leishmaniasis

Summary

Summary: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Directions for the diagnosis, clinical staging, treatment and prevention of canine leishmaniosis
    L Solano-Gallego
    Dept Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts, UK
    Vet Parasitol 165:1-18. 2009
  2. pmc Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence
    Jorge Alvar
    Department for the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases HTM NTD IDM, Leishmaniasis Control Program, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e35671. 2012
  3. ncbi Advances in leishmaniasis
    Henry W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, USA
    Lancet 366:1561-77. 2005
  4. pmc Drug resistance in leishmaniasis
    Simon L Croft
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, 1 place Saint Gervais, CH 1201 Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:111-26. 2006
  5. ncbi Leishmaniasis impact and treatment access
    M den Boer
    Leishmaniasis Control Programme, WHO IDM Av Appia, Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1471-7. 2011
  6. pmc The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years
    Jorge Alvar
    Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:334-59, table of contents. 2008
  7. ncbi Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host-pathogen interface
    Paul Kaye
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology and Hull York Medical School, University of York, Wentworth Way, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:604-15. 2011
  8. pmc Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease
    Christopher S Peacock
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 39:839-47. 2007
  9. ncbi Leishmaniasis
    B L Herwaldt
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Lancet 354:1191-9. 1999
  10. ncbi Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Thomas P C Dorlo
    Center for Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:2576-97. 2012

Detail Information

Publications323 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Directions for the diagnosis, clinical staging, treatment and prevention of canine leishmaniosis
    L Solano-Gallego
    Dept Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herts, UK
    Vet Parasitol 165:1-18. 2009
    ..Protection against sand fly bites by topical insecticides is effective in reducing infection, and recent development of vaccines has indicated that prevention by vaccination is feasible...
  2. pmc Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence
    Jorge Alvar
    Department for the Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases HTM NTD IDM, Leishmaniasis Control Program, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 7:e35671. 2012
    ..Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries ..
  3. ncbi Advances in leishmaniasis
    Henry W Murray
    Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, USA
    Lancet 366:1561-77. 2005
    Governed by parasite and host factors and immunoinflammatory responses, the clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis encompasses subclinical (inapparent), localised (skin lesions), and disseminated infection (cutaneous, mucosal, or visceral)...
  4. pmc Drug resistance in leishmaniasis
    Simon L Croft
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, 1 place Saint Gervais, CH 1201 Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:111-26. 2006
    b>Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania...
  5. ncbi Leishmaniasis impact and treatment access
    M den Boer
    Leishmaniasis Control Programme, WHO IDM Av Appia, Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Infect 17:1471-7. 2011
    According to disease burden estimates, leishmaniasis ranks third in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years caused by neglected tropical diseases and is the second cause of parasite-related deaths after malaria; but for a ..
  6. pmc The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years
    Jorge Alvar
    Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, CH 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:334-59, table of contents. 2008
    ..Most cases of coinfection in the Americas are reported in Brazil, where the incidence of leishmaniasis has spread in recent years due to overlap with major areas of HIV transmission...
  7. ncbi Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host-pathogen interface
    Paul Kaye
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology and Hull York Medical School, University of York, Wentworth Way, UK
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:604-15. 2011
    ..Understanding the extent of this diversity will be increasingly important in ensuring the development of broadly applicable vaccines, drugs and immunotherapeutic interventions...
  8. pmc Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease
    Christopher S Peacock
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK
    Nat Genet 39:839-47. 2007
    ..Genes that are differentially distributed between the species encode proteins implicated in host-pathogen interactions and parasite survival in the macrophage...
  9. ncbi Leishmaniasis
    B L Herwaldt
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Atlanta, GA 30341 3724, USA
    Lancet 354:1191-9. 1999
    ..donovani in splenic tissue from patients in India with the life-threatening disease now called visceral leishmaniasis. Almost a century later, many features of leishmaniasis and its major syndromes (ie, visceral, cutaneous, and ..
  10. ncbi Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Thomas P C Dorlo
    Center for Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:2576-97. 2012
    ..For 10 years it has been licensed in India for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a fatal neglected parasitic disease...
  11. pmc Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis
    Michael P Barrett
    Wellcome Trust Centre of Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK
    Br Med Bull 104:175-96. 2012
    The current treatments for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis (collectively referred to as the kinetoplastid diseases) are far from ideal but, for some, there has been significant recent progress...
  12. ncbi Leishmaniasis--current chemotherapy and recent advances in the search for novel drugs
    Simon L Croft
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Trends Parasitol 19:502-8. 2003
  13. ncbi The leishmaniases as emerging and reemerging zoonoses
    R W Ashford
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, L3 5QA, Liverpool, UK
    Int J Parasitol 30:1269-81. 2000
    ..Examples are available of the emergence of leishmaniasis from the distant past to the present, and can be postulated for the future...
  14. ncbi Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans
    Anne Laure Bañuls
    Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR CNRS IRD 2724, Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, IRD Montpellier, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Adv Parasitol 64:1-109. 2007
    ..to ascertain whether genetic variability of the parasites is related to the different clinical expressions of leishmaniasis. The review aims to put current knowledge of Leishmania and the leishmaniases in perspective and to underline ..
  15. ncbi Leishmaniasis: current status of available drugs and new potential drug targets
    Nisha Singh
    Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 5:485-97. 2012
    ..Resistance to pentavalent antimonials, which have been the recommended drugs to treat cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, is now widespread in Indian subcontinents...
  16. pmc Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis
    Manica Balasegaram
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, Geneva, Switzerland
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 17:493-510. 2012
    b>Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1...
  17. ncbi The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide
    P Desjeux
    Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response, Epidemic Disease Control, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95:239-43. 2001
    ..sanitation are inadequate, thus creating opportunities for the transmission of communicable diseases such as leishmaniasis. Increasing risk factors are making leishmaniasis a growing public health concern for many countries around ..
  18. ncbi T helper (h)1/Th2 and Leishmania: paradox rather than paradigm
    James Alexander
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, The Todd Wing, John Arbuthnott Building, 27 Taylor Street, Glasgow G4 0NR, UK
    Immunol Lett 99:17-23. 2005
    ..Indeed IL-4 has been shown to have no exacerbatory role in murine visceral leishmaniasis while its contribution to the progression of cutaneous disease has been clearly shown to be influenced not ..
  19. ncbi Risk factors for canine leishmaniasis in an endemic Mediterranean region
    Sofia Cortes
    Unidade de Leishmanioses, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Rua da Junqueira, 100, 1346 008 Lisboa, Portugal
    Vet Parasitol 189:189-96. 2012
    Human visceral leishmaniasis is an emergent/re-emergent parasitic zoonotic disease in Europe caused by Leishmania infantum, with domestic dog as its main reservoir host...
  20. ncbi Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe
    P D Ready
    Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
    Euro Surveill 15:19505. 2010
    b>Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe is reviewed, based on a search of literature up to and including 2009...
  21. pmc Modeling of leishmaniasis infection dynamics: novel application to the design of effective therapies
    Bettina M Länger
    Grupo de Tecnología Bioquímica, Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
    BMC Syst Biol 6:1. 2012
    The WHO considers leishmaniasis as one of the six most important tropical diseases worldwide. It is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania that are passed on to humans and animals by the phlebotomine sandfly...
  22. pmc The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines
    Malcolm S Duthie
    Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia St, Suite 400, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Vaccine 30:134-41. 2012
    ..In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates ..
  23. pmc Leishmaniasis: current status of vaccine development
    E Handman
    Infection and Immunity Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville 3050, Australia
    Clin Microbiol Rev 14:229-43. 2001
    ..To date, there are no vaccines against leishmaniasis and control measures rely on chemotherapy to alleviate disease and on vector control to reduce transmission...
  24. pmc Vector transmission of leishmania abrogates vaccine-induced protective immunity
    Nathan C Peters
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000484. 2009
    Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist...
  25. ncbi Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease: lessons from mouse models of leishmaniasis
    Marie Lipoldová
    Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fleming nám 2, 166 37 Prague, Czech Republic
    Nat Rev Genet 7:294-305. 2006
    ..b>Leishmaniasis is a well-studied infectious disease with a variety of symptoms and well-defined immunological features...
  26. ncbi Second-generation vaccines against leishmaniasis
    Rhea N Coler
    The Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1124 Columbia Street, Suite 600, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
    Trends Parasitol 21:244-9. 2005
    ..species of Leishmania cause human diseases that range from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  27. ncbi Leishmaniasis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region
    Jose A Ruiz Postigo
    World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 36:S62-5. 2010
    b>Leishmaniasis represents a major public health problem in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are mainly seen in 14 of the 22 countries of the region...
  28. ncbi Leishmaniasis: prevention, parasite detection and treatment
    T Kobets
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v v i, Prague, Czech Republic
    Curr Med Chem 19:1443-74. 2012
    b>Leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 12 million people in 88 countries; 50 000 die of it each year. The disease is caused by Leishmania, obligate intracellular vector-borne parasites...
  29. ncbi Canine leishmaniosis--new concepts and insights on an expanding zoonosis: part two
    Guadalupe Miró
    Departmento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Trends Parasitol 24:371-7. 2008
    ..Integrated prevention with topical insecticides reducing the feeding of vectors and vaccination blocking early infection would be the basis of successful control programs...
  30. ncbi Leishmaniases in the Mediterranean in the era of molecular epidemiology
    Gabriele Schonian
    Institut für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Dorotheenstr 96, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Trends Parasitol 24:135-42. 2008
    ..There is an urgent need for better cooperation between laboratory scientists and epidemiologists and for regional epidemiological surveillance of these infectious diseases that affect all Mediterranean countries...
  31. pmc Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e313. 2008
    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis...
  32. pmc Transmission of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies
    Paul A Bates
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK
    Int J Parasitol 37:1097-106. 2007
    ..Differences in the transmission mechanisms employed by parasites in the three subgenera, Leishmania, Viannia and Sauroleishmania are also addressed...
  33. ncbi The current status of zoonotic leishmaniases and approaches to disease control
    Marina Gramiccia
    Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive, Parassitarie e Immunomediate, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy
    Int J Parasitol 35:1169-80. 2005
    ..Environmental, demographic and human behavioural factors contribute to the changing landscape of leishmaniasis, which includes increasing risk factors for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniases and new scenarios associated with ..
  34. ncbi Vaccines for leishmaniasis in the fore coming 25 years
    Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa
    Instituto de Microbiologia Prof Paulo de Goes, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68040 CEP 21941 590 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Vaccine 26:1709-24. 2008
    Human vaccination against leishmaniasis using live Leishmania was used in Middle East and Russia (1941-1980)...
  35. ncbi Current scenario of drug development for leishmaniasis
    Simon L Croft
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DNDi, Geneva, Switzerland
    Indian J Med Res 123:399-410. 2006
    ..amphotericin B (AmBisome), miltefosine and paromomycin should be available for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) within the next year, they all suffer from limitations of either cost, specific toxicities or parenteral ..
  36. ncbi Control of phlebotomine sandflies
    B Alexander
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik EH26 0PZ, UK
    Med Vet Entomol 17:1-18. 2003
    ..Constraints and advantages of different compounds, formulations and delivery methods for sandfly control under different environmental conditions are discussed...
  37. pmc Toward a defined anti-Leishmania vaccine targeting vector antigens: characterization of a protective salivary protein
    J G Valenzuela
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Dr, Rm. 4/126, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 194:331-42. 2001
    ..These results indicate that DTH response against saliva provides most or all of the protective effects of this vaccine and that salivary gland proteins or their cDNAs are viable vaccine targets against leishmaniasis.
  38. pmc Local suppression of T cell responses by arginase-induced L-arginine depletion in nonhealing leishmaniasis
    Manuel Modolell
    Department of Cellular Immunology, Max Planck Institute for Immunobiology, Freiburg, Germany
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e480. 2009
    ..The balance between T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 cell responses is a major determinant of the outcome of experimental leishmaniasis, but polarized Th1 or Th2 responses are not sufficient to account for healing or nonhealing...
  39. ncbi Differential properties of CBA/J mononuclear phagocytes recovered from an inflammatory site and probed with two different species of Leishmania
    Ivana Nunes Gomes
    Laboratorio de Patologia e Biologia Celular, CPqGM, FIOCRUZ BA, R Valdemar Falcão, 121 Brotas Salvador, BA 40295 001, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 5:251-60. 2003
    ..amazonensis both inactivated and resisted innate and IFN-gamma-induced Mphi killing mechanisms, indicating that the nature of the parasite and its interaction with Mphi could determine immune response polarization...
  40. ncbi Leishmania GP63 alters host signaling through cleavage-activated protein tyrosine phosphatases
    Maria Adelaida Gomez
    Department of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Sci Signal 2:ra58. 2009
    ..2 million new cases occurring per year, and the rapid emergence of drug resistance and treatment failure, leishmaniasis is an infectious disease for which research on drug and vaccine development, host-pathogen, and vector-..
  41. ncbi Deltamethrin-impregnated collars for the control of canine leishmaniasis: evaluation of the protective effect and influence on the clinical outcome of Leishmania infection in kennelled stray dogs
    V Foglia Manzillo
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via F Delpino 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy
    Vet Parasitol 142:142-5. 2006
    A 2-year field study on kennelled stray dogs living in a highly endemic area of leishmaniasis was designed to evaluate whether deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor) Protector Band) could confer protection against leishmaniasis in ..
  42. ncbi Efficacy of a combination of 10% imidacloprid/50% permethrin for the prevention of leishmaniasis in kennelled dogs in an endemic area
    Domenico Otranto
    Department of Animal Health and Welfare, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Str Prov per Casamassima Km3, 70010 Valenzano Bari, Italy
    Vet Parasitol 144:270-8. 2007
    ..Bayer AG, Germany) in a spot-on formulation was evaluated in the field as a control measure to prevent canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in dogs in an endemic area of southern Italy...
  43. ncbi Leishmania/HIV co-infections in the second decade
    Israel Cruz
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre of Microbiology, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
    Indian J Med Res 123:357-88. 2006
    ..An extensive review of the literature on Leishmania/HIV co-infection has allowed the inclusion of a comprehensive and updated list of bibliographical references...
  44. pmc Detection and identification of Leishmania DNA within naturally infected sand flies by seminested PCR on minicircle kinetoplastic DNA
    A M Aransay
    Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology, Parasitology, Zoonoses, and Geographical Medicine WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mediterranean Zoonoses, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
    Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1933-8. 2000
    ..Comparison of the sequences obtained from sand flies and mammal hosts will be crucial for developing hypotheses about the transmission cycles of Leishmania spp. in areas of endemicity...
  45. pmc One Health: the global challenge of epidemic and endemic leishmaniasis
    Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa
    Laboratório de Biologia e Bioquímica de Leishmania, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, CP 68040, 21941 902, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Parasit Vectors 4:197. 2011
    ..Visceral leishmaniasis is a perfect example of a small companion animal disease for which prevention and control might abolish or ..
  46. pmc Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: current status and future applications
    Richard Reithinger
    Clinical Trials Area, Westat, 1441 W Montgomery Ave, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:21-5. 2007
  47. ncbi Re-emergence of leishmaniasis in Spain: community outbreak in Madrid, Spain, 2009 to 2012
    A Arce
    Division of Epidemiology, Health Promotion and Prevention Subdirectorate, Primary Care Directorate, Madrid, Spain
    Euro Surveill 18:20546. 2013
    Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park ..
  48. ncbi Relationship of Leishmania-specific IgG levels and IgG avidity with parasite density and clinical signs in canine leishmaniasis
    Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira Neto
    Laboratorio de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 169:248-57. 2010
    ....
  49. pmc A role for IgG immune complexes during infection with the intracellular pathogen Leishmania
    Suzanne A Miles
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Exp Med 201:747-54. 2005
    ..In human patients with active visceral leishmaniasis, high IgG levels are predictive of disease...
  50. ncbi kDNA minicircle signatures of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in oral and nasal mucosa from mucosal leishmaniasis patients
    Fernanda Santos de Oliveira
    Laboratório de Sistemática Bioquímica, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP 21045 900, Brazil
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 66:361-5. 2010
    ..and investigate kDNA signatures of parasite populations present in oral and nasal mucosa lesions from mucosal leishmaniasis patients. A total of 25 samples from 22 patients were processed by specific PCR/hybridization assays...
  51. ncbi Molecular basis of antimony treatment in leishmaniasis
    Paola Baiocco
    Istituto di Biologia e Patologia MolecolariCNR and Department of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Roma, P le A Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy
    J Med Chem 52:2603-12. 2009
    b>Leishmaniasis is a disease that affects 2 million people and kills 70000 persons every year. It is caused by Leishmania species, which are human protozoan parasites of the trypanosomatidae family...
  52. ncbi TGF-beta-associated enhanced susceptibility to leishmaniasis following intramuscular vaccination of mice with Leishmania amazonensis antigens
    Roberta Olmo Pinheiro
    Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949 900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 7:1317-23. 2005
    Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis are the main causal agents of anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and hyperergic mucosal leishmaniasis in man, respectively...
  53. ncbi Species discrimination and phylogenetic inference of 17 Chinese Leishmania isolates based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences
    Bin Bin Yang
    Department of Parasitology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan, China
    Parasitol Res 107:1049-65. 2010
    b>Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread disease, caused by protozoan flagellates of the genus Leishmania. This disease still remains endemic in China, especially in the west and northwest frontier regions...
  54. ncbi Efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in the treatment of persistent post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL)
    A M Musa
    Department of Clinical Pathology and Immunology, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Sudan
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:563-9. 2005
    A dermatosis commonly known as post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) may develop following the treatment of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In about 15% of PKDL cases the disfiguring lesions persist, sometimes for many years...
  55. ncbi Protection against progressive leishmaniasis by IFN-beta
    Jochen Mattner
    Institute of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Immunol 172:7574-82. 2004
    ..These results identify IFN-beta as a novel cytokine with a strong, dose-dependent protective effect against progressive cutaneous leishmaniasis that results from IL-12- and STAT4-dependent as well as -independent events.
  56. ncbi Canine leishmaniosis in the United Kingdom: a zoonotic disease waiting for a vector?
    Susan E Shaw
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, North Somerset BS40 5DU, UK
    Vet Parasitol 163:281-5. 2009
    ..These data confirm that a potentially significant reservoir of infected dogs is resident in areas where future climatic conditions may support introduction of competent vectors...
  57. ncbi Chemokines in host-parasite interactions in leishmaniasis
    Maria Jania Teixeira
    Centro de Pesquisas Goncalo Moniz, FIOCRUZ, Rua Waldemar Falcao 121, 40295 001 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
    Trends Parasitol 22:32-40. 2006
    Crucial to the defense against leishmaniasis is the ability of the host to mount a cell-mediated immune response capable of controlling and/or eliminating the parasite...
  58. pmc Real-time in vivo green fluorescent protein imaging of a murine leishmaniasis model as a new tool for Leishmania vaccine and drug discovery
    Sanjay R Mehta
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1764-70. 2008
    ..available animal model systems for the in vivo study of immunopathogenesis, prevention, and therapy of leishmaniasis. These include improvements in sensitivity and the ability to acquire real-time data on progression and spread ..
  59. ncbi Vector control in leishmaniasis
    K Kishore
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences ICMR, Patna, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:467-72. 2006
    ..method of controlling endophilic vectors and DDT remains the insecticide of choice for the control of leishmaniasis. However resistance to insecticide is likely to become more widespread in the population especially in those ..
  60. ncbi Experimental canine leishmaniasis: clinical, parasitological and serological follow-up
    Carla Maia
    Unidade de Leishmanioses, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 100, Lisbon, Portugal
    Acta Trop 116:193-9. 2010
    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies and affects millions of dogs in Europe, Asia, North Africa and South America...
  61. ncbi Cell biology and immunology of Leishmania
    Evelyne Mougneau
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France
    Immunol Rev 240:286-96. 2011
    ....
  62. ncbi Methods for diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and immune response to infection
    C Maia
    Unidade de Leishmanioses, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Rua da Junqueira 96, 1349 008 Lisboa, Portugal
    Vet Parasitol 158:274-87. 2008
    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. L...
  63. ncbi Efficacy of killed whole-parasite vaccines in the prevention of leishmaniasis: a meta-analysis
    Sassan Noazin
    World Health Organization, CH1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Vaccine 27:4747-53. 2009
    ..The findings indicate that the whole-parasite vaccine candidates tested do not confer significant protection against human leishmaniasis.
  64. ncbi Mechanisms and consequences of persistence of intracellular pathogens: leishmaniasis as an example
    Christian Bogdan
    Microbiology Institute Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University Clinic of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Cell Microbiol 10:1221-34. 2008
    ..Parasites of the genus Leishmania have been particular helpful in unravelling some of the basic processes and form therefore the centre of the discussion...
  65. ncbi Neutrophil granulocytes as host cells and transport vehicles for intracellular pathogens: apoptosis as infection-promoting factor
    Tamas Laskay
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lubeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Immunobiology 213:183-91. 2008
    ....
  66. ncbi Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage IL-12 production by Leishmania mexicana amastigotes: the role of cysteine peptidases and the NF-kappaB signaling pathway
    Pamela Cameron
    Department of Immunology, Strathclyde Institute for Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 173:3297-304. 2004
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that the amastigote-specific cysteine peptidases of L. mexicana are central to the ability of the parasite to modulate signaling via NF-kappaB and consequently inhibit IL-12 production...
  67. pmc Canine leishmaniasis in southeastern Spain
    Joaquina Martin-Sanchez
    Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:795-8. 2009
    To examine prevalence changes and risk factors for canine leishmaniasis, we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study and a survey during April-June 2006...
  68. ncbi The kinetoplastid chemotherapy revisited: current drugs, recent advances and future perspectives
    E Castillo
    Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University CEU Cardenal Herrera, Edificio Seminario s n, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain
    Curr Med Chem 17:4027-51. 2010
    b>Leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid parasites Leishmania spp, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively, are among the most important parasitic diseases, affecting ..
  69. ncbi Leishmaniasis vaccines: past, present and future
    Farrokh Modabber
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative DNDi, Geneva, Switzerland
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 36:S58-61. 2010
    No vaccine exists against any form of leishmaniasis. Because recovery from infection is usually accompanied by a strong immunity and because it is possible to protect experimental animals against live challenge, hope for the development ..
  70. ncbi Heat-shock protein 70 PCR-RFLP: a universal simple tool for Leishmania species discrimination in the New and Old World
    A M Montalvo
    Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri, Departamento de Parasitologia, La Habana, Cuba
    Parasitology 137:1159-68. 2010
    Species typing in leishmaniasis gains importance in diagnostics, epidemiology, and clinical studies...
  71. ncbi Immune response to Leishmania infection
    Amit Awasthi
    National Center for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India
    Indian J Med Res 119:238-58. 2004
    ..A detailed knowledge of this host-parasite interaction would help in designing prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against this infection...
  72. pmc Climate change and risk of leishmaniasis in north america: predictions from ecological niche models of vector and reservoir species
    Camila González
    Laboratorio de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, Mexico
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e585. 2010
    ..In North America (México, United States, and Canada), leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that is autochthonous in México and Texas and has begun to expand its range ..
  73. ncbi Emerging trends in the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in the Madrid region (central Spain)
    R Galvez
    Servicio de Parasitologia, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra Majadahonda Pozuelo s n, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    Vet Parasitol 169:327-34. 2010
    This report describes a cross-sectional serological survey of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) performed in 2006 and 2007 in the Madrid region (central Spain) where the disease is endemic...
  74. ncbi Parasitic adaptive mechanisms in infection by leishmania
    Anna C Cunningham
    Department of Pathology, The University of Tennessee, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 72:132-41. 2002
    ..These unique adaptive mechanisms help promote Leishmania survival...
  75. pmc Detection and identification of old world Leishmania by high resolution melt analysis
    Dalit Talmi-Frank
    School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University, Rehovot, Israel
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e581. 2010
    Three major forms of human disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, are caused by several leishmanial species whose geographic distribution frequently overlaps...
  76. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Leishmania donovani promastigote and amastigote stages to antileishmanial reference drugs: practical relevance of stage-specific differences
    Marieke Vermeersch
    Laboratory for Microbiology, Parasitology, and Hygiene LMPH, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical, and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3855-9. 2009
    ..Axenic systems can be recommended only for compounds for which no cellular mechanisms are involved, for example, amphotericin B and miltefosine...
  77. pmc The prominent role of neutrophils during the initial phase of infection by Leishmania parasites
    Mélanie Charmoy
    WHO Immunology Research and Training Center, Department of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland
    J Biomed Biotechnol 2010:719361. 2010
    ....
  78. ncbi Leishmaniasis: current treatment and prospects for new drugs and vaccines
    Lukasz Kedzierski
    Infection and Immunity Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Pde, Parkville 3050, Victoria, Australia
    Curr Med Chem 16:599-614. 2009
    b>Leishmaniasis is a disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to serious disfigurement and fatal systemic infection...
  79. pmc Toll-like receptors and leishmaniasis
    Felipe F Tuon
    Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Clinic, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Dr Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar 255, Sala 4028 ICHC, Cerqueira Cesar, 05403 010, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Infect Immun 76:866-72. 2008
  80. pmc Control of parasitophorous vacuole expansion by LYST/Beige restricts the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis
    Jude Wilson
    Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000179. 2008
    ..Thus, the upregulation of LYST/Beige in infected cells functions as a host innate response to limit parasite growth, by reducing PV volume and inhibiting intracellular survival...
  81. ncbi Monitoring of total antimony and its species by ICP-MS and on-line ion chromatography in biological samples from patients treated for leishmaniasis
    N Miekeley
    Department of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University PUC Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Anal Bioanal Chem 372:495-502. 2002
    Results from a study are reported in which patients with leishmaniasis were monitored by whole blood, blood plasma, urine, and hair analysis, before, during, and after intramuscular administration of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate...
  82. ncbi Alternative PCR protocol using a single primer set for assessing DNA quality in several tissues from a large variety of mammalian species living in areas endemic for leishmaniasis
    Eduardo C Ferreira
    Instituto de Pesquisas René Rachou, FIOCRUZ, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 105:895-8. 2010
    ..in order to determine overall sample DNA quality for multiple mammalian species that inhabit areas endemic for leishmaniasis. The gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), but not other conserved genes, was ..
  83. ncbi Leishmaniasis in Portugal: enzyme polymorphism of Leishmania infantum based on the identification of 213 strains
    L Campino
    Unidade de Leishmanioses, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1708-14. 2006
    ..A total of 213 strains were obtained from cases of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis isolated from immunocompetent patients (adults and children) and immunocompromised adults, as well as from ..
  84. pmc Bayesian geostatistical modeling of leishmaniasis incidence in Brazil
    Dimitrios Alexios Karagiannis-Voules
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2213. 2013
    b>Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries.
  85. ncbi Recent advances in leishmaniasis treatment
    Tatiana S Tiuman
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Av Colombo 5790, 87020 900 Maringa, Parana, Brazil
    Int J Infect Dis 15:e525-32. 2011
    About 1.5 million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and 500,000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis occur each year around the world...
  86. pmc Assessment of interferon-γ levels and leishmanin skin test results in persons recovered for leishmaniasis
    Mohammad H Alimohammadian
    Immunology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 87:70-5. 2012
    Patients who recover from leishmaniasis usually show development of strong immunity and induction of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and delayed type hypersensitivity...
  87. ncbi Entomological and ecological studies in a new potential zoonotic leishmaniasis focus in Torres Novas municipality, Central Region, Portugal
    S Branco
    Unidade de Ensino e Investigação de Parasitologia Médica, Grupo Entomologia Médica, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
    Acta Trop 125:339-48. 2013
    In Portugal human and canine leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania infantum, and Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi are the proven vectors...
  88. ncbi A leishmaniosis surveillance system among stray dogs in the region of Madrid: ten years of serodiagnosis (1996-2006)
    G Miro
    Facultad de Veterinaria, Departamento de Sanidad Animal, UCM, Madrid, Spain
    Parasitol Res 101:253-7. 2007
    ..These data are very important because stray dogs can play an important role in the epidemiology of this zoonotic disease. Furthermore, the stray population could be useful sentinels to follow the progress of the disease in endemic areas...
  89. ncbi Sequence variation of the cytochrome b gene of various human infecting members of the genus Leishmania and their phylogeny
    G E Luyo-Acero
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara cho, Okinawa 903 0125, Japan
    Parasitology 128:483-91. 2004
    ..L.) major in the L. (L.) tropica complex and the placement of L. tarentolae in another genus. These data show that the Cyt b gene is useful for phylogenetic study of Leishmania parasites...
  90. pmc Application of an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method for serological diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis
    Nuno Santarém
    Parasite Disease Group, Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 823, 4150 180, Porto, Portugal
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1866-74. 2010
    Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections...
  91. ncbi Leishmania DNA load and cytokine expression levels in asymptomatic naturally infected dogs
    Laura Manna
    Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via F Delpino, N 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy
    Vet Parasitol 142:271-80. 2006
    The factors responsible for the clinical progress of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in dogs have not been yet established...
  92. ncbi Leishmaniasis vaccine candidates for development: a global overview
    Ali Khamesipour
    Center for Research and Training in Skin Disease and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
    Indian J Med Res 123:423-38. 2006
    A vaccine against different forms of leishmaniasis should be feasible considering the wealth of information on genetics and biology of the parasite, clinical and experimental immunology of leishmaniasis, and the availability of vaccines ..
  93. pmc Degradation of host sphingomyelin is essential for Leishmania virulence
    Ou Zhang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000692. 2009
    ..Together, these findings strongly suggest that degradation of host-derived sphingomyelin plays a pivotal role in the proliferation of Leishmania in mammalian hosts and the manifestation of acute disease pathology...
  94. ncbi The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France
    Jacques Dereure
    Universite Montpellier 1, Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, UMR 2724 GEMI, Montpellier, France
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9:687-94. 2009
    ..study was carried out in the mid-Ariège valley (French Pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. Serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages...
  95. ncbi Vaccines against leishmaniasis
    F Modabber
    UNDP World Bank WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 89:83-8. 1995
    ..carrying and expressing leishmanial genes), are being investigated as potential future vaccines against leishmaniasis. The 'first-generation' vaccines, composed of killed parasites with or without adjuvant, have been derived ..
  96. ncbi Immune privilege in sites of chronic infection: Leishmania and regulatory T cells
    Nathan Peters
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    Immunol Rev 213:159-79. 2006
    ..Finally, following resolution of infection in healed mice, CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs function in an IL-10-dependent manner to prevent sterile cure and establish a long-term state of functional immune privilege in the skin...
  97. pmc L-arginine metabolism and its impact on host immunity against Leishmania infection
    Nanchaya Wanasen
    Department of Microbiology, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infections, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1070, USA
    Immunol Res 41:15-25. 2008
    b>Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease found in many countries worldwide. The causative agent of the disease, Leishmania spp., lives as an obligate intracellular parasite within mammalian hosts...
  98. pmc L-arginine and cationic amino acid transporter 2B regulate growth and survival of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in macrophages
    Nanchaya Wanasen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Medical Research Building, Rm 3 132, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1070, USA
    Infect Immun 75:2802-10. 2007
    ..A possible role of mCAT-2B in supplying L-arginine directly to the parasites for their proliferation is discussed...
  99. pmc Immunization with H1, HASPB1 and MML Leishmania proteins in a vaccine trial against experimental canine leishmaniasis
    J Moreno
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain
    Vaccine 25:5290-300. 2007
    ..The results demonstrate that HASPB1 and H1 antigens in combination with Montanide were able to induce partial protection against canine leishmaniasis, even under extreme experimental challenge conditions.
  100. ncbi Evaluation of immune responses and protection induced by A2 and nucleoside hydrolase (NH) DNA vaccines against Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis experimental infections
    Francisca H C Zanin
    Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270 901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Microbes Infect 9:1070-7. 2007
    ..amazonensis and L. chagasi infections...
  101. ncbi Species delimitation and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese Leishmania isolates reexamined using kinetoplast cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences
    De Ping Cao
    Department of Parasitology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan, China
    Parasitol Res 109:163-73. 2011
    b>Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania and transmitted by certain species of sand fly...

Research Grants71

  1. Killed But Metabolically Active Leishmania: a novel protozoan vaccine technology
    Noah Craft; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..But Metabolically Active (KBMA) organism capable of protecting rodents from infection in a model of visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania that infects the visceral organs)...
  2. ANALYSIS OF TRYPANOSOME MRNA SYNTHESIS BY GENE TRANSFER
    Vivian Bellofatto; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and the Middle-East, a closely related group of parasites, the Leishmania, cause debilitating and often fatal Leishmaniasis. Not surprisingly, this disease is a problem for American troops in Iraq and Afghanistan;more than 700 cases ..
  3. DRUG RESISTANCE AND PTERIDINE METABOLISM IN LEISHMANIA
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in humans and is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania...
  4. The Role of Glycolipids and CD1 in the Immunology of Leishmania Infection
    Laurence U Buxbaum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Leishmaniasis is the number two killer worldwide after malaria for death caused by parasites...
  5. RNA polymerase II transcription in trypanosomes
    ARTHUR GUNZL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cruzi and Leishmania spp. cause the major human diseases African Sleeping Sickness, Chagas'disease, and Leishmaniasis, respectively...
  6. Polyamine Metabolism in Leishmania
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..key components of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. The application focuses on the role of polyamine acquisition from the host in the establishment of parasite ..
  7. Treating cutaneous leishmaniasis by radio-frequency induced heat (RFH) therapy
    Abhay R Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania include cutaneous (CL), mucosal (ML) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  8. Toward suicidal automation of porphyric Leishmania for photodynamic vaccination
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, some species are relatively innocuous, causing human simple cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is known to heal spontaneously, resulting in life-long immunity...
  9. Functions of nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases in Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Considering the occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis among U.S...
  10. P. papatasi midgut molecules: gene function and assessing TBV candidates
    JOSE MARCELO contact RAMALHO ORTIGAO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Leishmaniasis, a multi-spectrum disease transmitted by sand fly vectors, has an important social-economic impact in many countries...
  11. GLYCOSYLATION MUTANTS OF LEISHMANIA
    Salvatore J Turco; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a major health problem to humans and is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania...
  12. FUNCTION OF THE KINETOPLAST IN THE HEMOFLAGELLATES
    Larry Simpson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that these parasites are the causal agents of a number of important human diseases including Chagas Disease, Leishmaniasis and African Sleeping Sickness, and that the editing pathway is essential in all stages of the parasite life ..
  13. Controlling Th2 immunity by tuning CXCL13 dependent DC migration in lymph nodes
    Frances E Lund; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which facilitate DC-mediated Th2 development and (3) determining whether we change the course of leishmaniasis by modulating CXCL13 or lymphotoxin levels...
  14. Genetic Analysis of Purine Metabolism in Leishmania donovani
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dissection of the purine salvage pathway of Leishmania donovani, the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis. L...
  15. PATHOGENIC MECHANISMS OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in both Specific Aims, we have parasite stocks derived from patients with localized or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, as well as genetically modified parasites with reduced virulence or tractable markers...
  16. Development of novel therapeutics for a neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis
    ABHAY R contact SATOSKAR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..parasites that cause a wide range of diseases, including cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL)...
  17. Characterization of CCR5-like Molecules in Leishmania
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..amazonensis (La) infection. A hallmark of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with La infection is the profound deficiency in cellular immunity to the parasite...
  18. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF PEMPHIGUS
    Luis A Diaz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, the sera of patients with leishmaniasis, Chagas disease and onchocerciasis, where these insects are involved as carriers of parasites, possess anti-..
  19. Global sumoylation analysis in Trypanosoma brucei
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Order Kinetoplastida contains several pathogens of medical importance, including the causative agents of human leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease...
  20. Fifth World Congress of Leishmaniasis 2013
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..requests support for trainees and junior faculty to attend the 5th World Congress of Leishmania and Leishmaniasis (WL5) to be held in Brazil in May 2013...
  21. Photo-inactivation of Leishmania for safe and effective delivery of surrogate vac
    Kwang Poo Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..observation that life-long lasting immunity ensue invariably after spontaneous cure of human simple cutaneous leishmaniasis. Moreover, in natural infection, not only do Leishmania resist humoral lytic factors and parasitize ..
  22. Chemokines and regulation of T cell responses during infection
    Abhay Satoskar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..produced in high levels during Leishmania infection but their role in mediating protective immunity against leishmaniasis is poorly defined...
  23. Targeting Entry Pathways in Leishmaniasis
    DAWN MARIE WETZEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..research experience in biochemistry and pharmacology, and relate it to the pathogenesis and treatment of leishmaniasis. My mentor is a biochemist who studies the mechanisms that regulate actin polymerization...
  24. A role for microRNAs in global changes in gene expression induced by Leishmania
    MARY EDYTHE WILSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: RELEVANCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH Latin American visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal human disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania chagasi...
  25. Discovery of 4-aminoquinoline therapeutics for visceral leishmaniasis
    Peter C Melby; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..New drugs are desperately needed to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a tropical disease cause by the protozoan Leishmania donovani...
  26. Nucleoside hydrolase Inhibitors from natural products for Leishmania
    ESTEBAN EDWARD MENA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis and affects 12 million people in 88 countries, of which 72 are considered developing countries...
  27. Deep sequence profiling of gRNA transcriptomes in two stages of Trypanosoma bruce
    DONNA JAY KOSLOWSKY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for three of the most severe parasitic diseases targeted for attention by the World Health Organization (WHO);Leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness and Chagas disease...
  28. A transfollicular nanovaccine against leishmaniasis
    PAIMAN PETER GHOROGHCHIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): The World Health Organization estimates that over 350 million people are at risk of developing leishmaniasis and infection prevalence is 14 million people in the world...
  29. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in West Africa: the Parasite, Vector and Disease
    Seydou Doumbia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has a long history in West Africa, but one of the less recognized parasitic infections in the region...
  30. Identification of a Parasite-Specific, Lipid-Metabolic Pathway Essential for Leis
    Kai Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Leishmania parasites cause a spectrum of devastating diseases in humans known as leishmaniasis. Current drug treatments are inadequate, often toxic, and no safe vaccine is available...
  31. Regulation of Leishmania-Associated Macrophage Activities by MicroRNAs
    Joel W Graff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by sand flies and is endemic in 88 countries worldwide including Iraq and Afghanistan. Macrophages are a major site of leishmania parasite replication...
  32. Structural Analysis of the GPI Transamidase Complex
    Anant K Menon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..are needed for fungal cell viability and they are important in diseases such as trypanosomiasis, malaria and leishmaniasis that are caused by parasitic protozoa...
  33. Purine Nucleoside/Nucleobase Transporters in Leishmania
    Scott Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of purine nucleoside transporters in the parasite Leishmania donovani that causes the fatal disease visceral leishmaniasis. Uptake of purines is essential for Leishmania and all parasitic protozoa, underscoring the crucial role of ..
  34. Leishmaniasis Drug Development Using an Evolutionary Design Strategy
    Roger G Linington; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a debilitating disease prevalent across many of the inter-tropical regions of the world including India, Sudan and Brazil...
  35. Kinetoplastid SL RNA biogenesis
    David A Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..gene expression in the family Trypanosomatidae, which includes the parasitic protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease...
  36. Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Henry W Murray; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The goal of this research is to improve the efficacy of treatment in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In VL, parasites target, deactivate and replicate within tissue macrophages...
  37. Role of B cells in the Cell-Mediated Immune Response to Leishmania amazonensis
    Katherine Nicole Gibson Corley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the Middle East, Asia, Africa and Central America...
  38. IL-12 AS AN IMMUNOPOTENTIATOR IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Phillip A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem in large parts of the world, due in part to the lack of a vaccine and inadequate chemotherapy...
  39. Selective inhibition of tRNA synthetases from pathogenic protozoa
    WILHELMUS G J HOL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These are related parasites which cause sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, respectively, and are responsible for tens of millions of infections annually, mainly in the tropical and ..
  40. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and miltefosine mode of action in Leishmania
    Rachel Zufferey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania species cause important human diseases termed leishmaniasis that affects more than twelve million patients worldwide, and thus, represents a major health problem...
  41. Structures and selective inhibition of tRNA synthetases from pathogenic protozoa
    WILHELMUS HOL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These are related parasites which cause sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, respectively, and are responsible for millions of infections and nearly one million deaths annually, mainly ..
  42. Development of Assay for High Throughput Screen of Parasite Glucose Transporter
    Scott M Landfear; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Parasitic diseases, including malaria, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, produce an enormous disease burden throughout the world, yet development of urgently needed new drugs has proceeded at a slow pace...
  43. Flagellar targeting and sensory function of a glucose transporter in L. mexicana.
    KHOA DANG TRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, and malaria are parasitic diseases that affect more than 500 million individuals worldwide and are major public health problems (Teixeira et al., 2006;Wellems et al...
  44. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF LEISHMANIA PANAMENSIS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
    Christian Tschudi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This application focuses on trypanosomatid protozoa of the genus Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis. More than 20 species of Leishmania parasites are able to infect and cause disease in humans and their ..
  45. Training in Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases
    Boris Striepen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..systems available for study include malaria, intestinal protozoans, Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, parasitoid insects and ..
  46. 2010 Biology of Host-Parasite Interactions Gordon Research Conference
    L David Sibley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and how these relate to human diseases including malaria, toxoplasmosis, African and American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis and entamoebiasis...
  47. LEISHMANIA ANTIGENS DEFINED BY HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSES
    STEVEN GREGORY REED; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The parasites Leishmania infantum and L. donovani cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of the disease, while a number of other species, including L...
  48. L. major infection: Natural history and determinants of resistance
    Afif Ben Salah; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..major infection and to weight the relative importance of host related risk factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) emergence and severity considering the confounding effect of environmental factors influencing exposure...
  49. Validation of a new VL vaccine candidate in dogs that significantly protects mice
    Antonio Campos-Neto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The long-term goal of this research program is to validate in dogs a candidate vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) for evaluation in future clinical evaluations...
  50. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF LEISHMANIA
    Stephen M Beverley; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Brasil, Africa and the Mediterranean basin, leishmaniasis is a common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients, and many US soldiers now stationed in the Middle East ..
  51. Study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka caused by L.donovani
    NADIRA DHARSHANI KARUNAWEERA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The global disease burden due to leishmaniasis is high with as many as 12 million people currently infected, and 1-2 million new cases occurring each year, particularly in Africa, Asia and South ..
  52. Initiation of Immune Response in Chronic Leishmaniasis
    Phillip A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Leishmaniasis is a major human health problem, and new immunotherapies are required to alleviate the chronic disease that is often associated with this infection...
  53. Climate Change and Patterns of Vector-borne Disease: development of translational
    Leonard E Munstermann; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Three infectious, vector-borne disease- malaria, leishmaniasis, and dengue-will be used as models (1) to illustrate impact of climate on changes in epidemiological patterns ..
  54. Genetic Risk Factors for Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Mary E Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Three major worldwide foci of the fatal parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis (cVL) occur in India, Sudan and Brazil...
  55. Drug Discovery for Protozoan Parasites
    JAMES WAVELL AIKEN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..parasites has provided new insights and challenges in the identification of novel drug targets for malaria, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis...
  56. Myeloid-lineage cells and immunopathology in Leishmania braziliensis
    Phillip A Scott; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem in Brazil, and we propose experiments that will advance our understanding of this disease with the goal of more effective disease control...
  57. Leishmaniasis treatment: Macrophage scavenger receptor
    ROBERT O apos MARA RYAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..apply the unique structural features and lipid interaction properties of apolipoproteins to the treatment of leishmaniasis. Apolipoproteins possess the capacity to transform phospholipid vesicles into discrete, nanometer scale, disc-..
  58. Natural Product Treatments for Leishmaniasis
    Dennis E Kyle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis exacts a staggering toll of mortality and morbidity on the developing world...
  59. Sterol Biosynthesis in Trypanosomatid Parasites
    Frederick Buckner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    The long-term objective of this project is to discover new therapeutics for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. These infectious diseases are caused by parasitic protozoa of the family, Trypanoisomatidae...
  60. Macrophage-Activating MicroRNAs In the Pathogenesis of Leishmaniasis
    Mary E Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Improved Treatment of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Immunomodulation
    Nancy Saravia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Passive case detection and treatment constitute the principal, often the sole measure of control for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Central and South America yet first line therapies (pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine and ..
  62. L. Brazilensis Vaccine Antigens and T-cell Quality in Protection
    Lynn Soong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmaniasis encompasses a broad spectrum of neglected, but important tropical diseases;yet there are no effective vaccines for any clinical forms of the disease...
  63. Roles of Sphingolipid Metabolites in Leishmania Differentiation
    Kai Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Leishmania parasites cause a spectrum of devastating diseases known as leishmaniasis. A critical step in Leishmania infection is the differentiation from replicative, non-virulent procyclics to non-..
  64. The role of sand fly saliva in visceralization of Leishmania parasites
    Gregory Lanzaro; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..All studies to date aimed at exploring the effects of sand fly saliva have examined its effects on cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this proposal we aim to examine the affects of the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis on the development of ..
  65. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PURINE METABOLISM IN LEISHMANIA DONO
    Buddy Ullman; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..that initiates the metabolism of allopurinol, a drug[unreadable] that exhibits therapeutic efficacy in both leishmaniasis and Chagas[unreadable] disease...
  66. Leishmania major nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by applicant): Leishmania are typanosomatid protozoans that are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies causing leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis and affects 12 million people in 88 countries, of which 72 are considered ..
  67. New drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Leishmania are typanosomatid protozoans that are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies causing leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis and affects 12 million people in 88 countries, of which 72 are considered developing countries...
  68. A novel vaccine against Leishmania
    Claude Selitrennikoff; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Leishmania are typanosomatid protozoans that are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies causing leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis affects 12 million people in 88 countries with an estimated 350 million people that are at risk of infection by ..
  69. Mitochondrial poly(A) Polymerases of Trypanosomes
    Ruslan Aphasizhev; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..are protozoan hemoflagellates responsible for a variety of human diseases, including Chagas'disease, leishmaniasis, and African sleeping sickness, which account for nearly one million deaths per year...
  70. NITRIC OXIDE INHIBITOR AND LEISHMANIA PATHOGENESIS
    MARION CHAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Leishmaniasis is a disease common in tropical and sub-tropical countries, including India. Current studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite are crucial for elimination of the Leishmania parasites...
  71. GENETICS AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF SANDFLY DISEASE VECTORS
    Leonard Munstermann; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..important insect group, members of which serve as vectors of bartonellosis, a number of arboviral diseases and leishmaniasis. Studies will focus on field and laboratory studies of Lutzomyia longipalpis and L...