Genomes and Genes
chronic brain damage
Summary: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Publications224 found, 100 shown here
- Does lateral parietal cortex support episodic memory? Evidence from focal lesion patientsPatrick S R Davidson
Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Canada
Neuropsychologia 46:1743-55. 2008..Although the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated, lateral parietal damage appears to impair some aspects of episodic memory...
- Modulation of spatial bias in the dual task paradigm: evidence from patients with unilateral parietal lesions and controlsPolly V Peers
MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB 2 2EF, UK
Neuropsychologia 44:1325-35. 2006..This shift may resemble general rightward shifts that have previously been linked to reduced arousal...
- The number space and neglectPatrik Vuilleumier
Laboratory of Behavioural Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University Hospital Geneva
Cortex 40:399-410. 2004..Our findings demonstrate that unilateral spatial neglect may produce specific representational deficits in number processing that implicate different spatial representations according to the task demands...
- Cerebral white matter injury of the premature infant-more common than you thinkJoseph J Volpe
Department of Neurology, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Pediatrics 112:176-80. 2003
- What is the parietal lobe contribution to human memory?Jon S Simons
Neuropsychologia 46:1739-42. 2008
- Is the posterior parietal lobe involved in working memory retrieval? Evidence from patients with bilateral parietal lobe damageMarian E Berryhill
Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Neuropsychologia 46:1775-86. 2008..The observed performance dissociation suggests that the posterior parietal lobe plays a particularly vital role in working memory retrieval...
- Serum S 100 B: a marker of brain damage in traumatic brain injury with and without multiple traumaLinda E Pelinka
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Research Center for Traumatology of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, Vienna, Austria
Shock 19:195-200. 2003..693-0.783). Thus, though S 100 B may be a reliable marker of brain damage in TBI without multiple trauma 24 h after trauma and thereafter, it appears to be less reliable in TBI with multiple trauma...
- Outcome after cardiac arrest: predictive values and limitations of the neuroproteins neuron-specific enolase and protein S-100 and the Glasgow Coma ScaleRüdiger Pfeifer
Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, D 07740 Jena, Germany
Resuscitation 65:49-55. 2005....
- The role of the cerebral hemispheres in specific versus abstract primingMichal Schnaider Beeri
Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
Laterality 9:313-23. 2004....
- Right hemisphere reading mechanisms in a global alexic patientJary Larsen
Neurology Research, VA Northern California Health Care System, University of California, Davis, 150 Muir Road 151, Martinez, CA 94553, USA
Neuropsychologia 42:1459-76. 2004..Finally, we conclude that her spelling and writing abilities are supported by left hemisphere mechanisms...
- Memory and executive impairment in schizophrenia: comparison with frontal and temporal brain damageT J Ornstein
Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada
Psychol Med 38:833-42. 2008....
- Cognitive performance in pure and complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis: a neuropsychological and neuroimaging studyIngo Uttner
Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
Neurosci Lett 419:158-61. 2007..This systematic assessment illustrated the different clinical character of cHSP and pHSP with respect to the cognitive profiles...
- Hemispheric asymmetries in the perceptual representations of wordsAmy E Lincoln
Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Brain Res 1188:112-21. 2008..These results are consistent with research implicating the right hemisphere in the representation of contextually relevant perceptual information...
- A meta-analytic review of verbal fluency performance following focal cortical lesionsJulie D Henry
Department of Psychology, King s College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland
Neuropsychology 18:284-95. 2004..In contrast, temporal damage was associated with a lesser deficit on phonemic fluency (r = .44) but a larger deficit on semantic fluency (r = .61)...
- A revised method for analysing neglect using the landmark taskAlessio Toraldo
University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK
Cortex 40:415-31. 2004..The method and its theoretical foundation are summarized, and illustrative data obtained from brain damaged patients and control subjects are presented. Finally, computational procedures are provided for both PSE and M...
- Impairments in part-whole representations of objects in two cases of integrative visual agnosiaMarlene Behrmann
Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 3890, USA
Cogn Neuropsychol 24:701-30. 2007..It is this integrative process that is impaired in IA and appears to play a critical role in the normal object recognition of complex images...
- [Human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculous meningoencephalitis causing abnormal behaviour in a prisoner]K D Herta
Psychiatrische Poliklinik, Universitatsspital Zurich, Zurich
Nervenarzt 76:68-71. 2005..Scrupulous differential diagnosis is necessary for all prisoners manifesting behavioural disturbances. We discuss the pathogenesis and diagnostic procedures of tuberculous meningoencephalitis...
- Principles of cross-modal competition: evidence from deficits of attentionBrenda Rapp
Department of Cognitive Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Psychon Bull Rev 10:210-9. 2003..These findings reveal a differentiated attentional system in which competition is modulated by the level of stimulus representation to which attention is directed...
- Between language and space: a cross-domain interactionCristina Rinaldi
Dipartimento di Psicologia, Universita La Sapienza, Roma, Italy
Neuroreport 14:1381-3. 2003..We hypothesize that auditory language undergoes a spatial transcoding, and that this transcoding is affected by the presence of a spatial bias like that observed in patients with neglect...
- Neural systems for recognition of emotional prosody: a 3-D lesion studyRalph Adolphs
Department of Neurology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
Emotion 2:23-51. 2002..Furthermore, there were regions in the left and right temporal lobes that contributed disproportionately to recognition of emotion from faces or prosody, respectively...
- Impaired naming of unique landmarks is associated with left temporal polar damageDaniel Tranel
University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Neuropsychology 20:1-10. 2006..Damasio, D. Tranel, T. J. Grabowski, R. Adolphs, & A. R. Damasio, 2004)...
- What is the role of motor simulation in action and object recognition? Evidence from apraxiaGioia A L Negri
Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste, Italy
Cogn Neuropsychol 24:795-816. 2007....
- Interactions between perception and action programming: evidence from visual extinction and optic ataxiaKeiko Kitadono
Behavioural Brain Sciences, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Cogn Neuropsychol 24:731-54. 2007..The implications for models of perception and action are discussed...
- Is it bigger than a breadbox? Performance of patients with prefrontal lesions on a new executive function testJuliana V Baldo
VA Northern California Health Care System, 150 Muir Road, Martinez, CA 94553, USA
Arch Clin Neuropsychol 19:407-19. 2004..Taken together with previous findings, we conclude that prefrontal cortex supports the on-line organization and conceptualization of category exemplars in concept-formation tasks...
- Analysis of different types of resection for pediatric patients with temporal lobe epilepsyHans Clusmann
Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn Medical Center, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany
Neurosurgery 54:847-59; discussion 859-60. 2004..Resection strategies for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are a matter of discussion. Few data on the significance of resection type are available for pediatric patients with TLE...
- Anosognosia for plegia: specificity, extension, partiality and disunity of bodily unawarenessAnthony J Marcel
Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, England, UK
Cortex 40:19-40. 2004..Anosognosia for hemiplegia is not a unitary phenomenon: several factors underlie deficits in bodily awareness...
- Visual and tactile length matching in spatial neglectEdoardo Bisiach
Lurago Marinone, Como, Italy
Cortex 40:651-7. 2004..Our data would fit best with a multiple-factor model in which some patients show leftward length underestimation for modality-specific reasons, while others do so due to a more high-level disruption of size judgements...
- Lesion topography in capsulotomy for refractory anxiety--is the right side the right side?Christian Ruck
Section for Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 83:172-9. 2005..The aims of the present study were to test if the same region was involved in anxiety patients responding to surgery and to examine whether lesion area and site correlated with adverse events and effect on target symptoms...
- Cognitive functioning after medial frontal lobe damage including the anterior cingulate cortex: a preliminary investigationAmee Baird
Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
Brain Cogn 60:166-75. 2006..We speculate that our findings may be compatible with the view that the ACC integrates cognitive processing with autonomic functioning to guide behaviour...
- Visual search for item- and array-centered locations in patients with left middle cerebral artery strokeHelmut Hildebrandt
Hospital of Bremen Ost, Neurology, Bremen, The Netherlands
Neurocase 11:416-26. 2005..This suggests that spatial attention works with different reference frames, with spatial orientation being more basic than analyzing spatial aspects of objects...
- Functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive recovery after acquired brain damage in adultsJuan M Muñoz-Céspedes
Brain Damage Unit, Hospital Beata María Ana HHSCJ, Madrid, Spain
Neuropsychol Rev 15:169-83. 2005..Finally, we summarize a set of methodological issues related to functional neuroimaging that are relevant for the study of neural plasticity and recovery after rehabilitation...
- Left size distortion (hyperschematia) after right brain damageG Rode
Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Inserm UMR S 534, Bron, France
Neurology 67:1801-8. 2006..To quantitate a size distortion involving the side of space contralateral to the lesion (contralesional) in two right-brain-damaged patients...
- Mismatch negativity elicited by tones and speech sounds: changed topographical distribution in aphasiaFrank Becker
Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital, Faculty Division Ulleval University Hospital, University of Oslo, PB 1130 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway
Brain Lang 100:69-78. 2007..No correlations between MMN amplitude and aphasia test results were found...
- Theory of mind and the right cerebral hemisphere: refining the scope of impairmentRichard Griffin
Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02155, USA
Laterality 11:195-225. 2006....
- Brain morphometry and cognitive performance in detoxified alcohol-dependents with preserved psychosocial functioningSandra Chanraud
Inserm U 797, CEA INSERM Research Unit Neuroimaging and Psychiatry, Institute for Health and Medical Research and Atomic Energy Commission Hospital Department Frédéric Joliot, IFR49, Univ Paris Sud, Univ Paris 5, Orsay, France
Neuropsychopharmacology 32:429-38. 2007..Besides involving frontal regions, these findings are consistent with a cerebello-thalamo-cortical model of impaired executive functions in alcohol-dependent individuals...
- A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: evidence for paralimbic system dysfunctionKent A Kiehl
Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Institute of Living, Hartford, CT 06106, USA
Psychiatry Res 142:107-28. 2006..The paralimbic system dysfunction model of psychopathy is discussed as it relates to the extant literature on psychopathy...
- Generation and recognition of abstract rules in different frontal lobe subgroupsCarlo Reverberi
Department of Psychology, Universita Milano Bicocca, Piazza Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milano, Italy
Neuropsychologia 43:1924-37. 2005..The Medial frontal subgroup, in contrast with our expectations, was impaired on Generation test; two hypotheses have been raised to explain this finding...
- Cerebellar gray matter volume correlates with duration of cocaine use in cocaine-dependent subjectsMinyoung E Sim
Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110 744, South Korea
Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2229-37. 2007....
- BOLD responses to visual stimulation in survivors of childhood cancerPing Zou
Department of Radiological Sciences, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
Neuroimage 24:61-9. 2005..However, fMRI studies in this population must take into account effects of quantitative differences in their BOLD responses as compared to healthy subjects...
- Longitudinal neurocognitive assessments of Ukrainians exposed to ionizing radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accidentGerald L Gamache
Flagler College and KGA International, 8 Althea St, St Augustine, FL 32084, USA
Arch Clin Neuropsychol 20:81-93. 2005..These findings strongly indicate impairment of brain function resulting from both acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation...
- Processing of basic speech acts following localized brain damage: a new light on the neuroanatomy of languageNachum Soroker
Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel
Brain Cogn 57:214-7. 2005..This finding raises the possibility that the classical left perisylvian localization of language functions, as measured by clinical aphasia batteries, partly reflects the localization of the BSAs required to perform these functions...
- Allocentric and egocentric spatial impairments in a case of topographical disorientationThomas Nyffeler
Perception and Eye Movement Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Switzerland
Cortex 41:133-43. 2005....
- Developmental plasticity after right hemispherectomy in an epileptic adolescent with early brain injuryF Chiricozzi
Department of Medical and Surgical Pediatrics and Developmental Neuroscience, Unit of Neuropsichiatria Infantile, Catholic University, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy
Childs Nerv Syst 21:960-9. 2005..In effect, the astonishing recovery especially of visuospatial skills in our case occurred in adolescence after a late surgical intervention of right hemispherectomy...
- Qualitative features of semantic fluency performance in mesial and lateral frontal patientsCarlo Reverberi
International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
Neuropsychologia 44:469-78. 2006..The performance of mesial frontal patients could be ascribed to a general deficit of activation...
- Sign language aphasia following right hemisphere damage in a left-hander: a case of reversed cerebral dominance in a deaf signer?Herbert Pickell
Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Neurocase 11:194-203. 2005..This case represents reversed lateralization for sign language and also may represent reversed lateralization for visuo-spatial abilities in a deaf signer...
- Depressive symptoms following herpes simplex encephalitis--an underestimated phenomenon?Christian Fazekas
Department of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Medical University Graz, A 8036 Graz, Austria
Gen Hosp Psychiatry 28:403-7. 2006..We therefore set out to explore an association between herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) and both depressive symptoms and HRQoL...
- [Adaptation and validation of a naming test for Spanish speakers: reliability and discrimination of patients with dementia and unilateral brain lessions]N Silvana Vigliecca
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la Argentina CONICET, Servicio de Neurología y Neurocirugía del Hospital Córdoba, Cordoba, Argentina
Neurologia 22:147-52. 2007..Psychometric studies with this confrontation- naming test have not been reported in Spanish speakers...
- Acquired amnesia in childhood: a single case studyStefano Vicari
IRCCS, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, S Marinella, Roma, Italy
Neuropsychologia 45:704-15. 2007..This case is examined in the light of growing literature concerned with the dissociation between episodic and semantic memory in childhood amnesia...
- Neural correlates of conscious and unconscious vision in parietal extinctionGeraint Rees
Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
Neurocase 8:387-93. 2002..These findings extend recent observations on visual extinction, suggesting distinct neural correlates for conscious and unconscious perception...
- [Structural cerebral changes in subjects with mild cognitive impairment]J Pantel
Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Heidelberg, Germany
Nervenarzt 73:845-50. 2002....
- Cognitive decline in AD and mild cognitive impairment is associated with global brain damageW M van der Flier
Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands
Neurology 59:874-9. 2002....
- Utility of simultaneous brain, CSF and hyperintensity quantification in dementiaRichard H Swartz
Institute of Medical Science SEB and RHS, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto and Sunnybrook and Women s College Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada
Psychiatry Res 116:83-93. 2002..Simultaneous quantification of atrophy and anatomically distinct hyperintensities is important for understanding cognitive impairments in dementia...
- Anterior cingulate cortex and the Stroop task: neuropsychological evidence for topographic specificityDiane Swick
Department of Neurology, VA Northern California Health Care System, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Neuropsychologia 40:1240-53. 2002..These results can help to constrain interpretations of ACC activations in functional imaging experiments of the Stroop task...
- Functional neuroimaging studies of patientsSophie K Scott
Neurocase 8:343-4. 2002
- Functional imaging studies of neuropsychological patients: applications and limitationsCathy J Price
Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
Neurocase 8:345-54. 2002..This, in turn, has important implications for understanding the mechanisms that mediate recovery and the organizational principles that underlie functional architectures in the human brain...
- Horizontal space misrepresentation in unilateral brain damage. I. Visual and proprioceptive-motor influences in left unilateral neglectFabrizio Doricchi
Centro Ricerche di Neuropsicologia, Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS, Laboratorio Europeo di Neuroscienze dell Azione L E N A, Via Ardeatina, 306 00179 Rome, Italy
Neuropsychologia 40:1107-17. 2002....
- Horizontal space misrepresentation in unilateral brain damage. II. Eye-head centered modulation of visual misrepresentation in hemianopia without neglectFabrizio Doricchi
Centro Ricerche di Neuropsicologia, Fondazione Santa Lucia, IRCCS Laboratorio Europea di Neuroscienze dell Azione L E N A, Via Ardeatina 306 00179 Rome, Italy
Neuropsychologia 40:1118-28. 2002....
- Decreased brain volume in adults with childhood lead exposureKim M Cecil
Cincinnati Children s Environmental Health Center, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
PLoS Med 5:e112. 2008..In this study, we examined the relationship between childhood lead exposure and adult brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also explored how volume changes correlate with historic neuropsychological assessments...
- Neurodevelopmental vulnerability of the corpus callosum to childhood onset localization-related epilepsyBruce Hermann
Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792, USA
Neuroimage 18:284-92. 2003..These findings indicate that childhood onset of temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with an adverse neurodevelopmental impact on brain connectivity which is of clinical consequence and theoretical interest...
- Neuropsychological sequelae of chronic recreational gasoline inhalationWm Drew Gouvier
Psychology Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70803 5501, USA
Percept Mot Skills 96:339-42. 2003..Brief summary test profiles are described for two cases of long-term inhalation recreationally of gasoline...
- Inhibitory control following perinatal brain injuryShawn E Christ
Department of Psychology, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130 4899, USA
Neuropsychology 17:171-8. 2003..Findings are discussed within the context of current cognitive and neuroanatomical models of inhibition...
- Grey scales uncover similar attentional effects in homonymous hemianopia and visual hemi-neglectM L M Tant
Department of Neuropsychology and Gerontology, University of Groningen, Academic Hospital Groningen, Poortweg 4, 2 de verdieping, P O Box 30 001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
Neuropsychologia 40:1474-81. 2002..It rather suggests a pattern of functional cerebral asymmetry, which can also be caused by asymmetric sensory input...
- Phonology and neuropsychology of the English past tenseLorraine K Tyler
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK
Neuropsychologia 40:1154-66. 2002....
- Correlation of atrophy measures on MRI with neuropsychological sequelae in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injuryK Verger
Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, Spain
Brain Inj 15:211-21. 2001..Ventricular enlargement was less related to neuropsychological outcome. In conclusion, quantitative measurement of the corpus callosum on MRI reflects neuropsychological outcome better than ventricular dilation in paediatric patients...
- Postoperative acute respiratory insufficiency following adenotonsillectomy in children with neuropathyDayse Manrique
Federal University of Sao Paulo, Association for the Welfare of Physically Handicapped Children AACD, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 72:587-91. 2008..Evaluate the incidence of acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI) in the immediate postoperative period following adenotonsillectomy in children with neurological diseases...
- Natural history of a randomized trial comparing distal spleno-renal shunt with endoscopic sclerotherapy in the prevention of variceal rebleeding: a lesson from the pastRoberto Santambrogio
Unità di Chirurgia Bilio pancreatica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Paolo Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy
World J Gastroenterol 12:6331-8. 2006..To compare endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) with distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS) in the prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients during a long-term follow-up period...
- Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a National Football League Player: Case report and emerging medicolegal practice questionsBennet I Omalu
Chief Medical Examiner, San Joaquin County, California, USA
J Forensic Nurs 6:40-6. 2010..Football League (NFL) Player with autopsy findings, apolipoprotein E genotype, and brain tissue evidence of chronic brain damage. This 44-year-old retired NFL player manifested a premortem history of cognitive and neuropsychiatric ..
- Abnormal brain response to cholinergic challenge in chronic encephalopathy from the 1991 Gulf WarRobert W Haley
Epidemiology Division, Departments of Internal Medicine and Clinical Science, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
Psychiatry Res 171:207-20. 2009..95 and specificity of 0.82. Gulf War-associated chronic encephalopathy in a subset of veterans may be due to neuronal dysfunction, including abnormal cholinergic response, in deep brain structures...
- [Diagnosis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in Spain: results of a survey of hepatologists]M Vergara-Gómez
Unitat de Malalties Digestives, Corporacio Parc Tauli, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain
Gastroenterol Hepatol 29:1-6. 2006..Recent studies have challenged the efficacy of nonabsorbable disaccharides and have reported that protein restriction may pose risks to patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy...
- Routine diagnostic procedures for chronic encephalopathy induced by solvents: survey of expertsJ A van der Hoek
Netherlands Center of Occupational Diseases, Coronel Institute, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Occup Environ Med 58:382-5. 2001..To study the routine diagnostic procedures used in different countries for chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) induced by solvents...
- Neurological manifestations of Chagas' diseaseEzequiel Cordova
Infectious Diseases, Francisco J Muniz Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Neurol Res 32:238-44. 2010..To review the neurological manifestations of Chagas' disease, including its clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, treatment and follow-up...
- Prolonged activation EEG differentiates dementia with and without delirium in frail elderly patientsC Thomas
Centre for Psychosocial Medicine, Department of General Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg, Germany
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:119-25. 2008....
- Visual evoked potentials in workers with chronic solvent encephalopathyMaarten M Verberk
Coronel Institute for Occupational and Environmental Health, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 77:328-34. 2004..In addition, we studied disturbances of a visual event-related potential (P300)...
- Subdural hematomas in boxing: the spectrum of consequencesVincent J Miele
Department of Neurosurgery, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 9183, USA
Neurosurg Focus 21:E10. 2006..This sport has been linked to acute neurological injury and chronic brain damage. The most common life-threatening injury encountered by its participants is subdural hematoma (SDH), and ..
- Chronic neurological toxicity associated with exposure to volatile substancesY Lolin
Department of Chemical Pathology, National Hospitals for Nervous Diseases, London, UK
Hum Toxicol 8:293-300. 1989....
- Assessing chronic brain damage by quantification of regional volumes in postischemic rat brainsT Beck
Anatomisches Institut, Universitat Wurzburg, FRG
Brain Res 605:280-6. 1993..The results show that determination of fresh volumes is a sensitive method for quantification and localization of ischemic brain damage in the whole brain...
- [Solvent-induced chronic encephalopathy; the 'solvent team' project]J A van der Hoek
Medisch Spectrum Twente, afd Neurologie, Postbus 50 000, 7500 KA Enschede
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 145:256-60. 2001..The real incidence is most likely higher at present, but will decline due to diminished exposure to organic solvents...
- [There is a strong evidence that professional boxing results in chronic brain damage. The more head punches during a boxer's career, the bigger is the risk]Kaj Blennow
Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset Mölndal, Sweden
Lakartidningen 102:2468-70, 2472-5. 2005..Focus is also set on the interesting similarities in neurochemical changes and pathogenic mechanisms between CTBI-B, acute traumatic brain injury (e.g. road traffic accidents) and Alzheimer's disease...
- Clinical correlates of quantitative EEG alterations in alcoholic patientsPedro Coutin-Churchman
Hospital Psiquiátrico San Juan de Dios, Urb Campo Claro Los Curos, Edo Mérida 5101, Venezuela
Clin Neurophysiol 117:740-51. 2006..To evaluate the incidence and clinical correlations of abnormal QEEG features in alcoholic patients...
- Usefulness of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in urea cycle disordersEmmanuel Roze
Department of Neurology, Saint Antoine Hospital, AP HP, Paris, France
Pediatr Neurol 37:222-5. 2007....
- Survey of solvent related chronic encephalopathy as an occupational disease in European countriesG Triebig
Institute and Policlinic of Occupational and Social Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Hospitalstrasse 1, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany
Occup Environ Med 58:575-81. 2001..To obtain information about solvent related chronic encephalopathy (SRCE) in the countries of the European Union (EU)...
- Solvent-related chronic toxic encephalopathy as a target in the worker's mental health researchAndréia Ramos
Programa Organização do Trabalho e Saúde Mental, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, AV Vencesláu Brás, 71 Fundos, 22090 140 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
An Acad Bras Cienc 76:757-69. 2004..The psychiatric, neurological and labor health postulates which contribute to the multidisciplinary description of such diagnostic category are presented...
- Epilepsy in a young adult caused by L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: a case reportVembu Periasamy
Department of Neurology, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait
Med Princ Pract 17:258-61. 2008..To report the importance of a rare organic acid metabolic disorder, L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, and its characteristic neuroimaging cerebral white matter abnormalities in a case of epilepsy...
- The essential steps cognitive orthoticMarilyn M Bergman
Lankenau Hospital MOB East, Suite 564, 100 Lancaster Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096, USA
NeuroRehabilitation 18:31-46. 2003..approach applies neuroscience and technology to the rehabilitation needs and challenges of people with chronic brain damage. The primary goal of this approach is the independent accomplishment of practical, applied tasks integral ..
- [Our experience in the diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases with an abnormal fatty acid profile]J Lopez-Pison
Sección de Neuropediatría, Hospital Infantil Universitario Miguel Servet, P Isabel la Católica, 1 3 E 50009 Zaragoza, Espana
Rev Neurol 47:1-5. 2008..An altered very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) profile is commonly found in many of these diseases, and this makes it easier to point the diagnosis in the right direction...
- Rett syndrome: clinical and epidemiological aspects in a Brazilian institutionCristina M Pozzi
Neurology Division Department of Paediatrics, Santa Casa Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 61:909-15. 2003..Among the atypical RS patients, 4 were form fruste and one, congenital form. Among the girls with other encephalopathies, cerebral malformation was the most frequent finding...
- Tracking the recovery of consciousness from comaSteven Laureys
Cyclotron Research Center and Department of Neurology, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium
J Clin Invest 116:1823-5. 2006..studies have examined the slow neuronal changes underlying functional recovery of consciousness from severe chronic brain damage. A case study in this issue of the JCI reports an extraordinary recovery of functional verbal communication ..
- Advances in pediatric neurovirologyJohn R Crawford
Department of Neurosciences and Pediatrics, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive Box 0935, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 10:147-54. 2010....
- High cerebral scyllo-inositol: a new marker of brain metabolism disturbances induced by chronic alcoholismA Viola
Centre de Résonance Magnétique, Biologique et Médicale UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, 27 Bd J Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France
MAGMA 17:47-61. 2004..Our findings suggest that the accumulation of scyllo-inositol may precede and take part in the development of symptomatic alcoholic metabolic encephalopathy...
- Clinical correlates of occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity (OIRDA) in childrenNathan Watemberg
Pediatric Epilepsy Service, Wolfson Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Holon, Israel
Epilepsia 48:330-4. 2007..We sought to characterize the electrographic features and clinical correlates of occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity...
- [Definitions and criteria for acute and chronic portal systemic encephalopathy]M A Valdovinos Díaz
Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga Núm 15, Tlalpan, 14000 Mexico, DF Mexico
Rev Invest Clin 42:110-2. 1990..Some clinical, biochemical and pathological features distinguishing acute from chronic encephalopathy are reviewed...
- Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic fieldAgata Campisi
Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Chimica Medica e Biologia Molecolare, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Viale A Doria 6, I 95125 Catania, Italy
Neurosci Lett 473:52-5. 2010..effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF ..
- Postural tremor induced by paint sniffingOliver P Gautschi
Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
Neurol India 55:393-5. 2007..He also had a mild chronic encephalopathy. Following treatment with clonazepam, the tremors subsided, but were not completely controlled...
- [Clinical manifestations and epidemiological aspects leading to a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: neurological and psychiatric manifestations in the course of Lyme borreliosis]A Creange
Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, APHP, Universite Paris XII, 94000 Creteil, France
Med Mal Infect 37:532-9. 2007..In stage 3 of the disease, the link between neurological manifestations and initial infection is uncertain. Distal axonal polyneuropathy and chronic encephalopathy are the most frequently reported presentations...
- [Analysis of neuropsychological disorders in toxic brain damage resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning]T Kazalska
Katedra i Klinika Neurologii, Akademia Medyczna w Lublinie
Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med 50:115-21. 1995..In both patients there was observed the impairment of some cognitive functions such as: memory, space orientation, abstract and discursive thinking, visual gnosis, manual praxis, three-dimensional praxis and dysphasia...
- A prospective analysis of the recovery of attention following pediatric head injuryC Catroppa
Department of Psychology, Royal Children s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
J Int Neuropsychol Soc 5:48-57. 1999..Specifically, deficits were most evident on timed tasks where speed of processing was an integral component. Difficulties persisted to at least 6 months postinjury and so may lead to cumulative deficits over time...
- [Modern neuroimaging of brain plasticity]G Kasprian
Abteilung für Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitatsklinik fur Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, A 1090, Wien, Osterreich
Radiologe 50:136-43. 2010..In this article individual results of modern neuroimaging studies are discussed in the context of structural and functional plasticity of the CNS...
- Mouse brains deficient in neuronal PDGF receptor-beta develop normally but are vulnerable to injuryYoko Ishii
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan
J Neurochem 98:588-600. 2006..Our results clearly demonstrate that PDGFR-beta expressed in neurons protects them from cryogenic injury and NMDA-induced excitotoxicity...
- The implications of childhood bacterial meningitis for language developmentL M Pentland
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Child Neuropsychol 6:87-100. 2000..This study highlights the need to inform parents/guardians that post-meningitic children are at risk for experiencing language difficulties throughout childhood...
- Cigarette smoking exacerbates chronic alcohol-induced brain damage: a preliminary metabolite imaging studyTimothy C Durazzo
San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, MRS Unit 114M, 4150 Clement St, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:1849-60. 2004..Nevertheless, previous research has typically not accounted for the potential independent or compounding effects of cigarette smoking on alcohol-induced brain injury and neurocognition...
- Steeplechase in emergency medical care: cooling for cardiac arrestDerk W Krieger
Stroke 37:1638-9. 2006
- Recovering from chronic brain damage by Transcranial Direct Current StimulationRICHARD JARRETT RUSHMORE; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will study its underlying mechanisms of action and derive conclusions for future human therapeutic applications in clinical settings. ..
- Caspase mediated cell death after brain traumaRamesh Raghupathi; Fiscal Year: 2006..cause of death among individuals under the age of 45 in the United States and survivors are faced with chronic brain damage leading to debilitating behavioral dysfunction...
- Drug Abuse, Social Decision-Making, and Sex-Related Functional Brain AsymmetryDANIEL T TRANEL; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Mapping the Anatomy of Decision MakingLesley Fellows; Fiscal Year: 2004..This approach has the potential to provide insights into the basis for a wide range of pathological human behavior. ..
- Brain Tissue Resource Centre for Alcohol ResearchClive Harper; Fiscal Year: 2007..Funding is sought to help further develop this important resource for international researchers with an interest in alcohol-related brain damage. ..
- RADIATION ARTERIOPATHY IN A TRANSGENIC AV FISTULA MODELMichael Lawton; Fiscal Year: 2004..If NO and TGF-01 are involved in the radiation arteriopathy of AVMs, they might be used to enhance the efficacy of conventional stereotactic radiosurgery as part of a gene therapy for high-grade cerebral AVMs. ..
- ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPING BRAINLaura Ment; Fiscal Year: 2007..If the central hypothesis of our program is verified, then novel therapeutic approaches for the reduction of neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants may result...
- BRAIN-INJURY MEMORY DISORDERS RESEARCH CENTERMieke Verfaellie; Fiscal Year: 2003..The interactions between the investigators from the five investigative components supported by the core programs constitute the fabric of our Center. ..
- Multicenter Randomized Indomethacin IVH Prevention TrialLaura Ment; Fiscal Year: 2009..Serial MRI scans will determine growth patterns of cortical regions across time. ..
- Cognition and Functional Recovery after Cardiac ArrestMichael Alexander; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- IMPAIRED AND PRESERVED MEMORY PROCESSES IN AMNESIAMieke Verfaellie; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- ETHANOL EFFECTS ON NEUROTRANSMISSIONFulton Crews; Fiscal Year: 2009..abstract_text> ..
- SELECTIVE ATTENTION TO THE PARTS OF AN OBJECTSHAUN VECERA; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- PSYCHOLOGICAL AND NEURAL BASES OF SPATIAL COGNITIONMarlene Behrmann; Fiscal Year: 2010..Acquired attentional deficits are notoriously difficult to rehabilitate, with profound adverse consequences for the individual, and targeted intervention efforts are urgently needed. ..
- EMOTIONAL MODULATION OF MEMORY BY THE HUMAN AMYGDALARalph Adolphs; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Mechanisms of Perceptual Extinction Following StrokeGordon Baylis; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- NEUROANATOMICAL SUBSTRATES OF EMOTIONAL MEMORY IN HUMANSRalph Adolphs; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Inference Processes in Adults with Right Brain DamageMargaret Blake; Fiscal Year: 2006..For both studies, the research design will be a mixed design, with group (RHD and non-brain-damaged) as the between-subjects variable and story condition as the within-subjects variable. ..
- TRANSIENT CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA & GABA NEUROTRANSMISSIONROCHELLE SCHWARTZ BLOOM; Fiscal Year: 2004..Understanding how ischemic insults affect inhibitory neuronal transmission and how specific populations of neurons die will help us to identify new treatment strategies to prevent ischemia-induced neuronal death in humans. ..
- CHILDHOOD EPILEPSY-- FACTORS AFFECTING ADAPTATIONJoan Austin; Fiscal Year: 2006..Findings will greatly increase understanding of the natural history of adaptation problems in childhood epilepsy that is needed for effective interventions. ..
- Spatial language: Developmental and Neural StudiesANJAN K CHATTERJEE; Fiscal Year: 2010..Our goal is to establish points of convergence in this aspect of spatial cognition across cognitive linguistics, developmental psychology, functional neuroimaging and neuropsychology. ..
- COMPLEMENT-MEDIATED NEURONAL INJURY IN STROKEEDWARD SANDER CONNOLLY; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- Comparing Models of Function LearningJerome Busemeyer; Fiscal Year: 2006..This last line of research is designed to test the basic learning mechanisms underlying almost all connectionist-learning approaches. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Early Randomized Surgical Epilepsy TrialJerome Engel; Fiscal Year: 2007..abstract_text> ..
- Interdisciplinary Investigation of Biological Signatures of Autism SubtypesJUDY A VAN DE WATER; Fiscal Year: 2010..We already have strong evidence for at least an autoimmune type of autism and this research will lead to more effective efforts at preventing future cases of autism and treating existing children with autism. ..
- Brain Response to HAART Measured with MR SpectroscopyMichael Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2006..The proposed study may provide evidence for the utility of monitoring cerebral metabolites with MRS during treatment and may yield predictors of success or failure in treating HIV associated cognitive dysfunction. ..
- SHORT-TERM MEMORY AND SYNTACTIC DEFICITS IN APHASIARandi Martin; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- Lexical retrieval, verbal short-term memory and learningNadine Martin; Fiscal Year: 2010..The cognitive data gathered in these three projects will be brought to bear on the ongioing development of a computational model of verbal STM, word processing and learning. ..
- FMRI STUDIES OF VISUAL MOTION AND ATTENTIONMaurizio Corbetta; Fiscal Year: 2003..g. unilateral neglect, attentional deficit disorders, or dyslexia. A finer understanding of attentional mechanisms will also facilitate the development of neurobiologically- driven rehabilitative strategies. ..
- Neurocognitive Outcome of Infants of Diabetic MothersCharles Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2009..Given that approximately 10% of all pregnancies are complicated by maternal diabetes, the current project has important implications for public health. ..
- Adult Forebrain Neural Stem Cell Response to IschemiaJack Parent; Fiscal Year: 2005..Progress in these Aims will advance our understanding of adult SVZ neurogenesis in the normal and ischemic brain, and may provide insight into the potential use of neural stem cells for stroke therapy. ..
- CONCEPTS AND LANGUAGEAnjan Chatterjee; Fiscal Year: 2006..These studies will have theoretical implications for models of conceptual development and reasoning and practical implications for the treatment of aphasic patients. ..
- SPEED OF INFORMATION PROCESSING IN INFANCYSusan Rose; Fiscal Year: 2003..Developmental curves will be compared for cross-sectional and longitudinal samples and across domains (faces and objects). ..
- FMRI STUDIES OF VISUAL ATTENTIONMaurizio Corbetta; Fiscal Year: 2008..Several experiments are proposed that test predictions of this hypothesis. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Childhood Cancer SurvivorsMelanie Bonner; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Treatment for Language Processing Deficits in Adults with Right Brain DamageConnie A Tompkins; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Theoretical analysis of the effects of aging on memory and reaction timeRoger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- CRCNS: Bayesian decision making with probabilistic population codesAlexandre Pouget; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Medial temporal lobe role in human locomotor navigationJohn Philbeck; Fiscal Year: 2008..This basic data will be highly valuable for interpreting future research involving similar patients. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Cognitive neuroscience of temporal processingH Branch Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2010..Finally, we propose to use transcranial magnetic stimulation to identify specific brain regions that are necessary for normal temporal processing. ..
- ALCOHOL, HIV, AND THE BRAINAdolf Pfefferbaum; Fiscal Year: 2006..Specific Aim 3: To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal within-subject relationships among nueroimaging, neuropsychological, and clinical measures. ..
- Infant Roots of Later CognitionSusan A Rose; Fiscal Year: 2010..Identifying early antecedents of later deficits has profound implications for intervention, assessment,and remediation, as well as for understanding the nature of the infant mind. ..
- Divalproex sodium and Risperidone in Pediatric Bipolar DisorderMani Pavuluri; Fiscal Year: 2007..During five years, 40 outpatient subjects with PBD manic or mixed episodes, ages 8-17 years, referred to the UI Pediatric Mood Disorder Clinic will be recruited. ..
- ALCOHOL, HIV, AND THE BRAINAdolf Pfefferbaum; Fiscal Year: 2004..Specific Aim 3: To establish cross-sectional and longitudinal within-subject relationships among nueroimaging, neuropsychological, and clinical measures. ..
- NEURAL BASES OF MOTOR DYSFUNCTION AND REHABILITATIONRandolph Nudo; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Constraint-Induced Therapy in Children with CPAndrew Gordon; Fiscal Year: 2003..The resulting data will be used to determine inclusion and exclusion criteria, develop estimates of effect size, and refine the methods and outcome measures for future grant applications. ..
- FMRI STUDIES OF VISUAL MOTION AND ATTENTIONMaurizio Corbetta; Fiscal Year: 2001..g. unilateral neglect, attentional deficit disorders, or dyslexia. A finer understanding of attentional mechanisms will also facilitate the development of neurobiologically- driven rehabilitative strategies. ..
- MN REGIONAL SLEEP DISORDERS CENTER SLEEP ACADEMIC AWARDGerald Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- COGNITIVE REMEDIATION FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER SURVIVORSRobert Butler; Fiscal Year: 2002..Secondary and exploratory analyses will examine the influences of maternal factors on CRP adherence and effectiveness. ..
- SPATIAL INFLUENCES ON LANGUAGE FUNCTIONH Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- Cognitive Correlates of TCD in Pediatric Sickle CellMARY KRAL; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- International Symposium on Chronic Recovery from StrokeRandolph Nudo; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- RETRIEVAL PROCESSES IN MEMORYRoger Ratcliff; Fiscal Year: 2004..Reaction time models especially might lead to diagnostic techniques that are non-invasive and relatively inexpensive. ..
- NEUROBEHAVIORAL FEATURES & MESIAL TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSYBruce Hermann; Fiscal Year: 2005..The findings will have potential implications for treatment as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology and natural history of TLE. ..
- BODY REPRESENTATIONS--NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND ANATOMIC BASISH Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2001..The potential clinical significance of this work is also clear. If, as hypothesized, the body schema is crucial to action, interventions targeting this representations may have important therapeutic implications. ..
- Subacute Stroke Recovery: Bimanual Coordination TrainingJames Cauraugh; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- The neurobiology of disease: a comprehensive graduate curriculumMarc Dichter; Fiscal Year: 2006..Students will discuss how treatments have been developed in the past, and how their research in a laboratory can help to lead to new treatment in the future. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- COMPREHENSION IMPAIRMENT AND RIGHT BRAIN DAMAGEConnie Tompkins; Fiscal Year: 2006..abstract_text> ..
- ROLE OF FDG-PET, 1H-MRSI, AND MSI IN EPILEPSY SURGERYRobert Knowlton; Fiscal Year: 2005....
- TESTING FASD THERAPEUTIC AGENTS: NEONATAL RODENT MODELSCharles Goodlett; Fiscal Year: 2005..A key advantage of integrated approaches across the Consortium is that as promising candidate molecular agents emerge, these animal models can provide in vivo tests of their therapeutic effectiveness. ..
- Neural Basis of Semantic Constraints on Adjective OrderDavid Kemmerer; Fiscal Year: 2006..This will be done by recording event-related potentials in normal adults while they read examples of natural and unnatural adjective orders. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Neurogenesis, Inflammation and Irradiation InjuryMICHELLE MONJE DEISSEROTH; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- The cognitive neuroscience of body knowledgeH Coslett; Fiscal Year: 2007..Understanding the cerebral basis of motor control and the body schema is likely to contribute substantially to the development of interventions that target these representations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Angiogenic Agents and Alveolar InjuryVineet Bhandari; Fiscal Year: 2007..Determine the differences and the degree to which the response to hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury differs in adult, newborn and fetal mice with regard to VEGF, Angiopoietin 1 and Angiopoietin 2. ..
- Relational Memory and Aging: Role of Prefrontal LobeRoberto Cabeza; Fiscal Year: 2009..Taken together, the results of these studies will clarify the neural correlates of age-related deficits in RM and will have important implications for the promotion of health. ..
- Epileptogenicity in the Developing BrainRaman Sankar; Fiscal Year: 2007..Our findings will provide the basis for future neuroprotective interventions targeting the developing brain at different stages of status epilepticus in order to interrupt the course of the epileptogenic process. ..