obesity

Summary

Summary: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue
    Y Zhang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    Nature 372:425-32. 1994
  2. pmc Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey
    T J Cole
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 320:1240-3. 2000
  3. pmc A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 457:480-4. 2009
  4. ncbi Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity
    Ruth E Ley
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 444:1022-3. 2006
  5. ncbi Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha
    Marie Lagouge
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Cell 127:1109-22. 2006
  6. doi Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008
    Katherine M Flegal
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Rd, Room 4315, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    JAMA 303:235-41. 2010
  7. doi Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010
    Katherine M Flegal
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Rd, Room 4315, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    JAMA 307:491-7. 2012
  8. doi Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010
    Cynthia L Ogden
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA
    JAMA 307:483-90. 2012
  9. pmc Obesity alters gut microbial ecology
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genomes Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11070-5. 2005
  10. ncbi Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Earl S Ford
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop E 17, Atlanta, GA 30333
    JAMA 287:356-9. 2002

Detail Information

Publications311 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue
    Y Zhang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021
    Nature 372:425-32. 1994
    ..Mutation of ob results in profound obesity and type II diabetes as part of a syndrome that resembles morbid obesity in humans...
  2. pmc Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey
    T J Cole
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 320:1240-3. 2000
    To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points.
  3. pmc A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 457:480-4. 2009
    ..the faecal microbial communities of adult female monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for leanness or obesity, and their mothers, to address how host genotype, environmental exposure and host adiposity influence the gut ..
  4. ncbi Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity
    Ruth E Ley
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 444:1022-3. 2006
    ..Our findings indicate that obesity has a microbial component, which might have potential therapeutic implications.
  5. ncbi Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha
    Marie Lagouge
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Cell 127:1109-22. 2006
    ..Importantly, RSV treatment protected mice against diet-induced-obesity and insulin resistance...
  6. doi Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008
    Katherine M Flegal
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Rd, Room 4315, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    JAMA 303:235-41. 2010
    The prevalence of obesity increased in the United States between 1976-1980 and 1988-1994 and again between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000.
  7. doi Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010
    Katherine M Flegal
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Rd, Room 4315, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    JAMA 307:491-7. 2012
    Between 1980 and 1999, the prevalence of adult obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) increased in the United States and the distribution of BMI changed. More recent data suggested a slowing or leveling off of these trends.
  8. doi Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010
    Cynthia L Ogden
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA
    JAMA 307:483-90. 2012
    The prevalence of childhood obesity increased in the 1980s and 1990s but there were no significant changes in prevalence between 1999-2000 and 2007-2008 in the United States.
  9. pmc Obesity alters gut microbial ecology
    Ruth E Ley
    Center for Genomes Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:11070-5. 2005
    ..These changes, which are division-wide, indicate that, in this model, obesity affects the diversity of the gut microbiota and suggest that intentional manipulation of community structure may ..
  10. ncbi Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Earl S Ford
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop E 17, Atlanta, GA 30333
    JAMA 287:356-9. 2002
    ..Limited information is available about the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States, however...
  11. pmc Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization
    Carey N Lumeng
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:175-84. 2007
    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltrate adipose tissue during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance...
  12. pmc Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index
    Elizabeth K Speliotes
    Metabolism Initiative and Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 42:937-48. 2010
    b>Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ∼ 2...
  13. pmc Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease
    Noriyuki Ouchi
    Department of Molecular Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai cho Showa ku, Nagoya, 466 8550 Japan
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:85-97. 2011
    The worldwide epidemic of obesity has brought considerable attention to research aimed at understanding the biology of adipocytes (fat cells) and the events occurring in adipose tissue (fat) and in the bodies of obese individuals...
  14. pmc A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing
    Junjie Qin
    BGI Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
    Nature 464:59-65. 2010
    ..We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively...
  15. ncbi Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001
    Ali H Mokdad
    Division of Adult and Community Health, 4770 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
    JAMA 289:76-9. 2003
    b>Obesity and diabetes are increasing in the United States.
  16. ncbi An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 444:1027-31. 2006
    The worldwide obesity epidemic is stimulating efforts to identify host and environmental factors that affect energy balance...
  17. pmc Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Katherine M Flegal
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Rd, Room 4336, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA
    JAMA 309:71-82. 2013
    Estimates of the relative mortality risks associated with normal weight, overweight, and obesity may help to inform decision making in the clinical setting.
  18. pmc Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012
    Cynthia L Ogden
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland
    JAMA 311:806-14. 2014
    ..More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010...
  19. pmc Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome
    Shigetada Furukawa
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    J Clin Invest 114:1752-61. 2004
    b>Obesity is a principal causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Here we report that increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an important pathogenic mechanism of obesity-associated metabolic syndrome...
  20. ncbi A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance
    Jiro Hirosumi
    Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 420:333-6. 2002
    b>Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and establishes the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the molecular mechanisms of this association are poorly understood...
  21. ncbi Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition
    Scott M Grundy
    Circulation 109:433-8. 2004
  22. ncbi Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity
    Youfa Wang
    Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Pediatr Obes 1:11-25. 2006
    b>Obesity has become a global epidemic but our understanding of the problem in children is limited due to lack of comparable representative data from different countries, and varying criteria for defining obesity...
  23. pmc MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
    Hajime Kanda
    Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
    ..plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
  24. doi Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men
    Wouter D van Marken Lichtenbelt
    Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, The Netherlands
    N Engl J Med 360:1500-8. 2009
    ..Brown-adipose-tissue activity was studied in relation to body composition and energy metabolism...
  25. ncbi Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome
    B Isomaa
    Department of Internal Medicine, Jakobstad Hospital, Finland
    Diabetes Care 24:683-9. 2001
    ..To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization..
  26. pmc Inflammation, stress, and diabetes
    Kathryn E Wellen
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1111-9. 2005
    ..It is now clear that obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-level inflammation...
  27. ncbi Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
    Steven E Kahn
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Nature 444:840-6. 2006
    b>Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
  28. ncbi The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity
    A Must
    Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
    JAMA 282:1523-9. 1999
    Overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in the United States and most likely contribute substantially to the burden of chronic health conditions.
  29. pmc Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
    Stuart P Weisberg
    Division of Moleuclar Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1796-808. 2003
    b>Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications...
  30. ncbi Inflammation and metabolic disorders
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 444:860-7. 2006
    ..homeostatic mechanism, dysfunction of which can lead to a cluster of chronic metabolic disorders, particularly obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
  31. pmc A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity
    Timothy M Frayling
    Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, Magdalen Road, Exeter, UK
    Science 316:889-94. 2007
    b>Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood...
  32. doi The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments
    Boyd A Swinburn
    WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Lancet 378:804-14. 2011
    The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in the global food system, which is producing more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before...
  33. ncbi Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report
    Sarah E Barlow
    Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Nutrition, and Hepatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children s Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Pediatrics 120:S164-92. 2007
    To revise 1998 recommendations on childhood obesity, an Expert Committee, comprised of representatives from 15 professional organizations, appointed experienced scientists and clinicians to 3 writing groups to review the literature and ..
  34. pmc A branched-chain amino acid-related metabolic signature that differentiates obese and lean humans and contributes to insulin resistance
    Christopher B Newgard
    Sarah W Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Metab 9:311-26. 2009
    ..Our findings show that in the context of a dietary pattern that includes high fat consumption, BCAA contributes to development of obesity-associated insulin resistance.
  35. ncbi Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults
    Eugenia E Calle
    Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta 30329, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1625-38. 2003
    ..The influence of excess body weight on the risk of death from cancer has not been fully characterized...
  36. doi The cellular and signaling networks linking the immune system and metabolism in disease
    Olivia Osborn
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Med 18:363-74. 2012
    It is now recognized that obesity is driving the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Western countries...
  37. pmc Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes
    Philip R Schauer
    Bariatric and Metabolic Institute, Cleveland Clinic M61, 9500 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    N Engl J Med 366:1567-76. 2012
    ..Observational studies have shown improvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery...
  38. ncbi The obesity epidemic in the United States--gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis
    Youfa Wang
    Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Epidemiol Rev 29:6-28. 2007
    This review of the obesity epidemic provides a comprehensive description of the current situation, time trends, and disparities across gender, age, socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic groups, and geographic regions in the United States ..
  39. ncbi The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes
    C M Steppan
    Department of Medicine, The Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Nature 409:307-12. 2001
    ..by target-tissue resistance to insulin, is epidemic in industrialized societies and is strongly associated with obesity; however, the mechanism by which increased adiposity causes insulin resistance is unclear...
  40. ncbi Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome
    Giulio Marchesini
    Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Hepatology 37:917-23. 2003
    ..of the metabolic syndrome increased with increasing body mass index, from 18% in normal-weight subjects to 67% in obesity. Insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment method) was significantly associated with the metabolic ..
  41. ncbi Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia
    C Weyer
    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85016, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1930-5. 2001
    ..putative antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory effects, were found to be decreased in Japanese individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and ..
  42. ncbi Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study
    Salim Yusuf
    Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton General Hospital, 237 Barton Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 2X2
    Lancet 364:937-52. 2004
    ..Therefore, the effect of such factors on risk of coronary heart disease in most regions of the world is unknown...
  43. ncbi Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects
    Lars Sjöström
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden
    N Engl J Med 357:741-52. 2007
    b>Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors, but no prospective interventional studies have reported whether weight loss decreases overall mortality...
  44. ncbi Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue
    Paul Trayhurn
    Neuroendocrine and Obesity Biology Unit, Liverpool Centre for Nutritional Genomics, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK
    Br J Nutr 92:347-55. 2004
    ..Production of these proteins by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and raised circulating levels of several acute-phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines has led to the view ..
  45. ncbi Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance
    Patrice D Cani
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, I2MR Toulouse, France
    Diabetes 56:1761-72. 2007
    Diabetes and obesity are two metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance and a low-grade inflammation...
  46. ncbi Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome
    Jean Pierre Despres
    Quebec Heart Institute, Hôpital Laval Research Centre, 2725 Chemin Sainte Foy, Pavilion Marguerite D Youville, 4th Floor, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G5, Canada
    Nature 444:881-7. 2006
    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease...
  47. doi CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity
    Satoshi Nishimura
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 15:914-20. 2009
    ..These results support the notion that CD8(+) T cells have an essential role in the initiation and propagation of adipose inflammation...
  48. ncbi The physiology of glucagon-like peptide 1
    Jens Juul Holst
    Department of Medical Physiology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Physiol Rev 87:1409-39. 2007
    ..Decreased secretion of GLP-1 may contribute to the development of obesity, and exaggerated secretion may be responsible for postprandial reactive hypoglycemia.
  49. doi Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK
    Y Claire Wang
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Lancet 378:815-25. 2011
    Rising prevalence of obesity is a worldwide health concern because excess weight gain within populations forecasts an increased burden from several diseases, most notably cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers...
  50. ncbi Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
    J Tuomilehto
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    N Engl J Med 344:1343-50. 2001
    ..mellitus is increasingly common, primarily because of increases in the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Whether type 2 diabetes can be prevented by interventions that affect the lifestyles of subjects at high risk ..
  51. ncbi A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review
    S Connor Gorber
    Physical Health Measures Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada
    Obes Rev 8:307-26. 2007
    b>Obesity is a rapidly increasing public health problem, with surveillance most often based on self-reported values of height and weight...
  52. pmc Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey
    Tim J Cole
    Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH
    BMJ 335:194. 2007
    ..To determine cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents, based on body mass index at age 18 years...
  53. doi Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity
    Margaret F Gregor
    Departments of Genetics and Complex Diseases and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 29:415-45. 2011
    The modern rise in obesity and its strong association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies...
  54. ncbi Obesity as a medical problem
    P G Kopelman
    St Bartholomew s and The Royal London School of Medicine, Queen Mary and Westfield College, UK
    Nature 404:635-43. 2000
    b>Obesity is now so common within the world's population that it is beginning to replace undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant contributor to ill health...
  55. doi Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice
    Patrice D Cani
    Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
    Diabetes 57:1470-81. 2008
    Diabetes and obesity are characterized by a low-grade inflammation whose molecular origin is unknown...
  56. pmc Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights
    Jonathan C Cohen
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9046, USA
    Science 332:1519-23. 2011
    ..Although NAFLD is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance, its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, and therapeutic options are limited...
  57. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
    ..are dramatically upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) in mouse models of genetic and high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
  58. ncbi Obesity
    David W Haslam
    National Obesity Forum, Watton Place Clinic, Watton at Stone, Hertfordshire, SG14 3SY, UK
    Lancet 366:1197-209. 2005
    ..b>Obesity, with its array of comorbidities, necessitates careful clinical assessment to identify underlying factors and to ..
  59. pmc GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects
    Da Young Oh
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 142:687-98. 2010
    ..Since chronic macrophage-mediated tissue inflammation is a key mechanism for insulin resistance in obesity, we fed obese WT and GPR120 knockout mice a high-fat diet with or without omega-3 FA supplementation...
  60. pmc Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review
    Vasanti S Malik
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 84:274-88. 2006
    ..beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages' high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total ..
  61. pmc Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries
    Barry M Popkin
    Department of Nutrition and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27516, USA
    Nutr Rev 70:3-21. 2012
    Decades ago, discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy...
  62. pmc Too much sitting: the population health science of sedentary behavior
    Neville Owen
    The University of Queensland, School of Population Health, Cancer Prevention Research Centre, Brisbane, Australia
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 38:105-13. 2010
    ..Sitting time, TV time, and time sitting in automobiles increase premature mortality risk. Further evidence from prospective studies, intervention trials, and population-based behavioral studies is required...
  63. pmc Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease
    Carey N Lumeng
    Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 5652, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2111-7. 2011
    The obesity epidemic has forced us to evaluate the role of inflammation in the health complications of obesity...
  64. ncbi Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation
    K G M M Alberti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, St Mary s Hospital, London, UK and International Diabetes Institute, Caulfield, Australia
    Diabet Med 23:469-80. 2006
    ..An additional aim was to highlight areas where more research into the MetS is needed...
  65. pmc Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity
    Amandine Everard
    Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology WELBIO, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:9066-71. 2013
    b>Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by altered gut microbiota, inflammation, and gut barrier disruption...
  66. pmc Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity
    Jorge Henao-Mejia
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Nature 482:179-85. 2012
    ..co-housing of inflammasome-deficient mice with wild-type mice results in exacerbation of hepatic steatosis and obesity. Thus, altered interactions between the gut microbiota and the host, produced by defective NLRP3 and NLRP6 ..
  67. ncbi Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health
    T Lobstein
    IASO International Obesity TaskForce, 231 North Gower Street, London NW1 2NS, UK
    Obes Rev 5:4-104. 2004
  68. ncbi Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals
    J M Friedman
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 395:763-70. 1998
    ..Leptin also signals nutritional status to several other physiological systems and modulates their function. Here we review the role of leptin in the control of body weight and its relevance to the pathogenesis of obesity.
  69. pmc The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences and Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15718-23. 2004
    ..for noncognitive reductions in energy intake, absorption, or storage are crucial given the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The gut microbial community (microbiota) is essential for processing dietary polysaccharides...
  70. pmc Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice
    Vanessa K Ridaura
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Science 341:1241214. 2013
    ..We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and ..
  71. doi Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature
    A S Singh
    VU University Medical Center, EMGO Institute, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Obes Rev 9:474-88. 2008
    Overweight and obesity in youth are important public health concerns and are of particular interest because of possible long-term associations with adult weight status and morbidity...
  72. doi Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children
    Mercedes de Onis
    Growth Assessment and Surveillance Unit, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:1257-64. 2010
    Childhood obesity is associated with serious health problems and the risk of premature illness and death later in life. Monitoring related trends is important.
  73. ncbi Socioeconomic status and obesity
    Lindsay McLaren
    Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    Epidemiol Rev 29:29-48. 2007
    ..Sobal and Stunkard's exhaustive review of the literature on the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity (Psychol Bull 1989;105:260-75)...
  74. pmc Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet
    Joseph A Baur
    Department of Pathology, Paul F Glenn Laboratories for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 444:337-42. 2006
    ..These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing.
  75. pmc Inflammation and insulin resistance
    Steven E Shoelson
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1793-801. 2006
    ..of an important role for tissue macrophages, these new findings are helping to reshape thinking about how obesity increases the risk for developing T2D and the metabolic syndrome...
  76. pmc Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome
    Peter J Turnbaugh
    Center for Genome Sciences, Washington University, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:213-23. 2008
    ..investigated the interrelationship between diet, gut microbial ecology, and energy balance using a mouse model of obesity produced by consumption of a prototypic Western diet...
  77. doi Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
    Floriana S Luppino
    Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:220-9. 2010
    Association between obesity and depression has repeatedly been established. For treatment and prevention purposes, it is important to acquire more insight into their longitudinal interaction.
  78. pmc Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5
    Matam Vijay-Kumar
    Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 328:228-31. 2010
    Metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities that increase an individual's risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
  79. doi Macrophages, inflammation, and insulin resistance
    Jerrold M Olefsky
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0651, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:219-46. 2010
    b>Obesity induces an insulin-resistant state in adipose tissue, liver, and muscle and is a strong risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  80. pmc Dietary and genetic obesity promote liver inflammation and tumorigenesis by enhancing IL-6 and TNF expression
    Eek Joong Park
    Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 140:197-208. 2010
    Epidemiological studies indicate that overweight and obesity are associated with increased cancer risk...
  81. pmc Adipose tissue remodeling and obesity
    Kai Sun
    Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8549, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:2094-101. 2011
    ....
  82. doi Extended international (IOTF) body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity
    T J Cole
    MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK
    Pediatr Obes 7:284-94. 2012
    The international (International Obesity Task Force; IOTF) body mass index (BMI) cut-offs are widely used to assess the prevalence of child overweight, obesity and thinness...
  83. ncbi Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study
    Salim Yusuf
    Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Canada
    Lancet 366:1640-9. 2005
    b>Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the most predictive measure for different ethnic populations is not clear...
  84. ncbi Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms
    Eugenia E Calle
    American Cancer Society, 1599 Clifton Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30306, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:579-91. 2004
  85. pmc Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system
    Andrew L Kau
    Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA
    Nature 474:327-36. 2011
    ..The insights gleaned should help to address several pressing global health problems...
  86. doi Evolution of inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the multiple parallel hits hypothesis
    Herbert Tilg
    Christian Doppler Research Laboratory for Gut Inflammation, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    Hepatology 52:1836-46. 2010
    ..Endoplasmic reticulum stress and related signaling networks, (adipo)cytokines, and innate immunity are emerging as central pathways that regulate key features of NASH...
  87. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:457-61. 2004
    b>Obesity contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using cell culture and mouse models, we show that obesity causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
  88. doi Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis
    M Ashwell
    Ashwell Associates, Ashwell, Herts, UK
    Obes Rev 13:275-86. 2012
    ..Waist-to-height ratio should therefore be considered as a screening tool...
  89. ncbi The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years
    Nicholas A Christakis
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 357:370-9. 2007
    The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially over the past 30 years...
  90. doi Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases
    Gideon R Hajer
    Department of Vascular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur Heart J 29:2959-71. 2008
    ..The increased prevalence of excessive visceral obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors is closely associated with the rising incidence of cardiovascular ..
  91. pmc Obesity-associated variants within FTO form long-range functional connections with IRX3
    Scott Smemo
    1 Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA 2
    Nature 507:371-5. 2014
    ..association studies (GWAS) have reproducibly associated variants within introns of FTO with increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
  92. doi Maternal obesity and risk of preterm delivery
    Sven Cnattingius
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, T2, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    JAMA 309:2362-70. 2013
    ..b>Obesity increases the risk of preterm delivery, but the associations between overweight and obesity and subtypes of ..
  93. pmc Local and systemic insulin resistance resulting from hepatic activation of IKK-beta and NF-kappaB
    Dongsheng Cai
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, One Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Med 11:183-90. 2005
    We show that NF-kappaB and transcriptional targets are activated in liver by obesity and high-fat diet (HFD)...
  94. pmc Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences and Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63108, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:979-84. 2007
    ..Given the worldwide epidemic in obesity, there is interest in how interactions between human and microbial metabolomes may affect our energy balance...
  95. pmc Overexpression of Fto leads to increased food intake and results in obesity
    Chris Church
    MRC Harwell, Metabolism and Inflammation, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell, UK
    Nat Genet 42:1086-92. 2010
    Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs within FTO, the human fat mass and obesity-associated gene, that are strongly associated with obesity...
  96. ncbi The epidemiology of obesity
    Cynthia L Ogden
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:2087-102. 2007
    In the United States, obesity among adults and overweight among children and adolescents have increased markedly since 1980. Among adults, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or greater...
  97. ncbi Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice
    M A Pelleymounter
    Department of Neurobiology, Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA
    Science 269:540-3. 1995
    ..These data suggest that the OB protein regulates body weight and fat deposition through effects on metabolism and appetite...
  98. pmc A mouse model for the metabolic effects of the human fat mass and obesity associated FTO gene
    Chris Church
    MRC Harwell, Metabolism and Inflammation, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Harwell, UK
    PLoS Genet 5:e1000599. 2009
    Human FTO gene variants are associated with body mass index and type 2 diabetes. Because the obesity-associated SNPs are intronic, it is unclear whether changes in FTO expression or splicing are the cause of obesity or if regulatory ..
  99. doi Television viewing time and mortality: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab)
    D W Dunstan
    Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 250 Kooyong Rd, Caulfield, Victoria, Australia 3162
    Circulation 121:384-91. 2010
    ..We examined the associations of prolonged television viewing time with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and non-CVD/noncancer mortality in Australian adults...
  100. ncbi Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes
    Paresh Dandona
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York at Buffalo and Kaleida Health, 3 Gates Circle, Buffalo, NY 14209, USA
    Trends Immunol 25:4-7. 2004
    ..necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), is increased in the insulin resistant states of obesity and type 2 diabetes, raising questions about the mechanisms underlying inflammation in these two conditions...
  101. pmc The effect of rural-to-urban migration on obesity and diabetes in India: a cross-sectional study
    Shah Ebrahim
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 7:e1000268. 2010
    Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and may increase the risk of obesity and diabetes...

Research Grants78

  1. Xenoestrogen regulation of Leydig cells
    BENSON TOKUNBO AKINGBEMI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., use of pigs to study obesity and diabetes and dogs for cardiopulmonary diseases...
  2. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) should be considered therapeutic targets for the treatment of hepatic steatosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes...
  3. ASTHMA AND ALLERGIC DISEASE CENTER
    Thomas A Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..asthma among teenage children in rural and city schools, focusing on the interaction between physical fitness, obesity, and metabolic syndrome on the one hand, and allergic responses and inflammation on the other...
  4. Brain Activation responses in adolescents with genetic predisposition to obesity
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The candidate's goal is to become an independently funded NIH investigator in biobehavioral research on obesity, with a specialization in the interaction of genetic, neural and environmental factors to influence children'..
  5. Pharmacogenetics of obesity and endocannabinergic modulation (POEM)
    Russell A Wilke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..provided by applicant): One of the most interesting cellular signaling pathways involved in the development of obesity and obesity-related comorbidity has been the endocannabinoid (eCB) system...
  6. Role of Chromogranin A in Metabolic Syndrome
    Sushil K Mahata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary: Obesity, lipodystrophy, diabetes and hypertension collectively constitute "Metabolic Syndrome" (MS)...
  7. The gastric X/A-like (ghrelin) cell: A peripheral regulator of food intake
    NILS WG LAMBRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..MBOAT4, ghrelin-O-acyl transferase (GOAT), food intake, peripheral regulation, gastric mucosal X/A cell, obesity, cachexia, LPS BRIEF STATEMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES (Do not use continuation sheets) Chronic changes in body ..
  8. Physiological role of PRDM16 in brown fat development and energy balance
    Patrick Seale; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of functional brown adipocytes in white fat depots of mice to raise energy expenditure and protect against obesity and cold exposure. Diet-Induced Obesity (DIP)...
  9. Autonomic, Endothelial, and Inflammatory Correlates of Sleep Duration
    MERCEDES RENEE CARNETHON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..hours/night) is associated with a higher prevalence and incidence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity, all of which can contribute to coronary heart disease...
  10. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time...
  11. Effective treatment of sleep apnea in prediabetes to reduce cardiometabolic risk
    Esra Tasali; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..OSA was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of prediabetes and incident diabetes, independently of obesity. Four recent studies including a total number of nearly 900 patients have reported an OSA prevalence in diabetes ..
  12. Regulation of thyroid hormone levels by central and peripheral pathways
    KRISTEN RACHEL VELLA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..NPY and MC4R neurons responsible for regulation of the HPT axis and hepatic TH metabolism, respectively, and how obesity and illness disrupt this regulation under three aims: 1...
  13. Effects of Evoked Resistance Training and Testosterone after Spinal Cord Injury
    Ashraf Gorgey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at a lifelong risk of increasing obesity and several chronic metabolic disorders such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia secondary to deterioration in ..
  14. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase as a Target for Ischemic Cardioprotection
    Donna M Van Winkle; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..However, current demographics show a high incidence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes in young adults that herald a large increase in heart disease and cardiovascular ..
  15. Neurobehavioral Correlates of Familial/genetic obesity risk in adolescents
    Susan Carnell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    The candidate's goal is to become an independently funded NIH investigator in biobehavioral research on obesity, with a specialization in the interaction of genetic, neural and environmental factors to influence children's ..
  16. Ang II and Overnutrition and Insulin resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Diminished insulin (INS) sensitivity is a common feature of disease states such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes...
  17. The influence of air pollution mixtures on biomarkers of airway oxidative stress
    Roby Greenwald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Physical activity is a critical tool to fight the risingrate of obesity in children and adults;however, where and when this activity occurs must be carefully considered to avoid ..
  18. Role of Txnip in adapting fuel metabolism to nutritional state
    SIMON HUI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal fuel metabolism are linked to the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
  19. Role of SCD1 and Dietary Methionine Restriction on Energy Homeostasis
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors including insulin resistance, high blood pressure and dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism...
  20. Functional Genomics of the Mitochondrial Proteome
    Dennis R Winge; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..dysfunction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The growing interest in mitochondria has stimulated large-scale proteomics efforts to define the mitochondrial ..
  21. Insulin Signaling and the Heart in Diabetes
    EVAN DALE ABEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..provided by applicant): Impaired insulin signaling in the myocardium may contribute to cardiac dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes and other insulin resistant states...
  22. Collagen X and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the hematopoietic stem cell niche.
    ELIZABETH G SWEENEY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..regulation of differentiation, growth hormones, respiration, cell cycle, cell death, spermatogenesis, obesity, stress, immunology, eye development, and dinosaur paleobiology...
  23. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..insulin resistant, but not obese, insulin sensitive humans thereby providing a molecular differentiation between obesity and insulin resistance...
  24. INSULIN RECEPTORS AND THE GLUCOSE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
    JERROLD MICHAEL OLEFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity is the dominant cause of acquired insulin resistance and it is the epidemic of obesity in the United States which is driving the dramatically increasing incidence of Type 2 diabetes...
  25. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The effect of maternal obesity on placental delivery of LC-PUFA to the fetus is unknown...
  26. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY DIETARY FAT
    Lisa M Salati; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The amount and type of fat in the diet has been the subject of public health recommendations to prevent obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis...
  27. Community Participation Research of Breastfeeding Disparities in African American
    Tamar Ringel Kulka; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and many reviews and case-control studies have shown the protective impact of breastfeeding against childhood obesity. North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics and NC CHAMPS 2005 show that in North Carolina, minority ..
  28. Ubiquitous pollutant acrolein inhibits IFN?? antiviral signaling: relevance to HC
    Swati Joshi-Barve; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..have identified several potential cofactors that may contribute to the failure of anti-HCV therapy, including obesity, diabetes, alcohol abuse, oxidative stress, cigarette smoking and environmental pollutants...
  29. Mechanism of action of omega-3 fatty acids in brain injury
    CHARLES NICHOLAS SERHAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Inflammation is at the root of many chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, obesity, macular degeneration, dry eye, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease and mental health disorders, and there is ..
  30. Central Action of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Male and Female Rats
    Haifei Shi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity is a major health problem. A key cause of obesity is increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure...
  31. Molecular Regulation of Progesterone Synthesis
    John S Davis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Some metabolic disorders associated with aberrant ovarian steroid secretion are hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome and neoplasms of the colon, breast, ovary, and uterus...
  32. Notch and Regulators of Notch Signaling Impact Both Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
    UTPAL BHAGIRATH PAJVANI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity and generalized insulin resistance;currently available insulin sensitizers are only partially effective at ..
  33. Arcuate nucleus glutamatergic neurons modulate energy homeostasis
    Anthony N van den Pol; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The underlying health problem that this application addresses is the growing epidemic of obesity that now affects 30% of the adult population, and the resultant increase in heart disease, hypertension, diabetes,..
  34. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Nuclear Receptors
    John Y L Chiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Type II diabetes and obesity are associated with dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance...
  35. Osteocalcin and Metabolic Risk Factors. The Framingham Study
    Yi Hsiang Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..risk factors (metabolic syndrome risk factor clustering: a combination of risk factors including central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension)...
  36. Parathyroid Hormone & Vitamin D Effects on Salt Sensitivity and Vascular Function
    ANNA LIZA BELEN VALINA TOTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Obesity, which disproportionately affects African Americans (especially women), has also been linked to an excessive ..
  37. INTERNET ENHANCED HEALTH PROMOTION FOR OBESE ETHNIC MINORITY ADOLESCENTS
    Jessica A Whiteley; Fiscal Year: 2011
    A.1. Overview. The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is increasing at alarming rates. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents aged 12 to 19 has tripled between 1980 and 2004 (Ogden et al., 2006)...
  38. Weight Loss &Exercise Effects on Telomere Length in Postmenopausal Women
    ANNE M MCTIERNAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Overweight, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle increase risk for several types of cancer. Currently, little is known about the effects of lifestyle change at the cellular level in humans...
  39. Efficacy of Yoga for Treatment-Resistant PTSD
    Bessel Van der Kolk; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..4- 1.6 times greater risk for physical inactivity and obesity, and a 1.6-2...
  40. Maternal obesity depresses essential fatty acid transport in the placenta
    PERRIE F O'TIERNEY-GINN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The effect of maternal obesity on placental delivery of LC-PUFA to the fetus is unknown...
  41. Expanding Vietnamese Community and Academic Infrastructure for Health Research
    Bang H Nguyen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g. obesity;diabetes;sexually transmitted diseases;hepatitis B;cardiovascular diseases;and cervical, breast, colorectal, ..
  42. Ghrelin: Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Components of Obesity
    BRETT JOHN WARREN TEUBNER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The prevalence of obesity and its associated deleterious health consequences is growing in the United States making it a critical area of research...
  43. ECG-derived cardiopulmonary coupling biomarkers of sleep, sleep-breathing, and ca
    Robert J Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., obesity hypoventilation syndrome) or more (e.g., central sleep apnea) sensitive to O2 and CO2 fluctuations...
  44. Molecular Mechanism of Protein Kinase Cbeta-Mediated Cholesterol Homeostasis
    Kamal D Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in association with hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance...
  45. Conference on Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Disea
    Martin Frank; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..At least 1 symposium and several talks will be dedicated to sympathetic regulation in humans. These talks will include heart failure, hypertension, POTS, panic disorder and obesity/metabolic syndrome.
  46. Lipid Droplet Metabolism
    Fredric B Kraemer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for steroid hormone production and the fact that excessive accumulation of lipids in droplets is a hallmark of obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis, and other metabolic diseases that are prevalent worldwide ..
  47. Neural Functioning of Feeding Centers in Obese Youth
    ROBERT STANLEY SHERWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Adolescent obesity is fueling the increase in the prevalence of T2DM in youth...
  48. JNK exacerbates ischemia/reperfusion injury in hyperglycemic subjects.
    Keith A Webster; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This will be implemented in 3 models of hyperglycemia: (i) db/db mice with monogenetic susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance. (ii) NONcNZO10 mice with polygenic susceptibility to obesity and insulin resistance...
  49. Role of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 in TLR5 KO mice colitis and metabolic syndrome
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Rates of obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world, in both developed and developing countries...
  50. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time. Environmental factors are increasingly found to be associated with the development of obesity...
  51. Conditional HSF1 Expression for Ischemic Cardioprotection
    Ivor J Benjamin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..heart disease in both men and women- has a higher prevalence in veterans of both sexes due to higher rates of obesity and cigarette use than the general population...
  52. Stem Cell Homing for Treatment of Female Pelvic Floor Disorders
    Margot S Damaser; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The lifetime risk of surgery for FPFD is 11%, with a re-operation rate of 29%. Since age, diabetes, and obesity are risk factors for FPFD, the aging US population and increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes portend an ..
  53. Transgenerational effects of endocrine disruptors: epigenetics and physiology
    Rebecca A Simmons; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that in utero and early developmental exposures to environmental chemicals may play a role in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life...
  54. Monocyte activation and the role of CD11c in obesity-linked metabolic syndrome
    Huaizhu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity increases risk for diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
  55. Thyroid Hormone Action
    THOMAS STERLING SCANLAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and whether this conversion happens in the thyroid gland or in the extrathyroidal periphery;and (3) Develop chronic dosing procedures for T1AM and study the effects of chronic T1AM treatment on body weight loss in rodent obesity models.
  56. A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Metabolic Disease and Inflammation
    Anna Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Obesity, a significant risk factor for T2D, is associated with chronic inflammation and it has become clear that ..
  57. Effect of diet & commensal bacteria on diabetes outcome in NOD mouse
    Li Wen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Epidemiological studies have shown the sharp rise of allergy (dermatitis or food allergy), asthma, obesity and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US and worldwide in the past two decades...
  58. A Rodent Model to Study Links Among Diet, Visceral Adipose and Cardiomyopathy
    MELINDA ANN FRYE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Project Summary: The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. Obese individuals are at higher risk for cardiomyopathy and heart failure, even in the absence of hypertension or ischemic disease...
  59. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    DAVID BERNLOHR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..insulin resistant, but not obese, insulin sensitive humans thereby providing a molecular differentiation between obesity and insulin resistance...
  60. Role of leptin-mediated PI3 Kinase signaling on reproductive control
    Carol Fuzeti Elias; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..LepR-mediated STAT3 signaling (LRbS1138 s/s) recapitulates the db/db metabolic phenotype, producing hyperphagic obesity and diabetes...
  61. Lipid Binding Proteins in Obesity and Diabetes Syndromes
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..3. Evaluate the interaction of FABPs with LTA4 and LTA4 metabolizing enzymes. 4. Examine the effects of leukotrienes on macrophage and adipocyte signal transduction and cytokine synthesis. ..
  62. Role of GDNF in the regulation of hepatic steatosis
    SHANTHI K SRINIVASAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a common cause of chronic liver disease in Veterans and its prevalence continues to increase, with the growing obesity epidemic. Hepatic steatosis is a component of NAFLD, wherein there is accumulation of triglycerides in the liver...
  63. DHA, Inflammation, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Pregnant Women
    Debra Krummel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    b>Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and with the difficulty to treat this condition, the need for early intervention is urgent...
  64. Obesity, Muscle Strength, and Disability in Older Mexican Americans and Elders fr
    Soham Al Snih; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of the proposed research is to examine the prevalence of obesity and the relationship between obesity, muscle strength, and disability among older Mexican Americans in the United States (U.S...
  65. Effect of Perinatal Diet on Developmental Programming of the Skeleton
    Mary L Bouxsein; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal is also directly relevant to Challenge Topic 15-AR-105 Bone and Adipose Tissue. Osteoporosis and obesity are growing sources of morbidity and mortality in the US, and together impose healthcare costs of nearly $100 ..
  66. Reducing Obesity & Diabetes in High Risk Youth
    ROBIN G WHITTEMORE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..effectiveness of two innovative and interactive web-based high school educational programs aimed at reducing obesity and risk for T2D in a population of high risk teens. The aims are to: 1...
  67. Development of a mouse model of obesity in pregnancy
    Thomas Jansson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in maternal obesity are unknown, and the lack of relevant animal models has severely hampered progress in this area...
  68. Prevention of Overfeeding During Infancy
    Kathryn G Dewey; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Change, and Prevention and specific Challenge Topic, 01-DK-102: Discovery of Behavioral Mechanisms Relevant to Obesity. It is becoming increasingly evident that prevention of child obesity must begin very early in life, as the ..
  69. Obesity Education Campaign - a multimedia resource for parents and significant ca
    HENRY WATTS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In order to curb the growing rate of childhood overweight and obesity in the U.S., prevention behaviors need to be initiated during early childhood...
  70. Enhancing the Obesity Prevention Program at Harvard's DACP
    Matthew W Gillman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Obesity and its behavioral components, lack of physical activity and poor diet, are major determinants of CVD...
  71. An analysis of environmental risk factors for obesity
    Walker Poston; Fiscal Year: 2007
    The proposed study will be a multi-level survey of environmental risk factors thought to contribute to obesity prevalence...
  72. Hypothalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Morbid Obesity:Development of a Pig Model
    William P Melega; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout much of the industrialized world...
  73. Adipocyte Renin-Angiotensin System and Programming of Hypertension
    Mina Desai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Intrauterine growth restricted newborns have an increased risk of adult obesity, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Obesity alone accounts for 65-78% of essential hypertension...
  74. Adenovirus & Human Obesity - Longitudinal & Twin Studies
    Richard Atkinson; Fiscal Year: 2001
    DESCRIPTION: Obesity produces a high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of obesity in America increased by 50 percent in the last 15 years, and similar dramatic increases were noted in most countries of the world...
  75. ANIMAL MODELS OF VIRUS INDUCED OBESITY
    Richard Atkinson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    b>Obesity is a serious disease with major medical complications that affects 33.4% of the American population. Obesity in the US increased by 30% from 1980 to 1990. The etiology of this rise in obesity is not clear...
  76. Interleukin-6 Expression and Function in Adipose Cells
    Jianbei Deng; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..However, important new data indicates that circulating IL-6 is also elevated in human obesity, and adipose tissue is the principal source of this elevation...
  77. SYSTOLIC CARDIAC FUNCTION IN OBESITY AND EXERCISE
    JOAN CARROLL; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..research are to determine mechanisms for reduced responsiveness to cardiac Beta-adrenergic stimulation in obesity and mechanisms whereby exercise training during the development of obesity may attenuate these effects...
  78. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS AND MODULATION OF GLIAL ACTIVATION
    Linda Van Eldik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Childhood obesity in the United States has dramaticallyincreased in the past decade. The proportion of children exceeding the 95lh and 85vhpercentiles for body mass index (BMI) is among the greatest in Mexican-Americans...