blastocystis infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with PROTOZOA of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil
    Solange Aparecida Nascimento
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR, Brazil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 47:213-7. 2005
  2. ncbi [Epidemiologic and laboratory assessments of etiologic implications of Blastocystis hominis in gastrointestinal diseases]
    Mariana Luca
    Universitatea de Medicină si Farmacie Gr T Popa Iaşi, Facultatea de Medicina, Disciplina de Parazitologie
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 109:140-3. 2005
  3. ncbi Irritable bowel syndrome: a review on the role of intestinal protozoa and the importance of their detection and diagnosis
    D Stark
    St Vincent s Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Victoria St, Darlinghurst, NSW2010, Sydney, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 37:11-20. 2007
  4. pmc New insights on classification, identification, and clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp
    Kevin S W Tan
    Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:639-65. 2008
  5. pmc Molecular phylogenies of Blastocystis isolates from different hosts: implications for genetic diversity, identification of species, and zoonosis
    Christophe Noël
    Unité Inserm U547, Institut Pasteur, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille Cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 43:348-55. 2005
  6. ncbi Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype
    C Rune Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Int J Parasitol 39:473-9. 2009
  7. ncbi PCR-based identification of zoonotic isolates of Blastocystis from mammals and birds
    Hisao Yoshikawa
    Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nara Women s University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara 630 8506, Japan
    Microbiology 150:1147-51. 2004
  8. ncbi Blastocystis: unravelling potential risk factors and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite
    C R Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Epidemiol Infect 137:1655-63. 2009
  9. ncbi Drinking water: a possible source of Blastocystis spp. subtype 1 infection in schoolchildren of a rural community in central Thailand
    Saovanee Leelayoova
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:401-6. 2008
  10. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis infections in Turkey
    Mustafa Ozyurt
    Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Uskudar, Istanbul, Turkey
    Parasitol Int 57:300-6. 2008

Detail Information

Publications156 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in a community of Pitanga City, Paraná State, Brazil
    Solange Aparecida Nascimento
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR, Brazil
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 47:213-7. 2005
    ..The high frequency of B. hominis demonstrated by this study indicates the need to include laboratory techniques that enable identification of the parasite on a routine basis...
  2. ncbi [Epidemiologic and laboratory assessments of etiologic implications of Blastocystis hominis in gastrointestinal diseases]
    Mariana Luca
    Universitatea de Medicină si Farmacie Gr T Popa Iaşi, Facultatea de Medicina, Disciplina de Parazitologie
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 109:140-3. 2005
    ..7% presented B. hominis as a unique etiologic agent, with an increased prevalence in adults (74.3%) and women (65.3%). Blastocystis infection with clinical manifestations or its asymptomatic form is included among emergent diseases...
  3. ncbi Irritable bowel syndrome: a review on the role of intestinal protozoa and the importance of their detection and diagnosis
    D Stark
    St Vincent s Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Victoria St, Darlinghurst, NSW2010, Sydney, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 37:11-20. 2007
    ..It is essential that all patients with IBS undergo routine parasitological investigations in order to rule out the presence of protozoan parasites as the causative agents of the clinical signs...
  4. pmc New insights on classification, identification, and clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp
    Kevin S W Tan
    Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Clin Microbiol Rev 21:639-65. 2008
    ..This review focuses on such recent advances and also provides updates on laboratory and clinical aspects of Blastocystis spp...
  5. pmc Molecular phylogenies of Blastocystis isolates from different hosts: implications for genetic diversity, identification of species, and zoonosis
    Christophe Noël
    Unité Inserm U547, Institut Pasteur, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, BP 245, 59019 Lille Cedex, France
    J Clin Microbiol 43:348-55. 2005
    ..Our results also strongly suggest the existence of numerous zoonotic isolates with frequent animal-to-human and human-to-animal transmissions and of a large potential reservoir in animals for infections in humans...
  6. ncbi Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype
    C Rune Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Int J Parasitol 39:473-9. 2009
    ..The data indicate moderate host specificity, most clearly exemplified by the fact that STs isolated from avian and non-avian hosts rarely overlap...
  7. ncbi PCR-based identification of zoonotic isolates of Blastocystis from mammals and birds
    Hisao Yoshikawa
    Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nara Women s University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara 630 8506, Japan
    Microbiology 150:1147-51. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi Blastocystis: unravelling potential risk factors and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite
    C R Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Epidemiol Infect 137:1655-63. 2009
    ..Only FU individuals hosted ST7, and ST6/7 infections due to ST7 or ST9 were characterized by multiple intestinal symptoms. The data indicate subtype-dependent differences in the clinical significance of Blastocystis...
  9. ncbi Drinking water: a possible source of Blastocystis spp. subtype 1 infection in schoolchildren of a rural community in central Thailand
    Saovanee Leelayoova
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:401-6. 2008
    ..Our information supports the evidence of water-borne transmission in this population...
  10. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis infections in Turkey
    Mustafa Ozyurt
    Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Uskudar, Istanbul, Turkey
    Parasitol Int 57:300-6. 2008
    ..In order to describe the molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis infections in Turkey, 87 isolates from 69 symptomatic and 18 asymptomatic individuals were sequenced...
  11. ncbi Irritable bowel syndrome: in search of an etiology: role of Blastocystis hominis
    Javed Yakoob
    Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:383-5. 2004
    ..001). Blastocystis hominis was frequently demonstrated in the stool samples of IBS patients; however, its significance in IBS still needs to be investigated. Stool culture has a higher positive yield for B. hominis than stool microscopy...
  12. ncbi High prevalence of subtype 4 among isolates of Blastocystis hominis from symptomatic patients of a health district of Valencia (Spain)
    M Victoria Domínguez-Márquez
    Servicio de Microbiologia, Hospital Universitario de La Ribera, Alzira 46600, Spain
    Parasitol Res 105:949-55. 2009
    ..9%) and ST4 (94.1%). The most common of which is a zoonotic subtype (Blastocystis ratti) which includes, according to recent studies, non-pathogenic and pathogenic variants...
  13. ncbi Blastocystis subtypes in symptomatic and asymptomatic family members and pets and response to therapy
    R Nagel
    School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland, Australia
    Intern Med J 42:1187-95. 2012
    ..Blastocystis is a common, enteric parasite. The pathogenicity of the organism is uncertain, but subtypes (ST) 1 and 3 have been reported more likely to cause irritable bowel-like symptoms...
  14. ncbi Diversity and distribution of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in non-human primates
    Mohammed A Alfellani
    Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Parasitology 140:966-71. 2013
    ..While the distribution of ST1, ST2 and ST3 was independent of NHP group or geographical association, ST5 was seen only in apes and OW monkeys and ST8 primarily in arboreal NHPs and only in species native to Asia or South America...
  15. ncbi Identification of Blastocystis hominis isolates from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients by PCR
    Fadime Eroglu
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana, Turkey
    Parasitol Res 105:1589-92. 2009
    ....
  16. ncbi Molecular epidemiology of human Blastocystis in a village in Yunnan province, China
    Lan Hua Li
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 200025, People s Republic of China
    Parasitol Int 56:281-6. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi Subtype analysis of Blastocystis isolates in Swedish patients
    J Forsell
    Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, 901 85, Umea, Sweden
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:1689-96. 2012
    ..5%). This contrasts with the sparse reports of ST4 in studies from other continents, which may indicate that the distribution of this subtype is geographically heterogeneous...
  18. ncbi Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers
    Unaiza Parkar
    WHO Collaborating Centre for the Molecular Epidemiology of Parasitic Infections, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Western Australia, Australia
    Vet Parasitol 169:8-17. 2010
    ..Most zoo-keepers at the Perth Zoo were harbouring Blastocystis. Four of these zoo-keeper isolates were identical to the isolates from the southern hairy nosed wombat and five primate species...
  19. ncbi Cross-sectional surveys and subtype classification of human Blastocystis isolates from four epidemiological settings in China
    Lan Hua Li
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, 200025, People s Republic of China
    Parasitol Res 102:83-90. 2007
    ..Five different Blastocystis subtypes were identified from the 192 isolates. Subtype 3 was the predominant type, followed by subtype 1. In conclusion, the epidemiology of Blastocystis varies across China...
  20. ncbi Detection of concurrent infection of dairy cattle with Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon by molecular and microscopic methods
    Ronald Fayer
    Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center BARC, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service USDA ARS, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    Parasitol Res 111:1349-55. 2012
    ..A commercially available immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopic test confirmed six of seven available PCR-positive Blastocystis specimens and identified one IFA-positive cow that was PCR negative...
  21. ncbi Predominance of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 in rural communities, Nepal
    I L Lee
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Parasitol Res 110:1553-62. 2012
    ..Infection may be transmitted through human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions. We provide recommendations to ensure good public health practices...
  22. ncbi Blastocystis sp. subtype 5: a possibly zoonotic genotype
    Yiming Yan
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gannan Medical University, 1 Yixueyuan Road, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, People s Republic of China
    Parasitol Res 101:1527-32. 2007
    ..These findings provide additional molecular-based evidence supporting the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis sp. subtype 5. This study also showed that Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 overgrew Blastocystis sp. subtype 5 in vitro...
  23. ncbi Polymerase chain reaction-based genotype classification among human Blastocystis hominis populations isolated from different countries
    Hisao Yoshikawa
    Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nara Women s University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara 630 8506, Japan
    Parasitol Res 92:22-9. 2004
    ..hominis...
  24. ncbi Cytologic diagnosis of blastocystis hominis in peritoneal fluid: a case report
    Willmar D Patino
    Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA
    Acta Cytol 52:718-20. 2008
    ..Blastocystis hominis is the most common parasite identified in s worldwide. Although it is commonly identified in stool preparations, unusual to encounter B hominis in abdominal fluid...
  25. ncbi Pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis, a clinical reevaluation
    Selcuk Kaya
    Süleyman Demirel Universitesi Tip Fakültesi, Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dali, Isparta, Turkey
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 31:184-7. 2007
    ..0% and 32.6%. Intestinal symptoms may be seen frequently together with the presence of B. hominis and this protozoan may be regarded as an intestinal pathogen, especially when other agents are eliminated...
  26. ncbi Irritable bowel syndrome: is it associated with genotypes of Blastocystis hominis
    Javed Yakoob
    Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
    Parasitol Res 106:1033-8. 2010
    ..30), respectively. Majority of our patients had typeable B. hominis infection. The genotype of B. hominis in IBS-D was type 1 while in control genotype 3 was predominant...
  27. ncbi Drinking water is a significant predictor of Blastocystis infection among rural Malaysian primary schoolchildren
    Awatif M Abdulsalam
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Parasitology 139:1014-20. 2012
    ..Interventions with provision of clean water supply and health education especially to mothers are required...
  28. ncbi PCR-based subtyping of Blastocystis isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in a major hospital in Ankara, Turkey
    Funda Dogruman-Al
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey
    Parasitol Res 106:263-8. 2009
    ..There were mixed infections with STs 1 and 2 or STs 1 and 3 in nine isolates. There was no statistical significance of the distribution of Blastocystis sp. subtypes between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals (p > 0.05)...
  29. ncbi In vivo encystation of Blastocystis hominis
    K Suresh
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Parasitol Res 104:1373-80. 2009
    ....
  30. ncbi Findings related to IL-8 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms in a Mexican patient population with irritable bowel syndrome infected with Blastocystis
    Angélica Olivo-Díaz
    Hospital General Dr Manuel Gea Gonzalez, Direccion de Investigacion, Mexico, DF 14080, Mexico
    Parasitol Res 111:487-91. 2012
    ..0448 and p=0.0166). Our results suggest that some IL-8 and IL-10 SNPs could change individual susceptibility increasing the relative risk in the development of IBS in Blastocystis carriers...
  31. ncbi Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from birds by PCR with diagnostic primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene
    Niichiro Abe
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Tennoji ku, Osaka 543 0026, Japan
    Parasitol Res 89:393-6. 2003
    ..It is unclear whether the isolates examined in the present study are zoonotic or not. Therefore, it is important to determine the phylogenetic relationships between unknown genotypes from birds and the multiple genotypes of B. hominis...
  32. pmc Incidence and risk factors of Blastocystis infection in an orphanage in Bangkok, Thailand
    Duangnate Pipatsatitpong
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Parasit Vectors 5:37. 2012
    ..Unlike other intestinal parasitic infections such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, the epidemiology of blastocystosis in children who live in crowded settings such as day-care centers and orphanages has been rarely explored...
  33. pmc Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli
    Tengku Shahrul Anuar
    Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Parasit Vectors 6:40. 2013
    ..Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined...
  34. ncbi The pathogenic role of different Blastocystis hominis genotypes isolated from patients with irritable bowel syndrome
    Shawky A Fouad
    Department of Internal Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Arab J Gastroenterol 12:194-200. 2011
    ..hominis was frequent in these patients. This study attempted to distinguish different genotypes of B. hominis isolates obtained from patients with IBS and to evaluate their pathogenic potentials...
  35. ncbi Epidemiological survey of Blastocystis hominis in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China
    Ke xia Wang
    Department of Etiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Anhui University of Science Technology, Huainan 232001, Anhui Province, China
    World J Gastroenterol 8:928-32. 2002
    ..To provide scientific evidence for prevention and controlling of blastocystosis, the infection of Blastocystis homonis and to study its clinical significance in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China...
  36. ncbi Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary schoolchildren in Derna District, Libya
    Gazala A Sadaga
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Omar El Mouktar University, Derna, Libya
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 37:205-14. 2007
    ..000), socio-economic status of the family (P = 0.000), family size and number of rooms in houses (P = 0.000). Also, there was a significant differences between infection rate and source of water for human consumption (P = 0.05)...
  37. ncbi Blastocystis subtypes in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in Ankara, Turkey
    Funda Dogruman-Al
    Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey
    Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104:724-7. 2009
    ..The subtypes of Blastocystis that are commonly found in rodents and certain wild birds were not found in these patients. We suggest a model in which the severity of enteric protozoan infection may be mediated by host factors...
  38. ncbi In-vitro cultivation: a sensitive method for detecting Blastocystis hominis
    S Leelayoova
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, 315 Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:803-7. 2002
    ..In-vitro cultivation does seem worthwhile in the detection of B. hominis carriage in field studies...
  39. ncbi No correlation between clinical symptoms and Blastocystis hominis in immunocompetent individuals
    Karin Leder
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:1390-4. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the association between Blastocystis and gastrointestinal symptoms in immunocompetent individuals...
  40. ncbi Detection of Blastocystis hominis in unpreserved stool specimens by using polymerase chain reaction
    Rune Stensvold
    Unit of Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    J Parasitol 92:1081-7. 2006
    ..The PCR method is recommended for screening clinical specimens for B. hominis infection and for use in prevalence studies...
  41. ncbi Direct characterization of Blastocystis from faeces by PCR and evidence of zoonotic potential
    U Parkar
    WHO Collaborating Centre for the Molecular Epidemiology of Parasitic Infections and the State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, South Street, Western Australia 6150, Australia
    Parasitology 134:359-67. 2007
    ..This study is the first to provide molecular-based evidence supporting the zoonotic potential of Blastocystis in dogs, possums and primates in a natural setting...
  42. ncbi Detecting Blastocystis using parasitologic and DNA-based methods: a comparative study
    C Rune Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59:303-7. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi Fecal-oral transmission of the cyst form of Blastocystis hominis in rats
    Hisao Yoshikawa
    Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nara Women s University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, 630 8506 Nara, Japan
    Parasitol Res 94:391-6. 2004
    ..These results show that the Wistar rat is an ideal host for the propagation of strains RN94-9 and NIH:1295:1 of B. hominis, and demonstrate that the cyst form is the only transmissible form of this parasite...
  44. pmc Genomic analysis of Blastocystis hominis strains isolated from two long-term health care facilities
    H Yoshikawa
    Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nara Women s University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara 630 8506, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1324-30. 2000
    ..This study presents the first molecular evidence of possible human-to-human B. hominis infection between and/or among two small communities...
  45. ncbi Evaluation of the transmission mode of B. hominis by using PCR method
    Fadime Eroglu
    Parasitology Department, Medical Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey
    Parasitol Res 107:841-5. 2010
    ..hominis isolates obtained from the pets, of which these people keep at their homes, and the tap water. These findings reveal that the source of B. hominis infection could be pets and tap water...
  46. ncbi Evidence of waterborne transmission of Blastocystis hominis
    Saovanee Leelayoova
    Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 70:658-62. 2004
    ..Thus, waterborne transmission of B. hominis infection was indicated at this army base. However, other modes of transmission cannot be ruled out...
  47. ncbi Clinical significance of Blastocystis hominis: experience from a medical center in northern Taiwan
    Han Yueh Kuo
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect 41:222-6. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of B. hominis in northern Taiwan...
  48. ncbi Eradication of Blastocystis carriage with antimicrobials: reality or delusion?
    Christen R Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Gastroenterol 44:85-90. 2010
    ..Finally, key methodological and molecular diagnostic tools that will assist in the generation of data required to improve current knowledge are identified and discussed...
  49. ncbi Irritable bowel syndrome in patients with Blastocystis hominis infection
    A Giacometti
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Public Health, University of Ancona, AN, Italy
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18:436-9. 1999
    ..031). In conclusion, there was a set of patients with irritable bowel syndrome in whom the presence of Blastocystis hominis may not be incidental...
  50. pmc Development and evaluation of a genus-specific, probe-based, internal-process-controlled real-time PCR assay for sensitive and specific detection of Blastocystis spp
    Christen Rune Stensvold
    Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Microbiological Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Clin Microbiol 50:1847-51. 2012
    ..Compared to the TaqMan assay, XIVC had a sensitivity of 79%. This is the first time that a genus-specific, probe-based, internal-process-controlled real-time PCR assay for the detection Blastocystis has been introduced...
  51. ncbi Association of Blastocystis subtype 3 and 1 with patients from an Oregon community presenting with chronic gastrointestinal illness
    Morris S Jones
    Clinical Investigation Facility, David Grant USAF Medical Center, 101 Bodin Circle, Travis AFB, Fairfield, CA 94535, USA
    Parasitol Res 104:341-5. 2009
    ..Most patients with subtype 3 had previously tested negative with conventional parasitological diagnostics, had been symptomatic for over 4 years, and reported antibiotic failure...
  52. ncbi Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in asymptomatic individuals from Bangkok, Thailand
    Rapeeporn Yaicharoen
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
    Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36:17-20. 2005
    ..Other parasites, eg Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Trichomonas hominis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Taenia species, were also found by fresh stool examination...
  53. pmc Comparison of methods for detection of Blastocystis infection in routinely submitted stool samples, and also in IBS/IBD Patients in Ankara, Turkey
    Funda Dogruman-Al
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Besevler, Ankara, Turkey
    PLoS ONE 5:e15484. 2010
    ..This study compared diagnostic methods for identifying Blastocystis in stool samples, and evaluated the frequency of detection of Blastocystis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  54. ncbi Blastocystis hominis among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt
    Atef M El-Shazly
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 35:653-66. 2005
    ..2 cells/100 x field versus 3.8 respectively). The mean number of B. hominis was significantly high in patients complaining of diarrhoea and abdominal pain...
  55. ncbi A study on Blastocystis hominis in food-handlers: diagnosis and potential pathogenicity
    Fouad M Fathy
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 41:433-53. 2011
    ..So, culture should be used on routine basis to detect B. hominis which should be considered pathogenic particularly when present alone in large numbers in symptomatic patients...
  56. ncbi [Blastocystis hominis and bowel diseases]
    Sebnem Ustun
    Ege Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Gastroenteroloji Bilim Dali, Izmir
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 30:72-6. 2006
    ..The transmission, pathogenicity, culture characteristics, taxonomy, life cycle, biochemistry and molecular biology of B. hominis remain unclear. More studies are necessary for this parasite...
  57. ncbi Proteaese activity of Blastocystis hominis subtype3 in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients
    Dina Marie Abdel-Hameed
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, 13 B Kornesh El Neel, Aghkhan, Shobra, Cairo, Egypt
    Parasitol Res 109:321-7. 2011
    ..It was concluded that proteases of B. hominis genetic subtype 3, particularly those at 32 kDa, could be considered a virulence factor that is responsible for protein degradation and have a possible pathogenic role in host immune evasion...
  58. ncbi A case-control study of Blastocystis hominis among Iranian population
    Mohammad Rostami Nejad
    The Research Center of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Shaheed Beheshri University, M C Taleghani hospital, Yemen St, Evin, Tehran, Iran
    East Afr J Public Health 7:101-4. 2010
    ..A case-control study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of Blastocystis hominis among Iranian patients with and without GI symptoms...
  59. ncbi Molecular comparative studies among Blastocystis isolates obtained from humans and animals
    Hisao Yoshikawa
    Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Nara Women s University, Kitauoya Nishimachi, Nara 630 8506, Japan
    J Parasitol 89:585-94. 2003
    ..Our results show that primer PCR can be used as a powerful tool for the typing of Blastocystis populations...
  60. ncbi Observations on the ultrastructure and viability of the cystic stage of Blastocystis hominis from human feces
    K T Moe
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Republic of Singapore
    Parasitol Res 82:439-44. 1996
    ..These have not previously been reported in Blastocystis. The cysts can survive in water for up to 19 days at normal temperatures but are fragile at extreme temperatures and in common disinfectants...
  61. ncbi Is this recently characterized gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for rising rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and IBD associated autism in Europe and the United States in the 1990s?
    Kenneth Fiske Boorom
    Blastocystis Research Foundation, 5060 SW Philomath Blvd, 202 Corvallis, OR 97333 1044, USA
    Med Hypotheses 69:652-9. 2007
    ..Recent research has shown that Blastocystis infections may be undetectable using existing clinical methods...
  62. ncbi [Is Blastocystis hominis an opportunist agent?]
    Funda Doğruman Al
    Gazi Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Tibbi Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dali, Ankara, Turkey
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 31:28-36. 2007
    ..Isolates resembling B. hominis have been described in a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and even insects. The significance of this human infection is uncertain...
  63. ncbi Extensive genetic diversity in Blastocystis hominis
    C G Clark
    Department of Medical Parasitology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 87:79-83. 1997
    ..If only a subset of the B. hominis variants have the potential to cause disease in humans this might explain the disparate findings reported. Future clinical studies must take the heterogeneity of B. hominis into account...
  64. ncbi Six ulcerative colitis patients with refractory symptoms co-infective with Blastocystis hominis in China
    Wei Ping Tai
    Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing, 100038, China
    Parasitol Res 108:1207-10. 2011
    ..They almost completely recovered 3 weeks later. Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis should always consider this parasite infection when the symptoms are refractory and cannot be released...
  65. ncbi Levels of genetic diversity vary dramatically between Blastocystis subtypes
    C Rune Stensvold
    Department of Microbiological Diagnostics, Statens Serum Institut, Orestads Boulevard 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Infect Genet Evol 12:263-73. 2012
    ..The implications of this observation are unclear, however, and the population structure and distribution of ST4 should be subject to further scrutiny in view of the fact ST4 is being increasingly linked with intestinal disease...
  66. ncbi Variable geographic distribution of Blastocystis subtypes and its potential implications
    Mohammed A Alfellani
    Pathogen Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Acta Trop 126:11-8. 2013
    ..The picture emerging from this and other surveys suggests that there is significant variation in ST prevalence between populations. Some of the possible reasons for and implications of this diversity are discussed...
  67. ncbi Pursuing the clinical significance of Blastocystis--diagnostic limitations
    C Rune Stensvold
    Department of Bacteriology, Mycology and Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark
    Trends Parasitol 25:23-9. 2009
    ....
  68. ncbi Incidence of Blastocystis hominis in faecal samples submitted for routine microbiological analysis
    J J Windsor
    Aberystwyth Public Health Laboratory, Bronglais Hospital, Caradoc Road, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 1ER, Wales
    Br J Biomed Sci 59:154-7. 2002
    ..Molecular typing of B. hominis has revealed extensive genetic diversity in morphologically identical strains and thus detection by microscopy alone may not be sufficient to confirm the role of this organism in human disease...
  69. ncbi Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course
    Jesus K Yamamoto-Furusho
    Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic, Department of Gastroenterology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico
    Digestion 82:18-23. 2010
    ..Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease...
  70. ncbi [The role of protozoan parasites in etiology of urticaria]
    Funda Dogruman Al
    Gazi Universitesi Tip Fakultesi, Mikrobiyoloji ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji, Ankara, Turkiye, Turkey
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 33:136-9. 2009
    ..As a conclusion, protozoans should be considered in the etiology of chronic urticaria and stool examination should be done in these patients routinely...
  71. ncbi Comparison of methods for detecting Blastocystis hominis
    K Suresh
    Scottish Parasite Diagnostic Laboratory, Stobhill Hospital, Glasgow, G21 3UW, UK
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:509-11. 2004
    ..Cysts were detected in 20.5% of positive samples, but only following Ficoll-Paque concentration of formol-ether concentrates. Cyst excretion was more prevalent in summer than in winter/spring...
  72. ncbi Pathogenic potential of Blastocystis hominis in laboratory mice
    Hala S Elwakil
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Ramsis St, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt
    Parasitol Res 107:685-9. 2010
    ..In conclusion, this study revealed that large number of B. hominis is essential for oral infection of mice and that vacuolar forms of B. hominis can invade the lamina propria, the submucosa, and even the muscle layers...
  73. ncbi Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis in patients fulfilling irritable bowel syndrome criteria
    Javed Yakoob
    Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
    Parasitol Res 107:679-84. 2010
    ..030). B. hominis is common, while D. fragilis was less prevalent in our patients with IBS-D. B. hominis and D. fragilis culture had a better yield compared to stool microscopy and PCR...
  74. ncbi DNA barcoding of blastocystis
    Stephanie M Scicluna
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Protist 157:77-85. 2006
    ..We believe that this approach will prove useful in future epidemiological studies...
  75. ncbi Predominance of subtype 3 among Blastocystis isolates from a major hospital in Singapore
    Kenneth H S Wong
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Parasitology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 5 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Parasitol Res 102:663-70. 2008
    ..The predominance of subtype 3 in an urbanized city state such as Singapore is in agreement with the idea that subtype 3 is a genotype of human origin...
  76. ncbi Encystation--survival of Blastocystis hominis in immunocompetent mice abdomen cavity
    Xiao Bo Zhou
    Immunology and Pathogenic Organism Biology Department of Medical School, Xi an Jiaotong University, No 76 Yanta West Road, Xi an, Shaanxi, China
    Parasitol Res 106:1315-20. 2010
    ..Intraperitoneal inoculation to laboratory mice is a good method to maintain and propagate B. hominis. This is also a good model to study the interaction of B. hominis and immune system...
  77. ncbi Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan
    Tetsuo Hirata
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan
    Parasitol Res 101:1717-9. 2007
    ..hominis infection compared with those without (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated a prevalence rate for B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection and an association between B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan...
  78. ncbi [Blastocystis hominis and diarrhea]
    Germán Ramírez Olivencia
    Med Clin (Barc) 129:598; author reply 598. 2007
  79. ncbi Epidemiology of Blastocystis hominis infection in Papua New Guinea: age-prevalence and associations with other parasites
    R W Ashford
    School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 86:129-36. 1992
    ..When age- and village-matched pairs were considered, only a weak positive association with E. nana was detectable...
  80. ncbi Pathophysiological variability of different genotypes of human Blastocystis hominis Egyptian isolates in experimentally infected rats
    Eman M Hussein
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Suez Canal University, P O Box 41111, Ismailia, Egypt
    Parasitol Res 102:853-60. 2008
    ..hominis while subtype 2 was irrelevant. Also, the results suggest the presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains among subtypes 3 and 4...
  81. ncbi [Observations on Blastocystis hominis and Cyclospora cayetanensis in routine parasitological examinations]
    Ruth Semira Rodríguez Alarcón
    Laboratório de Investigação Médica, Parasitologia, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 40:253-5. 2007
    ..Cyclospora cayetanensis was found in 0.7% of the cases, which suggests that this parasite should also routinely be investigated by appropriate techniques...
  82. ncbi Blastocystis hominis--an emerging cause of diarrhoea in renal transplant recipients
    K Rao
    Department of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Porur, Chennai 600 116
    J Assoc Physicians India 51:719-21. 2003
    ..This reduces the rate of post-transplant morbidity and mortality...
  83. ncbi [Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela]
    Ixora Requena
    Departamento de Parasitologia y Microbiologia, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Oriente, Ciudad Bolivar, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela
    Cad Saude Publica 19:1721-7. 2003
    ..We conclude that B. hominis is a frequent intestinal parasite among food handlers in Caroní Municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela...
  84. ncbi Intestinal parasites, including Cryptosporidium species, in Iraqi patients with sickle-cell anaemia
    N K Mahdi
    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq
    East Mediterr Health J 8:345-9. 2002
    ..14%). We report for the first time the isolation of Isospora belli from a sickle-cell patient in Iraq and the Mediterranean region...
  85. ncbi Genetic variability of Blastocystis hominis isolates in China
    Yiming Yan
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gannan Medical College, 1 Yixueyuan Road, Ganzhou, Jiangxi, 341000, People s Republic of China
    Parasitol Res 99:597-601. 2006
    ..The results suggest a possible relationship between subtype 1 and a pathogenic potential of this parasite...
  86. ncbi Remission of delayed pressure urticaria after eradication of Blastocystis hominis
    Nicoletta Cassano
    Acta Derm Venereol 85:357-8. 2005
  87. ncbi [Investigation of intestinal parasites in AIDS patients]
    Ozden Büyükbaba Boral
    Istanbul Universitesi Istanbul Tip Fakultesi, Mikrobiyoloji ve Klinik Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dali, Capa, Istanbul
    Mikrobiyol Bul 38:121-8. 2004
    ..34, p=0.01), and CD4 T cell counts were found to be significantly lower among AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea than those without diarrhea (x2=34.33, p<0.001)...
  88. ncbi Protozoal infections in the developmentally disabled: often overlooked cause of rectal digging and fecal smearing
    Nancy C Brahm
    Ann Pharmacother 38:1542. 2004
  89. ncbi The usefulness of short-term in vitro cultivation for the detection and molecular study of Blastocystis hominis in stool specimens
    Sumeth Termmathurapoj
    Department of Pathology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, 315 Ratchawithi Road, Ratchathewi, 10400, Bangkok, Thailand
    Parasitol Res 93:445-7. 2004
    ..In vitro cultivation also enhanced PCR amplification for the detection of B. hominis in stool specimens. Our data show the usefulness of in vitro cultivation for the detection and molecular study of B. hominis in stool specimens...
  90. ncbi [Blastocystosis: a high proportion of cases found in schoolchildren of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil]
    Vicente Amato Neto
    Laboratório de Investigação Médica Parasitologia, Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 37:354-6. 2004
    ..It is acknowledged that blastocystosis is still largely an indefinite and controversial subject, which deserves adequate analysis to avoid drawbacks in the sphere of action of public health and general medical assistance...
  91. ncbi [Blastocystosis: nitazoxanide as a new therapeutic option]
    Sergio Cimerman
    3ra Unidade de Internação, Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 36:415-7. 2003
    ..We obtained complete remission of symptoms and eradication of the parasite. Nitazoxanide is a new treatment option for blastocystosis in AIDS patients. Further studies to test its efficacy are needed...
  92. ncbi [Blastocystosis: a high prevalence of cases found in patients from Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui State, Venezuela]
    Virma Velásquez
    Grupo de Parasitosis Intestinal, Departamento de Parasitologia y Microbiologia, Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Oriente, Ciudad de Bolívar, Estado Bolívar 800 1A, Venezuela
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 38:356-7. 2005
    ..The parasitological examination of fecal samples from 98 patients from an Ambulatory Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui, Venezuela revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis (46.9%)...
  93. ncbi Intestinal parasites in children from three west Texas border communities
    Luis G Escobedo
    New Mexico Dept of Health, 1170 North Solano Drive, Suite L, Las Cruces, NM 88001, USA
    J Sch Health 74:411-3. 2004
  94. ncbi Frequency of Giardia lamblia among children in Dohuk, northern Iraq
    A T al-Saeed
    Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq
    East Mediterr Health J 12:555-61. 2006
    ..9%); boys had a higher rate than girls. Some infected samples (70/486) showed double or triple infections and G. lamblia was combined with Hymenolepis nana, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Iodamoeba buetschlii...
  95. ncbi PCR fingerprinting of Blastocystis isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic human hosts
    T C Tan
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Parasitol Res 99:459-65. 2006
    ..hominis and our results support the hypothesis that our asymptomatic and symptomatic B. hominis isolates may represent two different strains/species with varying pathogenic potential...
  96. ncbi Chronic urticaria and blastocystis hominis infection: a case report
    A L Pasqui
    Department of Internal Medicine and Immunology, University of Siena Italy
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 8:117-20. 2004
    ....
  97. ncbi [Investigation of intestinal parasites in residents of the Kayseri Karpuzsekisi basin]
    Izzet Sahin
    Erciyes Universitesi Tip Fakültesi Parazitoloji Anabilim Dali, Kayseri, Turkey
    Turkiye Parazitol Derg 30:178-80. 2006
    ..41%); Entamoeba coli 26, (10.83%); Entamoeba hartmanni, 10 (4.16%); Giardia intestinalis, 7 (2.91%); Endolimax nana, 5 (2.08%); Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, 4 (1.66%); and Taenia saginata, 1 (0.41%)...
  98. ncbi Blastocystis hominis and the evaluation of efficacy of metronidazole and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
    Davood Dorostkar Moghaddam
    Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Parasitol Res 96:273-5. 2005
    ..Nine individuals were treated with TMP/SMX/1 tab at a regimen of 3 x/day/10 days and 2 of the 9 were eradicated. For severe B. hominis infections, it appears that metronidazole and TMP/SMX are effective in some individuals, but not all...
  99. ncbi A placebo-controlled treatment trial of Blastocystis hominis infection with metronidazole
    Luciano Nigro
    Infectious Diseases Unit, University of Catania, c o Ascoli Tomaselli Hospital, via Passo Gravina 185, 95125 Catania, Italy
    J Travel Med 10:128-30. 2003
    ..hominis as the only evident cause of diarrhea...
  100. ncbi Secretory and humoral antibody responses to Blastocystis hominis in symptomatic and asymptomatic human infections
    Manal S E Mahmoud
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
    J Egypt Soc Parasitol 33:13-30. 2003
    ..05) of each from healthy controls nor from each other. The explanations and implications of these results are discussed...
  101. ncbi [Blastocystis. The most frequent intestinal parasitosis in Chile]
    Ruben Mercado
    Rev Med Chil 132:1015-6. 2004