strongylida infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity
    Daniel R Neill
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 464:1367-70. 2010
  2. pmc Expansion and activation of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection
    Constance A M Finney
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:1874-86. 2007
  3. pmc Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion
    Padraic G Fallon
    Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Exp Med 203:1105-16. 2006
  4. ncbi Analysis of type 2 immunity in vivo with a bicistronic IL-4 reporter
    M Mohrs
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Immunity 15:303-11. 2001
  5. pmc Helminth-induced CD19+CD23hi B cells modulate experimental allergic and autoimmune inflammation
    Mark S Wilson
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, and Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Immunol 40:1682-96. 2010
  6. ncbi New IL-17 family members promote Th1 or Th2 responses in the lung: in vivo function of the novel cytokine IL-25
    Stephen D Hurst
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 169:443-53. 2002
  7. ncbi An ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of circulating antigen of Angiostrongylus vasorum in serum samples of naturally and experimentally infected dogs
    M Schnyder
    Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 179:152-8. 2011
  8. ncbi Human angiostrongyliasis
    Qiao Ping Wang
    Center for Parasitic Organisms, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:621-30. 2008
  9. ncbi Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an update
    Q P Wang
    Center for Parasitic Organisms, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:389-95. 2012
  10. ncbi Canine angiostrongylosis: the French heartworm: an emerging threat in North America
    G A Conboy
    Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada
    Vet Parasitol 176:382-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications242 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity
    Daniel R Neill
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK
    Nature 464:1367-70. 2010
    ..Thus, nuocytes represent a critically important innate effector cell in type-2 immunity...
  2. pmc Expansion and activation of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection
    Constance A M Finney
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:1874-86. 2007
    ....
  3. pmc Identification of an interleukin (IL)-25-dependent cell population that provides IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion
    Padraic G Fallon
    Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Exp Med 203:1105-16. 2006
    ..We demonstrate that these IL-25-regulated cells appear rapidly in the draining lymph nodes, implicating them as a source of type 2 cytokines during initiation of worm expulsion...
  4. ncbi Analysis of type 2 immunity in vivo with a bicistronic IL-4 reporter
    M Mohrs
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Immunity 15:303-11. 2001
    ..Transferred EGFP(+) CD4(+) T cells from infected animals conferred protection against Nippostrongylus to immunodeficient mice. These mice will provide a valuable reagent for assessing immunity in vivo...
  5. pmc Helminth-induced CD19+CD23hi B cells modulate experimental allergic and autoimmune inflammation
    Mark S Wilson
    Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, and Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Eur J Immunol 40:1682-96. 2010
    ..These data expand previous observations and highlight the broad regulatory environment that develops during helminth infections that can abate diverse inflammatory disorders in vivo...
  6. ncbi New IL-17 family members promote Th1 or Th2 responses in the lung: in vivo function of the novel cytokine IL-25
    Stephen D Hurst
    DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Immunol 169:443-53. 2002
    ..Further, these data demonstrate the heterogeneity of function within the IL-17 cytokine family and suggest that IL-25 may be an important mediator of allergic disease via production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin...
  7. ncbi An ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of circulating antigen of Angiostrongylus vasorum in serum samples of naturally and experimentally infected dogs
    M Schnyder
    Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 179:152-8. 2011
    ..vasorum antigen by ELISA represents a valid alternative for reliable diagnosis and for follow-up investigations after anthelmintic treatment. Moreover, the test can be used for mass screening in large epidemiological investigations...
  8. ncbi Human angiostrongyliasis
    Qiao Ping Wang
    Center for Parasitic Organisms, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, China
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:621-30. 2008
    ..Educating the public about the dangers of eating raw or undercooked intermediate and paratenic hosts in endemic areas is essential for the prevention and control of this foodborne zoonotic disease...
  9. ncbi Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis: an update
    Q P Wang
    Center for Parasitic Organisms, State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:389-95. 2012
    ..The most effective method for prevention is to persuade people not to eat raw or undercooked intermediate and paratenic hosts...
  10. ncbi Canine angiostrongylosis: the French heartworm: an emerging threat in North America
    G A Conboy
    Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada
    Vet Parasitol 176:382-9. 2011
    ..Current treatment options include moxidectin, milbemycin oxime, and fenbendazole...
  11. ncbi Detection of specific antibodies in dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum
    A Schucan
    Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr 266a, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 185:216-24. 2012
    ..The early detection of specific antibodies against A. vasorum by ELISA represents a valid alternative for a reliable diagnosis and for follow-up investigations after anthelmintic treatment...
  12. ncbi Polyclonal and specific antibodies mediate protective immunity against enteric helminth infection
    Kathy D McCoy
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, Department of Pathology, Universitatsspital, CH8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 4:362-73. 2008
    ....
  13. ncbi Immune modulation and modulators in Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection
    Rick M Maizels
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Exp Parasitol 132:76-89. 2012
    ..Proteomic and transcriptomic definition of parasite proteins, combined with biochemical identification of immunogenic molecules in resistant mice, will provide new candidate immunomodulators and vaccine antigens for future research...
  14. ncbi IL-13, IL-4Ralpha, and Stat6 are required for the expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis
    J F Urban
    United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA
    Immunity 8:255-64. 1998
    ..Additional observations made in the course of these experiments demonstrate that Stat6 signaling is not required for IL-4 enhancement of IgG1 production and actually inhibits IL-4-induction of mucosal mastocytosis...
  15. pmc B cells have distinct roles in host protection against different nematode parasites
    Qian Liu
    Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA
    J Immunol 184:5213-23. 2010
    ..This study suggests variability in the importance of B cells in mediating protection against intestinal nematode parasites, and it indicates an important role for Ab in resistance to tissue-dwelling parasites...
  16. pmc Genetic analysis of basophil function in vivo
    Brandon M Sullivan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:527-35. 2011
    ..Although targeted deletion of IL-4 and IL-13 in either CD4(+) T cells or basophils had a minimal effect on worm clearance, deletion from both lineages demonstrated a nonredundant role for basophil cytokines in primary helminth immunity...
  17. pmc Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells
    Mark S Wilson
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, UK
    J Exp Med 202:1199-212. 2005
    ..These data support the contention that helminth infections elicit a regulatory T cell population able to down-regulate allergen induced lung pathology in vivo...
  18. ncbi Establishment of nematode infection despite increased Th2 responses and immunopathology after selective depletion of Foxp3+ cells
    Sebastian Rausch
    Department of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 39:3066-77. 2009
    ....
  19. pmc Functional analysis of effector and regulatory T cells in a parasitic nematode infection
    Sebastian Rausch
    Department of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University Berlin, Philippstr 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Infect Immun 76:1908-19. 2008
    ..In conclusion, our data indicate that small numbers of T(eff) cells have the ability to promote host protective immune responses, even in the presence of T(reg) cells...
  20. ncbi IL-4 induces characteristic Th2 responses even in the combined absence of IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13
    Padraic G Fallon
    Immunomodulation Group, Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Immunity 17:7-17. 2002
    ..These mice reveal distinct spatial, temporal, and hierarchical cytokine requirements in immune function...
  21. pmc Helminth products bypass the need for TSLP in Th2 immune responses by directly modulating dendritic cell function
    Joanna C Massacand
    Environmental Biomedicine, Institute of Integrative Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Zurich, Wagistrasse 25, 8952 Schlieren, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13968-73. 2009
    ..Taken together, our data show that the primary function of TSLP is to directly suppress IL-12 secretion, thus supporting Th2 immune responses...
  22. ncbi Basophil effector function and homeostasis during helminth infection
    Caspar Ohnmacht
    Institute for Immunology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Blood 113:2816-25. 2009
    ....
  23. ncbi Identification of first-stage larvae of metastrongyles from dogs
    J W McGarry
    Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZJ, UK
    Vet Rec 165:258-61. 2009
    ..The tails of the other species are described. A vasorum was significantly longer (mean [sd] 358.4 microm [10.28], range 334 to 380 microm) than the other species (range 229 to 281 microm)...
  24. ncbi PCR detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum in faecal samples of dogs and foxes
    Mohammad N S Al-Sabi
    Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Parasitol Res 107:135-40. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi Neuro-angiostrongyliasis: unresolved issues
    P Prociv
    Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, St Lucia, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 30:1295-303. 2000
    ..These three Angiostrongylus species share virtually the same life cycle, but only A. cantonensis has been confirmed to be a human pathogen...
  26. ncbi Impaired resistance in early secondary Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections in mice with defective eosinophilopoeisis
    Michelle L Knott
    School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 37:1367-78. 2007
    ..These observations may be of particular significance for the development of successful vaccines against hookworms and other nematodes...
  27. pmc Cytokine-producing effector B cells regulate type 2 immunity to H. polygyrus
    Wojciech Wojciechowski
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    Immunity 30:421-33. 2009
    ..These results show that B cells mediate protection from pathogens not only by presenting antigen and secreting antibody but also by producing cytokines that regulate the quality and magnitude of humoral and cellular immune responses...
  28. ncbi Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to the development of emphysema associated with the induction of alternatively activated macrophages
    Benjamin J Marsland
    Molecular Biomedicine, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich Schlieren, Switzerland
    Eur J Immunol 38:479-88. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data show that lung tissue damage caused by hookworm infection can result in the development of COPD and emphysema...
  29. doi Animal model of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus
    Mali Camberis
    Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, Wellington, New Zealand
    Curr Protoc Immunol . 2003
    ..This chapter describes simple, cost-effective techniques for using and maintaining these easy-to-work-with parasites in the context of a modern laboratory...
  30. ncbi An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen
    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir
    Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Immunol 169:3284-92. 2002
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that helminth-dependent protection against allergic disease involves immunoregulatory mechanisms that block production of allergen-specific IgE...
  31. ncbi IL-9-deficient mice establish fundamental roles for IL-9 in pulmonary mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia but not T cell development
    J M Townsend
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Immunity 13:573-83. 2000
    ..Thus, deletion of IL-9 manifests as a highly defined phenotype in Th2 responses modulating mucus production and mast cell proliferation...
  32. ncbi Outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetable juice in southern Taiwan
    Hung Chin Tsai
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:222-6. 2004
    ..867, P = 0.01). There was association between the presence of raw vegetable juice and CSF eosinophilia (Spearman's correlation test r = 0.816, P = 0.004)...
  33. ncbi Natural infections of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in dogs in Germany (2007-2009)
    Dieter Barutzki
    Veterinary Laboratory Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Parasitol Res 105:S39-48. 2009
    ..vulpis was detected at a time. 4 dogs were coinfected with A. vasorum and C. vulpis. These surprisingly high prevalence rates indicate that both parasites are endemic in Germany...
  34. ncbi The relative importance of host characteristics and co-infection in generating variation in Heligmosomoides polygyrus fecundity
    L T Luong
    Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
    Parasitology 137:1003-12. 2010
    ..We concluded that intrinsic differences between hosts, specifically with regard to sex and breeding condition, contribute relatively more to the variation in worm fecundity than parasite co-infection status...
  35. pmc Heligmosomoides polygyrus promotes regulatory T-cell cytokine production in the murine normal distal intestine
    Tommy Setiawan
    Division of Gastroenterology 4611 JCP, University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    Infect Immun 75:4655-63. 2007
    ..IL-10 is particularly important for limiting the Th1 response. The T-cell origin of these cytokines demonstrates mucosal regulatory T-cell induction...
  36. pmc Type 2 innate immunity in helminth infection is induced redundantly and acts autonomously following CD11c(+) cell depletion
    Katherine A Smith
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 80:3481-9. 2012
    ..Thus, while CD11c(high) DCs initiate helminth-specific adaptive immunity, innate type 2 cells are able to mount an autonomous response to the challenge of parasite infection...
  37. ncbi Canine angiostrongylosis: an emerging disease in Europe
    Jenny R Helm
    Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
    J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 20:98-109. 2010
    ..Apparent changes in the epidemiology of this unique parasite are considered, alongside information available regarding its recent geographic spread...
  38. pmc The lung is an important site for priming CD4 T-cell-mediated protective immunity against gastrointestinal helminth parasites
    Marina Harvie
    Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, P O Box 7060, Wellington 6242, New Zealand
    Infect Immun 78:3753-62. 2010
    ..In conclusion, vaccination strategies which seek to break the cycle of reinfection and egg production by helminths such as hookworms can include strategies which directly stimulate Th2 responses in the lung...
  39. pmc Cutting edge: in the absence of TGF-β signaling in T cells, fewer CD103+ regulatory T cells develop, but exuberant IFN-γ production renders mice more susceptible to helminth infection
    Lisa A Reynolds
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 189:1113-7. 2012
    ..Hence, overexpression of IFN-γ negatively modulates immunity, and the presence of Helios(+) Tregs may maintain susceptibility on the C57BL/6 background...
  40. ncbi Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs: Presentation and risk factors
    E R Morgan
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
    Vet Parasitol 173:255-61. 2010
    ..Information on risk factors is useful in diagnosis and control, and forms a basis for further epidemiological investigation...
  41. ncbi Improved detection of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection using real-time PCR and indirect ELISA
    Ryan Jefferies
    School of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford, Bristol, BS40 5DU, UK
    Parasitol Res 109:1577-83. 2011
    ..Combined testing using real-time PCR and ELISA therefore improved the detection rate of A. vasorum infection and holds promise for improved clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation...
  42. ncbi Disseminated angiostrongylosis with massive cardiac and cerebral involvement in a dog from Italy
    Elvio Lepri
    Department of Biopathological Science and Hygiene of Animal and Food Productions Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, 4 S Costanzo Street, Postal Box 06126, Perugia, Italy
    Parasitol Res 109:505-8. 2011
    ..A. vasorum should be included among the differentials of dogs with cardiovascular and neurologic disease...
  43. ncbi Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs: continuing spread and developments in diagnosis and treatment
    E Morgan
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG
    J Small Anim Pract 51:616-21. 2010
    ..Understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis remains poor. This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of this parasitic disease, focussing on the most recent developments and advances...
  44. ncbi Effects of intestinal nematodes during lactation: consequences for host morphology, physiology and offspring mass
    Deborah M Kristan
    Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA
    J Exp Biol 205:3955-65. 2002
    ..Other measures of reproductive output were not affected by parasite infection...
  45. ncbi Mechanisms of neonatal mucosal antibody protection
    Nicola L Harris
    Institute of Experimental Immunology, Universitatsspital, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Immunol 177:6256-62. 2006
    ..This immune IgG could either be delivered directly in milk or retrotransported via neonatal Fc receptor from the neonatal serum into the intestinal lumen to exert its protective effect...
  46. pmc Combined treatment with interleukin-12 and mebendazole lessens the severity of experimental eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in ICR mice
    Wen Yuan Du
    Division of Parasitology, Graduate Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei Pesticide Toxicology Department, Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan
    Infect Immun 71:3947-53. 2003
    ..This study could be used in developing strategies for the treatment of human angiostrongylosis...
  47. ncbi Association of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in eosinophilic meningitis of BALB/c mice caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    H H Lee
    Department of Parasitology, Chung Shan Medical University, 402 Taichung, Taiwan
    Parasitol Res 94:321-8. 2004
    ..These results show that MMP-9 was associated with eosinophilic meningitis, and that the enzyme may be a useful marker for angiostrongyliasis meningitis...
  48. ncbi Heligmosomoides polygyrus inhibits established colitis in IL-10-deficient mice
    David E Elliott
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology Hepatology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Eur J Immunol 34:2690-8. 2004
    ..polygyrus inhibits ongoing IL-10(-/-) colitis in part through blocking mucosal Th1 cytokine production. Resolution of inflammation is associated with increased IL-13 production and can be adoptively transferred by MLN T cells...
  49. ncbi Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis: the influence of climate on parasite distribution
    Eric R Morgan
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
    Parasitol Int 58:406-10. 2009
    ..g. by restricting movement of dogs unless tested or treated for A. vasorum, and monitored by focused surveillance of definitive and intermediate hosts. These efforts will benefit from newly developed diagnostic tests...
  50. ncbi A SYBR green real-time PCR assay for the detection of the nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum in definitive and intermediate hosts
    R Jefferies
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom
    Vet Parasitol 166:112-8. 2009
    ..Real-time quantitative PCR offers a more efficient means of detecting A. vasorum infection with a lower limit of detection than traditional diagnostic tests, and it therefore has important clinical and epidemiological applications...
  51. ncbi Disseminated angiostrongylosis with fatal cerebral haemorrhages in two dogs in Germany: a clinical case study
    D Denk
    Institute for Veterinary Pathology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Veterinarstrasse 13, 80539 Munich, Germany
    Vet Parasitol 160:100-8. 2009
    ..There is currently still a lack of studies investigating the occurrence of angiostrongylosis in dogs and intermediate hosts in Germany which would be necessary to survey the endemic realities of this disease...
  52. ncbi Lungworm infections (Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus) in dogs and cats in Germany and Denmark in 2003-2007
    Anja Taubert
    Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Rudolf Buchheim Str 2, 35392 Giessen, Germany
    Vet Parasitol 159:175-80. 2009
    ..vulpis in Germany. The relatively high number of lungworm-infected dogs and cats indicate that these parasitic diseases should be considered in differential diagnosis of cases of treatment-resistant respiratory/cardiopulmonary distress...
  53. ncbi Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum
    Manuela Schnyder
    Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland
    Parasitol Res 107:1471-80. 2010
    ..Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident...
  54. ncbi Differences between IL-4R alpha-deficient and IL-4-deficient mice reveal a role for IL-13 in the regulation of Th2 responses
    M Barner
    Basel Institute for Immunology, Switzerland
    Curr Biol 8:669-72. 1998
    ..Injection of recombinant IL-13 induced worm expulsion in otherwise incompetent RAG2-/- mice. Our results suggest that IL-13 regulates Th2 responses to nematode infection and requires IL-4R alpha...
  55. ncbi Larvicidal effect of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on solution in dogs experimentally inoculated with Angiostrongylus vasorum
    M Schnyder
    Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr 266a, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    Vet Parasitol 166:326-32. 2009
    ..vasorum in experimentally infected dogs and prevented patent infections. The earlier an infected dog was treated, the less severe were the pathological lesions observed in the lungs...
  56. pmc Type 2 immunity is controlled by IL-4/IL-13 expression in hematopoietic non-eosinophil cells of the innate immune system
    David Voehringer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine and Microbiology Immunology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1435-46. 2006
    ..Thus, components of type 2 immunity mediated by IL-4/IL-13 are partitioned between T cell-dependent IgE and an innate non-eosinophil tissue component, suggesting new strategies for interventions in allergic immunity...
  57. ncbi Nippostrongylus brasiliensis can induce B7-independent antigen-specific development of IL-4-producing T cells from naive CD4 T cells in vivo
    Zhugong Liu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Immunol 169:6959-68. 2002
    ..10 Th2 cell differentiation; however, DO11.10 T cell cycle progression and migration to the B cell zone are inhibited...
  58. ncbi Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in 23 dogs (1999-2002)
    P S Chapman
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA
    J Small Anim Pract 45:435-40. 2004
    ..Three dogs died shortly after admission to the hospital. The remainder were successfully treated with fenbendazole at a dose of 50 mg/kg for five to 21 days. A vasorum should now be considered endemic to south-east England...
  59. ncbi Larval output of infected and re-infected dogs with Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866) Kamensky, 1905
    S D Oliveira-Junior
    Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais UFMG, Av Presidente Antônio Carlos, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Vet Parasitol 141:101-6. 2006
    ..The quantity of L1 output demonstrated that double exposed dogs also presented an irregular excretion of L1 but a smaller variation in the number of L1 excreted by individual animals (4-550 L1/g)...
  60. ncbi Treatment of angiostrongyliasis
    Kanlayanee Sawanyawisuth
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:990-6. 2008
    ..Corticosteroids may be necessary in the case of coexistence of EoM or other ocular inflammations such as retinitis or optic neuritis. The visual outcome is poor and depends on the initial visual acuity...
  61. ncbi Intestinal helminths protect in a murine model of asthma
    Kunihiko Kitagaki
    Department of Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Immunol 177:1628-35. 2006
    ..Helminthic colonization appears to protect against asthma and atopic disorders; the regulatory cytokine, IL-10, may be a critical player...
  62. ncbi Genetic variation in resistance to repeated infections with Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri, in inbred mouse strains selected for the mouse genome project
    J M Behnke
    School of Biology, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, UK
    Parasite Immunol 28:85-94. 2006
    ..polygyrus...
  63. ncbi Stat6 regulation of in vivo IL-4 responses
    F D Finkelman
    Division of Immunology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
    J Immunol 164:2303-10. 2000
    ..Thus, Stat6 signaling enhances primary IL-4 responses that are made as part of a type 0 cytokine response (mixed type 1 and type 2) and is required for normal development or survival of Th2 memory cells...
  64. ncbi Imaging diagnosis: CT findings in a dog with intracranial hemorrhage secondary to angiostrongylosis
    Micaela Zarelli
    School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, 4, Ireland
    Vet Radiol Ultrasound 53:420-3. 2012
    ..Angiostrongylosis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in dogs presenting with neurologic signs consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage...
  65. ncbi MRI findings of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    E Jin
    Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliate of Capital University of Medical Sciences, 95 Yong An Road, Beijing 100050, China
    Clin Radiol 60:242-50. 2005
    ..To study the imaging characteristics of eosinophilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
  66. pmc Infection with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis does not interfere with efficient elimination of Mycobacterium bovis BCG from the lungs of mice
    Klaus J Erb
    Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, Universitat Wurzburg, 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:727-30. 2002
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that ongoing Th2 responses in the lung do not necessarily lead to increased susceptibility to mycobacterial infection...
  67. ncbi Angiostrongylus vasorum: the 'French Heartworm'
    Tania Ferdushy
    Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Section for Parasitology, Health and Development, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlaegevej 100, 1870, Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Parasitol Res 107:765-71. 2010
    ..Therefore, this review will focus on the morphology, biology, clinical significant as well as management of this parasitic disease...
  68. ncbi Heligmosomoides polygyrus elicits a dominant nonprotective antibody response directed against restricted glycan and peptide epitopes
    James P Hewitson
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 187:4764-77. 2011
    ....
  69. ncbi B7-2 is required for the progression but not the initiation of the type 2 immune response to a gastrointestinal nematode parasite
    R J Greenwald
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Immunol 162:4133-9. 1999
    ..They further demonstrate that B7-2 interactions are not necessary for the initiation of the type 2 immune response, but are instead required for its progression after the development of effector T cells...
  70. ncbi The role of TGF-beta in mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus
    M Doligalska
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Zoology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
    Parasite Immunol 28:387-95. 2006
    ..We conclude that H. polygyrus infection suppresses the immune response through pathways involving TGF-beta production or activity and that the Th2 related immune response was not affected by neutralization...
  71. ncbi B cell multitasking is required to control nematode infection
    Kishore R Alugupalli
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Immunity 30:317-9. 2009
    ..2009) demonstrate that in addition to producing antibodies, B cells play pivotal roles in specific-antigen presentation and cytokine production for optimal T helper 2 responses required for protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
  72. ncbi Serologic detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs
    I Verzberger-Epshtein
    Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PEI, Canada
    Vet Parasitol 151:53-60. 2008
    ..8% (45/239) of the dogs. This suggests that fecal diagnostics may have missed approximately half of the A. vasorum infected dogs, and that the sandwich-ELISA may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of this parasite...
  73. pmc Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata
    Rui Chen
    Institute of Parasitology, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Parasit Vectors 4:204. 2011
    ..However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails...
  74. ncbi Matrix metalloproteinase-12 leads to elastin degradation in BALB/c mice with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    P C Wei
    Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
    Int J Parasitol 41:1175-83. 2011
    ..These results imply that MMP-12 contributes to the elastin degradation that occurs in angiostrongyliasis meningitis, and doxycycline can reverse related inflammatory events by inhibition of MMP-12...
  75. pmc Acute neurological signs as the predominant clinical manifestation in four dogs with Angiostrongylus vasorum infections in Denmark
    Hanne Gredal
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Acta Vet Scand 53:43. 2011
    ..This emphasises canine angiostrongylosis as a potential cause of fatal lesions of the central nervous system and the importance of including A. vasorum as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with acute neurological signs in Denmark...
  76. ncbi Efficacy and safety of emodepside 2.1%/praziquantel 8.6% spot-on formulation in the treatment of feline aelurostrongylosis
    Donato Traversa
    Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Teramo, Italy
    Parasitol Res 105:S83-9. 2009
    ..Future practical perspectives in feline medicine and the major advantages of the spot-on product compared to the oral paste are discussed...
  77. ncbi Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in murine eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    S C Lai
    Department of Parasitology, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Chien Kuo North Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:715-24. 2004
    ..Leucocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system...
  78. ncbi Induced eosinophilia and proliferation in Angiostrongylus cantonensis-infected mouse brain are associated with the induction of JAK/STAT1, IAP/NF-kappaB and MEKK1/JNK signals
    K P Lan
    Department of Parasitology, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Section 1, Chien Kuo North Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan
    J Helminthol 78:311-7. 2004
    ..cantonensis infection is associated with activation of JAK/STAT1 signals by cytokines, and/or activation of MEKK1/JNK by oxidant stress, and/or activation of NF-kappaB by increasing IAP expression...
  79. ncbi Endoparasites of cats from the Tirana area and the first report on Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Albania
    Martin Knaus
    Merial GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, Rohrdorf, Germany
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 123:31-5. 2011
    ..In conclusion, the prevalence of endoparasite infection in free-roaming cats in Tirana can be considered to be high. The occurrence of A. abstrusus, which may cause respiratory distress in cats, is reported for the first time in Albania...
  80. ncbi Enhanced protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in IL-2 receptor β-chain overexpressed transgenic mice with intestinal mastocytosis
    Masahiro Morimoto
    Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 73:849-51. 2011
    ..These results clearly indicated that mast cells have the ability for to protect against H. polygyrus infection. However, additional studies are required to evaluate protective effector mechanisms against H. polygyrus...
  81. pmc A nonredundant role for IL-21 receptor signaling in plasma cell differentiation and protective type 2 immunity against gastrointestinal helminth infection
    Irah L King
    Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA
    J Immunol 185:6138-45. 2010
    ..Our studies demonstrate a selective role for IL-21 in plasma cell differentiation in the context of protective antiparasitic type 2 immunity...
  82. pmc Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection can inhibit colitis through direct interaction with innate immunity
    Long Hang
    Division of Gastroenterology Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    J Immunol 185:3184-9. 2010
    ..DCs have an important role in driving both murine and human IBD. Data suggest that phenotypic alternations in mucosal DC function are part of the regulatory process...
  83. ncbi Pathological changes in the brains of rabbits experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis after albendazole treatment: histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging studies
    Lian Chen Wang
    Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, and Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kueisan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:294-300. 2006
    ..To determine the effects of albendazole on rabbits infected with larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis by histopathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques...
  84. pmc γδ T cells play a protective role during infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis by promoting goblet cell function in the small intestine
    Kyoko Inagaki-Ohara
    Parasitic Disease Unit, Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
    Immunology 134:448-58. 2011
    ..brasiliensis. Collectively, these data provide strong evidence that γδ T cells play an important role in controlling infection with intestinal nematodes and limiting infection-induced pathology...
  85. pmc Neutrophils clear bacteria associated with parasitic nematodes augmenting the development of an effective Th2-type response
    John T Pesce
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 180:464-74. 2008
    ....
  86. ncbi Efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 1% spot-on formulation in the treatment of feline aelurostrongylosis
    Donato Traversa
    Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Teramo, Italy
    Parasitol Res 105:S55-62. 2009
    ..Future practical perspectives in feline medicine and the major advantages of the spot-on product compared to the oral paste are discussed...
  87. ncbi Immunological diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae)
    Praphathip Eamsobhana
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 10700 Bangkok, Thailand
    Int J Infect Dis 13:425-31. 2009
    ..Rapid diagnostic kits based on dot-blot ELISA have been developed and have proved to be simple, effective, and economical for field use...
  88. ncbi Blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurring in mice infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    June Der Lee
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan
    Acta Trop 97:204-11. 2006
    ..cantonensis...
  89. ncbi Diagnosis and risk factors of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Strongylida) infection in cats from Italy
    Donato Traversa
    Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Teramo, Italy
    Vet Parasitol 153:182-6. 2008
    ....
  90. ncbi Association of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 in cerebrospinal fluid with blood-brain barrier dysfunction in patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    Hung Chin Tsai
    Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital 386, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, Republic of China
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:20-7. 2008
    ..Activity of MMP-9 in CSF of patients could not be completely inhibited because of the decrease of TIMP-4, which may cause BBB dysfunction, as shown by higher Q(Alb) values in patients...
  91. ncbi Feline aelurostrongylosis and canine angiostrongylosis: a challenging diagnosis for two emerging verminous pneumonia infections
    Donato Traversa
    Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Teramo, Piazza Aldo Moro 45, Teramo 64100, Italy
    Vet Parasitol 157:163-74. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis: an update
    J Koch
    Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Vet J 179:348-59. 2009
    ..This review discusses the biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis...
  93. pmc Gastrointestinal nematode infection exacerbates malaria-induced liver pathology
    Helena Helmby
    Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 182:5663-71. 2009
    ....
  94. ncbi Gastrointestinal nematode infection interferes with experimental allergic airway inflammation but not atopic dermatitis
    S Hartmann
    Department of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:1585-96. 2009
    ....
  95. pmc Interleukin-5 transgenic mice show enhanced resistance to primary infections with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis but not primary infections with Toxocara canis
    L A Dent
    Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia
    Infect Immun 67:989-93. 1999
    ..These results and other data suggest that eosinophils can contribute to host resistance to some parasite species. Parasite transit time through the host may correlate with relative sensitivity to eosinophils...
  96. ncbi Autochthonous Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dogs in The Netherlands
    Deborah C K van Doorn
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Clinical Infectiology Division, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, P O Box 80 165, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Vet Parasitol 162:163-6. 2009
    ..A. vasorum larvae were found in faecal samples of four dogs. Three of those had never been outside the country. Though only few samples were found positive, A. vasorum is now considered autochthonous in The Netherlands...
  97. ncbi Prevalence study of the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in stray cats of Portugal
    Pablo Payo-Puente
    Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias, Núcleo de Medicina e Clínica de Animais de Companhia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
    J Feline Med Surg 10:242-6. 2008
    ..This parasitic disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of cats presenting with coughing or dyspnoea, and it also should be extended to asymptomatic animals with pulmonary nodules detected by image diagnosis...
  98. ncbi Concurrent infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppresses anti-Plasmodium yoelii protection partially by induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg in mice
    Kohhei Tetsutani
    Department of Parasitology, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Science, Fukuoka 812 0054, Japan
    Eur J Immunol 39:2822-30. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that intestinal nematodes moderate host immune responses during acute malaria infection by aggressive activation of Treg. Elucidation of the mechanisms of Treg activation in situ is a target for future analyses...
  99. ncbi Angiostrongylus vasorum causing meningitis and detection of parasite larvae in the cerebrospinal fluid of a pug dog
    A Negrin
    Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    J Small Anim Pract 49:468-71. 2008
    ..Treatment with fenbendazole and prednisolone resulted in a complete resolution of the clinical signs in two months time. A vasorum infection should be considered a possible aetiology of intracranial inflammation in dogs...
  100. ncbi The effects of changes in nutritional demand on gastrointestinal parasitism in lactating rats
    Heidi Normanton
    Animal Nutrition and Health Department, SAC, Edinburgh, UK
    Br J Nutr 97:104-10. 2007
    ..The results support the view that resistance to N. brasiliensis is sensitive to changes in nutrient demand, and the improved resistance to N. brasiliensis is likely due to effects of overcoming nutrient scarcity on host immunity...
  101. ncbi A severe eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis
    Hua Li
    Department of Parasitology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:568-70. 2008
    ..This paper reports a severe case of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis after infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis...

Research Grants12

  1. Regulation of Inflammation by Somatostatin via SSTR 2
    David Elliott; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results of these studies will provide rationale for novel therapeutic treatment of IBD and other inflammatory diseases. ..
  2. HELPER T CELL SUBSETS IN LEISHMANIASIS
    Richard Locksley; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The use of a parasite model in which the outcome has been so clearly tied to this decision offers an opportunity for important insights into disease susceptibility and effective vaccine strategy. ..
  3. Helicobacter induced hepatitis and tumorigenesis
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A more complete understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hepatobiliary disease and hepatocellular carcinoma is likely to result in new strategies for treatment and prevention of these important human diseases. ..
  4. B1B lymphocytes generate T cell-independent memory
    KISHORE ALUGUPALLI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Understanding the basis for the longevity of the Tl protective responses conferred by B1b cells will provide novel approaches to generate effective vaccines against pathogens expressing Tl antigens. ..
  5. IN VIVO PATHOGENESIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..pylori pathogenesis and specifically evaluate the role of regulatory T cells in limiting H. pylori-induced gastric pathology. ..
  6. HUS Pathogenesis & clinical Outcome in an in vivo model
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will use this model to study the pathogenesis of HUS and importantly to develop therapeutic regimens to prevent and treat EHEC disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  7. Encephalitozoan cuniculi-Host immunity and pathogenesis
    Imtiaz Khan; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..cuniculi infected mice persist for a long period. Development and mechanism of persistence of long-term antigen specific IELs (memory IELs) in the infected animals will be evaluated. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. Lymphocyte Exit from Tissues: Control and Significance to Host Defense
    GUDRUN DEBES; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  9. DEVELOPING AND IMPROVING INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL RESOURCES
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  10. Microecology-murine gut-initiation & progression of IBD
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..prior and subsequent to oral vaccination with Helicobacter spp. antigens and mucosal adjuvants, elucidate how these vaccine strategies influence microflora dynamics and impact gut cytokine responses. ..
  11. Dendritic Cell Response to Microsporidians
    IMTIAZ AHMED KHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This specific aim will determine if aging results in poor innate DC response to E. cuniculi and whether IL-15 can restores ARC function. ..