generation of nitric oxide in the face of a prominent Th1-like cytokine response
    P C Melby
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX 78284, USA
    J Immunol 166:1912-20. 2001
    Active human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by a progressive increase in visceral parasite burden, cachexia, massive splenomegaly, and hypergammaglobulinemia...
  43. ncbi Leishmania donovani: identification of stimulatory soluble antigenic proteins using cured human and hamster lymphocytes for their prophylactic potential against visceral leishmaniasis
    Ravendra Garg
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    Vaccine 24:2900-9. 2006
    ..for their ability to stimulate proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, endemic and non-endemic controls and lymphocytes/peritoneal macrophages of cured hamsters...
  44. pmc Leishmania donovani p36(LACK) DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic but not protective against experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    P C Melby
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229 3900, USA
    Infect Immun 69:4719-25. 2001
    ..infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani suggests that vaccination could prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  45. pmc Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:951-8. 2002
  46. ncbi Value of two PCR methods for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis and the detection of asymptomatic carriers
    L Lachaud
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie Mycologie et Centre National de Référence sur les Leishmanioses, Faculte de Medecine, Montpellier, France
    Parasitology 125:197-207. 2002
    ..minicircle DNA respectively, was investigated for both diagnosis and prevalence studies of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The first method (R) was 5000-fold less sensitive than the second (method KRV)...
  47. ncbi Endogenous IL-4 is necessary for effective drug therapy against visceral leishmaniasis
    J Alexander
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, GB
    Eur J Immunol 30:2935-43. 2000
    ..well established that a fully competent immune response is required for the successful drug treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, recent studies have cast some doubt as to which elements of the immune response synergize with ..
  48. ncbi The epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis and asymptomatic leishmanial infection in a highly endemic Bangladeshi village
    Caryn Bern
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:909-14. 2007
    ..The CRP levels were higher in kala-azar patients compared with the other two groups. Low red meat intake and poor zinc and retinol status may characterize a group at higher risk of symptomatic disease...
  49. ncbi An emerging peri-urban pattern of infection with Leishmania chagasi, the protozoan causing visceral leishmaniasis in northeast Brazil
    Selma M B Jeronimo
    Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil
    Scand J Infect Dis 36:443-9. 2004
    Peri-urban visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania chagasi is emerging in a new epidemiologic pattern in Brazilian cities...
  50. ncbi First report of genetic hybrids between two very divergent Leishmania species: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania major
    Christophe Ravel
    Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, 163 rue Broussonet, F34090 Montpellier, France
    Int J Parasitol 36:1383-8. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi Autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine for prevention of visceral leishmaniasis: a randomised, double-blind, BCG-controlled trial in Sudan
    E A Khalil
    Leishmaniasis Research Group Sudan, Institute of Endemic Diseases, Khartoum
    Lancet 356:1565-9. 2000
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Sudan. Drug treatment is expensive, and drug resistance is becoming increasingly common. Safe, effective, and cheap vaccines are needed...
  52. pmc Comparative salivary gland transcriptomics of sandfly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis
    Jennifer M Anderson
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, NIH, USA
    BMC Genomics 7:52. 2006
    ..characteristics of salivary proteins from different sandflies, particularly from vectors transmitting visceral leishmaniasis, the fatal form of the disease...
  53. ncbi Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Institutes of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    N Engl J Med 347:1739-46. 2002
    There are 500,000 cases per year of visceral leishmaniasis, which occurs primarily in the Indian subcontinent. Almost all untreated patients die, and all the effective agents have been parenteral...
  54. ncbi Parasite density and impaired biochemical/hematological status are associated with severe clinical aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis
    Alexandre B Reis
    Laboratório de Parasitologia e Histopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas NUPEB, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Rua Costa Sena, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Res Vet Sci 81:68-75. 2006
    ..Finally, we believe that the follow-up of these parameters could be a relevant approach to be used as markers during therapeutic and vaccine evaluations...
  55. ncbi Diagnostic tests for kala-azar: a multi-centre study of the freeze-dried DAT, rK39 strip test and KAtex in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent
    M Boelaert
    Epidemiology and Disease Control Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:32-40. 2008
    Three diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the freeze-dried direct agglutination test (FD-DAT), the rK39 dipstick and a urine latex antigen test (KAtex), were evaluated for use in primary care in East Africa and the Indian ..
  56. ncbi Risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis: the role of local variation in rainfall and altitude on the presence and incidence of kala-azar in eastern Sudan
    Dia Eldin A Elnaiem
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Sudan
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:10-7. 2003
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by environmental factors...
  57. ncbi Impact of canine control on the epidemiology of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil
    C B Palatnik-de-Sousa
    Department of General Microbiology, , Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:510-7. 2001
    Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of ..
  58. pmc A meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for visceral leishmaniasis
    Francois Chappuis
    Geneva University Hospitals, Travel and Migration Medicine Unit, Rue Micheli du Crest 24, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    BMJ 333:723. 2006
    To compare the performance of the direct agglutination test and rK39 dipstick for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.
  59. ncbi The sensitivity and specificity of Leishmania chagasi recombinant K39 antigen in the diagnosis of American visceral leishmaniasis and in differentiating active from subclinical infection
    Regina F S Braz
    Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:344-8. 2002
    ..of a Leishmania chagasi recombinant K39 (rK39)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was assessed in Natal, Brazil. Anti-rK39 antibodies were detected in 93...
  60. ncbi Spatial analysis of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Brazil
    Suely Aparecida Correa Antonialli
    Escola de Saúde Pública Dr Jorge David Nasser, Coordenadoria de Recursos Humanos em Saúde Coletiva, Avenida Filinto Muller, nú1480, Bairro Ipiranga, Campo Grande, MS 79074 460, Brazil
    J Infect 54:509-14. 2007
    To map American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) in Mato Grosso do Sul State (Central Brazil).
  61. ncbi Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:917-24. 2006
    During the past decade, liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  62. ncbi Safety and effectiveness of amphotericin B deoxycholate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Uganda
    Y Mueller
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Swiss Section, Rue de Lausanne 78, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 102:11-9. 2008
    ..supply of antimonial drugs to Amudat Hospital, in north-eastern Uganda, was interrupted and all cases of visceral leishmaniasis presenting at the hospital could only be treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB)...
  63. pmc Specific serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis using Leishmania species ribosomal protein extracts
    Eduardo A F Coelho
    Departamento de Bioquimica e Imunologia, ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31 270 901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:1774-80. 2009
    ..different ribosomal proteins were observed in all the serum samples obtained from dogs with symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis tested, we have analyzed the potential usefulness of the LRP extracts in the development of an enzyme-..
  64. ncbi [Absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in some endemic visceral leishmaniasis areas in Rio de Janeiro municipality]
    Marcos Barbosa de Souza
    Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21041 210, Brasil
    Cad Saude Publica 19:1881-5. 2003
    The first autochthonous case of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro was diagnosed in 1977...
  65. ncbi Risk factors for in-hospital mortality of visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern Uganda
    Yolanda Mueller
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 14:910-7. 2009
    To identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Uganda.
  66. pmc Visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme in India, Bangladesh, and Nepal: reshaping the case finding/case management strategy
    Dinesh Mondal
    International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Laboratory Sciences Division, Dhaka, Bangladesh
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e355. 2009
    We sought to estimate visceral leishmaniasis (VL) burden in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal and document care-seeking behaviour for VL to provide baseline information for monitoring the VL elimination program and identify options for ..
  67. ncbi Prognostic factors for death from visceral leishmaniasis in Teresina, Brazil
    G L Werneck
    Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Social Medicine, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, 7 andar, Bloco D, Maracana, RJ 20559 900 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Infection 31:174-7. 2003
    A possible strategy to reduce fatality rates of visceral leishmaniasis is to identify prognostic factors that can be easily assessed and used as an aid to clinical decision-making.
  68. pmc Malnutrition alters the innate immune response and increases early visceralization following Leishmania donovani infection
    G M Anstead
    Medical Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78229-3900, USA
    Infect Immun 69:4709-18. 2001
    Malnutrition is a risk factor for the development of visceral leishmaniasis. However, the immunological basis for this susceptibility is unknown...
  69. ncbi Serious underreporting of visceral leishmaniasis through passive case reporting in Bihar, India
    S P Singh
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 11:899-905. 2006
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major public health problem in Bihar, India. Unfortunately, accurate data on the incidence or prevalence of the disease are not available...
  70. ncbi IL-10 mediates susceptibility to Leishmania donovani infection
    M L Murphy
    Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Eur J Immunol 31:2848-56. 2001
    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) results in a severe and potentially fatal systemic disease, accompanied by cellular immune depression...
  71. pmc Tissue granuloma structure-function in experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    H W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Weill College of Cornell University, New York 10021, USA
    Int J Exp Pathol 82:249-67. 2001
    In experimental visceral leishmaniasis in normal mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6) acquired resistance to Leishmania donovani, a protozoan which targets tissue macrophages, depends upon T cells, Th1 cell-type cytokine generation and activated ..
  72. ncbi Animal models for vaccine studies for visceral leishmaniasis
    Ravendra Garg
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:439-54. 2006
    ..Particular emphasis is given to the value of using mouse, hamster, dog and primate models, especially in the context of testing potential antileishmanial vaccines...
  73. ncbi Effective immunotherapy against canine visceral leishmaniasis with the FML-vaccine
    Gulnara Patricia Borja-Cabrera
    Prof Paulo de Góes, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, CCS, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68040, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941 590 RJ, Brazil
    Vaccine 22:2234-43. 2004
    The potential effect of the fucose mannose ligand (FML)-vaccine on immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis was assayed on five mongrel dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani and on 21 Leishmania chagasi naturally ..
  74. ncbi Alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major plus bacille Calmette-Guérrin, a candidate vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: safety, skin-delayed type hypersensitivity response and dose finding in healthy volunteers
    A A Kamil
    Leishmaniasis Research Group, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:365-8. 2003
    ..Calmette-Guérrin (BCG) vaccine was shown to be safe, but not superior to BCG alone, in protecting against visceral leishmaniasis. From June 1999 to June 2000, we studied the safety and immunogenicity of different doses of alum-..
  75. pmc Treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis by the vaccine Leish-111f+MPL-SE
    Joelma Trigo
    Canil Avançado em Monte Gordo de Pesquisa em Leishmanioses, Camaçari, Bahia Clinvet, Brazil
    Vaccine 28:3333-40. 2010
    Immunotherapy of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide an alternative to both marginally effective chemotherapy and undesired euthanasia of infected dogs and could have a great impact not only on animal welfare, but also on ..
  76. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis in Aba-Roba, south-western Ethiopia: prevalence and incidence of active and subclinical infections
    A Hailu
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 103:659-70. 2009
    Between August 1997 and February 2005, a prospective study of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was undertaken in two villages in the Konso district of south-western Ethiopia, to provide epidemiological indices of subclinical infection ..
  77. pmc Transforming growth factor beta and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    V Rodrigues
    Immunology Laboratory, Medical School of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
    Infect Immun 66:1233-6. 1998
    ..These results suggest that the immunosuppression observed in visceral leishmaniasis is, at least in part, due to the abundant production of TGF-beta during the course of the infection.
  78. pmc N-myristoyltransferase from Leishmania donovani: structural and functional characterisation of a potential drug target for visceral leishmaniasis
    James A Brannigan
    York Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5YW, UK
    J Mol Biol 396:985-99. 2010
    ..pathogenic protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, causative agent of the tropical infectious disease, visceral leishmaniasis. The open reading frame of L...
  79. pmc Visceral leishmaniasis in mice devoid of tumor necrosis factor and response to treatment
    H W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Infect Immun 68:6289-93. 2000
    ..Chemotherapeutic elimination of the parasite stimulus reversed the hyperinflammatory response and preserved survival...
  80. pmc gp63 in stable cationic liposomes confers sustained vaccine immunity to susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani
    Swati Bhowmick
    Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India
    Infect Immun 76:1003-15. 2008
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis is deadly if not treated, and development of a vaccine with long-term immunity remains a challenge...
  81. ncbi Cellular and humoral responses induced by Leishmania histone H2B and its divergent and conserved parts in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis patients, respectively
    A Meddeb-Garnaoui
    Laboratory of Immunopathology, Vaccinology and Molecular Genetics, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunisia
    Vaccine 28:1881-6. 2010
    ..We also evaluated the humoral responses induced by these proteins in patients with Mediterranean Visceral Leishmaniasis (MVL) due to L. infantum. H2B and H2B-N were highly recognized by MVL sera...
  82. ncbi The FML-vaccine (Leishmune) against canine visceral leishmaniasis: a transmission blocking vaccine
    Elvira M Saraiva
    Instituto de Microbiologia, Prof Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, CCS, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68040, CEP 21941 590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Vaccine 24:2423-31. 2006
    ..in combination with saponin (FML-vaccine and Leishmune) induced 92-97% of protections against zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. We assayed the ability of FML to inhibit Leishmania donovani and Leishmania chagasi procyclic ..
  83. ncbi Interleukin-12 regulates the response to chemotherapy in experimental visceral Leishmaniasis
    H W Murray
    Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Infect Dis 182:1497-502. 2000
    In experimental visceral leishmaniasis, interleukin (IL)-12 initiates control over Leishmania donovani via Th1 cell activation, interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion, and granuloma formation...
  84. ncbi Double-blind randomized efficacy field trial of alum precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major vaccine mixed with BCG against canine visceral leishmaniasis in Meshkin-Shahr district, I.R. Iran
    Mehdi Mohebali
    School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
    Vaccine 22:4097-100. 2004
    ..dose of aluminum hydroxide (alum) precipitated Leishmania major (Alum-ALM) vaccine plus BCG against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Three hundred and forty-seven healthy dogs with no anti-Leishmania antibodies were double-blind randomly ..
  85. ncbi Immunotherapy with the saponin enriched-Leishmune vaccine versus immunochemotherapy in dogs with natural canine visceral leishmaniasis
    G P Borja-Cabrera
    Instituto de Microbiologia, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68040, CEP 21941 590, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Vaccine 28:597-603. 2010
    Leishmune, the first licensed vaccine for prophylaxis against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and is also immunotherapeutic when used with double saponin adjuvant concentration...
  86. ncbi Cytokine profiles in canine visceral leishmaniasis
    Eugenia Carrillo
    Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas CSIC, C Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 128:67-70. 2009
    ..This review focuses on advances in the canine immune response knowledge over the recent years and examines the principal role of the cytokine pattern elicited after infection with L. infantum...
  87. ncbi Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy combined with antimony-based chemotherapy cures established murine visceral leishmaniasis
    Monidipa Ghosh
    Division of Immunology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India
    J Immunol 170:5625-9. 2003
    ..DC-based immunotherapy and antimony-based chemotherapy for the treatment of established murine visceral leishmaniasis. Three weekly injections of SLDA-pulsed DCs into L...
  88. pmc Comparison of BCG, MPL and cationic liposome adjuvant systems in leishmanial antigen vaccine formulations against murine visceral leishmaniasis
    Rajesh Ravindran
    Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, India
    BMC Microbiol 10:181. 2010
    The development of an effective vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani is an essential aim for controlling the disease...
  89. ncbi Histopathology, parasite density and cell phenotypes of the popliteal lymph node in canine visceral leishmaniasis
    Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
    Laboratório Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 121:23-33. 2008
    While enlargement of popliteal lymph nodes (LN) is frequently described in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), there are few histopathologic studies of lymph nodes during this chronic immunopathological condition...
  90. ncbi Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of the hepatic compartment associated with parasitism and serum biochemical changes in canine visceral leishmaniasis
    Rodolfo Cordeiro Giunchetti
    Laboratorio de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas NUPEB, Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil
    Res Vet Sci 84:269-77. 2008
    ..parasitism and biochemical findings are essential for understanding the genesis of hepatomegaly in canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Three clinical groups of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi [i.e...
  91. ncbi Immunogenicity of a multicomponent DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs
    Omar A Saldarriaga
    Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, 7400 Merton Minter Dr, Mailstop 151, San Antonio 78229 4404, TX, USA
    Vaccine 24:1928-40. 2006
    ..of dogs, the domestic reservoir of Leishmania chagasi, could not only decrease the burden of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL), but could also indirectly reduce the incidence of human VL...
  92. ncbi Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B for visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    N Engl J Med 362:504-12. 2010
    Some 50% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) worldwide live in the Indian state of Bihar. Liposomal amphotericin B is an effective treatment when administered in short courses...
  93. pmc Both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-4 receptor alpha signaling contribute to the development of hepatic granulomas with optimal antileishmanial activity
    Simona Stager
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 71:4804-7. 2003
    ..IL-4 and IL-13 appear to play little role in regulating collagen deposition in L. donovani-induced granulomas...
  94. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients. A comparative study
    V Pintado
    Clinical Microbiology-Infectious Diseases Department, , Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain
    Medicine (Baltimore) 80:54-73. 2001
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic infection in Mediterranean countries, where it has become a frequent complication of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
  95. ncbi Organ-specific immune responses associated with infectious disease
    C R Engwerda
    Dept of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK WC1E 7HT
    Immunol Today 21:73-8. 2000
    ..Here, Christian Engwerda and Paul Kaye highlight the importance of defining organ-specific immune mechanisms for developing strategies that deal effectively with infectious diseases and their associated pathologies...
  96. ncbi The interplay between environmental and host factors during an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan
    Bruno Bucheton
    Génétique et Immunologie des Maladies Parasitaires, INSERM U399, Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Mycologie, Faculte de Medecine de la Timone, 27, Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France
    Microbes Infect 4:1449-57. 2002
    Parasitic diseases, including human visceral leishmaniasis, are multifactorial. Factors that are expected to play an important role in the parasite-human interaction are exposure, parasite "virulence" and host resistance factors...
  97. ncbi Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis: generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate are equivalent; HIV co-infected patients have a poor outcome
    K Ritmeijer
    Medecins Sans Frontieres Holland, P O Box 10014, 1001 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:668-72. 2001
    ..Pentostam (sodium stibogluconate, GlaxoWellcome, London) under field conditions in Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar)...
  98. ncbi Immunohistological features of visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice
    J Carrion
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Parasite Immunol 28:173-83. 2006
    It has been reported that the level of protection provided by vaccines against murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is low and that progress in research on VL may be due to the lack of appropriate models to study protective immunity...
  99. ncbi The immunopathology of experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    Paul M Kaye
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Immunol Rev 201:239-53. 2004
    Experimental murine infection with the parasites that cause human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) results in the establishment of infection in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow...
  100. ncbi Immunization with the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of proteophosphoglycan of Leishmania donovani generates Th1-type immunoprotective response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis
    Mukesh Samant
    Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    J Immunol 183:470-9. 2009
    ..The results suggest the N-terminal domain of L. donovani ppg as a potential DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.
  101. pmc Estimation of under-reporting of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Bihar, India
    Vijay P Singh
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Science, Indian Council of Medical Research, Patna, Bihar, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:9-11. 2010
    We estimated the level of under-reporting of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases by comparing the actual reported cases with those expected as estimated using age- and sex-stratified incidence proportions obtained in a cohort of 31,324 ..

Research Grants62

  1. Killed But Metabolically Active Leishmania: a novel protozoan vaccine technology
    Noah Craft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Killed But Metabolically Active (KBMA) organism capable of protecting rodents from infection in a model of visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania that infects the visceral organs)...
  2. Polyamine Metabolism in Leishmania
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..key components of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. The application focuses on the role of polyamine acquisition from the host in the establishment of ..
  3. Treating cutaneous leishmaniasis by radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy
    Abhay R Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania include cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  4. Toward suicidal automation of porphyric Leishmania for photodynamic vaccination
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..suicidal mutants was indeed found to simulate "Leishmanization", but without the skin disease, against visceral leishmaniasis. Moreover, the immunity was elicited without apparent persistence of the parasites and with long-term ..
  5. Functions of nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases in Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Considering the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis among U.S...
  6. Genetic Analysis of Purine Metabolism in Leishmania donovani
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..interdisciplinary dissection of the purine salvage pathway of Leishmania donovani, the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis. L...
  7. Development of novel therapeutics for a neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis
    ABHAY R contact SATOSKAR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..parasites that cause a wide range of diseases, including cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  8. A role for microRNAs in global changes in gene expression induced by Leishmania
    MARY EDYTHE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: RELEVANCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH Latin American visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal human disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania chagasi...
  9. Discovery of 4-aminoquinoline therapeutics for visceral leishmaniasis
    Peter C Melby; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New drugs are desperately needed to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a tropical disease cause by the protozoan Leishmania donovani...
  10. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in West Africa: the Parasite, Vector and Disease
    Seydou Doumbia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..response to whole saliva or a distinct salivary protein generally protects against both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in rodent models of infection...
  11. Purine Nucleoside/Nucleobase Transporters in Leishmania
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of purine nucleoside transporters in the parasite Leishmania donovani that causes the fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis. Uptake of purines is essential for Leishmania and all parasitic protozoa, underscoring the crucial role ..
  12. Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Henry W Murray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The goal of this research is to improve the efficacy of treatment in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In VL, parasites target, deactivate and replicate within tissue macrophages...
  13. LEISHMANIA ANTIGENS DEFINED BY HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSES
    STEVEN GREGORY REED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The parasites Leishmania infantum and L. donovani cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of the disease, while a number of other species, including L...
  14. Validation of a new VL vaccine candidate in dogs that significantly protects mice
    Antonio Campos-Neto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): The long-term goal of this research program is to validate in dogs a candidate vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) for evaluation in future clinical evaluations...
  15. Genetic Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Mary E Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Three major worldwide foci of the fatal parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis (cVL) occur in India, Sudan and Brazil...
  16. Natural Product Treatments for Leishmaniasis
    Dennis E Kyle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..5 million for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 500,000 for visceral leishmaniasis and over 350 million people are at risk of acquiring leishmaniasis, which is one of six diseases on the ..
  17. Antigen Detection Assay for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leismaniasis
    Claudia Abeijon; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although antigen detection assay has the potential to quickly diagnose active visceral leishmaniasis (VL), paradoxically this test has not yet been fully developed for this serious disease...
  18. Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The goal of this translational research is to optimize treatment in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In VL, parasites target, deactivate and replicate within tissue macrophages...
  19. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if untreated and cutaneous leishmaniasis causes serious morbidity, Chagas disease is caused by ..
  20. The role of sand fly saliva in visceralization of Leishmania parasites
    Gregory Lanzaro; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..L. chagasi is known to cause only visceral leishmaniasis in South America, however in Central America, the identical parasite, transmitted by the same vector ..
  21. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India
    Shyam Sundar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a major health problem in India. To understand the complex pathogenesis of VL, TMRC examined key questions in epidemiology, immunology and genetics of disease...
  22. Antileishmanial Lead Optimization of Quinazolines
    Karl A Werbovetz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): There is a need for new oral drugs to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)...
  23. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..5 million of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and 500,000 of visceral leishmaniasis)...
  24. New drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..5 million of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and 500,000 of visceral leishmaniasis)...
  25. Mitochondrial poly(A) Polymerases of Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Considering the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis among U.S...
  26. GENETICS AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF SANDFLY DISEASE VECTORS
    Leonard Munstermann; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..populations that occur in regions of high endemic transmission or where unique clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis have appeared...
  27. Regulation of mRNA Turnover in Trypanosomes
    Vivian Bellofatto; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Chagas' disease (endemic in regions of South and Central America) and cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis (endemic in parts of the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent)...
  28. Isolation of novel antileishmanial molecules from Pentalinon andrieuxii root
    Abhay Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..obligate intracellular parasites that cause a wide range of diseases such as cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Over 12 million people currently suffer from these diseases, and approximately 2 million are infected ..
  29. STUDY ON RISK FACTORS AND CONTROL STRATEGY FOR CANINE SOURCE VISCERAL LEISHMANIAS
    Huazhong Li; Fiscal Year: 2011
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis, one of the fatal parasitic disease, is a re-emerging parasitic disease in the world and in China...
  30. Development of a low cost formulation of amphotericin B
    SHING CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..for patients suffering from most neglected diseases, seeks NIAID support to develop a new drug to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL) through collaboration with public and private partners...
  31. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis using Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract
    Abhay R Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..obligate intracellular parasites that cause a wide range of diseases such as cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Over 12 million people currently suffer from these diseases and approximately 2 million are infected ..
  32. ANTIGENIC BASIS OF CELLULAR IMMUNITY IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The research proposal stems from the observation that cellular immune responses parallel recovery from visceral leishmaniasis. The antigens responsible for cell-mediated immunity are not known...
  33. GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..chagasi infection in murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL), particularly the type 3 TGF-beta response...
  34. GLUTATHIONE METABOLISM IN TRYPANOSOMATIDS
    Alan Fairlamb; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral Leishmaniasis) and T.rhodesiense or T.gambiense (human African trypanosomiasis)...
  35. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    Arlyne Beeche; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION (provided by investigator): The Terai region of Nepal is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a protozoal infection caused by the parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex and L tropica...
  36. New Generation Test for Visceral Leishmaniasis Diagnosis
    SYAMAL RAYCHAUDHURI; Fiscal Year: 2002
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease with high mortality in both developed and developing countries. The causative agents are the parasites Leishmania chagasi, donovani and infantum depending on geographic location...
  37. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS
    Robert Tesh; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The primary objectives of this project are to elucidate the epidemiology of American (New World) visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) and to develop novel methods for its control. The project will involve both field and laboratory studies...
  38. NEXT GENERATION ASSAY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF LEISHMANIASIS
    SYAMAL RAYCHAUDHURI; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease with high mortality in both developed and developing countries. The causative agents are the parasites Leishmania chagasi, donovani and infantum depending on geographic location...
  39. Immunoregulation in visceral leishmaniasis
    JAY FARRELL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  40. SHP1 Targeted Inhibition by Stibogluconate for Melanoma
    Ernest Borden; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..SSG has been used clinically in underdeveloped countries for thousands of patients with visceral leishmaniasis at doses substantially greater than those expected to inhibit PTPases...
  41. Host Immunoregulation of Response to Antileishmanial Chemotherapy
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Without vaccine to prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar), current management of this disseminated intracellular protozoa! disease necessarily requires successful drug therapy...
  42. HOST IMMUNOREGULATION OF ANTILEISHMANIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
    Henry Murray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Since there is no vaccine to prevent visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar), a disseminated intracellular protozoal infection, its practical management revolves around successful drug therapy...
  43. GP46 GENES AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN LEISHMANIA CHAGASI
    JOHN DONELSON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..to identify the molecular processes that regulate GP46 expression, fundamental processes that we expect will require proteins which will be targets for future research aimed at new treatments and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis.
  44. PAUCIBACILLARY TUBERCULOIS, DIAGNOSIS AND MORBIDITY
    Kristen Weigle; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In project II new technological options will be applied to the diagnosis of tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis. Evaluation criteria will be based on the requirements for control strategies: sensitivity, specificity, ..
  45. MOLECULAR TOOLS TO DEVELOP HAMSTER MODELS OF DISEASE
    Peter Melby; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This work will have particular relevance to research traditionally funded through a number of NIH institutes including the NCI, NIAID, NHLBI, NIA, NIAMS, and NIDR. ..
  46. NOS2 and arginase in visceral leishmaniasis
    Peter Melby; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies in the hamster will fill a knowledge gap by defining mechanisms of disease and immunity that are strikingly different from those of the murine model. ..
  47. VACCINATION OF DOGS TO REDUCE TRANSMISSION OF LEISHMANIA
    Peter Melby; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This proposal is focused on vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis with the goal of decreasing the reservoir's infectivity to the sand fly vector, and thus interrupting ..
  48. Immunogenetics of Leishmania chagasi Infection
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to progressive and ultimately fatal visceral leishmaniasis. In addition many people living in endemic regions do not harbor evidence of L...
  49. GP63 EXPRESSION IN LEISHMANIA CHAGASI
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..They will also provide a model for differential expression of tandemly linked genes in this group of protozoa. ..
  50. The Major Surface Protease of Trypanosomatid Protozoa
    Mary Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..chagasi whose coding sequences predict they lack the usual GPI anchor, and to contrast the amino acid sequences that regulate the intracellular trafficking of these unusual MSPs with the MSPs that possess a GPI membrane anchor. ..
  51. Collaborative Development of a Vaccine against Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmanias
    MARY EDYTHE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Through a coordinated approach in the three laboratories, we will systematically perform pre-clinical testing against several Leishmania species, with the goal of developing a pan-leishmania protective vaccine. ..
  52. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS VACCINE - MURINE MODEL STUDIES
    DIANE MCMAHON PRATT; Fiscal Year: 2003
    b>Visceral leishmaniasis [VL] is endemic throughout much of the world [Europe, Central and South America, Africa, Asia] [1]. Drug treatment exists for VL, although it is not always effective and side effects are problematic...
  53. Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing ALS3: a vaccine against candidiasis
    Kevin Bruhn; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Successful completion of these studies will enable development of the vaccine in a future Phase II proposal. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. Chemokines in pathogenesis of Experimental Arthritis
    SEEMA SINGH AHUJA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus information obtained from proposed studies which explore how CCR2 modulates arthritis will have significant impact on potential therapeutic strategies to treat this chronic deblitating disease. ..
  55. VIRUS PHOTOINACTIVATION--DIMETHYLMETHYLENE BLUE IN RBC
    Stephen Wagner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  56. Integrated Functional Genomics: On the road to leishmaniasis control Dormy House
    DIANE MCMAHON PRATT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..To formulate key short and medium term objectives for basic research (experimental and[unreadable] clinical), with high potential for translation into new avenues for leishmaniasis control. ..
  57. Chemokine System in DC and Lymphocyte Function
    SEEMA AHUJA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  58. Hamster Models and Reagents for Biodefense Research
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This proposal represents a distinct area of investigation and should open numerous avenues for the use of hamsters in the study of pathogens that represent important bioterrorism and emerging disease threats. ..