insulin resistance

Summary

Summary: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: Requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent hyperglycemia or ketosis. It is usually due to insulin binding by antibodies (INSULIN ANTIBODIES), but abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on cell surfaces also occur. It is associated with obesity, ketoacidosis, infection, and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome
    Giulio Marchesini
    Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Hepatology 37:917-23. 2003
  2. ncbi Inflammation and metabolic disorders
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 444:860-7. 2006
  3. ncbi Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man
    D R Matthews
    Diabetologia 28:412-9. 1985
  4. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
  5. ncbi Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation
    K G M M Alberti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, St Mary s Hospital, London, UK and International Diabetes Institute, Caulfield, Australia
    Diabet Med 23:469-80. 2006
  6. ncbi Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance
    Patrice D Cani
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, I2MR Toulouse, France
    Diabetes 56:1761-72. 2007
  7. pmc Inflammation and insulin resistance
    Steven E Shoelson
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1793-801. 2006
  8. pmc Mechanisms for insulin resistance: common threads and missing links
    Varman T Samuel
    Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 148:852-71. 2012
  9. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:457-61. 2004
  10. ncbi Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha
    Marie Lagouge
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Cell 127:1109-22. 2006

Detail Information

Publications325 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome
    Giulio Marchesini
    Unit of Metabolic Diseases and Department of Internal Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Hepatology 37:917-23. 2003
    ..b>Insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment method) was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [..
  2. ncbi Inflammation and metabolic disorders
    Gokhan S Hotamisligil
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 444:860-7. 2006
    ..Collectively, these diseases constitute the greatest current threat to global human health and welfare...
  3. ncbi Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man
    D R Matthews
    Diabetologia 28:412-9. 1985
    ..used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a quantitative assessment of ..
  4. pmc Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance
    Haiyan Xu
    Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1821-30. 2003
    b>Insulin resistance arises from the inability of insulin to act normally in regulating nutrient metabolism in peripheral tissues...
  5. ncbi Metabolic syndrome--a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation
    K G M M Alberti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, St Mary s Hospital, London, UK and International Diabetes Institute, Caulfield, Australia
    Diabet Med 23:469-80. 2006
    ..An additional aim was to highlight areas where more research into the MetS is needed...
  6. ncbi Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance
    Patrice D Cani
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, I2MR Toulouse, France
    Diabetes 56:1761-72. 2007
    Diabetes and obesity are two metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance and a low-grade inflammation...
  7. pmc Inflammation and insulin resistance
    Steven E Shoelson
    Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1793-801. 2006
    ..the antihyperglycemic and antiinflammatory effects of salicylates were not connected to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance until recently...
  8. pmc Mechanisms for insulin resistance: common threads and missing links
    Varman T Samuel
    Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell 148:852-71. 2012
    b>Insulin resistance is a complex metabolic disorder that defies explanation by a single etiological pathway...
  9. ncbi Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 306:457-61. 2004
    ..in X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), a transcription factor that modulates the ER stress response, develop insulin resistance. These findings demonstrate that ER stress is a central feature of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 ..
  10. ncbi Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha
    Marie Lagouge
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS INSERM ULP, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Cell 127:1109-22. 2006
    ..Importantly, RSV treatment protected mice against diet-induced-obesity and insulin resistance. These pharmacological effects of RSV combined with the association of three Sirt1 SNPs and energy ..
  11. ncbi Use and abuse of HOMA modeling
    Tara M Wallace
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ, U K
    Diabetes Care 27:1487-95. 2004
    Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) is a method for assessing beta-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) from basal (fasting) glucose and insulin or C-peptide concentrations...
  12. ncbi Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
    A R Saltiel
    Life Sciences Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Nature 414:799-806. 2001
    ..The pathophysiology of insulin resistance involves a complex network of signalling pathways, activated by the insulin receptor, which regulates ..
  13. ncbi The metabolic syndrome
    Robert H Eckel
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, PO Box 6511, MS 8106, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Lancet 365:1415-28. 2005
    ..The pathophysiology seems to be largely attributable to insulin resistance with excessive flux of fatty acids implicated. A proinflammatory state probably contributes to the syndrome...
  14. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
    ..are activated in tissues of obese animals and humans and play an important role in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here we show that nutritional fatty acids, whose circulating levels are often increased in obesity, ..
  15. ncbi A central role for JNK in obesity and insulin resistance
    Jiro Hirosumi
    Division of Biological Sciences and Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 420:333-6. 2002
    Obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and establishes the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the molecular mechanisms of this association are poorly understood...
  16. pmc MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity
    Hajime Kanda
    Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:1494-505. 2006
    ..to express an MCP-1 transgene in adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter exhibited insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and increased hepatic triglyceride content...
  17. ncbi Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and restore glucose homeostasis in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
    Umut Ozcan
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 313:1137-40. 2006
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes...
  18. pmc The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage
    Fredrik Backhed
    Center for Genome Sciences and Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15718-23. 2004
    ..distal intestine (cecum) of conventionally raised animals produces a 60% increase in body fat content and insulin resistance within 14 days despite reduced food intake...
  19. ncbi Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome
    B Isomaa
    Department of Internal Medicine, Jakobstad Hospital, Finland
    Diabetes Care 24:683-9. 2001
    ..To estimate the prevalence of and the cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new definition proposed by the World Health Organization..
  20. pmc Inflammation, stress, and diabetes
    Kathryn E Wellen
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:1111-9. 2005
    ..We put forth for consideration some hypotheses regarding important unanswered questions in the field and suggest a model for the integration of inflammatory and metabolic pathways in metabolic disease...
  21. ncbi Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
    Steven E Kahn
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington, 1660 South Columbian Way, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA
    Nature 444:840-6. 2006
    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
  22. ncbi Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity
    Margaret F Gregor
    Departments of Genetics and Complex Diseases and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 29:415-45. 2011
    The modern rise in obesity and its strong association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies...
  23. pmc A branched-chain amino acid-related metabolic signature that differentiates obese and lean humans and contributes to insulin resistance
    Christopher B Newgard
    Sarah W Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Metab 9:311-26. 2009
    ..BCAA)-related metabolite signature that is suggestive of increased catabolism of BCAA and correlated with insulin resistance. To test its impact on metabolic homeostasis, we fed rats on high-fat (HF), HF with supplemented BCAA (HF/..
  24. ncbi The cellular and signaling networks linking the immune system and metabolism in disease
    Olivia Osborn
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Med 18:363-74. 2012
    ..Here we discuss how these various networks underlie the etiology of the inflammatory component of insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the central roles of macrophages in adipose tissue and liver.
  25. ncbi Macrophages, inflammation, and insulin resistance
    Jerrold M Olefsky
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0651, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:219-46. 2010
    ..b>Insulin resistance in the setting of obesity results from a combination of altered functions of insulin target cells and the ..
  26. ncbi Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome
    G Marchesini
    Unit of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, Italy
    Diabetes 50:1844-50. 2001
    ..NAFLD may be considered an additional feature of the metabolic syndrome, with specific hepatic insulin resistance.
  27. pmc GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects
    Da Young Oh
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Cell 142:687-98. 2010
    ..Since chronic macrophage-mediated tissue inflammation is a key mechanism for insulin resistance in obesity, we fed obese WT and GPR120 knockout mice a high-fat diet with or without omega-3 FA ..
  28. ncbi Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia
    C Weyer
    Clinical Diabetes and Nutrition Section, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 85016, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1930-5. 2001
    ..individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia...
  29. pmc Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome
    Takashi Kadowaki
    Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Invest 116:1784-92. 2006
    ..the Adiponectin gene and environmental factors causing obesity, appears to play an important causal role in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, which are linked to obesity...
  30. pmc Rapamycin-induced insulin resistance is mediated by mTORC2 loss and uncoupled from longevity
    Dudley W Lamming
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Science 335:1638-43. 2012
    ..Thus, mTORC2 disruption is an important mediator of the effects of rapamycin in vivo...
  31. pmc Macrophage-specific PPARgamma controls alternative activation and improves insulin resistance
    Justin I Odegaard
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 5103, USA
    Nature 447:1116-20. 2007
    Obesity and insulin resistance, the cardinal features of metabolic syndrome, are closely associated with a state of low-grade inflammation...
  32. ncbi Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors
    Takashi Kadowaki
    Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Endocr Rev 26:439-51. 2005
    Metabolic syndrome is thought to result from obesity and obesity-linked insulin resistance. Obesity in adulthood is characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy...
  33. ncbi Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance
    Jean Philippe Bastard
    INSERM U680, Faculte de Medecine Pierre et Marie Curie, site Saint Antoine, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6 et Service de Biochimie et Hormonologie, Hopital Tenon, AP HP, 75970 Paris Cedex 20, France
    Eur Cytokine Netw 17:4-12. 2006
    ..WAT) resulting from chronic activation of the innate immune system and which can subsequently lead to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and even diabetes. WAT is the physiological site of energy storage as lipids...
  34. ncbi The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity
    T Yamauchi
    Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Nat Med 7:941-6. 2001
    ..Here we show that decreased expression of adiponectin correlates with insulin resistance in mouse models of altered insulin sensitivity...
  35. ncbi The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes
    C M Steppan
    Department of Medicine, The Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA
    Nature 409:307-12. 2001
    ..and is strongly associated with obesity; however, the mechanism by which increased adiposity causes insulin resistance is unclear...
  36. pmc Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans
    Kimber L Stanhope
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, UCD, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:1322-34. 2009
    Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and ..
  37. pmc Insulin sensitivity: modulation by nutrients and inflammation
    Simon Schenk
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Clin Invest 118:2992-3002. 2008
    b>Insulin resistance is a major metabolic feature of obesity and is a key factor in the etiology of a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes...
  38. ncbi Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans
    Saverio Cinti
    Institute of Normal Human Morphology, University of Ancona, Ancona, Italy
    J Lipid Res 46:2347-55. 2005
    ..These results provide a novel framework for understanding macrophage recruitment, function, and persistence in WAT of obese individuals...
  39. pmc Fatty acid-induced NLRP3-ASC inflammasome activation interferes with insulin signaling
    Haitao Wen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Immunol 12:408-15. 2011
    High-fat diet (HFD) and inflammation are key contributors to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
  40. ncbi The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the US population (NHANES 1999-2004)
    Rachel P Wildman
    Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Belfer Building, Room 1309, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:1617-24. 2008
    ....
  41. ncbi Mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes
    Bradford B Lowell
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 99 Brookline Avenue, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 307:384-7. 2005
    ..Defects in the former are responsible for insulin resistance, and defects in the latter are responsible for progression to hyperglycemia...
  42. ncbi Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents
    Ram Weiss
    Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    N Engl J Med 350:2362-74. 2004
    ..the effect of varying degrees of obesity on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to insulin resistance and to C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels in a large, multiethnic, multiracial cohort of children and ..
  43. ncbi Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Claus M Larsen
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark
    N Engl J Med 356:1517-26. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi Metabolic syndrome and altered gut microbiota in mice lacking Toll-like receptor 5
    Matam Vijay-Kumar
    Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Science 328:228-31. 2010
    ..hyperphagia and develop hallmark features of metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and increased adiposity...
  45. pmc Islet beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes
    Marc Prentki
    Molecular Nutrition Unit and Montreal Diabetes Research Center, University of Montreal and Centre Hospitalier de l Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Clin Invest 116:1802-12. 2006
    ..As this demise occurs within the context of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, consideration is also given to the mechanisms involved in the compensation process, including mechanisms ..
  46. pmc Interplay between lipids and branched-chain amino acids in development of insulin resistance
    Christopher B Newgard
    Sarah W Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27704, USA
    Cell Metab 15:606-14. 2012
    Fatty acids (FA) and FA-derived metabolites have long been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
  47. pmc Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury
    Jeffrey D Browning
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75390 9046, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:147-52. 2004
    ..A major metabolic consequence of obesity is insulin resistance, which is strongly associated with the deposition of triglycerides in the liver...
  48. pmc Neutrophils mediate insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet through secreted elastase
    Saswata Talukdar
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Nat Med 18:1407-12. 2012
    Chronic low-grade adipose tissue and liver inflammation is a major cause of systemic insulin resistance and is a key component of the low degree of insulin sensitivity that exists in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
  49. ncbi Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease
    Luc F Van Gaal
    University of Antwerp, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diabetology, Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, Antwerp University Hospital, Wilrijkstraat 10, B 2650 Edegem, Belgium
    Nature 444:875-80. 2006
    ..releases a large number of bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also insulin resistance - the core feature of type 2 diabetes - as well as alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, ..
  50. pmc Contribution of de novo fatty acid synthesis to hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance: lessons from genetically engineered mice
    Catherine Postic
    Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, CNRS UMR 8104, Paris, France
    J Clin Invest 118:829-38. 2008
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes...
  51. ncbi Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease
    Anders H Berg
    Department of Cell Biology, Bronx, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Circ Res 96:939-49. 2005
    ..The targeted suppression of various proinflammatory cascades in adipocytes specifically represents an exciting new therapeutic opportunity for the cardiovascular disease area...
  52. ncbi Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation
    Giamila Fantuzzi
    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:911-9; quiz 920. 2005
    ..molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin resistance and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity...
  53. ncbi Loss-of-function mutation in Toll-like receptor 4 prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance
    Daniela M L Tsukumo
    Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Diabetes 56:1986-98. 2007
    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and a state of abnormal inflammatory response...
  54. pmc Pioglitazone, vitamin E, or placebo for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Arun J Sanyal
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:1675-85. 2010
    ..Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a common liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis. Currently, there is no established treatment for this disease...
  55. pmc Inflammation and lipid signaling in the etiology of insulin resistance
    Christopher K Glass
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 0673, USA
    Cell Metab 15:635-45. 2012
    ..Here, we review recent findings related to this interconnected network from the perspective of immunity and metabolic disease...
  56. pmc Ablation of CD11c-positive cells normalizes insulin sensitivity in obese insulin resistant animals
    David Patsouris
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA
    Cell Metab 8:301-9. 2008
    ..produces high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that are linked to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here, we used a conditional cell ablation system, based on transgenic expression of the diphtheria toxin ..
  57. ncbi Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)
    A Festa
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78228 3900, USA
    Circulation 102:42-7. 2000
    ..Recently, some components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) have been related to inflammatory markers...
  58. ncbi Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance
    P A Kern
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E745-51. 2001
    Adipose tissue expresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, which may cause obesity-related insulin resistance. We measured TNF and IL-6 expression in the adipose tissue of 50 lean and obese subjects without diabetes...
  59. pmc Lipid-induced insulin resistance: unravelling the mechanism
    Varman T Samuel
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536 8012, USA
    Lancet 375:2267-77. 2010
    b>Insulin resistance has long been associated with obesity. More than 40 years ago, Randle and colleagues postulated that lipids impaired insulin-stimulated glucose use by muscles through inhibition of glycolysis at key points...
  60. pmc Hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB and ER stress link overnutrition to energy imbalance and obesity
    Xiaoqing Zhang
    Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Cell 135:61-73. 2008
    ....
  61. ncbi Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction
    Ken C Chiu
    Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, 924 Westwood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 79:820-5. 2004
    ..Although the role of vitamin D in type 2 diabetes is well recognized, its relation to glucose metabolism is not well studied...
  62. ncbi Adipose tissue expandability, lipotoxicity and the Metabolic Syndrome--an allostatic perspective
    Sam Virtue
    Institute of Metabolic Science, Metabolic Research Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Box 289, Level 4, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1801:338-49. 2010
    ..Ectopic lipid accumulation in non-adipocyte cells causes lipotoxic insults including insulin resistance, apoptosis and inflammation...
  63. pmc Mitochondrial H2O2 emission and cellular redox state link excess fat intake to insulin resistance in both rodents and humans
    Ethan J Anderson
    Metabolic Institute for the Study of Diabetes and Obesity, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:573-81. 2009
    High dietary fat intake leads to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this represents a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
  64. pmc Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton
    Na Kyung Lee
    Department of Genetics and Development, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Cell 130:456-69. 2007
    ..osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin display decreased beta-cell proliferation, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Removing one Osteocalcin allele from OST-PTP-deficient mice corrects their metabolic phenotype...
  65. pmc Normalization of obesity-associated insulin resistance through immunotherapy
    Shawn Winer
    Department of Pediatrics and Immunology, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nat Med 15:921-9. 2009
    ..We discovered that CD4(+) T lymphocytes, resident in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), control insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
  66. ncbi Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes
    Joseph L Evans
    University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Endocr Rev 23:599-622. 2002
    ..is evidence that the activation of these same stress pathways by glucose and possibly FFA leads to both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion...
  67. ncbi Reactive oxygen species have a causal role in multiple forms of insulin resistance
    Nicholas Houstis
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Nature 440:944-8. 2006
    b>Insulin resistance is a cardinal feature of type 2 diabetes and is characteristic of a wide range of other clinical and experimental settings. Little is known about why insulin resistance occurs in so many contexts...
  68. pmc Obesity-associated improvements in metabolic profile through expansion of adipose tissue
    Ja Young Kim
    Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    J Clin Invest 117:2621-37. 2007
    Excess caloric intake can lead to insulin resistance. The underlying reasons are complex but likely related to ectopic lipid deposition in nonadipose tissue...
  69. pmc The NLRP3 inflammasome instigates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance
    Bolormaa Vandanmagsar
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrine Immunology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
    Nat Med 17:179-88. 2011
    ..Collectively, these data establish that the Nlrp3 inflammasome senses obesity-associated danger signals and contributes to obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.
  70. ncbi Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF-alpha function
    K T Uysal
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 389:610-4. 1997
    Obesity is highly associated with insulin resistance and is the biggest risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The molecular basis of this common syndrome, however, is poorly understood...
  71. ncbi Visfatin: a protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin
    Atsunori Fukuhara
    Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, and Department of Organismal Biosystems, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Science 307:426-30. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, visfatin binds to and activates the insulin receptor. Further study of visfatin's physiological role may lead to new insights into glucose homeostasis and/or new therapies for metabolic disorders such as diabetes...
  72. ncbi Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ
    Sandra Galic
    St Vincent s Institute of Medical Research and Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 316:129-39. 2010
    ..storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and is closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle and the liver...
  73. pmc Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice
    William L Holland
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:1858-70. 2011
    Obesity is associated with an enhanced inflammatory response that exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease...
  74. ncbi A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome
    H Masuzaki
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA
    Science 294:2166-70. 2001
    ..Increased adipocyte 11beta HSD-1 activity may be a common molecular etiology for visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
  75. pmc Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis
    DAVINA WU
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0795, USA
    Science 332:243-7. 2011
    ..Mice fed a high-fat diet develop increased body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance in the absence of eosinophils, and helminth-induced adipose tissue eosinophilia enhances glucose tolerance...
  76. ncbi Metabolic syndrome: a comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation
    Paresh Dandona
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Diabetes Endocrinology Center of Western New York, State University of New York at Buffalo, and Kaleida Health, Buffalo, NY 14209, USA
    Circulation 111:1448-54. 2005
  77. pmc A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila
    Laura Palanker Musselman
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Dis Model Mech 4:842-9. 2011
    ..To gain insights into how dietary excess affects insulin resistance, we studied the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster...
  78. ncbi Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction?
    Joseph L Evans
    Medical Research Institute, San Francisco, California University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    Diabetes 52:1-8. 2003
    ..activation of these same pathways by elevations in glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) levels leads to both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion...
  79. ncbi Insulin resistance and a diabetes mellitus-like syndrome in mice lacking the protein kinase Akt2 (PKB beta)
    H Cho
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Science 292:1728-31. 2001
    ..These data establish Akt2 as an essential gene in the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis...
  80. ncbi Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes
    Paresh Dandona
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, State University of New York at Buffalo and Kaleida Health, 3 Gates Circle, Buffalo, NY 14209, USA
    Trends Immunol 25:4-7. 2004
    ..This might interfere with the anti-inflammatory effect of insulin, which in turn might promote inflammation...
  81. ncbi Prediction of incident diabetes mellitus in middle-aged adults: the Framingham Offspring Study
    Peter W F Wilson
    Emory Program in Cardiovascular Outcomes Research and Epidemiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30306, USA
    Arch Intern Med 167:1068-74. 2007
    ..Prediction rules for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been developed, but we lack consensus for the most effective approach...
  82. ncbi Lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is associated with changes in diacylglycerol, protein kinase C, and IkappaB-alpha
    Samar I Itani
    Diabetes Unit, Section of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Diabetes 51:2005-11. 2002
    The possibility that lipid-induced insulin resistance in human muscle is related to alterations in diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) signaling was investigated in normal volunteers during euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamping in ..
  83. pmc Apolipoprotein C3 gene variants in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Kitt Falk Petersen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:1082-9. 2010
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether this association has a genetic basis is unknown.
  84. ncbi Gene-nutrient interactions in the metabolic syndrome: single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1 interact with plasma saturated fatty acids to modulate insulin resistance
    Jane F Ferguson
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:794-801. 2010
    ..Progression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Gene-environment interactions may be important in modulating the susceptibility to the development of MetS traits...
  85. pmc Adipocyte-derived Th2 cytokines and myeloid PPARdelta regulate macrophage polarization and insulin sensitivity
    Kihwa Kang
    Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Division of Biological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell Metab 7:485-95. 2008
    ..relevance of this paracrine pathway is demonstrated in myeloid-specific PPARdelta(-/-) mice, which develop insulin resistance and show increased adipocyte lipolysis and severe hepatosteatosis...
  86. pmc Gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance
    Eliza B Geer
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Gend Med 6:60-75. 2009
    Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance...
  87. ncbi Uncoupling of obesity from insulin resistance through a targeted mutation in aP2, the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein
    G S Hotamisligil
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA CA 92093, USA
    Science 274:1377-9. 1996
    ..The aP2-deficient mice developed dietary obesity but, unlike control mice, they did not develop insulin resistance or diabetes...
  88. pmc Targeted expression of catalase to mitochondria prevents age-associated reductions in mitochondrial function and insulin resistance
    Hui Young Lee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Cell Metab 12:668-74. 2010
    Aging-associated muscle insulin resistance has been hypothesized to be due to decreased mitochondrial function, secondary to cumulative free radical damage, leading to increased intramyocellular lipid content...
  89. pmc Adiponectin in insulin resistance: lessons from translational research
    Florencia Ziemke
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 91:258S-261S. 2010
    ..Adiponectin knockout mice manifest glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia and tend to develop malignancies especially when on high-fat diets...
  90. pmc The role of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome
    Kitt Falk Petersen
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12587-94. 2007
    We examined the hypothesis that insulin resistance in skeletal muscle promotes the development of atherogenic dyslipidemia, associated with the metabolic syndrome, by altering the distribution pattern of postprandial energy storage...
  91. pmc Fibroblast growth factor 21 reverses hepatic steatosis, increases energy expenditure, and improves insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice
    Jing Xu
    Department of Metabolic Disorders, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, California, USA
    Diabetes 58:250-9. 2009
    ..The aims of the current study are to evaluate the role of FGF21 in energy metabolism and to provide mechanistic insights into its glucose and lipid-lowering effects in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) model...
  92. ncbi Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: predictors of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in the severely obese
    J B Dixon
    Monash University Department of Surgery, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3181, Victoria, Australia
    Gastroenterology 121:91-100. 2001
    ..Predicting advanced or progressive disease may help in selecting patients for liver biopsy and assist the development of therapeutic options...
  93. pmc Persistent organic pollutant exposure leads to insulin resistance syndrome
    Jérôme Ruzzin
    National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research NIFES, Bergen, Norway
    Environ Health Perspect 118:465-71. 2010
    The incidence of the insulin resistance syndrome has increased at an alarming rate worldwide, creating a serious challenge to public health care in the 21st century...
  94. pmc Coordinated reduction of genes of oxidative metabolism in humans with insulin resistance and diabetes: Potential role of PGC1 and NRF1
    Mary Elizabeth Patti
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8466-71. 2003
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. In high-risk subjects, the earliest detectable abnormality is insulin resistance in skeletal muscle...
  95. ncbi Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on insulin resistance, serum lipids and low-grade inflammation
    Ramazan Gen
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey
    South Med J 103:190-6. 2010
    Many studies have revealed a close relationship between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HP eradication on insulin resistance, serum lipids and low-grade ..
  96. ncbi Aberrant regulation of insulin receptor alternative splicing is associated with insulin resistance in myotonic dystrophy
    R S Savkur
    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, USA
    Nat Genet 29:40-7. 2001
    ..People with DM1 have an unusual form of insulin resistance caused by a defect in skeletal muscle...
  97. ncbi Endothelial dysfunction in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: relationship with insulin resistance and low-grade chronic inflammation
    Ilhan Tarkun
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kocaeli University, 41110, Turkey
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:5592-6. 2004
    ..01, respectively). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was correlated with hsCRP concentrations and insulin resistance. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate increased levels of hsCRP, endothelial dysfunction, ..
  98. ncbi Adiponectin and its gene variants as risk factors for insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease
    D R Gable
    Centre for Cardiovascular Genetics, British Heart Foundation Laboratories, Royal Free and UCL Medical School, The Rayne Institute, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JF, United Kingdom
    Atherosclerosis 188:231-44. 2006
    The increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance has attracted considerable interest due to their identification as risk factors for cardiovascular disease and, hence, targets for cardiovascular disease ..
  99. ncbi Genetic variant near IRS1 is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia
    Johan Rung
    McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal, Canada
    Nat Genet 41:1110-5. 2009
    ..predominantly associate with impaired beta cell function, the C allele of rs2943641 was associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in 14,358 French, Danish and Finnish participants from population-based cohorts; this ..
  100. ncbi Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children
    Luis B Sardinha
    Faculty of Human Movement, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Diabetes Care 31:569-75. 2008
    We examined the independent relationships between objectively measured physical activity and insulin resistance in Portuguese children.
  101. pmc Probiotics improve high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by increasing hepatic NKT cells
    Xiong Ma
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Hepatol 49:821-30. 2008
    ..role in the rapidly increasing incidence of obesity and its associated conditions, such as steatosis and insulin resistance. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of probiotics, and their mechanisms on diet-induced obesity, ..

Research Grants71

  1. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase kinase as Therapeutic Target for Hepatic Steatosis, Obesit
    Robert A Harris; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..27,000 Americans die each year from cirrhosis. Hepatic steatosis, obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are all closely linked [64]...
  2. Bone Deficits and Excess Adiposity after Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation
    Sogol Mostoufi-Moab; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in bone health, body composition, and fat distribution after childhood HSCT, and determine associations with insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and bone deficits. The study has two primary components...
  3. Role of Chromogranin A in Metabolic Syndrome
    Sushil K Mahata; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Insulin resistance is a central component defining the MS...
  4. Pharmacogenetics of obesity and endocannabinergic modulation (POEM)
    Russell A Wilke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..waist/hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, insulin, insulin/glucose ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting triglyceride levels, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol...
  5. Autonomic, Endothelial, and Inflammatory Correlates of Sleep Duration
    MERCEDES RENEE CARNETHON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..these associations such as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and insulin resistance have been identified in the setting of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), namely sleep apnea, or in ..
  6. Comprehensive biomarker study to capitalize on existing GWAS in 10K South Asians
    Danish Saleheen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..subclasses, oxidized phospholipids, authoantibodies to oxLDL, LpPLA2, sPLA2, myeloperoxidase);(2) insulin resistance and adiposity (insulin, C-peptide, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, liver function enzymes);(3) renal function ..
  7. Angiotensin Adrenergic Interactions in the Kidney
    Roland C Blantz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These include 1) reduced NO functional activity, 2) role of AII induced insulin resistance in the kidney (we have shown that acute insulin infusion ameliorates approximately 40-50% of the increase in ..
  8. Air Pollution on Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction: White or Brown Matters?
    Qinghua Sun; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..if air pollution exposure contributes to adiposity and inflammation in adipose tissues that induces insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction, we hypothesize that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
  9. Effective treatment of sleep apnea in prediabetes to reduce cardiometabolic risk
    Esra Tasali; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..state between normal glucose tolerance and overt diabetes, characterized by elevated glucose levels, insulin resistance and abnormalities in insulin secretion...
  10. Ang II and Aldosterone Effects on Insulin Resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RAAS) and associated enhanced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and cardiovascular complications of insulin resistance in people with diabetes and hypertension...
  11. Effects of Evoked Resistance Training and Testosterone after Spinal Cord Injury
    Ashraf Gorgey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a lifelong risk of increasing obesity and several chronic metabolic disorders such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia secondary to deterioration in body composition...
  12. Retinoid and Carotenoid Depletion in Patients at High-Risk for Liver Cancer
    Peter H Gann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..For Aim 1 we will test the importance of multiple factors (poor diet, stage of CLD, smoking, insulin resistance, age and race) as independent predictors of serum antioxidant levels...
  13. Ang II and Overnutrition and Insulin resistance in Cardiovascular Tissue
    JAMES RUSSELL SOWERS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The fundamental mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in cardiovascular tissue, as well as skeletal muscle, are not well understood and our proposed work is ..
  14. Role of SCD1 and Dietary Methionine Restriction on Energy Homeostasis
    ERIC PAUL PLAISANCE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors including insulin resistance, high blood pressure and dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism...
  15. Regulation of ER stress-induced cell death
    Randal J Kaufman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recent studies indicate that nutrient fluctuations and insulin resistance drive beta cells to synthesize insulin beyond their capacity for protein folding and secretion and activates ..
  16. Response to and signals of caloric restriction and intermittent feeding regimens
    MARC KOPEL HELLERSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..o. and LDL-receptor k.o., dietary-induced obese/insulin resistance, and genetic cancer models in mice)...
  17. Sphingolipid Metabolism in Drosophila Development
    Julie D Saba; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, our research plan has potentially broad translational significance. ..
  18. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INSULIN RESISTANCE
    Maureen J Charron; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..GLUT4+/- mouse model (G4+/-) represents an example of an `At Risk'individual as male G4+/- mice develop insulin resistance, hypertension and T2DM with age...
  19. Functional Genomics of the Mitochondrial Proteome
    Dennis R Winge; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..will also be used to determine if oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction will increase the risk for insulin resistance and lipotoxicity...
  20. Genetic and physiological causes of inherited Vascular and Metabolic Diseases
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tests in nondiabetic R611C mutation carriers have shown that they are hyperinsulinemic, indicating that insulin resistance is likely the major cause of impaired glucose tolerance in the mutation carriers...
  21. Biology and Pathologies of Type V Collagen
    Daniel S Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..If such studies are borne out, the ramifications are huge, with profound implications for understanding, evaluating and treating atherosclerotic disease - the number one killer of adult human beings in the western hemisphere. ..
  22. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..a variety of loss and gain of function analyses have indicated that oxidative stress is causally linked to insulin resistance but that the molecular mechanisms remain obscure...
  23. Insulin Signaling and the Heart in Diabetes
    EVAN DALE ABEL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The studies will provide insight into the potential role of altered myocardial autophagy in insulin resistance or diabetes - associated cardiac dysfunction...
  24. INSULIN RECEPTORS AND THE GLUCOSE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
    JERROLD MICHAEL OLEFSKY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Obesity is the dominant cause of acquired insulin resistance and it is the epidemic of obesity in the United States which is driving the dramatically increasing incidence of Type 2 diabetes...
  25. REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION BY DIETARY FAT
    Lisa M Salati; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..has developed that suggests that eating the majority of calories as fat results in the development of insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus...
  26. Notch and Regulators of Notch Signaling Impact Both Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
    UTPAL BHAGIRATH PAJVANI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..research to benefit patients, whether it be through the discovery of a novel pathway in the development of insulin resistance, or application of a known therapeutic agent from cancer biology to the metabolic syndrome...
  27. Osteocalcin and Metabolic Risk Factors. The Framingham Study
    Yi Hsiang Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..that bone cells not only function locally on the skeleton, but may also be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome...
  28. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Nuclear Receptors
    John Y L Chiang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): Type II diabetes and obesity are associated with dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis directly contributes to insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
  29. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome
    W Timothy Garvey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Insulin resistance at the level of skeletal muscle is central to the underlying pathogenesis of all these disease ..
  30. Parathyroid Hormone & Vitamin D Effects on Salt Sensitivity and Vascular Function
    ANNA LIZA BELEN VALINA TOTH; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..effects within the vasculature and myocardium such as vasoconstriction, activation of fibroblasts, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, fat deposition and down regulation of endothelial nitric oxide - all of which plausibly ..
  31. PUFA Synthesis and the Control of Hepatic Metabolism
    Donald B Jump; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Restoration of hepatic Elovl5 activity abrogated high fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver in 4 days without changing body weight or appetite...
  32. INTERNET ENHANCED HEALTH PROMOTION FOR OBESE ETHNIC MINORITY ADOLESCENTS
    Jessica A Whiteley; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Statistics, 2004). Co-morbid conditions are increasingly seen in obese youth, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, poor self-esteem, lower health-related quality of ..
  33. Molecular Mechanism of Protein Kinase Cbeta-Mediated Cholesterol Homeostasis
    Kamal D Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in association with hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance. The plasma levels of LDL are strongly influenced by dietary cholesterol and body's ability to store ..
  34. Neural Functioning of Feeding Centers in Obese Youth
    ROBERT STANLEY SHERWIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Obese adolescents on their path to developing prediabetes/T2DM present with severe peripheral insulin resistance, marked hyperinsulinemia and relatively low leptin levels...
  35. Plant-Derived Estrogens and Cell Proliferation
    Emma Shtivelman; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..a major public health burden because it increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and promotes insulin resistance and diabetes...
  36. The genetics and pathophysiology of impaired Wnt signaling in metabolic syndrome
    Arya Mani; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on glycogen synthase activity and glycogen synthesis in LRP6 mice and to identify the primary site of insulin resistance in this model...
  37. Surgical amelioration of type 2 diabetes: Hormones, microbiota and mitochondria
    PETER J contact HAVEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Such studies are likely to help identify new non-surgical approaches for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance and T2DM...
  38. Role of stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 in TLR5 KO mice colitis and metabolic syndrome
    Matam Vijay Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such low-grade inflammation in TLR5KO mice resulted in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperphagia, insulin resistance, obesity, hepatic steatosis and hypertension, collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome...
  39. Early Life Conditions, Survival, and Health: A Pedigree-Based Population Study
    Ken R Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS &DHEA), fasting glucose and insulin resistance, telomere length, blood pressure, heart rate, grip strength, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and BMI...
  40. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    DAVID BERNLOHR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance Abstract A variety of animal, cell culture and molecular studies have correlated increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide ..
  41. A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulation of Metabolic Disease and Inflammation
    Anna Eisenstein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for T2D, is associated with chronic inflammation and it has become clear that inflammation can contribute to insulin resistance. The macrophage is a key mediator of obesity-induced inflammation...
  42. Monocyte activation and the role of CD11c in obesity-linked metabolic syndrome
    Huaizhu Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary data show that: (1) obesity with insulin resistance induced by high-fat (HF) diet rich in saturated FAs up-regulates CD11c on blood monocytes and AT macrophages;..
  43. NITROGEN HETEROCYCLES: METABOLIC EFFECTS AND TOXICITY
    Raymond F Novak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The use of an insulin mimetic, atorvastatin and metformin are relevant to Akt signaling, insulin resistance, and clinical treatment of diabetes, while the inhibitors of Akt and mTOR are relevant to the progression ..
  44. Potential Mechanisms of Glucagon-like peptide-1 in Fatty Liver Disease
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Insulin resistance is the primary pathophysiologic problem that results in a net accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes...
  45. Lipid Binding Proteins in Obesity and Diabetes Syndromes
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..exhibit potentiated characteristics of the metabolic syndrome included increased lipolysis, exacerbated insulin resistance, decreased adiponectin secretion, and mild cardiac hypertrophy...
  46. Improved Adventitial Sirolimus Therapy for Peripheral Artery Restenosis
    KIRK SEWARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The changing demographics of Western societies include an aging population with a near epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus, causing a dramatic rise in the prevalence of PAD, which impairs the ability to walk ..
  47. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin, body fat, and diabetes in older adults
    Ann V Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..regulating insulin sensitivity and production, an unexpected connection that promises new insights into insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes...
  48. Roles of oxidation and inflammation in aortic stiffening
    David G Harrison; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Common clinical conditions, including aging, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension per se are associated with loss of this elastance function, predisposing to ..
  49. Atypical PKC Knockout Models: Effect on Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis
    Robert V Farese; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PKC-lambda allele (Het-Mlambda KO) diminishes glucose transport, thus causing impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, and hyperlipidemia, i.e...
  50. Chronic stress mediates fat-related changes in insulin signaling and gut motility
    CHARALABOS contact POTHOULAKIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..association between gastrointestinal symptoms and diseases related to altered metabolic functions (such as insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome)...
  51. DNA Repair Deficiency Associated with Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome
    R Stephen Lloyd; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with secondary consequences including, but not limited to, fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, collectively known as the Metabolic Syndrome...
  52. Growth Hormone Regulation of SH2B1
    Christin Carter-Su; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Human mutations in SH2B1 are associated with severe early onset obesity with disproportionately severe insulin resistance, impaired brain development, and, in some cases, short stature...
  53. Regulation of Islet Beta-Cell Function via Islet-Derived VGF Peptides
    SAMUEL BRANDON STEPHENS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Research Proposal Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is defined by hyperglycemia, caused by peripheral insulin resistance and insufficient release of insulin from the islet [unreadable]-cell...
  54. Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Determinants and Diabetes Risk in a Family Study
    Ana Navas-Acien; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of inorganic arsenic exposure and metabolism and gene-arsenic interactions in the development of diabetes, insulin resistance, ? cell dysfunction and the metabolic syndrome among 2,717 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS) participants e18 ..
  55. Maternal nutrient restriction and nonhuman primate fetal skeletal muscle developm
    Min Du; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..acid utilization, as well as force generation, changes in SM properties have long-term effects on offspring insulin resistance. To date, work in this area has been exclusively in rats and sheep...
  56. Role of Membrane Modifications in the Bioactivities of Conjugated Linoleic Acids
    Papasani V Subbaiah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, they are also known to cause undesirable effects such as insulin resistance and fatty liver in certain species but not others...
  57. Hormonal regulation of a Ca2+/AMPK signaling pathway
    Anthony R Means; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mice null for CaMKK2 are protected from the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, obesity and liver steatosis that result from consuming a high fat diet...
  58. ROLE OF FORKHEAD PROTEINS IN INSULIN ACTION
    Domenico Accili; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mechanisms of regulation of Foxo1 function by nutrients, and their integration in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance;v, discovery of non-transcriptional functions of Foxo1 as a coregulator of gene expression;vi, demonstration ..
  59. Mechanisms of coronary microvascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome
    Johnathan D Tune; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..high-fat/high-cholesterol diet induces many common features of the metabolic syndrome, including: obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia, hypertension and neointimal hyperplasia...
  60. The Role of Alcohol in HIV Therapy Hepatotoxicity
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..proinflammatory cytokine production mitochondrial toxicity, hypersensitivity reactions, steatosis and insulin resistance, immune reconstitution in HCV or HBV co-infected patients, and proteasome inhibition (with dysregulated ..
  61. CT Evaluation of the Myocardial Effects of Risk Factors
    Lilach O Lerman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and is characterized by substantial inflammation...
  62. Maternal One Carbon Metabolism and Low Birth Weight Infant
    Satish C Kalhan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In humans, a significant correlation between maternal B12 and folate status and insulin resistance in their children at age 6 years has been observed...
  63. Fetal Programming and Human Physical Performance
    Tom Brutsaert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..For example, individuals born at low BW show a tendency towards insulin resistance and increased adiposity at the expense of lean body mass...
  64. Pioglitazone Therapy for Endocrine and Exocrine Disease in Alcoholic Pancreatitis
    MATTHEW DIMAGNO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..endocrine and exocrine pancreatic diseases, with interest in the relationship between diabetes mellitus or insulin resistance and reduced pancreatic exocrine secretion and/or chronic pancreatitis (CP)...
  65. Insulin Resistance and Adenomas of the Colorectum
    RALPH DAGOSTINO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Epidemiologic risk factors for colorectal neoplasia are similar to those for insulin resistance syndromes, and prospective studies have shown both diabetes and higher levels of IGF-1 to be associated with ..
  66. Insulin Resistance and Adenomas of the Colorectum
    Steven Haffner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Epidemiologic risk factors for colorectal neoplasia are similar to those for insulin resistance syndromes, and prospective studies have shown both diabetes and higher levels of IGF-1 to be associated with ..
  67. Insulin Resistance and Adenomas of the Colorectum
    Theodore Levin; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Epidemiologic risk factors for colorectal neoplasia are similar to those for insulin resistance syndromes, and prospective studies have shown both diabetes and higher levels of IGF-I to be associated with ..
  68. Insulin Resistance and Adenomas of the Colorectum
    Tim Byers; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Epidemiologic risk factors for colorectal neoplasia are similar to those for insulin resistance syndromes, and prospective studies have shown both diabetes and higher levels of IGF-1 to be associated with ..
  69. Insulin Resistance and Adenomas of the Colorectum
    Mohammed Saad; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Epidemiologic risk factors for colorectal neoplasia are similar to those for insulin resistance syndromes, and prospective studies have shown both diabetes and higher levels of IGF-1 to be associated with ..
  70. INSULIN RESISTANCE AND CALCIUM METABOLISM IN PREGNANCY
    James Sowers; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..that enhanced vascular reactivity characterizing pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is preceded by insulin resistance and associated abnormalities of platelet intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) metabolism early in pregnancy...
  71. Determination of the role of adipocyte inflammation in obesity-induced insulin re
    Jongsoon Lee; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and diet induce inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and that this may promote the development of systemic insulin resistance. It is currently believed is that obesity/diet-induced AT inflammation is predominantly driven by ..