cerebral malaria

Summary

Summary: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Cytokines: accelerators and brakes in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria
    Nicholas H Hunt
    Department of Pathology, D06, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Trends Immunol 24:491-9. 2003
  2. ncbi The prognostic and pathophysiologic role of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in severe malaria
    N P Day
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 180:1288-97. 1999
  3. ncbi Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide suppress the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria
    Ana Pamplona
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    Nat Med 13:703-10. 2007
  4. ncbi On the pathogenic role of brain-sequestered alphabeta CD8+ T cells in experimental cerebral malaria
    Elodie Belnoue
    Departement d Immunologie, Institut Cochin, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 567, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite Mixte de Recherche 8104, Hopital Cochin, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris, France
    J Immunol 169:6369-75. 2002
  5. ncbi Immune-mediated mechanisms of parasite tissue sequestration during experimental cerebral malaria
    Fiona H Amante
    Australian Centre for Vaccine Development, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    J Immunol 185:3632-42. 2010
  6. pmc Chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 are required for the development of murine cerebral malaria
    Gabriele S V Campanella
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4814-9. 2008
  7. ncbi Cerebral malaria: why experimental murine models are required to understand the pathogenesis of disease
    J Brian de Souza
    Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Parasitology 137:755-72. 2010
  8. pmc Severe falciparum malaria in Gabonese children: clinical and laboratory features
    Arnaud Dzeing-Ella
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences USS, Libreville, Gabon
    Malar J 4:1. 2005
  9. pmc TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria
    Nadia A Sam-Agudu
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:548-55. 2010
  10. ncbi A unified hypothesis for the genesis of cerebral malaria: sequestration, inflammation and hemostasis leading to microcirculatory dysfunction
    Henri C van der Heyde
    La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Trends Parasitol 22:503-8. 2006

Detail Information

Publications318 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Cytokines: accelerators and brakes in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria
    Nicholas H Hunt
    Department of Pathology, D06, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Trends Immunol 24:491-9. 2003
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The nature of the pathogenetic processes leading to the cerebral complications is poorly understood...
  2. ncbi The prognostic and pathophysiologic role of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in severe malaria
    N P Day
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 180:1288-97. 1999
    ..b>Cerebral malaria patients, particularly those without other vital organ dysfunction, had significantly lower levels of these ..
  3. ncbi Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide suppress the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria
    Ana Pamplona
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2780 156 Oeiras, Portugal
    Nat Med 13:703-10. 2007
    b>Cerebral malaria claims more than 1 million lives per year. We report that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM)...
  4. ncbi On the pathogenic role of brain-sequestered alphabeta CD8+ T cells in experimental cerebral malaria
    Elodie Belnoue
    Departement d Immunologie, Institut Cochin, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 567, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite Mixte de Recherche 8104, Hopital Cochin, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris, France
    J Immunol 169:6369-75. 2002
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) develops in a small proportion of persons infected with Plasmodium falciparum and accounts for a substantial proportion of the mortality due to this parasite...
  5. ncbi Immune-mediated mechanisms of parasite tissue sequestration during experimental cerebral malaria
    Fiona H Amante
    Australian Centre for Vaccine Development, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    J Immunol 185:3632-42. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria is a severe complication of malaria. Sequestration of parasitized RBCs in brain microvasculature is associated with disease pathogenesis, but our understanding of this process is incomplete...
  6. pmc Chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10 are required for the development of murine cerebral malaria
    Gabriele S V Campanella
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4814-9. 2008
    b>Cerebral malaria is a significant cause of global mortality, causing an estimated two million deaths per year, mainly in children. The pathogenesis of this disease remains incompletely understood...
  7. ncbi Cerebral malaria: why experimental murine models are required to understand the pathogenesis of disease
    J Brian de Souza
    Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Parasitology 137:755-72. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria is a life-threatening complication of malaria infection...
  8. pmc Severe falciparum malaria in Gabonese children: clinical and laboratory features
    Arnaud Dzeing-Ella
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences USS, Libreville, Gabon
    Malar J 4:1. 2005
    ..This study examined the prognostic indicators of severe falciparum malaria in Gabonese children...
  9. pmc TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria
    Nadia A Sam-Agudu
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:548-55. 2010
    ..IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM, N = 65) and uncomplicated malaria (UM, N = 52)...
  10. ncbi A unified hypothesis for the genesis of cerebral malaria: sequestration, inflammation and hemostasis leading to microcirculatory dysfunction
    Henri C van der Heyde
    La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Trends Parasitol 22:503-8. 2006
    A unifying hypothesis for the genesis of cerebral malaria proposes that parasite antigens (released by replication in blood, surface molecules on parasitized erythrocytes, or merozoites) activate platelets that, in turn, contribute to the ..
  11. pmc Murine malaria parasite sequestration: CD36 is the major receptor, but cerebral pathology is unlinked to sequestration
    Blandine Franke-Fayard
    Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11468-73. 2005
    ..b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, and PfEMP1-mediated sequestration of ..
  12. ncbi Low plasma concentrations of interleukin 10 in severe malarial anaemia compared with cerebral and uncomplicated malaria
    J A Kurtzhals
    Immunology Unit, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana
    Lancet 351:1768-72. 1998
    ..Conversely, interleukin 10 (IL-10), which mediates feed-back regulation of TNF, stimulates bone-marrow function in vitro and counteracts anaemia in mice. We investigated the associations of these cytokines with malarial anaemia...
  13. ncbi Involvement of IFN-gamma receptor-medicated signaling in pathology and anti-malarial immunity induced by Plasmodium berghei infection
    V Amani
    INSERM U511, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Universite Paris, France
    Eur J Immunol 30:1646-55. 2000
    IFN-gamma has been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). We have used mice lacking the alpha chain of the IFN-gamma receptor (KO mice) to define its role in the pathogenesis of ECM...
  14. ncbi Perforin-dependent brain-infiltrating cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis
    Josianne Nitcheu
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 511, Immunobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire des Infections Parasitaires, CHU Pitie Salpetriere, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 91 Boulevard de l Hopital, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France
    J Immunol 170:2221-8. 2003
    Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) resulting from Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection involves T lymphocytes. However, the mechanisms of T cell-mediated pathogenesis remain unknown...
  15. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels and cognitive impairment in cerebral malaria
    Chandy C John
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 78:198-205. 2008
    ..or chemokines important in central nervous system (CNS) infections were measured in 76 Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM) and 8 control children...
  16. ncbi Chemokine gene expression during fatal murine cerebral malaria and protection due to CXCR3 deficiency
    Jenny Miu
    Molecular Immunopathology Unit, Bosch Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    J Immunol 180:1217-30. 2008
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) can be a fatal manifestation of Plasmodium falciparum infection...
  17. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid and serum biomarkers of cerebral malaria mortality in Ghanaian children
    Henry B Armah
    Morehouse School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Malar J 6:147. 2007
    Plasmodium falciparum can cause a diffuse encephalopathy known as cerebral malaria (CM), a major contributor to malaria associated mortality...
  18. ncbi Brain gene expression, metabolism, and bioenergetics: interrelationships in murine models of cerebral and noncerebral malaria
    Caroline Rae
    Discipline of Biochemistry, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
    FASEB J 18:499-510. 2004
    ..In cerebral malaria caused by P...
  19. ncbi Low nitric oxide bioavailability contributes to the genesis of experimental cerebral malaria
    Irene Gramaglia
    La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, 505 Coast Boulevard, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Med 12:1417-22. 2006
    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the genesis of cerebral malaria is controversial...
  20. pmc Perfusion abnormalities in children with cerebral malaria and malarial retinopathy
    Nicholas A V Beare
    St Paul s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Prescot Street, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 199:263-71. 2009
    In patients with cerebral malaria (CM), retinal angiography allows the study of infected central nervous system microvasculature in vivo...
  21. pmc Serum angiopoietin-1 and -2 levels discriminate cerebral malaria from uncomplicated malaria and predict clinical outcome in African children
    Fiona E Lovegrove
    McLaughlin Rotman Centre for Global Health, McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e4912. 2009
    ..which individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are at risk of developing serious complications such as cerebral malaria (CM)...
  22. ncbi An ultrastructural study of the brain in fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    Emsri Pongponratn
    Department of Tropical Pathology, and Wellcome Trust Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 69:345-59. 2003
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of death in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
  23. ncbi High-level cerebellar expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules in fatal, paediatric, cerebral malaria
    H Armah
    Department of Pathology, University of Ghana Medical School, P O Box 4236, Accra, Ghana
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99:629-47. 2005
    ..molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, in the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria (CM) are well established, the role of local cytokine release, in the brain, remains unclear...
  24. pmc Plasma IP-10, apoptotic and angiogenic factors associated with fatal cerebral malaria in India
    Vidhan Jain
    National Institute of Malaria Research ICMR, Jabalpur, India
    Malar J 7:83. 2008
    Plasmodium falciparum in a subset of patients can lead to cerebral malaria (CM), a major contributor to malaria-associated mortality...
  25. ncbi Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen expression varies between isolates causing severe and nonsevere malaria and is modified by acquired immunity
    Morten A Nielsen
    Center for Medical Parasitology, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Immunol 168:3444-50. 2002
    ..Independent of this, parasites isolated from children with severe malaria (cerebral malaria and severe anemia) were better recognized by VSA-specific plasma Abs than parasites obtained from children ..
  26. pmc Axonal injury in cerebral malaria
    Isabelle M Medana
    Nuffield Departments of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medicine, Level 5 Lab R 5501, The John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 160:655-66. 2002
    ..falciparum malaria. The frequency and extent of beta-APP staining were more severe in patients with cerebral malaria than in those with no clinical cerebral involvement...
  27. ncbi Perforin mediated apoptosis of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells during experimental cerebral malaria
    Sarah Potter
    Department of Pathology, Medical Foundation Building K25, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 36:485-96. 2006
    b>Cerebral malaria is a serious complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. We have investigated the role of perforin in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria in a murine model (Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection)...
  28. ncbi Immunopathogenesis of cerebral malaria
    Nicholas H Hunt
    Molecular Immunopathology Unit, Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Int J Parasitol 36:569-82. 2006
    ..b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a deadly complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, yet its pathogenesis remains incompletely ..
  29. pmc The murine cerebral malaria phenomenon
    Nicholas J White
    Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Trends Parasitol 26:11-5. 2010
    P.berghei ANKA infection in CBA or CB57BL/6 mice is used widely as a murine 'model' of human cerebral malaria (HCM), despite markedly different histopathological features...
  30. pmc Locally up-regulated lymphotoxin alpha, not systemic tumor necrosis factor alpha, is the principle mediator of murine cerebral malaria
    Christian R Engwerda
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 195:1371-7. 2002
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) causes death in children and nonimmune adults. TNF-alpha has been thought to play a key role in the development of CM...
  31. ncbi Differentiating the pathologies of cerebral malaria by postmortem parasite counts
    Terrie E Taylor
    Department of Internal Medicine, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Nat Med 10:143-5. 2004
    To study the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, we conducted autopsies in 31 children with this clinical diagnosis. We found that 23% of the children had actually died from other causes...
  32. pmc Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces the incidence of murine cerebral malaria
    Judith H Waknine-Grinberg
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    Malar J 9:5. 2010
    ..Deregulation of the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum, characterized by a Th1 response, leads to cerebral malaria (CM), while a Th2 response accompanies chronic schistosomiasis.
  33. ncbi Rethinking cerebral malaria pathology
    Danny A Milner
    The Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 23:456-63. 2010
    ..This review suggests a reframing of the question of cerebral malaria pathology in light of recent findings to focus on dissection of pathogenesis that will lead to effective ..
  34. ncbi Platelet-endothelial cell interactions in cerebral malaria: the end of a cordial understanding
    Dorothee Faille
    Department of Pathology, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
    Thromb Haemost 102:1093-102. 2009
    b>Cerebral malaria is an acute encephalopathy evolving from an infection with Plasmodium falciparum which kills more than one million people each year...
  35. ncbi Genetic analysis of circulating and sequestered populations of Plasmodium falciparum in fatal pediatric malaria
    Jacqui Montgomery
    Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi
    J Infect Dis 194:115-22. 2006
    ..genetic complexity of circulating and sequestered Plasmodium falciparum populations, in patients with fatal cerebral malaria (CM) versus control subjects with incidental P. falciparum parasitemia who died of causes other than malaria...
  36. ncbi Control of pathogenic CD8+ T cell migration to the brain by IFN-gamma during experimental cerebral malaria
    E Belnoue
    Department of Immunology, Institute Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    Parasite Immunol 30:544-53. 2008
    Previous studies have shown that IFN-gamma is essential for the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) in mice...
  37. ncbi Macrophages/microglial cells in patients with cerebral malaria
    Martin H Deininger
    Institute of Brain Research, University of Tuebingen Medical School, Calwer Str 3, D 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
    Eur Cytokine Netw 13:173-85. 2002
    b>Cerebral malaria is a life threatening sequel of Plasmodium falciparum infection and contributes significantly to malaria mortality, especially among children...
  38. ncbi Clusters of cytokines determine malaria severity in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients from endemic areas of Central India
    D Prakash
    National Centre for Cell Science, Pune, Pune Maharashtra, India
    J Infect Dis 194:198-207. 2006
    ..of Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients manifesting mild malaria (MM), severe noncerebral malaria (SM), or cerebral malaria (CM) and in control subjects from Gondia, a malaria-endemic site in India, as well as in healthy subjects ..
  39. pmc Rosiglitazone modulates the innate immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection and improves outcome in experimental cerebral malaria
    Lena Serghides
    Tropical Disease Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada
    J Infect Dis 199:1536-45. 2009
    For severe malarial syndromes such as cerebral malaria, adverse clinical outcomes are often mediated by the immune system rather than caused by the parasite directly...
  40. pmc Accumulation of Plasmodium berghei-infected red blood cells in the brain is crucial for the development of cerebral malaria in mice
    Fernanda G Baptista
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Oeiras, Portugal
    Infect Immun 78:4033-9. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria is the most severe complication of human infection with Plasmodium falciparum...
  41. ncbi Low levels of RANTES are associated with mortality in children with cerebral malaria
    Chandy C John
    University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:837-45. 2006
    In children with cerebral malaria (CM), serum chemokine levels and associated morbidity and mortality have not been characterized.
  42. ncbi Circulating endothelial microparticles in malawian children with severe falciparum malaria complicated with coma
    Valery Combes
    JAMA 291:2542-4. 2004
  43. ncbi Imaging experimental cerebral malaria in vivo: significant role of ischemic brain edema
    Marie France Penet
    Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Unite Mixte de Recherche Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 6612, 13005 Marseille, France
    J Neurosci 25:7352-8. 2005
    The first in vivo magnetic resonance study of experimental cerebral malaria is presented. Cerebral involvement is a lethal complication of malaria...
  44. ncbi Blood-brain barrier breakdown during cerebral malaria: suicide or murder?
    Paco Pino
    INSERM U511, Immunobiologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire des Infections Parasitaires, Paris, France
    Thromb Haemost 94:336-40. 2005
    b>Cerebral malaria, one of the most serious complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection, is characterized by the sequestration of parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs) in cerebral microvascular beds...
  45. ncbi The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria
    Dermot Cox
    Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123 St Stephens Green, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Cell Mol Life Sci 67:557-68. 2010
    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world and cerebral malaria is responsible for the majority of malaria-associated deaths...
  46. pmc The distribution and intensity of parasite sequestration in comatose Malawian children
    Karl B Seydel
    Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:208-5. 2006
    ..Discerning the relationship between sequestration and well-defined clinical syndromes may enhance understanding of disease mechanisms...
  47. ncbi Pathogenesis, clinical features, and neurological outcome of cerebral malaria
    Richard Idro
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Insitute, Kilifi, Kenya
    Lancet Neurol 4:827-40. 2005
    b>Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
  48. pmc Cognitive dysfunction is sustained after rescue therapy in experimental cerebral malaria, and is reduced by additive antioxidant therapy
    Patricia A Reis
    Laboratorio de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000963. 2010
    Neurological impairments are frequently detected in children surviving cerebral malaria (CM), the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum...
  49. ncbi CXCR3 determines strain susceptibility to murine cerebral malaria by mediating T lymphocyte migration toward IFN-gamma-induced chemokines
    Philippe E Van Den Steen
    Laboratory of Immunobiology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Immunol 38:1082-95. 2008
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) results from the binding of infected erythrocytes and leukocytes to brain endothelia. The precise mechanisms underlying lymphocyte recruitment and activation in CM remain unclear...
  50. ncbi CCR5 deficiency decreases susceptibility to experimental cerebral malaria
    Elodie Belnoue
    Departement d Immunologie, Institut Cochin, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale INSERM, Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Cochin, Paris, France
    Blood 101:4253-9. 2003
    Infection of susceptible mouse strains with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) is a valuable experimental model of cerebral malaria (CM)...
  51. pmc Differential var gene transcription in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with cerebral malaria compared to hyperparasitaemia
    Helen M Kyriacou
    Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK
    Mol Biochem Parasitol 150:211-8. 2006
    ..We found that P. falciparum isolates from children with cerebral malaria (unrousable coma) predominantly transcribe var genes with DBLalpha1-like domains that are characteristic of ..
  52. ncbi NK cells stimulate recruitment of CXCR3+ T cells to the brain during Plasmodium berghei-mediated cerebral malaria
    Diana S Hansen
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    J Immunol 178:5779-88. 2007
    ..It has been shown that the NK complex is a genetic determinant of murine cerebral malaria pathogenesis mediated by Plasmodium berghei ANKA...
  53. ncbi Cerebral malaria and the hemolysis/methemoglobin/heme hypothesis: shedding new light on an old disease
    Ana Pamplona
    Unidade de Malaria, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649 028 Lisboa, Portugal
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:711-6. 2009
    Malaria causes more than 1 million deaths every year with cerebral malaria (CM) being a major cause of death in Sub-Saharan African children. The nature of the malaria-associated pathogenesis is complex and multi-factorial...
  54. ncbi Cerebral malaria versus bacterial meningitis in children with impaired consciousness
    J A Berkley
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research, Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    QJM 92:151-7. 1999
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are the two common causes of impaired consciousness in children presenting to hospital in sub-Sahara Africa...
  55. pmc CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress CD4+ T-cell function and inhibit the development of Plasmodium berghei-specific TH1 responses involved in cerebral malaria pathogenesis
    Catherine Q Nie
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Infect Immun 75:2275-82. 2007
    ..Plasmodium berghei ANKA constitutes the best available mouse model for human Plasmodium falciparum-mediated cerebral malaria, a devastating neurological syndrome that kills nearly 2.5 million people every year...
  56. pmc Artemisone effective against murine cerebral malaria
    Judith H Waknine-Grinberg
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel
    Malar J 9:227. 2010
    ..However, their efficiency in cases of cerebral malaria (CM) remains to be determined.
  57. pmc Platelet-induced clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from Malawian patients with cerebral malaria-possible modulation in vivo by thrombocytopenia
    Samuel Crocodile Wassmer
    Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Chichiri
    J Infect Dis 197:72-8. 2008
    Platelets may play a role in the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria (CM), and they have been shown to induce clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (PRBCs) in vitro...
  58. ncbi Reduced cerebral blood flow and N-acetyl aspartate in a murine model of cerebral malaria
    Richard P Kennan
    Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Parasitol Res 96:302-7. 2005
    b>Cerebral malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world...
  59. pmc Cytokines and adhesion molecules expression in the brain in human cerebral malaria
    Henry Armah
    Department of Pathology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2:123-31. 2005
    ..and their up-regulation of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin, in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is well established, the role of local cytokine release remain unclear...
  60. ncbi Regulation of murine cerebral malaria pathogenesis by CD1d-restricted NKT cells and the natural killer complex
    Diana S Hansen
    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia
    Immunity 18:391-402. 2003
    ..berghei ANKA/rodent model of cerebral malaria. The functional properties of CD1d-restricted NKT cells vary according to expression of loci of the natural ..
  61. ncbi The cerebral-malaria-associated expression of RANTES, CCR3 and CCR5 in post-mortem tissue samples
    B Y Sarfo
    Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Drive SW, Atlanta, GA 30310 1495, USA
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 98:297-303. 2004
  62. ncbi Low plasma arginine concentrations in children with cerebral malaria and decreased nitric oxide production
    Bert K Lopansri
    Division of Infectious Diseases, VA and University of Utah Medical Centers, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
    Lancet 361:676-8. 2003
    ..mononuclear cell NO synthase 2 (NOS2) expression are high in healthy Tanzanian children but low in those with cerebral malaria. Factors that downregulate NOS2 also diminish factors involved in cellular uptake and biosynthesis of L-..
  63. pmc Murine cerebral malaria is associated with a vasospasm-like microcirculatory dysfunction, and survival upon rescue treatment is markedly increased by nimodipine
    Pedro Cabrales
    La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, 505 Coast Boulevard South Suite 406, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Am J Pathol 176:1306-15. 2010
    Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries...
  64. pmc Platelet factor 4 regulation of monocyte KLF4 in experimental cerebral malaria
    Kalyan Srivastava
    Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10413. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria continues to be a difficult to treat complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection in children. We have shown that platelets can have major deleterious immune functions in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM)...
  65. ncbi Filaria-induced IL-10 suppresses murine cerebral malaria
    Sabine Specht
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Microbes Infect 12:635-42. 2010
    ..b>Cerebral malaria (CM), a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, is triggered as a consequence of the immune ..
  66. pmc Identification of malaria retinopathy improves the specificity of the clinical diagnosis of cerebral malaria: findings from a prospective cohort study
    Gretchen L Birbeck
    International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:231-4. 2010
    The diagnosis of cerebral malaria (CM) is difficult to confirm in endemic regions with limited neurodiagnostics. Accurate diagnoses are critical for trials and outcomes studies...
  67. pmc Blantyre Malaria Project Epilepsy Study (BMPES) of neurological outcomes in retinopathy-positive paediatric cerebral malaria survivors: a prospective cohort study
    Gretchen L Birbeck
    Michigan State University, International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, East Lansing, MI, USA
    Lancet Neurol 9:1173-81. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria, a disorder characterised by coma, parasitaemia, and no other evident cause of coma, is challenging to diagnose definitively in endemic regions that have high rates of asymptomatic parasitaemia and limited neurodiagnostic ..
  68. ncbi The role of cerebral oedema in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria
    L A Sanni
    Division of Parasitology, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK
    Redox Rep 6:137-42. 2001
    ..It has been suggested that sequestration of parasitized red blood cells might contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM), by hypoxia causing either: (i) compensatory vasodilatation with a resultant increase in the brain ..
  69. ncbi Identification of a novel cerebral malaria susceptibility locus (Berr5) on mouse chromosome 19
    J Berghout
    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Genes Immun 11:310-8. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is an acute, generally lethal condition characterized by high fever, seizures and coma...
  70. pmc Retinopathy in severe malaria in Ghanaian children--overlap between fundus changes in cerebral and non-cerebral malaria
    Vera A Essuman
    University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
    Malar J 9:232. 2010
    ..designed to determine the diagnostic usefulness of retinopathy on ophthalmoscopy in severe malaria syndromes: Cerebral malaria (CM) and non-cerebral severe malaria (non-CM), i.e...
  71. pmc Protein kinase C θ deficiency increases resistance of C57BL/6J mice to Plasmodium berghei infection-induced cerebral malaria
    Ariel Ohayon
    The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Infect Immun 78:4195-205. 2010
    ..parasite burden, PKCθ(+/+) mice had an earlier onset of neurological signs, characteristics of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), resulting in an earlier death...
  72. ncbi Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria
    C R Newton
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Clinical Research Centre, Kilifi Unit, Kenya
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91:161-5. 1997
    ..coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated...
  73. pmc Retinal pathology of pediatric cerebral malaria in Malawi
    Valerie A White
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    PLoS ONE 4:e4317. 2009
    The causes of coma and death in cerebral malaria remain unknown. Malarial retinopathy has been identified as an important clinical sign in the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral malaria...
  74. ncbi Sampling of supraorbital brain tissue after death: improving on the clinical diagnosis of cerebral malaria
    Danny A Milner
    The Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:805-8. 2005
    The clinical diagnosis of cerebral malaria in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions is strengthened by demonstration of cerebral sequestration at autopsy...
  75. ncbi Pathogenic T cells in cerebral malaria
    Laurent Renia
    Department of Immunology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Cochin, Paris, France
    Int J Parasitol 36:547-54. 2006
    Malaria remains a major global health problem and cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most serious complications of this disease. Recent years have seen important advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria...
  76. ncbi Behavioural and histopathological alterations in mice with cerebral malaria
    P Lackner
    Clinical Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 32:177-88. 2006
    Different features of sensorimotor function and behaviour were studied in murine cerebral malaria (CM) and malaria without cerebral involvement (non-CM) applying the primary screen of the SHIRPA protocol...
  77. pmc Algorithms to predict cerebral malaria in murine models using the SHIRPA protocol
    Yuri C Martins
    Laboratório de Pesquisas em Malária, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Brasil, 4365 Manguinhos, Cep 21045 900 Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil
    Malar J 9:85. 2010
    Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in C57Bl/6 mice induces cerebral malaria (CM), which reproduces, to a large extent, the pathological features of human CM...
  78. ncbi Increased prevalence of epilepsy associated with severe falciparum malaria in children
    Julie A Carter
    Neurosciences Unit, Institute of Child Health, The Wolfson Centre, London, United Kingdom
    Epilepsia 45:978-81. 2004
    ..The relation between falciparum malaria and epilepsy is undetermined; thus we measured the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in children with a history of severe malaria...
  79. pmc C5 deficiency and C5a or C5aR blockade protects against cerebral malaria
    Samir N Patel
    Tropical Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, McLaughlin Rotman Centre for Global Health, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada
    J Exp Med 205:1133-43. 2008
    ..berghei ANKA (PbA) provides a powerful model to define genetic determinants that regulate the development of cerebral malaria (CM)...
  80. pmc Risk factors for persisting neurological and cognitive impairments following cerebral malaria
    R Idro
    Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kenya Medical Research Institute Wellcome Trust Research Labs, Kilifi, Kenya
    Arch Dis Child 91:142-8. 2006
    Persisting neurological and cognitive impairments are common after cerebral malaria. Although risk factors for gross deficits on discharge have been described, few studies have examined those associated with persistent impairments.
  81. ncbi Microsatellite polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria in Myanmar
    Masato Takeda
    Department of Medical Zoology, Saitama Medical School, Saitama 350 0495, Japan
    Jpn J Infect Dis 58:268-71. 2005
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and its pathogenesis leading to coma remains unknown...
  82. ncbi Severe malaria in Cameroonian children: correlation between plasma levels of three soluble inducible adhesion molecules and TNF-alpha
    Viviane H M Tchinda
    Medical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies IMPM, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation, Yaoundé Cameroon, P O Box 3851, Messa Yaounde, Cameroon
    Acta Trop 102:20-8. 2007
    ..Taken together, these results confirm the role of TNF-alpha and the three adhesion molecules in pathogenic processes associated with severe malaria in children, and suggest an association between sICAM-1 and severe malarial anemia...
  83. pmc Assessing vascular permeability during experimental cerebral malaria by a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody technique
    H C van der Heyde
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130, USA
    Infect Immun 69:3460-5. 2001
    ..compromised in the brain, lung, kidney, and heart during Plasmodium berghei infection, a well-recognized model for human cerebral malaria. The results for vascular permeability from both methods were significantly (P < 0.001) related.
  84. ncbi Microvesiculation and cell interactions at the brain-endothelial interface in cerebral malaria pathogenesis
    Valery Combes
    Department of Pathology, Vascular Immunology Unit, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Australia
    Prog Neurobiol 91:140-51. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is still a major world health problem whose pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. After reviewing some particularities of anti-malarial immunity, we focus here on the neurovascular aspects of CM...
  85. pmc ABCA1 gene deletion protects against cerebral malaria: potential pathogenic role of microparticles in neuropathology
    Valery Combes
    Laboratory of Immunopathology, Faculty of Medicine, IFR48, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27, Bd Jean Moulin, F 13385 Marseille cedex 05, France
    Am J Pathol 166:295-302. 2005
    ..In this study, we report about the complete resistance to cerebral malaria of these mice...
  86. ncbi Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals an impaired brain metabolic profile in mice resistant to cerebral malaria infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA
    Marie France Penet
    Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR CNRS 6612, Facultéde Médecine la Timone, UniversitédelaMéditerranée, Marseille, France
    J Biol Chem 282:14505-14. 2007
    ..Severe malaria is a complex multisystem disorder, including one or more of the following complications: cerebral malaria, anemia, acidosis, jaundice, respiratory distress, renal insufficiency, coagulation anomalies, and ..
  87. pmc Experimental cerebral malaria progresses independently of the Nlrp3 inflammasome
    Thornik Reimer
    Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:764-9. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria is the most severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection in humans and the pathogenesis is still unclear. Using the P...
  88. ncbi Depletion of CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells prevents Plasmodium berghei induced cerebral malaria in end-stage disease
    C Hermsen
    University of Nijmegen, Department of Medical Microbiology, The Netherlands
    Parasitology 114:7-12. 1997
    The role of T-cells in development of experimental cerebral malaria was analysed in C57B1/6J and C57B1/10 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei K173 or Plasmodium berghei ANKA by treatment with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 mAbs...
  89. ncbi Heme moves to center stage in cerebral malaria
    Nicholas H Hunt
    Nat Med 13:667-9. 2007
  90. ncbi Cell vesiculation and immunopathology: implications in cerebral malaria
    Nicolas Coltel
    CNRS UMR 6020 Immunopathology Group, Faculty of Medicine IFR48, 27, Bd Jean Moulin, F 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France
    Microbes Infect 8:2305-16. 2006
    ..In the present review, we summarise data about the production of the microparticles, their biological significance and potential role during microorganism-driven processes, especially in cerebral malaria.
  91. ncbi Breaking down the blood-brain barrier: signaling a path to cerebral malaria?
    Sue Adams
    Malaria Research Group, Nuffield Dept of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Oxford Wellcome Centre for Tropical and Infectious Diseases, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK OX3 9DU
    Trends Parasitol 18:360-6. 2002
    b>Cerebral malaria is a major killer in the developing world, but we still know very little about the causes of this disease...
  92. ncbi Adult cerebral malaria: prognostic importance of imaging findings and correlation with postmortem findings
    Tufail F Patankar
    Departments of Radiology, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Bombay, India
    Radiology 224:811-6. 2002
    To correlate imaging abnormalities, clinical features, and postmortem findings in patients with proved cerebral malaria.
  93. ncbi TGF-beta1 released from activated platelets can induce TNF-stimulated human brain endothelium apoptosis: a new mechanism for microvascular lesion during cerebral malaria
    Samuel C Wassmer
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche UMR 6020, Faculty of Medicine, Institut Fédératif de Recherches IFR 48, Universite de la Mediterranee, Marseille, France
    J Immunol 176:1180-4. 2006
    Platelets have recently been shown to accumulate in brain microvessels of patients with cerebral malaria and to modulate the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells to human brain endothelium in vitro...
  94. ncbi Disruption of Nod-like receptors alters inflammatory response to infection but does not confer protection in experimental cerebral malaria
    Constance A M Finney
    Tropical Disease Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:718-22. 2009
    ..Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of cytoplasmic proteins involved in pathogen recognition, in a murine model of cerebral malaria (Plasmodium berghei ANKA, PbA)...
  95. ncbi [Blackwater fever in children during cerebral malaria: 3 case reports in Bamako]
    A A Oumar
    Département d épidémiologie des affections parasitaires, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali
    Arch Pediatr 14:993-5. 2007
    ..Blackwater fever is a rare but serious form of malaria in children. Diagnosis relies on clinical symptoms and on the color of the urines...
  96. pmc Electroencephalographic and clinical features of cerebral malaria
    J Crawley
    KEMRI Centre for Geographic Medicine Research Coast, Kilifi, Kenya
    Arch Dis Child 84:247-53. 2001
    Seizures are a prominent feature of childhood cerebral malaria, and are associated with an increased risk of death and neurological sequelae...
  97. ncbi Disruption of JNK2 decreases the cytokine response to Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol in vitro and confers protection in a cerebral malaria model
    Ziyue Lu
    Tropical Disease Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University Health Network Toronto General Hospital, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Immunol 177:6344-52. 2006
    ..of MAPK activation in pfGPI-induced cytokine secretion and examined the role of selected MAPKs in a model of cerebral malaria in vivo...
  98. ncbi IL-10 plays a crucial role for the protection of experimental cerebral malaria by co-infection with non-lethal malaria parasites
    Mamoru Niikura
    Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyorin University, Tokyo 181 8611, Japan
    Int J Parasitol 40:101-8. 2010
    b>Cerebral malaria is an infrequent but serious complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection in humans...
  99. ncbi Statins fail to improve outcome in experimental cerebral malaria and potentiate Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine production by murine macrophages
    Andrew J Helmers
    Institute of Medical Science, and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 81:631-7. 2009
    b>Cerebral malaria is responsible for a large proportion of the estimated one million deaths caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria annually...
  100. pmc Pathogenic roles of CD14, galectin-3, and OX40 during experimental cerebral malaria in mice
    Miranda S Oakley
    Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Center for Biologics and Evaluation Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e6793. 2009
    ..An in-depth knowledge of the host molecules and biological pathways that contribute towards the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria would help guide the development of novel prognostics and therapeutics...
  101. ncbi Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression in neutrophils from CBA/NSlc mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA that induces experimental cerebral malaria
    L Chen
    Department of Biomedical Science, College of Medicine at Rockford, University of Illinois, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL 61107, USA
    Parasitol Int 50:139-43. 2001
    To investigate the role of neutrophils in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), in a previous study we found that early neutrophil depletion prevented the development of ECM and down regulated the expression of Th1 cytokines in the brain...

Research Grants63

  1. Nitric Oxide Restoration &Heme Detoxification as Adjunctive Therapies for Cerebr
    LEONARDO JOSE DE MOURA CARVALHO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major complication of infection by Plasmodium falciparum. It affects mainly children under 5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa and shows a high mortality rate even when anti- malarial treatment is administered...
  2. Impacts of surface receptors [Toll like receptor (TLRs) and Fc gamma receptors (F
    Collins Ouma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..TLR-4, but not TLR-9, confer an increased risk of severe pediatric malaria characterized by mixed sequelae of cerebral malaria (CM) and/or SMA...
  3. Cerebral Malaria: Mechanisms of disease and neurological salvage
    Mahalia S Desruisseaux; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Greater than 20% of individuals with cerebral malaria (CM) suffer from persistent neurological and cognitive deficits long after successful anti-parasitic treatment...
  4. Pathogenesis of cognitive/neurologic deficits in central nervous system malaria
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..aims are to: 1) Establish the areas, frequency and severity of cognitive and neurologic function affected by cerebral malaria in children of different ages (18 months-4 years, 5-12 years)...
  5. The role of Histidine rich protein II in cerebral malaria
    Priya Pal; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Malaria parasites cause ~1.2 million deaths annually. Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe manifestation of malaria and results in decreased sensorium, coma, death, and in survivors lasting ..
  6. The role of the terminal complement pathway in experimental cerebral malaria.
    Theresa N Ramos; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe clinical complications of P...
  7. EPR and Mossbauer Characterization of Mn and Fe Proteins, Models, Intermediates
    Michael P Hendrich; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this pathway can lead to numerous physiological and pathological conditions, including: cataract formation, cerebral malaria, Alzheimer's disease, HIV infection, Huntington's disease and ischemic brain injury...
  8. Chemokines in Zambian children with Cerebral Malaria
    Monique F Stins; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral malaria (CM) is a clinical syndrome associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection that is associated with a high mortality of up to 30%, particular in children...
  9. Var gene regulation and antigenic variation in malaria
    Kirk W Deitsch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..red blood cells (RBCs) of their host, leading to severe anemia and the frequently lethal syndromes of cerebral malaria and pregnancy associated malaria...
  10. Neuropathology of severe malaria in Thailand: MRI studies
    Gary M Brittenham; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of investigation and investigative training focused on the neuropathological consequences of severe and cerebral malaria in Thailand...
  11. Hyperphenylalaninemia in cerebral malaria
    DONALD LEE GRANGER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood. We discovered that Tanzanian children with CM have markedly low plasma levels of arginine (Arg) and markedly elevated phenylalanine (Phe)...
  12. Nitric oxide protects against microcirculatory complications of malaria
    LEONARDO JOSE DE MOURA CARVALHO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Vascular leak, petechial hemorrhaging, and hypotension are well recognized complications of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), and the proposed studies will determine whether poor tissue oxygenation also functions in malaria ..
  13. Innate Immune Activation in Malaria
    Douglas T Golenbock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the production of Type I interferons, which we have found to be a critical determinant of outcome in mouse cerebral malaria;and 2) activation of the inflammasome, primarily through NRLP3 and AIM2, an inflammasome component that we ..
  14. Microparticles, a new player in cerebral malaria pathogenesis
    VALERY MADELEINE COMBES; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis is due to a complex interaction between the vascular, coagulation and immune systems, and parasite sequestration...
  15. Acute vs. delayed iron therapy: effect on iron status, anemia and cognition
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The CSF proteome in children with cerebral malaria will also be compared in those with and without iron deficiency...
  16. Identification of vaccine candidates against severe malaria
    Andrew V Oleinikov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..IE adhesion may result in severe complications including cerebral malaria, pregnancy malaria, severe anemia and respiratory distress, major contributors to malaria mortality...
  17. Endothelial progenitor cells and the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria
    BEN ADU GYAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The majority of deaths are due to infections with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of death in these patients...
  18. Malaria melatonin receptor signaling as a novel drug target
    Andrew P Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..falciparum infection, which is responsible for the predominant disease symptoms, including anemia, cerebral malaria, multi-organ failure and, significantly, periodic fevers that occur on a 48 h cycle...
  19. Innate Immune Responses to Malaria Parasites
    Channe D Gowda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease is characterized by multiple systemic clinical conditions and fatal organ-related pathologies such as cerebral malaria. Although pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by innate sensing of parasites is important for controlling ..
  20. IP-10 Chemokine: Its Role in T Cell Recruitment and Disease
    Andrew D Luster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and its ligands in regulating the entry and interactions of CD8+ T cells in the brain in a murine model of cerebral malaria in vivo...
  21. New Plasmodium Strategies to Modulate Inflammation
    Ana Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..with allopurinol results in increased TNF and LT-alpha in the brain of infected mice and in the generation of cerebral malaria in otherwise non-susceptible mice, suggesting that hypoxanthine degradation prevents cerebral malaria in mice...
  22. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation in Children after Severe Malaria
    Noeline Nakasujja; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Research Topic: We have documented in our prior work in Uganda that 1 out of 4 school-age survivors of cerebral malaria (CM) has persisting attention, memory, or learning impairment two years after illness...
  23. A Dose-Escalation, Safety and Feasibility Study of Enteral Levetiracetam for Seizure Control in Pediatric Cerebral Malaria
    Gretchen Lano Birbeck; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral malaria (CM) affects ~3 million children each year, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. Antimalarial medications can rapidly clear P...
  24. CD 8 T Cell Mediated Disruption of Blood Brain Tight Junction
    Aaron J Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such diseases characterized by disruption of the BBB including stroke, viral hemorrhagic fevers, cerebral malaria, HIV dementia, multiple sclerosis (MS), and shock...
  25. High throughput screening for anti-adhesion drugs to treat severe malaria
    Andrew V Oleinikov; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..multidomain PfEMP1 proteins to host cell receptors mediates severe complications in malaria (SM) including cerebral malaria, placental malaria, and respiratory distress, but only a few PfEMP1s are involved in SM...
  26. RBC-derived microparticles function in cerebral malaria
    Irene Gramaglia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis is due to a complex interaction between the vascular system, the immune response, and parasite sequestration...
  27. Seasonal Impact of iron fortification on malaria incidence in Ghanaian children
    Stanley H Zlotkin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..admission rates, as well as differences in secondary complications of malaria infections, such as death, cerebral malaria, pneumonia, dehydration, and diarrhea...
  28. Using primary endothelias and parasite isolates to study sequestration in malaria
    KARL BOYNTON SEYDEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..parasitemia (parasitemia unrelated to clinical symptoms), uncomplicated malaria, or life-threatening cerebral malaria. Markers of disease severity in both the host and the parasite remain elusive...
  29. Role of chemokines in astro-neuronal activation in cerebral malaria
    Monique Stins; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Malaria carries a clinical burden of up to 200 million episodes in Africa alone and a severe complication is cerebral malaria (CM), often leading to coma and death. A hallmark of human cerebral malaria (CM) is the sequestration of P...
  30. Research Training in Infection and Neurodevelopment in Uganda
    Chandy C John; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..epidemiologic and genetic risk factors for the development of neurocognitive impairment in children with cerebral malaria and in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis...
  31. Evaluation of a synthetic anti-GPI vaccine candidate in severe anemia models of m
    A Stewart Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fatalities arise predominantly from two clinically defined complications associated with severe disease: cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malaria anemia (SMA)...
  32. Human copy number polymorphism and severe malaria
    Jeffrey A Bailey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be evaluated by testing additional DNA samples from patients with other forms of severe malaria (cerebral malaria and acute respiratory distress)...
  33. Cell adhesion molecules in cerebral malaria.
    Henri van der Heyde; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..falciparum patients indicate that these individuals develop impaired consciousness with posturing (cerebral malaria), respiratory distress with lactic acidosis, anemia and (rarely) acute nephritis...
  34. Redefining Cerebral Malaria
    Terrie Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): 'Cerebral malaria'is a clinical syndrome consisting of coma not attributable to convulsions, hypoglycemia, or meningitis in patients with P. falciparum parasitemia...
  35. Severe falciparum malaria: mechanisms of hypoargininemia
    Bert Lopansri; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..by our group have shown that plasma arginine concentrations are markedly depressed in Tanzanian children with cerebral malaria when compared to healthy control children and children with uncomplicated malaria...
  36. Molecular Basis of iNKT Cell Ontogeny and Function
    Sebastian Joyce; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Additionally, this knowledge can lead to the development of therapeutics that either enhance (adjuvant effect, downregulate autoimmunity) or suppress (cerebral malaria, airway hypersensitivity) iNKT cell function.
  37. Binding Mechanisms in P.falciparum Cerebral Malaria
    JOSEPH DOUGLAS SMITH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral malaria is a deadly complication of malaria infection associated with the accumulation of P...
  38. Cognitive and Neurologic Sequelae in Cerebral Malaria
    Chandy John; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..between serum IL-10 and TNF-c_ levels and neurologic and neuropsychologic deficits in children with cerebral malaria (CM). Malaria is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in Uganda...
  39. HIV/Malaria Coinfection Effects on Immune Dysfunction and the Blood-Brain Barrier
    SARAH E HOCHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Each year, 500 million are infected and 1 million die because of malaria, with most deaths due to cerebral malaria in African children. In sub-Saharan Africa, roughly 24...
  40. ERYTHROCYTE ADHESION IN FALCIPARUM MALARIA
    IRWIN SHERMAN; Fiscal Year: 2004
    Plasmodium falciparum contributes to 1.5-2.7 million deaths annually. Cerebral malaria, a complication of P...
  41. Platelet Mediated Immune Responses in Experimental Cerebral Malaria
    Angela A Aggrey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cerebral Malaria (CM) is an often fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. CM has a characteristic cerebral vascular pathology...
  42. A platelet ligand mimetic for neurothrombotic disorders
    Catherine Woods; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..and cerebral thrombotic complications in disorders such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), cerebral malaria, meningitis vascular dementia and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) where localized recruitment of activated ..
  43. New Antimalarials from Plant-Pathogenic Fungi
    NP NANAYAKKARA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Plasmodium falciparum, which often causes fatal cerebral malaria, especially among children, has developed resistance to the one very effective antimalarial drug chloroquine and is developing ..
  44. CR1 Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Severe Malaria
    JOANN MOULDS; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..with low red cell CR1 to determine if they are protected from syndromes involving micro-vascular obstruction (cerebral malaria) due to the inhibitory effect on rosetting...
  45. CEREBRAL MALARIA--ROLE OF IRON IN PATHOGENESIS & THERAPY
    Gary Brittenham; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Ohio in a program of basic and clinical research designed to develop new approaches to the treatment of cerebral malaria. In many parts of the world, cerebral malaria is the most common clinical presentation and cause of death in ..
  46. Hyperphenylalaninemia in cerebral malaria
    DONALD GRANGER; Fiscal Year: 2006
    The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood. We discovered that Tanzanian children with CM have markedly low plasma levels of arginine (Arg) and markedly elevated phenylalanine (Phe)...
  47. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN PEDIATRIC CEREBRAL MALARIA
    Terrie Taylor; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Adapted from the Applicant's Abstract) Cerebral malaria the most ominous clinical syndrome caused by Plasmodium falciparum is difficult to manage medically. Even under optimal conditions, morbidity and mortality rates exceed 25 percent...
  48. Adherence of malaria-infected red cells
    Alan Cowman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Clinical manifestations of P. falciparum malaria include cerebral malaria, a major cause of death from this disease, where infected erythrocytes sequester in the deep vascular beds of ..
  49. Identifying Host Response Genes to Malaria
    Simon Foote; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Others develop a severe clinical syndrome which can rapidly end in death through either cerebral malaria or a severe anemia...
  50. Novel Target for the in silico Design of Antimalarials
    Susan Keenan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..falciparum in order to prevent cerebral malaria. PfPK5 bears a high degree of sequence homology (>65%) to a structurally conserved family of mammalian ..
  51. Cerebral Malaria Associated Neurological Disorders in India
    Jonathan Stiles; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..About 1% of all cases of falciparum malaria results in cerebral malaria and thus affects central nervous system at least in 3 million people especially young children...
  52. MALARIA AND IMMUNE RESPONSES OF CORD BLOOD CELLS
    Urszula Krzych; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..For example, children residing in hypoendemic areas commonly suffer from severe illness characterized by cerebral malaria, whereas children residing in holoendemic areas are more likely to experience parasitemia associated with ..
  53. HEMOZOIN AND MALARIA PATHOGENESIS
    JAMES MARTINEY; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Complications due to severe anemia and cerebral malaria are the major causes of morbidity and mortality, but the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ..
  54. Endothelial progenitor cells and malaria pathogenesis
    Linnie Golightly; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The majority of deaths are due to infections with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasites. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of death in these patients. Despite its virulence, the pathophysiologic basis of P...
  55. Computational & Biochemical Studies of the Malarial Blood Stage Invasion Complex
    Sondra Maureen Nemetski; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites - the invasive blood stage of this parasite, andthe causative agent of cerebral malaria and the majority of malarial mortality...
  56. Identification of parasite ligands in cerebral malaria
    JASON WENDLER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..b>Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe manifestation of infection resulting in coma and death, and represents significant mortality...
  57. ERYTHROCYTE-ENDOTHELIAL INTERACTIONS IN MALARIA
    IRWIN SHERMAN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..produce vasocclusions, impede microvascular blood flow, cause organ infarction and ultimately may result in cerebral malaria. The biological significance and the biochemical mechanisms of erythrocyte endothelial cell adherence are ..
  58. Development of an anti-malaria toxin vaccine candidate
    William Christ; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The vaccine candidate will be evaluated for efficacy in a rodent model of cerebral malaria and in two species safety. 3...
  59. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF PLASMODIUM HOST INTERACTIONS
    Masamichi Aikawa; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..on in vitro and in vivo derived parasites will be determined to ascertain its usefulness in the treatment of cerebral malaria. The studies are aimed at providing a better understanding of the host parasite interaction and the ..
  60. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF PLASMODIUM HOST INTERACTIONS
    Masamichi Aikawa; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..on in vitro and in vivo derived parasites will be determined to ascertain its usefulness in the treatment of cerebral malaria. The studies are aimed at providing a better understanding of the host parasite interaction and the ..
  61. IMMUNE RESPONSES TO P FALCIPARUM IN HIGHLAND KENYA
    Chandy John; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..falciparum antigens to susceptibility to infection and disease is important in the evaluation of these antigens as malaria vaccine candidates. ..