botulism

Summary

Summary: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Dynamin inhibition blocks botulinum neurotoxin type A endocytosis in neurons and delays botulism
    Callista B Harper
    Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Biol Chem 286:35966-76. 2011
  2. pmc A novel strategy for development of recombinant antitoxin therapeutics tested in a mouse botulism model
    Jean Mukherjee
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29941. 2012
  3. pmc Characterization of botulinum neurotoxin type A neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and influence of their half-lives on therapeutic activity
    Christelle Mazuet
    Unité des Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e12416. 2010
  4. pmc Bivalent recombinant vaccine for botulinum neurotoxin types A and B based on a polypeptide comprising their effector and translocation domains that is protective against the predominant A and B subtypes
    Clifford Shone
    Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 77:2795-801. 2009
  5. pmc First case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium baratii type F in California
    Jason R Barash
    Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, California Department of Health Services, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Room E 361, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4280-2. 2005
  6. ncbi A novel multiplex PCR method for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A gene cluster typing
    Kaoru Umeda
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Tennoji ku, Osaka, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 54:308-12. 2010
  7. ncbi National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce
    Patricia C Juliao
    Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 56:376-82. 2013
  8. pmc Sequence diversity of genes encoding botulinum neurotoxin type F
    Brian H Raphael
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4805-12. 2010
  9. pmc Botulinum neurotoxins and botulism: a novel therapeutic approach
    Jeeraphong Thanongsaksrikul
    Laboratory for Research and Technology Development, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
    Toxins (Basel) 3:469-88. 2011
  10. ncbi Clostridium botulinum in the post-genomic era
    Michael W Peck
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK
    Food Microbiol 28:183-91. 2011

Detail Information

Publications274 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Dynamin inhibition blocks botulinum neurotoxin type A endocytosis in neurons and delays botulism
    Callista B Harper
    Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Biol Chem 286:35966-76. 2011
    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are di-chain bacterial proteins responsible for the paralytic disease botulism. Following binding to the plasma membrane of cholinergic motor nerve terminals, BoNTs are internalized into an endocytic ..
  2. pmc A novel strategy for development of recombinant antitoxin therapeutics tested in a mouse botulism model
    Jean Mukherjee
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e29941. 2012
    ..recombinant protein was as efficacious as polyclonal antiserum in a clinically-relevant mouse model of botulism. This strategy should have widespread application in antitoxin development and other therapies in which ..
  3. pmc Characterization of botulinum neurotoxin type A neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and influence of their half-lives on therapeutic activity
    Christelle Mazuet
    Unité des Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    PLoS ONE 5:e12416. 2010
    Botulinum toxins, i.e. BoNT/A to/G, include the most toxic substances known. Since botulism is a potentially fatal neuroparalytic disease with possible use as a biowarfare weapon (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category A ..
  4. pmc Bivalent recombinant vaccine for botulinum neurotoxin types A and B based on a polypeptide comprising their effector and translocation domains that is protective against the predominant A and B subtypes
    Clifford Shone
    Health Protection Agency, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 77:2795-801. 2009
    ..In addition, LH(N)/B provided single-dose protection in mice against BoNT/B(4) (nonproteolytic toxin subtype)...
  5. pmc First case of infant botulism caused by Clostridium baratii type F in California
    Jason R Barash
    Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, California Department of Health Services, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Room E 361, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4280-2. 2005
    In late 2003 a severely hypotonic neonate, just 38 h old at onset of illness, was found to have infant botulism caused by neurotoxigenic Clostridium baratii type F. Environmental investigations failed to identify a source of this strain...
  6. ncbi A novel multiplex PCR method for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type A gene cluster typing
    Kaoru Umeda
    Department of Microbiology, Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Tennoji ku, Osaka, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 54:308-12. 2010
    ..Ten isolates associated with infant botulism in Japan were examined and divided into boNT/A gene cluster types 2 and 3 by origin (honey feeding or not) and ..
  7. ncbi National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce
    Patricia C Juliao
    Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 56:376-82. 2013
    ..11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
  8. pmc Sequence diversity of genes encoding botulinum neurotoxin type F
    Brian H Raphael
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4805-12. 2010
    b>Botulism due to type F botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/F) is rare (<1% of cases), and only a limited number of clostridial strains producing this toxin type have been isolated...
  9. pmc Botulinum neurotoxins and botulism: a novel therapeutic approach
    Jeeraphong Thanongsaksrikul
    Laboratory for Research and Technology Development, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Prannok Road, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
    Toxins (Basel) 3:469-88. 2011
    Specific treatment is not available for human botulism. Current remedial mainstay is the passive administration of polyclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) derived from heterologous species (immunized animal or mouse hybridoma) ..
  10. ncbi Clostridium botulinum in the post-genomic era
    Michael W Peck
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK
    Food Microbiol 28:183-91. 2011
    Foodborne botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by consumption of botulinum neurotoxin formed by strains of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum during their growth in food...
  11. pmc Complete genome sequence of the proteolytic Clostridium botulinum type A5 (B3') strain H04402 065
    Andrew T Carter
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 193:2351-2. 2011
    ..Here, we report the complete 3.9-Mb genome sequence and annotation of strain H04402 065, which was isolated from a botulism patient in the United Kingdom in 2004.
  12. ncbi Two cases of food-borne botulism in Finland caused by conserved olives, October 2011
    K Jalava
    Department of Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
    Euro Surveill 16:20034. 2011
    In October 2011 in Finland, two persons fell ill with symptoms compatible with botulism after having eaten conserved olives stuffed with almonds. One of these two died...
  13. ncbi Three outbreaks of foodborne botulism caused by unsafe home canning of vegetables--Ohio and Washington, 2008 and 2009
    Kashmira Date
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Food Prot 74:2090-6. 2011
    Foodborne botulism is a potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by ingestion of neurotoxin produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum...
  14. pmc Botulism and preserved green olives
    Amy Cawthorne
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:781-2. 2005
  15. ncbi Botulism and vaccines for its prevention
    Leonard A Smith
    Medical Countermeasures Technology, U S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 5011, United States of America
    Vaccine 27:D33-9. 2009
    b>Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by toxins produced by several Clostridium species...
  16. pmc Identification of a potent botulinum neurotoxin a protease inhibitor using in situ lead identification chemistry
    Grant E Boldt
    Department of Chemistry and Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and Worm Institute of Research and Medicine WIRM, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Org Lett 8:1729-32. 2006
    reaction: see text] Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), etiological agents of the deadly food poisoning disease botulism, are the most toxic proteins currently known...
  17. ncbi Botulinum toxin: from life-threatening disease to novel medical therapy
    Sangeeta T Mahajan
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 196:7-15. 2007
    ..The toxin has evolved from a cause of fatal disease into the newest neuropharmacologic medical therapy...
  18. ncbi Biology and genomic analysis of Clostridium botulinum
    Michael W Peck
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, UK
    Adv Microb Physiol 55:183-265, 320. 2009
    ..neurotoxin is the most potent toxin known, with as little as 30-100 ng potentially fatal, and is responsible for botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease that affects humans, animals, and birds...
  19. ncbi Characterization of the neurotoxin produced by isolates associated with avian botulism
    Masato Takeda
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 1 Gakuen cho, Sakai, Osaka 599 8531, Japan
    Avian Dis 49:376-81. 2005
    Several varieties of birds are affected by type C botulism. We conducted neutralization tests of culture supernatants of isolates from cases of avian botulism...
  20. ncbi Detection and differentiation of Clostridium botulinum type A strains using a focused DNA microarray
    Brian H Raphael
    Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Mol Cell Probes 24:146-53. 2010
    ..Eight pairs of strains selected from separate type A botulism outbreaks were included in the 27 subtype A1-A4 strains examined in this study...
  21. pmc Genome sequence of a proteolytic (Group I) Clostridium botulinum strain Hall A and comparative analysis of the clostridial genomes
    Mohammed Sebaihia
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
    Genome Res 17:1082-92. 2007
    ..the ability to produce botulinum neurotoxin, the most poisonous toxin known to man, and the causative agent of botulism, a severe disease of humans and animals...
  22. pmc Comparison of DNA fingerprinting methods for use in investigation of type E botulism outbreaks in the Canadian Arctic
    Daniel Leclair
    Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Products and Food Branch, Food Directorate, Health Canada, Tunney s Pasture, PL 2204A2, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1635-44. 2006
    ..for epidemiological typing of Clostridium botulinum type E using clinical and food isolates associated with four botulism outbreaks occurring in the Canadian Arctic...
  23. ncbi Production of catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 holoprotein and comparison with BoNT/A1 subunit vaccines against toxin subtypes A1, A2, and A3
    Robert P Webb
    United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Frederick, MD 21702, United States
    Vaccine 27:4490-7. 2009
    ..Differences in protective immunity diminished after multiple vaccinations with either ciBoNT/A1 HP or BoNT/A1 H(c), and the survival rates were more comparable at the toxin levels used to challenge...
  24. pmc An efficient drug delivery vehicle for botulism countermeasure
    Peng Zhang
    Division of Experimental Therapeutic, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
    BMC Pharmacol 9:12. 2009
    ..Here we report a drug delivery strategy that could directly deliver toxin inhibitors into the intoxicated nerve terminal cytosol...
  25. pmc Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism
    Inga K Teismann
    Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany
    BMC Neurol 8:13. 2008
    b>Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days...
  26. ncbi Biological agents as weapons 1: smallpox and botulism
    Michael Whitby
    Infection Management Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD
    Med J Aust 176:431-3. 2002
    ..5. Foodborne and inhalational botulism could result from deliberate release of toxin. 6...
  27. ncbi Botulism type B presenting as pure autonomic dysfunction
    B Merz
    Dept of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Clin Auton Res 13:337-8. 2003
    b>Botulism nowadays is a rare mostly food-borne disease caused by the toxin of Clostridium botulinum...
  28. ncbi Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and concomitant fatal botulism of one
    J H Williams
    Section of Pathology, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 82:244-9. 2011
    ..b>Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish...
  29. ncbi Gaining ground: assays for therapeutics against botulinum neurotoxin
    Ramin Mollaaghababa Hakami
    Faculty Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Belcamp, MD, USA
    Trends Microbiol 18:164-72. 2010
    ....
  30. ncbi Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan Ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll
    Thierry M Work
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Honolulu Field Station, PO Box 50167, Honolulu, Hawaii 96850, USA
    J Wildl Dis 46:499-506. 2010
    ..In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October...
  31. ncbi Food-borne botulism cases in Van region in eastern Turkey: importance of electromyography in the diagnosis
    O Anlar
    Department of Neurology, Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medecine, 65200 Van, Turkey
    Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 43:373-6. 2003
    Food-borne botulism is an acute form of poisoning that results from ingestion of a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum...
  32. pmc Vaccination with recombinant whole heavy chain fragments of Clostridium botulinum Type C and D neurotoxins
    Hideyuki Arimitsu
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:496-502. 2004
    ..The mice immunized with type C- and D-H chains showed no symptoms of botulism when they were challenged with C- and D-16 S toxins at doses, given intraperitoneally, of up to 10(5) and 10(6) ..
  33. ncbi C terminal half fragment (50 kDa) of heavy chain components of Clostridium botulinum type C and D neurotoxins can be used as an effective vaccine
    Jae Chul Lee
    Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 51:445-55. 2007
    ..These results indicate that recombinant GST-fused Hc can be used as a safe and effective vaccine for type C and D botulism in animals...
  34. ncbi An outbreak of equine botulism type A associated with feeding grass clippings
    Stephanie R Ostrowski
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, PO Box 1770, Davis, CA 95616 1770, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 24:601-3. 2012
    In September 2010, an outbreak of type A botulism involved 4 horses in northern California that were fed grass clippings obtained from a nearby park...
  35. pmc Wound botulism in injection drug users
    Wiltrud Maria Kalka-Moll
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:942-3. 2007
  36. ncbi Type A botulism in horses in the United States: a review of the past ten years (1998-2008)
    Amy L Johnson
    Section of Medicine, New Bolton Center, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA
    J Vet Diagn Invest 22:165-73. 2010
    The objective of the current retrospective study was to describe naturally occurring type A botulism in horses in the United States...
  37. ncbi Cattle immune response to botulinum type D toxoid: results of a vaccination study
    A Steinman
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, PO Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Vaccine 25:7636-40. 2007
    Cattle botulism is a food-borne intoxication caused by the ingestion of preformed botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) of serotypes B, C, or D...
  38. ncbi Severe adult botulism
    I J Mackle
    Intensive Care Unit, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales
    Anaesth Intensive Care 29:297-300. 2001
    A case of severe adult botulism with paralysis, respiratory failure and cranial nerve palsies is presented. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment options for botulism are discussed.
  39. ncbi Bichat guidelines for the clinical management of botulism and bioterrorism-related botulism
    Philippe Bossi
    Task Force on Biological and Chemical Agent Threats, Public Health Directorate, European Commission, Luxembourg
    Euro Surveill 9:E13-4. 2004
    b>Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by botulinum toxin, which is produced by the Clostridium botulinum. This toxin is the most poisonous substance known. It 100,000 times more toxic than sarin gas...
  40. ncbi Foodborne botulinum type E intoxication associated with dried bean curd: first case report in Taiwan
    Lung Shiang Lai
    Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital Yun Lin Branch, Yun Lin, Taiwan
    Acta Neurol Taiwan 20:138-41. 2011
    b>Botulism type E intoxication is a rare condition among human botulism. We aim to describe a first case of botulism type E intoxication in Taiwan.
  41. ncbi Public perceptions and risk communications for botulism
    Deborah Glik
    Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA School of Public Health, Health and Media Research Group, Los Angeles, California 90095 17722, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 2:216-23. 2004
    Formative research findings from 10 focus group interviews on botulism are described...
  42. ncbi What not to say: risk communication for botulism
    Deborah C Glik
    Department of Community Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1772, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 6:93-107. 2008
    This formative research study used qualitative methods to test the suitability of messages about botulism for the general public...
  43. ncbi Molecular diversity of the two sugar-binding sites of the β-trefoil lectin HA33/C (HA1) from Clostridium botulinum type C neurotoxin
    Toshio Nakamura
    Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3 5 8, Saiwai cho, Fuchu, Tokyo 183 8509, Japan
    Arch Biochem Biophys 512:69-77. 2011
    ..The architectures and the properties of the sugar-binding sites of HA33/C and HA33/A were shown to be drastically different...
  44. pmc Subunit vaccine efficacy against Botulinum neurotoxin subtypes
    James S Henkel
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Vaccine 29:7688-95. 2011
    ..These results may provide a reference for the development of pan-BoNT vaccines...
  45. ncbi Two outbreaks of botulism associated with consumption of green olive paste, France, September 2011
    J M Pingeon
    Regional Health Agency of Provence Alpes Cote d Azur, Avignon, France
    Euro Surveill 16:20035. 2011
    Two family outbreaks of botulism (a total of nine cases) were identified in south-east and northern France in early September 2011. The source of infection was considered to be a ground green olive paste...
  46. ncbi Sequence of the gene coding for the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum type A associated with infant botulism: comparison with other clostridial neurotoxins
    A Willems
    Department of Microbiology, AFRC Institute of Food Research, Reading, UK
    Res Microbiol 144:547-56. 1993
    The neurotoxin gene from a strain of Clostridium botulinum type A causing infant botulism was cloned as a series of overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments generated using primers designed to conserved regions of published ..
  47. ncbi Iatrogenic botulism after the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin-A: a case report and review of the literature
    Majid Ghasemi
    Department of Neurology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
    Clin Neuropharmacol 35:254-7. 2012
    ..We report 2 cases of primary hyperhidrosis who developed iatrogenic botulism after the therapeutic dose of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)...
  48. pmc Asymmetric type F botulism with cranial nerve demyelination
    Alina Filozov
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Middlesex Hospital, 80 S Main St, Middletown, CT 06457, USA alina fi
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:102-4. 2012
    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism...
  49. pmc Bowel loops and eyelid droops
    Jamie Spiegelman
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ont
    CMAJ 179:927-9. 2008
    A patient presented with a small-bowel obstruction associated with signs and symptoms of botulism. Fecal cultures were positive for viable Clostridium botulinum...
  50. pmc Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E associated with a large outbreak of botulism in wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
    George E Hannett
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Health Department, P O Box 22002, Albany, NY 12201 2002, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1061-8. 2011
    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)...
  51. ncbi [Infant botulism: case report and review]
    Daniela Arriagada S
    Departamento de Pediatria, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana Universidad Del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
    Rev Chilena Infectol 26:162-7. 2009
    b>Botulism is a rare disease in Chile and of the known clinical presentation, infant botulism is the most common...
  52. pmc Dual toxin-producing strain of Clostridium botulinum type Bf isolated from a California patient with infant botulism
    Jason R Barash
    Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, California 94804, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1713-5. 2004
    A retrospective study of Clostridium botulinum strains isolated from patients from California with infant botulism identified the fourth known C. botulinum strain that produces both type B and type F botulinum toxins...
  53. ncbi Infant botulism, type F, presenting at 54 hours of life
    Corinne A Keet
    University of California San Francisco UCSF School of Medicine, 521 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0663, USA
    Pediatr Neurol 32:193-6. 2005
    We report a case of botulism in a 54-hour-old infant with rapidly progressive fulminant paralysis and rapid spontaneous recovery atypical for infant botulism...
  54. doi Reviews of infant botulism at childrens hospital los angeles
    Wendy G Mitchell
    J Child Neurol 23:968. 2008
  55. ncbi Botulinum neurotoxin type B in milk from a cow affected by visceral botulism
    H Böhnel
    Institute for Tropical Animal Health, Georg August University, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Vet J 169:124-5. 2005
  56. ncbi An assessment of nurses' knowledge of botulism
    Christopher E Bork
    Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, The University of Toledo College of Medicine, Toledo, Ohio 43614, USA
    Public Health Nurs 29:168-74. 2012
    To assess nurses' knowledge of botulism, a Centers for Disease Control Category A bioterrorism agent, one case of which constitutes an emergency.
  57. ncbi Infant botulism due to consumption of contaminated commercially prepared honey. First report from the Arabian Gulf States
    Maria M J van der Vorst
    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Mubarak Al Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait
    Med Princ Pract 15:456-8. 2006
    To report the first case of infant botulism in Arabian Gulf States.
  58. ncbi Botulism: the many faces of botulinum toxin and its potential for bioterrorism
    Rodrigo G Villar
    Department of Pediatrics and Steele Children s Research Center, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, 1501 N Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 20:313-27, ix. 2006
  59. ncbi A botulism case of a 12-year-old girl caused by intestinal colonization of Clostridium botulinum type Ab
    Hiroshi Kobayashi
    Department of Pediatrics, Jikei University School of Medicine, Kashiwa Hospital, Chiba 277 0004, Japan
    Jpn J Infect Dis 56:73-4. 2003
    We encountered a 12-year-old girl, who had contracted food-borne botulism, and subsequently suffered from obstinate constipation for more than half a year...
  60. ncbi Neuronal functions associated with endo- and exocytotic events-cum-molecular trafficking may be cell maturation-dependent: lessons learned from studies on botulism
    Radharaman Ray
    Research Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 5400, USA
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 31:861-5. 2011
    ....
  61. ncbi Emergence of suspected type D botulism in ruminants in England and Wales (2001 to 2009), associated with exposure to broiler litter
    J H Payne
    Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA Sutton Bonington, The Elms, College Road, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RB
    Vet Rec 168:640. 2011
    Scanning surveillance by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency revealed the emergence of suspected botulism in ruminants in 2003, presented as flaccid paralysis...
  62. ncbi [Botulism and pregnancy]
    K Magri
    Service de Gynécologie Centre Hospitalier de Dole, Avenue Léon Jouhaux, 39100 Dole
    J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 35:624-6. 2006
    b>Botulism during pregnancy is uncommon and raises concern due uncertainty about fetal impairment. This type of situation has not been reported to date. Treatment is basically symptomatic and based on nursing care...
  63. ncbi Protective effect of botulinum C/D mosaic toxoid against avian botulism
    Masato Takeda
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
    J Vet Med Sci 68:325-30. 2006
    Avian botulism is a paralytic disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum type C...
  64. ncbi Clostridium botulinum and the ophthalmologist: a review of botulism, including biological warfare ramifications of botulinum toxin
    J G Caya
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, WI 53792, USA
    Surv Ophthalmol 46:25-34. 2001
    ..ophthalmological effects of this neurotoxin are many and typically constitute the earliest manifestations of botulism. This review summarizes the medical literature on botulism with regard to historical perspective, epidemiology, ..
  65. ncbi Two unlinked cases of foodborne botulism in Italy at the beginning of 2010
    Paolo Daminelli
    Department of Food Microbiology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia
    New Microbiol 34:287-90. 2011
    The study provides data on two cases of foodborne botulism caused by consumption of commercial vegetable products: artichoke preserve and cream of vegetable soup...
  66. ncbi Ophthalmic manifestations in 18 patients with botulism diagnosed in Porto, Portugal between 1998 and 2003
    Susana C Penas
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Porto School of Medicine, Sao Joao Hospital, Porto, Portugal
    J Neuroophthalmol 25:262-7. 2005
    b>Botulism is a rare but potentially lethal disease in which ophthalmic signs and symptoms are among the very earliest manifestations...
  67. ncbi Infant botulism
    I Brook
    Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20016, USA
    J Perinatol 27:175-80. 2007
    Infant botulism results from the absorption of heat-labile neurotoxin produced in situ by ingested Clostridium botulinum. Honey and environmental exposure are the main sources of acquisition of the organism...
  68. ncbi Botulism in a pregnant intravenous drug abuser
    G A Morrison
    Anaesthetics, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Anaesthesia 61:57-60. 2006
    A case of botulism is reported in a heroin-abusing parturient who initially presented with lethargy and slurred speech...
  69. ncbi Acute paralysis following "a bad potato": a case of botulism
    Mohit Bhutani
    Program in Critical Care Medicine and Respiratology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Anaesth 52:433-6. 2005
    ..We present a case of food borne Clostridium botulism and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.
  70. pmc A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation
    Vivian D Hope
    Health Protection Services, Health Protection Agency, London, UK
    Am J Public Health 102:122-5. 2012
    ..We collated the numbers of cases of 4 bacterial illnesses (botulism, tetanus, Clostridium novyi, and anthrax) in European IDUs for 2000 to 2009 and calculated population rates...
  71. ncbi Visceral botulism at dairy farms in Schleswig Holstein, Germany: prevalence of Clostridium botulinum in feces of cows, in animal feeds, in feces of the farmers, and in house dust
    Monika Krüger
    Institute of Bacteriology and Mycology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    Anaerobe 18:221-3. 2012
    ..Four of the humans under study (one child, 8 month, and three adults) showed symptoms of infant/visceral botulism. Specimens were cultivated in reinforced clostridial medium (RCM). C. botulinum antigens were detected by ELISA...
  72. pmc Intestinal toxemia botulism in 3 adults, Ontario, Canada, 2006-2008
    Yolanda D Sheppard
    Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1-6. 2012
    Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients...
  73. pmc Characterization of Clostridium botulinum type B neurotoxin associated with infant botulism in japan
    S Kozaki
    Department of Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, Ishikawa, Japan
    Infect Immun 66:4811-6. 1998
    The neurotoxin of strain 111 (111/NT) associated with type B infant botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from that (Okra/NT) produced by a food-borne botulism-related strain, Okra...
  74. ncbi Preliminary evaluation of a simple in vitro test for the diagnosis of type C botulism in wild birds
    T E Rocke
    U S National Biological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
    J Wildl Dis 34:744-51. 1998
    ..To evaluate the immunostick ELISA as a diagnostic test for avian botulism, known concentrations of toxin were added to heparinized blood collected from healthy birds and tested by both ..
  75. ncbi Ribotyping as an identification tool for Clostridium botulinum strains causing human botulism
    S Hielm
    Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki University, Finland
    Int J Food Microbiol 47:121-31. 1999
    ..Clostridium species to determine the applicability of this method for identification of species causing human botulism. Thirteen restriction enzymes were initially tested for suitability for ribotyping of C...
  76. ncbi Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom
    Jim McLauchlin
    Health Protection Agency Department of Gastrointestinal Infections, Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
    J Public Health (Oxf) 28:337-42. 2006
    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption...
  77. ncbi Recent association of cattle botulism with poultry litter
    C T Livesey
    Vet Rec 154:734-5. 2004
  78. ncbi Characterization of Clostridium butyricum neurotoxin associated with food-borne botulism
    Kentaro Tsukamoto
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599 8531, Japan
    Microb Pathog 33:177-84. 2002
    The neurotoxin of Clostridium butyricum strain LCL155 (BuNT/LCL155) associated with type E food-borne botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from those of C. botulinum type E (BoNT/E) andC...
  79. ncbi In vivo molecular imaging analysis of a nasal vaccine that induces protective immunity against botulism in nonhuman primates
    Yoshikazu Yuki
    Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Immunol 185:5436-43. 2010
    ..In this study, we performed real-time quantitative tracking of a nasal vaccine candidate for botulism, which is a nontoxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin (BoHc/A) effective in the ..
  80. pmc Clinical recovery and circulating botulinum toxin type F in adult patient
    Jeremy Sobel
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:969-71. 2009
    ..On day 8, she began moving spontaneously, even though blood tests later showed botulinum toxin type F remained...
  81. ncbi Association between honey consumption and infant botulism
    Maria G Tanzi
    Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois, Chicago 60612, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 22:1479-83. 2002
    Infant botulism, a disease that results in a blockade of voluntary motor and autonomic functions, was first recognized in the United States in the late 1970s...
  82. pmc First report worldwide of an infant botulism case due to Clostridium botulinum type E
    Carolina Luquez
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS G 29, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:326-8. 2010
    Clostridium botulinum type E has been associated with botulism in adults but never in infants. Infant botulism type E cases have been associated with neurotoxigenic strains of C. butyricum...
  83. ncbi Infant botulism
    Nadine Cox
    Mount Carmel Family Practice Residency Program, Mount Carmel Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA
    Am Fam Physician 65:1388-92. 2002
    Although the worldwide incidence of infant botulism is rare, the majority of cases are diagnosed in the United States. An infant can acquire botulism by ingesting Clostridium botulinum spores, which are found in soil or honey products...
  84. ncbi [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009]
    L A King
    Departement de Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 12, rue du Val d Osne, 94415 Saint Maurice Cedex, France
    Arch Pediatr 17:1288-92. 2010
    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age...
  85. ncbi Characterization of the D/C mosaic neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum associated with bovine botulism in Japan
    Keiji Nakamura
    Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1 1 Gakuen cho, Naka ku, Sakai, Osaka 599 8531, Japan
    Vet Microbiol 140:147-54. 2010
    Clostridium botulinum types C and D are related to avian and mammalian botulism. Bovine botulism occurred at various farms from 2004 to 2007 in Japan...
  86. ncbi The recombinant Hc subunit of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is an effective botulism vaccine candidate
    Yun Zhou Yu
    Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, 20 Dong Dajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing 100071, China
    Vaccine 27:2816-22. 2009
    ..with or without adjuvants functioned effectively over time in protecting mice against challenge with neurotoxin suggesting that this form of rAHc may be developed into a human vaccine candidate designed for the prevention of botulism.
  87. ncbi Botulism, where are we now?
    Jiu Cong Zhang
    Department of Infectious Disease, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, China
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 48:867-79. 2010
    b>Botulism is a neuroparalytic illness caused by botulinum toxin, a product of the Clostridium botulinum bacteria and characteristically presents as an acute, symmetrical, descending flaccid paralysis...
  88. ncbi Type E botulism
    B Zane Horowitz
    Oregon Alaska Poison Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 48:880-95. 2010
    There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods...
  89. ncbi Clostridial disease associated with neurologic signs: tetanus, botulism, and enterotoxemia
    D Michael Rings
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Tharp Street, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 20:379-91, vii-viii. 2004
    ..In addition, neurologic signs are described with C perfringens types C and D but are not the dominant feature of these diseases...
  90. pmc Botulism from drinking pruno
    Duc J Vugia
    Infectious Diseases Branch, California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg P, 2nd Floor, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:69-71. 2009
    Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation...
  91. ncbi Autopsy findings in botulinum toxin poisoning
    Kelly G Devers
    University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Department of Pathology, MSC08 4640, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    J Forensic Sci 55:1649-51. 2010
    In the United States, foodborne botulism is most commonly associated with home-canned food products. Between 1950 and 2005, 405 separate outbreaks of botulism were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
  92. ncbi Clinicopathological features consistent with both botulism and grass sickness in a foal
    B C McGorum
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Easter Bush, Roslin, Midlothian
    Vet Rec 152:334-6. 2003
  93. pmc Inhalational botulism in rhesus macaques exposed to botulinum neurotoxin complex serotypes A1 and B1
    Daniel C Sanford
    Battelle Biomedical Research Center, West Jefferson, Ohio, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:1293-304. 2010
    ..Clinical observations were consistent with the recognized pattern of botulism disease progression...
  94. ncbi A case if infant botulism due to neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum type E associated with Clostridium difficile colitis
    L Fenicia
    National Reference Center for Botulism, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21:736-8. 2002
    Reported here is the sixth case of intestinal toxemia botulism caused by Clostridium butyricum type E in Italy since 1984. In this case, the patient was concomitantly affected with colitis due to Clostridium difficile toxin...
  95. ncbi Anthrax, botulism and tularemia in Italy
    D Serraino
    Infection 31:128-9. 2003
  96. ncbi Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism
    María I Bianco
    Area Microbiologia, Departamento de Patologia, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, Parque General San Martin S N, 5500, Mendoza, Argentina
    Int J Food Microbiol 121:357-60. 2008
    Nowadays, infant botulism is the most important form of human botulism in some countries. This illness affects infants younger than 52 weeks of age...
  97. ncbi Molecular characterization and comparison of Clostridium botulinum type C avian strains
    Hanna Skarin
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
    Avian Pathol 39:511-8. 2010
    Type C botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/C)-producing Clostridium botulinum causes animal botulism worldwide and has become a serious problem in poultry flocks and waterfowl in Sweden...
  98. ncbi Infantile botulism caused by Clostridium butyricum type E toxin
    Yuichi Abe
    Division of Child Neurology, National Center of Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan
    Pediatr Neurol 38:55-7. 2008
    The case of a 9-month-old boy with infantile botulism caused by Clostridium butyricum type E toxin is reported. Because infantile botulism is rare in Japan, it was difficult to diagnose it at an early stage...
  99. pmc Synaptotagmins I and II mediate entry of botulinum neurotoxin B into cells
    Min Dong
    Department of Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    J Cell Biol 162:1293-303. 2003
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism by entering neurons and cleaving proteins that mediate neurotransmitter release; disruption of exocytosis results in paralysis and death...
  100. ncbi Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism
    Stephen S Arnon
    Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program, California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:462-71. 2006
    We created the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) (BIG-IV), which neutralizes botulinum toxin, and evaluated its safety and efficacy in treating infant botulism, the intestinal-toxemia form of human botulism.
  101. pmc Antibody protection against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication in mice
    Luisa W Cheng
    Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, USDA Agricultural Research Service, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA
    Infect Immun 77:4305-13. 2009
    ..Knowledge of BoNT intoxication and antibody clearance in these mouse models and understanding of the pharmacokinetics of BoNT are invaluable for future development of antibodies and therapeutics against intoxication by BoNT...

Research Grants62

  1. Rapid point-of-care diagnostic for bioterrorism "A" agents and Pandemic influenza
    Kelly J Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularaemia), and a group of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs)...
  2. SELF-SPLICING INTEINS: FUNCTION, EVOLUTION, APPLICATION
    Marlene Belfort; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..wild-typ intein precursors for biological and chemical applications, and construct sensors for proteases in a botulism toxin diagnostic and to detect tuberculosis (TB) biomarkers as a TB diagnostic...
  3. Effect of Articular Neurotoxin on Joint Pain and Neurochemical Signature
    Maren Lawson Mahowald; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..New effective treatments are desperately needed. We have found that injecting botulism toxin into arthritic mouse joints reduces their pain...
  4. Receptors for clostridial neurotoxins
    Edwin R Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    b>Botulism was first described almost 200 years ago. This disease is caused by the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT), which are the most potent toxins known...
  5. Identifying Host-Factors Required for Toxin Entry and Toxicity
    ERIK HETT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HEALTH RELEVANCE: Many bacterial pathogens produce toxins that cause serious disease including cholera, tetanus, botulism, diphtheria, and anthrax and often share key steps in cell entry and cell death processes that rely on host ..
  6. Targeting Cellular Processes to Counter the Effects of BoNT Intoxication
    Sina Bavari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Seven biochemically distinct BoNT serotypes (A-G) cause botulism, making the prospect of developing a single, non-promiscuous inhibitor of all serotypes unlikely...
  7. Antidote for botulism
    DAVID OWEN BEENHOUWER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Hypothesis. We propose that toxin lacking protease activity (iBoNT/A) will be an effective antidote to acute botulism because it should compete for the same substrate as BoNT/A (SNAP-25) without cleaving it and should have the same ..
  8. Second Generation Small Molecule Inhibitors of Botulinum Neurotoxins
    Sina Bavari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Clostridium botulinum, baratii, and butyricium, BoNTs are responsible for the flaccid paralysis associated with botulism. Listed as category A biothreats by the CDC, BoNTs are the most toxic of biological toxins, are easily produced, ..
  9. Structural and functional studies of botulinum neurotoxin
    Rongsheng Jin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..successful, the proposed wok will guide the design of novel therapeutics for the treatment and/or prevention of botulism. Our work may also provide new insights into the activity and side effects of drugs such as Botox(R) and Dysport(..
  10. Structural Mechanisms of Botulinum Neurotoxin Pathogenesis
    DANA BORDEN LACY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..They are responsible for the disease botulism, a neuroparalytic condition that can progress to flaccid paralysis and death if left untreated...
  11. Novel therapeutic approaches to treatment of botulinum neurotoxin poisoning
    Eric A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Human botulism can result from the ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), from the infection of wounds or intestine, or from direct inhalation of the toxin, which can be transcytosed across epithelial barriers as ..
  12. Motor neuron-targeted adenovirus antidotes for botulism
    CHARLES BIX SHOEMAKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a CDC Category A biodefense threat agent for which no antidote exists...
  13. Trispecific monoclonal antibody for botulinum neurotoxin intoxication therapy
    James D Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goal of this project is to generate highly potent trispecific antibodies for the prevention and treatment of botulism due to botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) serotypes A, B, E, and F...
  14. DNA Microarray analysis of Clostridium botulinum
    Wei Jen Lin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin, the most potent protein toxin, which is known to cause botulism in humans and animals...
  15. Distal effects of botulinum neurotoxins
    Edwin R Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..related toxins: tetanus (TeNT) and seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), which cause the diseases tetanus and botulism, respectively...
  16. GENE EXPRESSION DURING SPORULATION
    Patrick J Piggot; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..perfringens, C. botulinum and C. difficile, the causes of anthrax, tetanus, gas gangrene, botulism and colitis following antibiotic therapy, respectively...
  17. FORESPORE ENGULFMENT DURING B SUBTILIS SPORULATION
    KIT J POGLIANO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genera Bacillus and Clostridium produce unusually durable endospores that are the infectious agent of Anthrax and Botulism. The phagocytosis-like process of engulfment is the hallmark of endospore formation, as it creates the unique ..
  18. Multiplex Screening Panel for the Detection of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Genes
    Andrew C Whelen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that may lead to successful treatment, reduce the number of hospitalizations and reduce the risk of deaths from botulism. Additionally, the faster an agent and source can be traced, the higher the public's confidence and trust in ..
  19. Long-term effects of botulinum neurotoxins on neuronal viability
    Min Dong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins are a family of seven bacterial toxins (BoNT/A-G) that cause the disease botulism in humans and animals...
  20. Small Molecule Therapeutics for Botullinum Neurotoxin A
    Tobin J Dickerson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    b>Botulism is a neurological disorder caused by an exotoxin from the organism Clostridum botulinum. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness that can result in complete flaccid paralysis...
  21. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENESIS
    ROBERT JOHN COLLIER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that modify targets within the cytosol of mammalian cells are crucial virulence factors in anthrax, diphtheria, botulism, cholera and many other bacterial diseases...
  22. Therapeutic Delivery Platforms against Botulism
    Joseph T Barbieri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The current penta-serotype vaccine is in limited supply and there are no approved therapies against botulism. During studies on BoNT entry into neurons, the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) was observed to enter BoNT-..
  23. Botulinum Neurotoxin Trafficking and Tissue Distribution with Mouse Body Imaging
    Bal Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The information derived from operation of such a system will be relevant to medical intervention against botulism, potential diffusion of the toxin upon therapeutic application, and t effective use of the drBoNT/A as a ..
  24. Generation of therapeutic antibodies to serotype F botulism
    James D Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..applicant): The goal of this project is to develop a highly potent antitoxin for the treatment and prevention of botulism caused by type F botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/F)...
  25. A platform for therapeutic agents that promote rapid recovery from botulism
    CHARLES BIX SHOEMAKER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulism is caused by exposure to toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a CDC Category A biodefense threat agent for which no antidote currently exists...
  26. Diagnostic assay systems for Botulinum Neurotoxins
    Markus Kalkum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..laboratory of the Biodefense Laboratory Response Network for preclinical data collection on samples of infant botulism. The long term goal of the project is to obtain regulatory approval for use of the microcolumn BoNT ALISSA as a ..
  27. Mechanism of spore germination
    Philip C Hanna; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..anthracis), C. difficile- associated infections (CDI), wound and GI infections, gas gangrene, tetanus, forms of botulism and other serious diseases...
  28. Neuronal-specific cargo-delivery platforms as post-exposure botulism therapies
    Brenda A Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): A major challenge in development of therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, including botulism, is the low efficiency and low specificity of existing treatments for targeting the therapeutic agents ..
  29. Development of botulinum neurotoxin immunotherapy, serotypes C, D, F, and G
    James D Marks; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The only near term product for treatment of botulism that has been validated in animals and humans is antitoxin...
  30. Development of a prototype system for assaying exocytosis from individual cells
    XIN ALICE LIU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..out high-throughput screening of drugs that target exocytosis, a clinical market to perform automated assays of botulism without the use of laboratory animals and a defense / homeland security market to detect neurotoxin bioweapons ..
  31. Investigations Targeting Symptomatic Relief to Botulinum Neurotoxin A Intoxicatio
    Kim D Janda; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the etiological agents responsible for botulism, a disease characterized by peripheral neuromuscular blockade and a characteristic flaccid paralysis of humans...
  32. Cytotoxicity of botulinum neurotoxins
    Min Dong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a family of bacterial toxins causing botulism in humans and animals...
  33. Rapid detection of botulinum toxins using a high sensitivity SPR sensor
    PAUL MELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The current "gold standard" for laboratory diagnosis of botulism is the mouse bioassay. While sensitive, it is also slow (2-4 days) and requires a dedicated animal laboratory...
  34. Human Monoclonal Antibodies that Bind Botulinum Toxins
    SCOTT KENDALL DESSAIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most potent biological toxin known, the cause of the paralytic disease, botulism, and a potential bioterrorist weapon...
  35. Multiplex PCR Detection of CDC 'A' Bioterrorism Agents
    Kelly Henrickson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Variola major (smallpox), Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (plague), Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), and a group of RNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs, e.g...
  36. BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN: MECHANISM OF TOXICITY
    BIBHUTI DASGUPTA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..MT), produced by the bacteria Clostridium Botulinum, is the sole cause of the dreaded neuroparalytic disease botulism. The NT blocks release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at peripheral cholinergic synapses...
  37. Targeted antitoxin delivery platforms as post-exposure therapies for botulism
    Brenda A Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    One of the greatest challenges of developing post-exposure treatments for botulism caused by clostridial neurotoxins is the brief therapeutic window for conventional antibody-based antitoxins to neutralize the free neurotoxin in the ..
  38. Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Subtypes
    Eric A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..BoNTs are the causative agent of human botulism, and are used as efficacious pharmaceuticals for treatment of a myriad of neuronal diseases...
  39. MECHANISM OF BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN ACTION
    Bal Ram Singh; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..to block acetylcholine neurotransmitter release leading to the flaccid muscle paralysis in the dreaded botulism disease...
  40. TARGET-GUIDED BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN INHIBITOR DISCOVERY
    Hartmuth Kolb; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Current therapy of botulism is based on macromolecular antitoxins, which are only able to neutralize the neurotoxins before they enter nerve ..
  41. RNA aptamers as novel antidotes against botulism
    Shuowei Cai; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known to man, and cause the deadly neuroparalytic disease, botulism. The flaccid paralysis caused by botulism lasts for months...
  42. A novel vaccine: botulinum neurotoxin subunit on a viral carrier.
    MATTHIAS JOHANNES SCHNELL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): According to the NIAID fact sheet on Botulism, "the extreme toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and the ease of production, transport, and delivery make this an agent of extreme bioterrorism ..
  43. Botulinum Toxin Plantibodies
    KEITH WYCOFF; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These antibodies will also be available to treat the approximately 100 yearly cases of naturally occurring botulism in the USA.
  44. Transmitter Repletion: Key to Phrenic-Diaphragm Function
    Erik van Lunteren; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This occurs not only in overtly diseased neuromuscular junctions (eg. myasthenia gravis, botulism), but also in normal junctions subjected to high intensity activation during mechanical loading by lung disease (..
  45. Murine Models of Presynaptic Neuromuscular Disease
    WILLIAM ATCHISON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These include botulism, envenomation by certain poisonous snakes and arthropods as well as several human congential myasthenic syndromes...
  46. Facility Airborne Biological Toxin Alarm System
    John Parrish; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Center for Integration of Medicine and Innovative Technology (CIMIT) at Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Botulism Research Laboratory at University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD)...
  47. C. Botulinum Type E Catalytic Domain-Substrate Complex
    Subramanyam Swaminathan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Clostridium botulinum causing botulism, a neuronal disorder, is a public health problem and is also emerging as a potential biowarfare threat...
  48. Novel recombinant protein therapeutics of botulism
    David Yang; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..the objective of the proposed project is to develop recombinant protein drugs for botulism. The Specific Aims for the granting period will be first isolating peptides that will not only specifically ..
  49. A NEW GENERATION OF BOTULINUM TOXIN VACCINES
    Md Elias; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Botulinum toxin is a microbial agent that causes the disease botulism. Naturally occurring botulism is not common, and thus there is no need for universal vaccination...
  50. A novel vaccine: botulinum neurotoxin subunit on a viral carrier.
    Matthias Schnell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): According to the NIAID fact sheet on Botulism, the extreme toxicity of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and the ease of production, transport, and delivery make this an agent of extreme bioterrorism ..
  51. Biocombinatorial Strategies Against Botulinum Toxin
    Kim Janda; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..an often cited scenario is the use of botulinum toxin (BoTox), the causative agent of the clinical condition of botulism, which can have a high fatality rate by either oral consumption or inhalation...
  52. Alpha2-Macroglobulin-PA Complexes: Novel Anthrax Vaccin*
    SALVATORE PIZZO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..more effective vaccines against a variety of agents which might be used as biological weapons, including anthrax, botulism and plague...
  53. New genetic vaccine to protect aganist botulism
    Mingtao Zeng; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by one of seven botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. These protein neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known to man...
  54. Preliminary studies of C. botulinum progeniotr toxin B
    Subramanyam Swaminathan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..released as a protein complex called progenitor toxin by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, causes the disease botulism that is of considerable concern because of its high mortality rate when not treated immediately and properly...
  55. Dynamic Drug Design Targeting Botulinum Neurotoxins
    James Briggs; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our strategy is based on the model that botulism-related flaccid paralysis is a downstream consequence of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase activity elaborated by ..
  56. Development of Shielded Adenovirus Vector as a Vaccine Strategy For Anthrax
    SUSAN HEDLEY; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..In addition, the development of the immunologically shielded vector system approach would have further application for many biological threats such as plague and botulism. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]
  57. Human Monoclonal Antibodies against Botulinum Toxins
    Kim Janda; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..deployed are various Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of the clinical condition of botulism. Our general program encompasses exploitation of novel phage-displayed human scFv libraries to obtain monoclonal ..
  58. Automated, portable, concurrent, WMD detection system
    CHRISTIAN SCHOEN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..detection (approximately 100 biolites) of simulants for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Clostridium botulinum (botulism), Yersinia pestis (plague), and Variola major (smallpox)...
  59. Live Vector Vaccines Against Agents of Bioterror
    James Nataro; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..and Biological Defence Center, Porton Down in the development of enteric vaccines against anthrax, plague and botulism. The products developed will be tested in animals and the characteristics of prime-boost responses determined...
  60. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Botulism
    MILAN TOMIC; Fiscal Year: 2011
    This contract supports the development and preclinical evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based treatments for botulism caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotypes B and E...
  61. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Botulism
    MILAN TOMIC; Fiscal Year: 2010
    This contract supports the development and preclinical evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based treatments for botulism caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotypes B and E...
  62. Development of Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapeutics for Botulism
    MILAN TOMIC; Fiscal Year: 2012
    This contract supports the development and preclinical evaluation of monoclonal antibody-based treatments for botulism caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A...