placental site trophoblastic tumor

Summary

Summary: An uncommon variant of CHORIOCARCINOMA. It is composed almost entirely of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). Because its secretion of hCG (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) is low, a large tumor may develop before the hCG can be detected.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Pathology of gestational trophoblastic diseases
    Annie Nga Yin Cheung
    Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17:849-68. 2003
  2. ncbi Pathology of gestational trophoblastic disease
    Rex C Bentley
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 46:513-22. 2003
  3. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: a 17-year experience at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center
    C M Feltmate
    Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 82:415-9. 2001
  4. ncbi Advances in the understanding of placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Colleen M Feltmate
    Gillette Center for Women s Cancers, Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Reprod Med 47:337-41. 2002
  5. ncbi Blood test for placental site trophoblastic tumor and nontrophoblastic malignancy for evaluating patients with low positive human chorionic gonadotropin results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    J Reprod Med 53:457-64. 2008
  6. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis
    Takako Ohmaru
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Omiya, Saitama, Japan
    Int J Clin Oncol 14:452-6. 2009
  7. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Nadereh Behtash
    Gynecology Oncology Department, Vali Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran 14194, Iran
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 134:1-6. 2008
  8. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor with multiple metastases and complete response to salvage BEP regimen: a case report and review of the literature
    Selcuk Ayas
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Child Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
    Med Oncol 26:96-100. 2009
  9. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: report of four cases and review of literature
    B Piura
    Unit of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Institute of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 17:258-62. 2007
  10. ncbi Failure of high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support for refractory placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Y Aoki
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata, Japan
    Gynecol Obstet Invest 47:214-6. 1999

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications170 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Pathology of gestational trophoblastic diseases
    Annie Nga Yin Cheung
    Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, People s Republic of China
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17:849-68. 2003
    ..Alternative biological markers may be explored for better patient management...
  2. ncbi Pathology of gestational trophoblastic disease
    Rex C Bentley
    Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 46:513-22. 2003
  3. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: a 17-year experience at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center
    C M Feltmate
    Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 82:415-9. 2001
    ..Chemotherapy is indicated for patients with metastases and may be indicated when the mitotic index is >5 mitoses/10 HPF. Radiation treatment may play a role in recurrent disease but must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis...
  4. ncbi Advances in the understanding of placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Colleen M Feltmate
    Gillette Center for Women s Cancers, Department of Pathology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Reprod Med 47:337-41. 2002
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the least common form of gestational trophoblastic disease...
  5. ncbi Blood test for placental site trophoblastic tumor and nontrophoblastic malignancy for evaluating patients with low positive human chorionic gonadotropin results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    J Reprod Med 53:457-64. 2008
    ..of proportions of free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in diagnosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and nontrophoblastic neoplasm in patients with persistent low hCG levels and patients with ..
  6. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis
    Takako Ohmaru
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Omiya, Saitama, Japan
    Int J Clin Oncol 14:452-6. 2009
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease. There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with a fatal outcome...
  7. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Nadereh Behtash
    Gynecology Oncology Department, Vali Asr Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran 14194, Iran
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 134:1-6. 2008
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from ..
  8. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor with multiple metastases and complete response to salvage BEP regimen: a case report and review of the literature
    Selcuk Ayas
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Child Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
    Med Oncol 26:96-100. 2009
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease, derived from invasive implantation site (intermediate) trophoblastic cells. It is frequently resistant to chemotherapy...
  9. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: report of four cases and review of literature
    B Piura
    Unit of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Institute of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 17:258-62. 2007
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease that originates from the implantation site intermediate trophoblast. We report four patients with PSTT and review pertinent literature...
  10. ncbi Failure of high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support for refractory placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Y Aoki
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Niigata, Japan
    Gynecol Obstet Invest 47:214-6. 1999
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. The metastatic and refractory cases have a very poor prognosis...
  11. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting with a pneumothorax during pregnancy
    Jason D Wright
    Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 100:1141-4. 2002
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease that commonly presents with vaginal bleeding and amenorrhea after pregnancy.
  12. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a patient with brain and lung metastases
    E S Guvendag Guven
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 14:558-63. 2004
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare neoplasm that arises from intermediate trophoblasts and shows diversity of biological behaviors, resulting in the absence of consistency in treatment modalities...
  13. ncbi p63 expression is useful in the distinction of epithelioid trophoblastic and placental site trophoblastic tumors by profiling trophoblastic subpopulations
    I Ming Shih
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 28:1177-83. 2004
    ..Recognizing these distinctive expression patterns helps to further elucidate the biology of trophoblast and can also provide a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic lesions...
  14. ncbi p57(KIP2) immunohistochemical staining of gestational trophoblastic tumours does not identify the type of the causative pregnancy
    N J Sebire
    Department of Histopathology, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK
    Histopathology 45:135-41. 2004
    ....
  15. ncbi Clinical-pathologic conference in general thoracic surgery: metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor
    G Alexander Patterson
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Suite 3108 Queeny Tower, One Barnes Hospital Plaza, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127:885-90. 2004
  16. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumour
    Seung Jo Kim
    Comprehensive Gynecologic Cancer Center, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Bundang Sungnam, South Korea
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17:969-84. 2003
    ..In cases with distant metastasis or delayed treatment, the outcome is dismal. Advances in chemotherapeutic regimens have improved clinical reponse in metastatic disease...
  17. ncbi [Clinicopathological study of intermediate trophoblastic non-tumor lesions: exaggerated placental site and placental site nodule]
    Dan Hua Shen
    Department of Pathology, People s Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100044, China
    Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 33:441-4. 2004
    ..To investigate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic non-tumor lesions, and to evaluate the position of immunohistochemistry in differential diagnoses...
  18. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: outcome of five cases including fertility preserving management
    Ronit Machtinger
    Department of Gynecology Oncology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Gynecol Oncol 96:56-61. 2005
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease that has been re-described during the 1970s.
  19. ncbi [Etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin chemotherapy for chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour]
    Yang Xiang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China
    Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 40:79-82. 2005
    ..To evaluate the results of etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin (EMA/EP) chemotherapy in patients with chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour...
  20. ncbi Placental-site trophoblastic tumor with PET scan-detected surgically treated lung metastasis
    Lucybeth Nieves
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brody School of Medicine of East Carolina University, 600 Moye Boulevard, 2S12 Brody Medical Science Building, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
    Int J Clin Oncol 13:263-5. 2008
    ..She is currently in clinical remission. Surgery may have a role in salvaging a patient with persistent PET-positive disease after chemotherapy...
  21. ncbi Decreased breast cancer rates among women with choriocarcinoma
    Deleep K Gudipudi
    Research Department, New York Downtown Hospital, New York Presbyterian Healthcare System, New York, NY 10038, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 110:202-5. 2008
    ..We hypothesized that exposure to high levels of hCG in women diagnosed with choriocarcinoma would decrease future breast cancer risk...
  22. pmc Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumour in the duodenum presenting with a gastrointestinal bleed
    Sanjay A Pai
    J Clin Pathol 60:1295-6. 2007
  23. ncbi Impact of p53 immunostaining in predicting advanced or recurrent placental site trophoblastic tumors: a study of 12 cases
    Yuichiro Nagai
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiba Hokuso Hospital, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
    Gynecol Oncol 106:446-52. 2007
    ..To identify an indicator that can predict tumor cell spread beyond the uterine corpus...
  24. ncbi Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: review of a rare neoplasm of the chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast
    Kimberly H Allison
    Division of Anatomic Pathology, University of Washington Medical Center, 1959 NE Pacific St, Room BB 220, Box 356100, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:1875-7. 2006
    ..The clinical behavior of this rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease is difficult to predict. Although most cases follow a benign course following resection, there is a potential for metastatic disease...
  25. ncbi Fertility sparing therapy in a patient with placental site trophoblastic tumor: a case report
    T Michael Numnum
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 618 19th Street South, OHB 538, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 103:1141-3. 2006
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) that is generally resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic treatment...
  26. ncbi Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 3. Human chorionic gonadotropin-free beta-subunit, a reliable marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:160-4. 2006
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) commonly presents with low and variable concentration of hCG immunoreactivity in serum which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (..
  27. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor originating in a tubal ectopic pregnancy
    Nupur Gupta
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 129:92-4. 2006
  28. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Sushama Rajaram Desai
    Dept of Pathology, KIMS, Karad
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 48:505-7. 2005
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is very rare. It is a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which follows normal or molar pregnancy. It is usually confined to uterus & 15-20% behave in a malignant fashion...
  29. pmc Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for migration and invasion of placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Martin Köbel
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Am J Pathol 167:879-85. 2005
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a gestational neoplasm derived from the extravillous (intermediate) trophoblast of the implantation site...
  30. ncbi [Placental site trophoblastic tumor of the uterus after in vitro fertilization. A case report with initial vaginal metastasis]
    Annie Buenerd
    Service d Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Hopital Edouart Herriot, Lyon
    Ann Pathol 23:236-9. 2003
    We report the first case of placental site trophoblastic tumor following in vitro fertilization...
  31. ncbi Case of PSTT treated with chemotherapy followed by open uterine tumor resection to preserve fertility
    Yoshiyuki Tsuji
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1 1 Mukogawa cho, Nishinomiya Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan
    Gynecol Oncol 87:303-7. 2002
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic malignancy, usually seen in young women with a 20% fatality rate...
  32. ncbi Placental site nodule of the ovary
    M Al-Hussaini
    Histopathology 41:471-2. 2002
  33. ncbi Malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor: a cytogenetic study using comparative genomic hybridization and chromosome in situ hybridization
    Wei Cheng Xue
    Department of Pathology, People s Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China
    Cancer 94:2288-94. 2002
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm composed predominantly of intermediate trophoblast...
  34. ncbi The pathology of intermediate trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions
    I M Shih
    Division of Gynecologic Pathology, Department of Pathology and Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:31-47. 2001
    ..lesions are thought to arise: exaggerated placental site (EPS), placental site nodule (PSN), placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT)...
  35. ncbi The management of recurrent and drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN)
    E S Newlands
    Treatment and Screening Centre for Gestational and Trophoblastic Neoplasia, Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Rd, W6 8RF London, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17:905-23. 2003
    ..The late side-effects of more intensive treatment are a small risk of inducing second tumours and also of bringing forward the age of menopause...
  36. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in mother and child: first report of PSTT in infancy
    Tom Monclair
    Pediatric Surgical Service, Department of Surgery, The National Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
    Med Pediatr Oncol 38:187-91; discussion 192. 2002
    ..To the authors' knowledge, placental site trophoblastic tumors occurring simultaneously in mother and infant have not previously been reported...
  37. ncbi [The c-erbB-related oncoproteins in normal placenta and in gestational trophoblastic diseases (in vitro study)]
    V Fulop
    Egészségtudományi Kar, Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest
    Orv Hetil 142:1147-54. 2001
    ..The EGFR-related family of oncogenes may be important in the pathogenesis and prognosis of gestational trophoblastic diseases...
  38. ncbi Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor: a case report
    N Aggarwal
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 27:49-52. 2001
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is very rare. It is an unusual variant of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia usually confined to the uterus, although 10% of patients have metastases...
  39. ncbi Expression of placental leucine aminopeptidase and adipocyte-derived leucine aminopeptidase in human normal and malignant invasive trophoblastic cells
    Kazuhiko Ino
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
    Lab Invest 83:1799-809. 2003
    ..human trophoblastic cells in the normal placenta (n = 26), gestational choriocarcinoma (n = 8), and placental site trophoblastic tumor (n = 3)...
  40. ncbi Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 4. Presentation with persistent low positive human chorionic gonadotropin test results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MSC10 5580 1, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Gynecol Oncol 102:165-72. 2006
    ..Such chemotherapy and surgery were ineffective and unwarranted. This study identifies the causes of persistent low level of hCG and provides guidelines for the management of these patients, preventing unnecessary treatment in the future...
  41. ncbi Postpartum MR diagnosis of retained placenta accreta
    Yumiko Oishi Tanaka
    Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1 1 1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    Eur Radiol 14:945-52. 2004
    ..placenta accreta in seven cases, retained normally attached placenta in four, hematoma in two, and placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in one...
  42. ncbi Expression of leptin and leptin receptors in gestational trophoblastic diseases
    Raymond H W Li
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    Gynecol Oncol 95:299-306. 2004
    ..To investigate the expression profile of leptin and leptin receptors in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs)...
  43. ncbi Expression pattern of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein C/EBP-beta in gestational trophoblastic disease
    Jessica Radde
    University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf, Department of Gynecopathology, Institute of Pathology, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 23:373-7. 2004
    ..of 15 cases of GTD including nine complete hydatidiform moles, one placental site nodule (PSN), one placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and four choriocarcinomas. All our tested specimens showed positivity for C/EBP-beta...
  44. ncbi Absence of Y chromosome in human placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Pei Hui
    Department of Pathology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 8023, USA
    Mod Pathol 20:1055-60. 2007
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a neoplasm of extravillous intermediate trophoblast at the implantation site, preceded in the majority of cases by a female gestational event...
  45. pmc p21-Activated kinase-1 promotes aggressive phenotype, cell proliferation, and invasion in gestational trophoblastic disease
    Michelle K Y Siu
    Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China
    Am J Pathol 176:3015-22. 2010
    ..trophoblastic neoplasia requiring chemotherapy; choriocarcinoma, which is a frankly malignant tumor; placental site trophoblastic tumor; and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor...
  46. ncbi Carcinoembryonic antigen and related molecules in normal and transformed trophoblast
    Lj Vićovac
    Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, INEP, University of Belgrade, Banatska 31b, PO Box 46, 11080, Zemun Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
    Placenta 28:85-96. 2007
    ..Immunocyto/histochemistry of normal placenta (n=9), invasive mole (n=8), choriocarcinoma (n=7), a placental site trophoblastic tumor, cytotrophoblast in primary culture and JAr and JEG-3 cells was performed using polyclonal anti-CEA ..
  47. ncbi The role of hysterotomy in the management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
    W A A Tjalma
    Department of Gynecology, University Hospital Antwerpen UZA, Antwerpen, Belgium
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:882-3. 2006
    ..The presentation was highly suggestive for a placental site trophoblastic tumor. A local resection of the tumor by hysterotomy was performed...
  48. ncbi Pathogenesis of placental site trophoblastic tumor may require the presence of a paternally derived X chromosome
    P Hui
    Department of Pathology, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Lab Invest 80:965-72. 2000
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a neoplastic proliferation of intermediate trophoblasts that invades the myometrium at the placental site after a pregnancy. Less than 100 cases have been reported...
  49. pmc Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia in the 1990s
    D P Goldstein
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Yale J Biol Med 64:639-51. 1991
    ..A rare variant of choriocarcinoma called placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) has been described, which, although curable by surgery when localized, is usually fatal when ..
  50. ncbi Postmenopausal complete hydatidiform mole: a case report
    Faruk Abike
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sarkikaraagaç State Hospital, Isparta, Turkey
    Maturitas 59:95-8. 2008
    ..proliferation, and histologically classified as partial hydatidiform mole, complete mole, invasive and metastatic mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Occurrence of GTN in postmenopausal women is rare.
  51. ncbi P57kip2 immunohistochemical expression and ultrastructural findings of gestational trophoblastic disease and related disorders
    Hiroaki Soma
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saitama Medical School, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama cho, Iruma gun, Saitama, 350 0495, and chiba Hokuso Hospital, Japan
    Med Mol Morphol 40:95-102. 2007
    ..b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) have been classified as related disorders...
  52. ncbi [Placental site trophoblastic tumor]
    B Piura
    Unit of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Harefuah 146:62-7, 77. 2007
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) that originates from the implantation site intermediate trophoblast...
  53. ncbi Role of hysterectomy in managing persistent gestational trophoblastic disease
    Mo iad Alazzam
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, G18, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, National Health Service Foundation, Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 4JL, UK
    J Reprod Med 53:519-24. 2008
    ..To evaluate incidence, indications and outcomes of hysterectomy for gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and compare outcomes for patients who underwent primary hysterectomy with outcomes for those who underwent adjuvant hysterectomy...
  54. ncbi Detection of HASH2 (ASCL2) gene expression in gestational trophoblastic disease
    M Nurhalim Shahib
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Jl Raya Bandung Sumedang Km 21, Jatinangor Sumedang, 45363 Jawa Barat, Indonesia
    J Reprod Med 51:892-6. 2006
    ..To examine the expression of HASH2 in gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD)...
  55. ncbi Non-gestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary in a 4-year-old rhesus monkey
    E Marbaix
    Pathology Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate, 56, B 1200, Brussels, Belgium
    Vet Pathol 45:375-8. 2008
    ..In the absence of previous and present pregnancy, this neoplasm has to be considered as a nongestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary.
  56. ncbi The expression and diagnostic utility of p63 in the female genital tract
    Oisin Houghton
    Department of Pathology, Royal Group of Hospitals Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland
    Adv Anat Pathol 16:316-21. 2009
    ..intermediate trophoblast) are usually p63 positive whereas placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor (lesions derived from implantation site intermediate trophoblast) are usually negative; thus, p63 ..
  57. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: an overview
    Cristina Bonazzi
    Division of Gynecologic Oncology, San Gerardo Hospital, Via Solferino 23, 20052 Monza, Italy
    J Reprod Med 49:585-8. 2004
    To analyze 15 consecutive cases of placental site trophoblastic tumor seen in a single reference institution for gestational trophoblastic disease, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy.
  58. ncbi Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole
    John R Lurain
    John I Brewer Trophoblastic Disease Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 203:531-9. 2010
    ..mole (complete and partial) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor)...
  59. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: molecular analysis and clinical experience
    M Bower
    Medical Oncology Unit, Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Road, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 2:897-902. 1996
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a very rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease which differs histologically and immunocytochemically from gestational choriocarcinoma...
  60. ncbi Expression pattern of the adhesion molecule CEACAM1 (C-CAM, CD66a, BGP) in gestational trophoblastic lesions
    A M Bamberger
    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:160-5. 2001
    ..lesions including complete hydatidiform moles, one placental site trophoblastic nodule (PSN), one placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and three choriocarcinomas...
  61. ncbi [Management of gestational trophoblastic disease]
    S Noal
    Service de Recherche Clinique, Centre Francois Baclesse, 3, Avenue du General Harris, 14076 Caen Cedex 05, France
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil 38:193-8. 2010
    Gestational trophoblastic diseases comprise of hydatiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Most of those pathologies are chemosensitive and have excellent prognosis, allowing preserving women's ..
  62. ncbi [Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Diagnosis after pneumothorax]
    K Schulz-Bischof
    Institut fur Pathologie, Katholisches Marienkrankenhaus gGmbH, Alfredstrasse 9, 22087 Hamburg, Germany
    Pathologe 28:229-34. 2007
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare, mostly benign tumor, which in 10-15% of cases shows a malignant behavior. The case of a 35 year old woman with pulmonary metastasis of a PSTT is reported...
  63. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor with antecedent molar pregnancy in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection
    M Moodley
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Gynaecological Oncology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Congella, Durban, South Africa
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 18:860-1. 2008
    The occurrence of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is rare. PSTT following molar pregnancy is uncommon...
  64. ncbi [Gestational trophoblastic disease. Non-villous forms of gestational trophoblastic disease]
    L C Horn
    Institut fur Pathologie, Abteilung für Gynäkopathologie, Universitat Leipzig
    Pathologe 25:281-91. 2004
    ..are non-neoplastic lesions of the intermediate trophoblast without tumorous appearance, whereas placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epitheloid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) represent tumorous neoplasms with a potential for ..
  65. ncbi Treatment of gestational trophoblastic tumors
    John R Lurain
    John I Brewer Trophoblastic Disease Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Medical School, Prentice Women s Hospital, 333 East Superior Street, Suite 420, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Curr Treat Options Oncol 3:113-24. 2002
    Gestational trophoblastic tumors (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor) should be classified according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Federation ..
  66. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor
    T V Ajithkumar
    Oncology Centre, Addenbrooke s NHS Trust, Box 193, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 58:484-8. 2003
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is an uncommon form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) with variable spectrum of clinical behavior...
  67. ncbi Management of gestational trophoblastic disease and other cases with low serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin
    Sarah A Khanlian
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 0001, USA
    J Reprod Med 51:812-8. 2006
    ..use of commercial tests in the optimal management of GTD, quiescent GTD,false positive hCG results, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) detection, nontrophoblastic neoplasms and pituitary hCG...
  68. ncbi Gestational trophoblastic disease II: classification and management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
    John R Lurain
    John I Brewer Trophoblastic Disease Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 204:11-8. 2011
    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) includes invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The overall cure rate in treating these tumors is currently >90%...
  69. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor--a challenging rare entity
    B Piura
    Unit of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 27:545-51. 2006
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a challenging rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) with variable characteristics...
  70. ncbi Clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Jun Zhao
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China
    J Reprod Med 51:939-44. 2006
    To analyze the clinical and pathologic characteristics of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) cases and to discuss the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of PSTT.
  71. ncbi Genetics of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update for the clinician
    Constantine Alifrangis
    Charing Cross Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Screening and Management Centre, Dept of Medical Oncology, Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust, Fulham Palace Road, London, UK
    Future Oncol 6:1915-23. 2010
    ..from premalignant hydatidiform moles through to malignant invasive moles, choriocarcinoma and rare placental site trophoblastic tumor. The latter are often collectively referred to as gestational trophoblastic tumors or neoplasia (GTN)..
  72. ncbi Discovery of a cell: reflections on the checkered history of intermediate trophoblast and update on its nature and pathologic manifestations
    Robert J Kurman
    Departments of Pathology, Gynecology and Obstetrics and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institution, Baltimore, Maryland
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 33:339-47. 2014
    ..but subsequently it was found that some exhibited malignant behavior and the tumor was renamed "placental site trophoblastic tumor." A variety of observations pointed to an origin in a distinctive cell of the placental site, ..
  73. ncbi Human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit measurement as a marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors
    Richard A Harvey
    Charing Cross Oncology Laboratory and Trophoblastic Disease Centre, Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, UK
    J Reprod Med 53:643-8. 2008
    ..the utility of free human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit (hCGbeta) proportion of total hCG measurement to distinguish placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) from more common forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).
  74. ncbi Estrogen and progesterone receptors and telomerase enzyme immunohistochemical detection in gestational trophoblastic tumors
    A H El-Shalakany
    Gynaecologic Oncology Unit, Ain Shams University Medical School, Cairo, Egypt
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 16:1918-26. 2006
    ..paraffin blocks for 30 patients (24 with molar pregnancy, 3 with choriocarcinoma, and 3 with placental site trophoblastic tumor) as cases and six products of conception samples from patients with incomplete abortion as controls ..
  75. ncbi Interleukin-12 inhibits cell invasion in choriocarcinoma
    Zhuo Zhang
    Department of Basic Medicine, Chengde Medical College, Chengde 067000, Hebei, P R China
    Int J Mol Med 30:57-62. 2012
    ..In addition, treatment with IL-12 redistributes the phases of the cell cycle in JEG-3 cells. These findings suggest an antitumor role of IL-12 in choriocarcinoma, with far reaching possibilities for understanding the mechanisms of IL-12...
  76. ncbi Unsuccessful planned conservative resection of placental site trophoblastic tumor
    Jolyn S Taylor
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 121:465-8. 2013
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare subtype of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia affecting women of reproductive age. The preferred method of treatment is surgical resection.
  77. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor in the pelvic wall: a case report and review of the literature
    Xiao Tang
    Department of Pathology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 56:300-2. 2013
    Extra-uterine placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is extremely rare. To our knowledge, PSTT that occurs in the pelvic wall has not yet been reported...
  78. ncbi Sonographic appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease evolving into epithelioid trophoblastic tumor
    M Okumura
    Department of Obstetrics, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36:249-51. 2010
    ..Ultrasound may be helpful in differentiating epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from placental-site trophoblastic tumor, another tumor of intermediate trophoblastic cells, which shows infiltrative growth insinuating between muscle fibers...
  79. ncbi Current issues in the histopathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors
    N J Sebire
    Trophoblastic Disease Unit, Charing Cross Hospital, London, and Department of Paediatric Pathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London WC1N 3JH, United Kingdom
    Fetal Pediatr Pathol 29:30-44. 2010
    ..Current issues regarding the clinical and histological features of CC and PSTT/ETT are discussed...
  80. ncbi A well-circumscribed border with peripheral Doppler signal in sonographic image distinguishes epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from other gestational trophoblastic neoplasms
    Jiale Qin
    Department of Ultrasound, Women s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China
    PLoS ONE 9:e112618. 2014
    ..study aimed to identify the sonographic features of ETT that are distinct from other GTNs, including placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and invasive mole/choriocarcinoma (IM/CC)...
  81. doi Exaggerated placental site lesion with unusual presentation in the cervix of a perimenopausal patient
    Simona Stolnicu
    APMIS 116:160-2. 2008
  82. ncbi [Placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and review of literature]
    J Kunz
    Frauenklinik, Spital Zollikerberg, Institut für Pathologie medica, Zurich
    Praxis (Bern 1994) 97:387-94. 2008
    ..Chemosensitivity is low and, due to the infrequency of the tumours, the most suitable chemotherapy scheme is unknown. In the case of metastasising or recurrent PSTT, the EP/EMA regime has proved to be most effective...
  83. ncbi Immunohistochemistry of choriocarcinoma: an aid in differential diagnosis and in elucidating pathogenesis
    Tsui Lien Mao
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 31:1726-32. 2007
    ..including placenta, complete mole, placental site nodule, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, and placental site trophoblastic tumor were analyzed. The antibodies included Mel-CAM, HLA-G, MUC-4, and beta-catenin...
  84. pmc Placental site trophoblastic tumour: a rare but potentially curable cancer
    A M Gillespie
    Yorkshire Cancer Research Department of Clinical Oncology, Weston Park Hospital, Sheffield, UK
    Br J Cancer 82:1186-90. 2000
    ..Of the remaining two patients one had distant and the other loco-regional metastases and both died despite numerous therapeutic interventions...
  85. ncbi Immunohistochemical studies of trophoblastic tumors
    Neda Kalhor
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 33:633-8. 2009
    ..We have noted mixed trophoblastic tumors, with a combination of placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor patterns within the same case, and more frequently a combination ..
  86. ncbi [A plea for the creation of trophoblastic disease reference centers in France]
    F Golfier
    Service de Gynecologie Obstetrique, Hotel Dieu, 69002 Lyon
    J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 29:538-47. 2000
    ..molar pregnancies together with trophoblastic tumors, namely invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Important advances continue to occur in both our understanding and management of these diseases...
  87. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumour: a case report
    A L Hemalatha
    Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Mysore, Karnataka
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 50:581-3. 2007
    ....
  88. ncbi Placental site nodule: a tumor-like trophoblastic lesion
    Sunitha Jacob
    Department of Pathology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 52:240-1. 2009
    ..This entity may have bizarre histologic findings and should be distinguished from other aggressive lesions like placental site trophoblastic tumor, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and squamous cell carcinoma.
  89. ncbi Expression of laminin receptor 1 in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal placenta and its relationship with the development of postmolar tumors
    Mertihan Kurdoglu
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yuzuncu Yil University School of Medicine, Van, Turkey
    Gynecol Oncol 114:306-9. 2009
    ....
  90. ncbi Apoptotic activity in gestational trophoblastic disease correlates with clinical outcome: assessment by the caspase-related M30 CytoDeath antibody
    P M Chiu
    Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
    Histopathology 38:243-9. 2001
    ..034). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that apoptosis is important in the pathogenesis of GTD. Assessment of apoptotic activity in HM by the M30 index may be considered as an alternative prognostic indicator for predicting the clinical behaviour...
  91. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor: lymphatic spread and possible target markers
    Chunyan Lan
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Sun Yat sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Gynecol Oncol 116:430-7. 2010
    The behaviors of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), especially lymphatic spread, have not been completely understood...
  92. ncbi Placental site trophoblastic tumor with an ovarian metastasis
    D Milingos
    West London Cancer Centre, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom
    Int J Gynecol Cancer 17:925-7. 2007
    ..The case highlights the possibility of ovarian metastases despite normal preoperative imaging and confirms the value of multidisciplinary management of this rare illness...
  93. ncbi [Trophoblastic gestational disease: a placental site trophoblastic tumor and an epithelioid trophoblastic tumor]
    Florence Bouchet-Mishellany
    Service d Anatomie Pathologique, Hopital Hotel Dieu, BP 69, BD Leon malfreyt, 63003 Clermont Ferrand 01
    Ann Pathol 24:167-71. 2004
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor are rare gestational trophoblastic tumors. They both appear in the same context and follow the same course. We report two cases in patients aged 44 and 20 years...
  94. ncbi Comparative genomic hybridization study of placental site trophoblastic tumour: a report of four cases
    Pei Hui
    Department of Pathology, Weil Medical College of Cornell University, USA
    Mod Pathol 17:248-51. 2004
    ..The recurrent chromosomal gain involving chromosomal 21q observed in two of our cases deserves additional studies to ascertain whether it carries any pathobiological significance...
  95. ncbi EMA/EP chemotherapy for chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumor
    Yang Xiang
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    J Reprod Med 49:443-6. 2004
    ..To evaluate the results of etoposide/ methotrexate/actinomycin D/etoposide/cisplatin (EMA/ EP) chemotherapy in patients with chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT)...
  96. ncbi Management of gestational trophoblastic disease in developing countries
    V Sivanesaratnam
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17:925-42. 2003
    ..7% respectively. Surgery and radiotherapy have a limited role...
  97. ncbi Extrauterine placental site trophoblastic tumour in association with a lithopedion
    I A El Hag
    Department of Pathology, PARAS Central Hospital, Sakaka, Al Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    Histopathology 41:446-9. 2002
    ..We describe an unusual case of extrauterine placental site trophoblastic tumour located in pouch of Douglas in association with a lithopedion...
  98. ncbi Inappropriate management of women with persistent low hCG results
    Laurence A Cole
    USA hCG Reference Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque 87131, USA
    J Reprod Med 49:423-32. 2004
    ..is that the majority of these cases (68%) received needless therapy for assumed GTN/choriocarcinoma/placental site trophoblastic tumor before consultation with the Reference Service...
  99. ncbi [Survey of gestational trophoblastic disease incidence among 3.6 million pregnancies in China]
    Yi Fu Shi
    Department of Gynecology, Women s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006, China
    Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 40:76-8. 2005
    ..To survey incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in China and to provide useful information for prevention and better treatment of the disease...
  100. ncbi [Diagnosis and therapeutics of placental site trophoblastic tumor]
    Shan Deng
    Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, PUMC Hospital, CAMS, PUMC, 100730, China
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 24:418-21. 2002
    In order to get better understanding of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), we have investigated 4 PSTT cases that diagnosed in our hospital and with literature reviews.
  101. ncbi HLA-G immunoreactivity is specific for intermediate trophoblast in gestational trophoblastic disease and can serve as a useful marker in differential diagnosis
    Gad Singer
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:914-20. 2002
    ..of various trophoblastic lesions to different types of IT (exaggerated placental site and placental site trophoblastic tumor to implantation site IT and placental site nodule and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor to chorionic-..

Research Grants3

  1. Development of Digital SNP Analysis in Cancer Detection
    Ie Ming Shih; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, the encouraging results from this study will ensure the detection of AI in plasma a promising cancer research direction for further exploration. ..
  2. LUNG PRESERVATION FOR TRANSPLANTATION
    G Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The first aim of this project is to examine the role of NF-KappaB activation in I/R injury. The second aim of this project is to investigate the mechanisms by which gene transfer of IL-10 ameliorates I/R injury. ..
  3. Diaphragmatic Transplantation for Muscular Dystrophy
    G Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....