male breast neoplasms

Summary

Summary: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2
    R Wooster
    Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Haddow Laboratories, Sutton Surrey, UK
    Nature 378:789-92. 1995
  2. pmc MicroRNA expression profiling of male breast cancer
    Matteo Fassan
    Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University Kimmel Cancer Center, 1112 College Building, 1025 Walnut Street, PA 19107, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R58. 2009
  3. ncbi Male breast cancer: a review of clinical management
    A Agrawal
    Professorial Unit of Surgery, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 103:11-21. 2007
  4. pmc Variation in cancer risks, by mutation position, in BRCA2 mutation carriers
    D Thompson
    CRC Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 68:410-9. 2001
  5. ncbi Clinical management of breast cancer in males: a report of four cases
    Joerg Heinig
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Muenster University Hospital, Albert Schweitzer Strasse 33, D 48129 Muenster, Germany
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 102:67-73. 2002
  6. ncbi Cancer variation associated with the position of the mutation in the BRCA2 gene
    Jan Lubinski
    Hereditary Cancer Center Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Academy of Medicine, Szczecin, Poland
    Fam Cancer 3:1-10. 2004
  7. pmc Haplotype and cancer risk analysis of two common mutations, BRCA1 4184del4 and BRCA2 2157delG, in high risk northwest England breast/ovarian families
    D G R Evans
    Academic Unit of Medical Genetics, Regional Genetics Service and National Genetics Reference Laboratory, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    J Med Genet 41:e21. 2004
  8. ncbi The diagnostic accuracy of mammography in the evaluation of male breast disease
    G F Evans
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9161, USA
    Am J Surg 181:96-100. 2001
  9. ncbi Breast carcinoma in men: a population-based study
    Sharon H Giordano
    Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, PO Box 424, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cancer 101:51-7. 2004
  10. ncbi A gene-environment interaction between occupation and BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in male breast cancer?
    Domenico Palli
    Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, CSPO, Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Via di San Salvi 12, 50135 Florence, Italy
    Eur J Cancer 40:2474-9. 2004

Research Grants

  1. Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer
    SUSAN AUDREY HALL; Fiscal Year: 2012
  2. EORTC HEADQUARTERS
    Denis Lacombe; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALE AND FEMALE BREAST CANCER
    David Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1990
  4. Case-Control Study of Pancreas Cancer Etiologic Factors
    Harvey Risch; Fiscal Year: 2008
  5. COMMUNICATING GENETIC TEST RESULTS TO THE FAMILY
    Mary Daly; Fiscal Year: 2008
  6. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Cancer Screening
    Michael Andrykowski; Fiscal Year: 2008
  7. NCI CANCER GENETICS NETWORK INFORMATICS CENTER AT UCI
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2006
  8. ADVANCED CANCER RISK COUNSELING TRAINING FOR NURSES
    Mary Daly; Fiscal Year: 2006
  9. Benign Breast Registry to Assess Valid Endpoints
    Mary Daly; Fiscal Year: 2005
  10. CARCR Confrence Support
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2005

Detail Information

Publications250 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2
    R Wooster
    Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Haddow Laboratories, Sutton Surrey, UK
    Nature 378:789-92. 1995
    ..Each mutation causes serious disruption to the open reading frame of the transcriptional unit. The results indicate that this is the BRCA2 gene...
  2. pmc MicroRNA expression profiling of male breast cancer
    Matteo Fassan
    Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University Kimmel Cancer Center, 1112 College Building, 1025 Walnut Street, PA 19107, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R58. 2009
    ....
  3. ncbi Male breast cancer: a review of clinical management
    A Agrawal
    Professorial Unit of Surgery, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 103:11-21. 2007
    ..Male breast cancer incidence is 1% of all breast cancers and is increasing. We aim to present an overview of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on clinical management...
  4. pmc Variation in cancer risks, by mutation position, in BRCA2 mutation carriers
    D Thompson
    CRC Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 68:410-9. 2001
    ..92% (95% CI = 1.20%-38.57%). Possible mechanisms for the variation in cancer risk are suggested by the coincidence of the OCCR with the RAD51-binding domain...
  5. ncbi Clinical management of breast cancer in males: a report of four cases
    Joerg Heinig
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Muenster University Hospital, Albert Schweitzer Strasse 33, D 48129 Muenster, Germany
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 102:67-73. 2002
    ..The cases presented clearly demonstrate that diagnostic work-up, staging procedures and treatment options for primary treatment and advanced stages are identical compared to the recommendation for female breast cancer...
  6. ncbi Cancer variation associated with the position of the mutation in the BRCA2 gene
    Jan Lubinski
    Hereditary Cancer Center Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Academy of Medicine, Szczecin, Poland
    Fam Cancer 3:1-10. 2004
    ..0; P = 0.03) compared to families of other ethnic origins. In conclusion, both the position of mutation and the ethnic background of the family appear to contribute to the phenotypic variation observed in families with BRCA2 mutations...
  7. pmc Haplotype and cancer risk analysis of two common mutations, BRCA1 4184del4 and BRCA2 2157delG, in high risk northwest England breast/ovarian families
    D G R Evans
    Academic Unit of Medical Genetics, Regional Genetics Service and National Genetics Reference Laboratory, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester M13 0JH, UK
    J Med Genet 41:e21. 2004
  8. ncbi The diagnostic accuracy of mammography in the evaluation of male breast disease
    G F Evans
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235-9161, USA
    Am J Surg 181:96-100. 2001
    ..Although not a replacement for clinical examination, its routine use could substantially reduce the need for biopsy in patients whose mammograms and clinical examination suggest benign disease...
  9. ncbi Breast carcinoma in men: a population-based study
    Sharon H Giordano
    Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, PO Box 424, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Cancer 101:51-7. 2004
    ....
  10. ncbi A gene-environment interaction between occupation and BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in male breast cancer?
    Domenico Palli
    Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, CSPO, Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Via di San Salvi 12, 50135 Florence, Italy
    Eur J Cancer 40:2474-9. 2004
    ....
  11. ncbi The silent mutation nucleotide 744 G --> A, Lys172Lys, in exon 6 of BRCA2 results in exon skipping
    Thomas V O Hansen
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry 4111, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 119:547-50. 2010
    ..We therefore conclude that the BRCA2 silent mutation Lys172Lys is a disease-causing mutation...
  12. ncbi BRCA2 mutations and androgen receptor expression as independent predictors of outcome of male breast cancer patients
    Eliza Kwiatkowska
    Department of Cancer Immunology, University of Medical Sciences, Great Poland Cancer Center, Poznan, Poland
    Clin Cancer Res 9:4452-9. 2003
    ..The purpose of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of BRCA2 status in male breast carcinoma (MBC)...
  13. ncbi Estrogen receptor content in malignant breast tumors in men--a review
    H Olsson
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 5:283-7. 2000
    ..While the androgen receptor content has been assessed in a few studies, there are no studies on the estrogen receptor-beta content of breast tumors in men...
  14. ncbi BRCA2 germ-line mutations in Spanish male breast cancer patients
    O Diez
    Servei de Genètica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
    Ann Oncol 11:81-4. 2000
    ..The aim of this study was to characterise BRCA2 germ-line mutations in Spanish male breast cancer patients...
  15. ncbi Post-mastectomy radiation in male breast cancer
    Anuradha Chakravarthy
    Division of Radiation Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Radiother Oncol 65:99-103. 2002
    ..We propose that the pattern of local recurrence in male breast cancer is, stage for stage, similar to female breast cancer and, therefore, the indications for post-mastectomy radiation should be similar...
  16. ncbi Hormonal therapy for male breast cancer: A different approach for a different disease
    Zeina A Nahleh
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, The Barrett Cancer Center, University of Cincinnati, 234 Goodman Avenue, ML 0501, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
    Cancer Treat Rev 32:101-5. 2006
    ....
  17. pmc A polymorphism in the CYP17 gene is associated with male breast cancer
    I E Young
    University of Edinburgh Department of Pathology, Molecular Medicine Centre, UK
    Br J Cancer 81:141-3. 1999
    ..This case-control study from the South East of Scotland shows that a polymorphism of the CYP17 gene is associated with an increased risk of male breast cancer...
  18. ncbi BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and tumor characteristics in male breast cancer: a population-based study in Italy
    Laura Ottini
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University La Sapienza, 00161 Roma, Italy
    Cancer Res 63:342-7. 2003
    ..This suggests that phenotypic characteristics may contribute to the identification of hereditary BRCA2-related male breast cancers and that these tumors might share a unique molecular pathway of cancer progression...
  19. ncbi 19. Male breast cancer: aetiology, genetics and clinical management
    M D Tischkowitz
    Department of Clinical Genetics, Guy s Hospital London, UK
    Int J Clin Pract 56:750-4. 2002
    ....
  20. ncbi Expression of cell cycle-regulatory proteins rb, p16/MTS1, p27/KIP1, p21/WAF1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E in breast cancer: correlations with expression of activating protein-1 family members
    K Milde-Langosch
    Department of Gynecopathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Int J Cancer 87:468-72. 2000
    ..In addition, our data suggest differential regulation of cell cycle-stimulating and -inhibiting factors depending on the abundance of single AP-1 family members...
  21. ncbi Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in an elderly man
    Jason Lambley
    Breast J 11:153. 2005
  22. pmc Germline BRCA2 mutations in men with breast cancer
    E Mavraki
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Genetic Epidemiology, St James s Hospital, Leeds, UK
    Br J Cancer 76:1428-31. 1997
    ..One of the frameshifts was detected in the same position as a mutation estimated to be responsible for 40% of all male breast cancer cases in Iceland...
  23. pmc Breast cancer risk in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) heterozygotes: haplotype study in French AT families
    N Janin
    Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    Br J Cancer 80:1042-5. 1999
    ..However, the increased risk is only a little higher than classical reproductive risk factors and similar to the risk associated with a first-degree relative affected by BC...
  24. ncbi The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds
    S V Tavtigian
    Myriad Genetics Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Nat Genet 12:333-7. 1996
    ..Together with the specific mutations described previously, our data provide preliminary insight into the BRCA2 mutation profile...
  25. ncbi Epidemiology of male breast cancer
    Joli R Weiss
    Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, A 320 Carlton House, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:20-6. 2005
    ..g., electromagnetic fields, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high temperatures), dietary factors (e.g., meat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption), and alcohol intake...
  26. ncbi Clinical relevance of biologic factors in male breast cancer
    M E Meijer-van Gelder
    Department of Medical Oncology, Rotterdam Cancer Institute Daniel den Hoed Kliniek, University Hospital, The Netherlands
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 68:249-60. 2001
    ..Correlation of the eight cell biologic factors with disease outcome showed that PAI-1 (p = 0.03) was the only independent predictive factor for poor prognosis in male breast cancer...
  27. ncbi Changing patterns in the clinical characteristics of Korean patients with breast cancer during the last 15 years
    Byung Ho Son
    Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
    Arch Surg 141:155-60. 2006
    ..Breast cancer has become the most common cancer in Korean women in recent years, with continuously increased incidence rates attributed to westernized lifestyles...
  28. ncbi Status of HER-2 in male and female breast carcinoma
    K J Bloom
    Department of Pathology, Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Am J Surg 182:389-92. 2001
    ..Besides being prognostic, HER-2 may also be predictive of response to therapy. Similar studies in male breast carcinoma are lacking. We compared the overexpression and amplification of HER-2 in female and male breast carcinoma...
  29. ncbi Breast masses in males: multi-institutional experience on fine-needle aspiration
    Momin T Siddiqui
    Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287 6940, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 26:87-91. 2002
    ..Florid duct atypia in gynecomastia may mimic adenocarcinoma, necessitating a higher threshold for cytopathologic interpretation for malignancy in males...
  30. pmc Screening of male breast cancer and of breast-ovarian cancer families for BRCA2 mutations using large bifluorescent amplicons
    S Pages
    , Institut Curie, 26 rue d Ulm 75248, Paris Cedex 5, France
    Br J Cancer 84:482-8. 2001
    ..This study indicates a BRCA2 contribution of 10% (95% CI 2.5-17.5) to our original cohort of 59 breast-ovarian cancer families, whereas the contribution of BRCA1 had been estimated at 46% (95% CI 33-59)...
  31. ncbi Clinical characteristics of individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: analysis of 10,000 individuals
    Thomas S Frank
    Myriad Genetic Laboratories and Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
    J Clin Oncol 20:1480-90. 2002
    ..To assess the characteristics that correlate best with the presence of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in individuals tested in a clinical setting...
  32. ncbi On the neglected entity of unilateral gynecomastia
    Mario Colombo-Benkmann
    Ann Plast Surg 56:346. 2006
  33. ncbi Male breast cancer in the veterans affairs population: a comparative analysis
    Zeina A Nahleh
    Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Cancer 109:1471-7. 2007
    ..The objective of this retrospective analysis was to compare the characteristics and outcome of patients with MBC and patients with female breast cancer (FBC) in the VA population...
  34. ncbi Male breast cancer: a review of the literature and a case report
    Yvette Smolin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA
    Psychosomatics 43:326-30. 2002
  35. ncbi Recognizing features that are dissimilar in male and female breast cancer: expression of p21Waf1 and p27Kip1 using an immunohistochemical assay
    G Curigliano
    Department of Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
    Ann Oncol 13:895-902. 2002
    ..No studies exist on the role of these factors in male breast carcinoma...
  36. ncbi Breast cancer in men
    Sharon H Giordano
    The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Breast Medical Oncology, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 424, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Ann Intern Med 137:678-87. 2002
    ..Optimal management of breast cancer in men is unknown because the rarity of the disease precludes large randomized trials. A review of the literature was undertaken with emphasis on articles published over a 10-year period...
  37. pmc The Breast Cancer Family Registry: an infrastructure for cooperative multinational, interdisciplinary and translational studies of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer
    Esther M John
    Clinical and Genetic Epidemiology Research Branch, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 6:R375-89. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi BRCA2 germline mutations in male breast cancer cases and breast cancer families
    F J Couch
    Department of Medicine, 1010 Stellar Chance Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104, USA
    Nat Genet 13:123-5. 1996
    ....
  39. ncbi Significant contribution of germline BRCA2 rearrangements in male breast cancer families
    Isabelle Tournier
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale INSERM U614, Faculty of Medicine, IFRMP, University of Rouen, Rouen, France
    Cancer Res 64:8143-7. 2004
    ..These data suggest that screening for BRCA2 rearrangements should be done, especially in male breast cancer families tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations...
  40. ncbi BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Indian breast cancer patients
    Sunita Saxena
    Institute of Pathology, Safdarjang Hospital Campus, New Delhi, India
    Hum Mutat 20:473-4. 2002
    ..In addition, two BRCA2 missense variants were each identified in more than one patient (two unrelated individuals each) and likely represent population-specific polymorphisms...
  41. ncbi Differentiating pathogenic mutations from polymorphic alterations in the splice sites of BRCA1 and BRCA2
    Kathleen Claes
    Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 37:314-20. 2003
    ..Furthermore, our study is important for a better understanding of splicing mechanisms and revealed new patterns of alternative splicing in BRCA1 and BRCA2...
  42. ncbi Is male breast cancer similar or different than female breast cancer?
    William F Anderson
    NCI Division of Cancer Prevention, Bethesda, MD 20892 7317, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 83:77-86. 2004
    ..To determine if male breast carcinogenesis was similar to its more common female counterpart, we compared incidence patterns among men and women with breast cancer...
  43. ncbi A review of the diagnosis and management of male breast cancer
    Sharon H Giordano
    Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 424, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Oncologist 10:471-9. 2005
    ..It shares many similarities with breast cancer in women; yet some clear differences have emerged. In this article, the latest information on the epidemiology, biology, and treatment of male breast cancer is reviewed...
  44. ncbi [Male breast cancer: about 123 cases collected at the Institute Salah-Azaiz of Tunis from 1979 to 1999]
    Tarek Ben Dhiab
    Service de chirurgie générale carcinologique, Institut Salah Azaiz, Bd du 9 avril, 1006 Bab Saadoun, Tunis, Tunisie
    Bull Cancer 92:281-5. 2005
    ..T4 tumours represent a higher rate, the treatment approach is the standard applicable in breast cancer; prognostic factors are the classical one like breast cancer in women...
  45. ncbi Male versus female breast cancers. A population-based comparative immunohistochemical analysis
    D Muir
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 127:36-41. 2003
    ..It remains unclear whether the biological behavior and tumor progression associated with male breast cancer parallel that of the female form...
  46. ncbi The greater impact of menopause on ER- than ER+ breast cancer incidence: a possible explanation (United States)
    Robert E Tarone
    Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 13:7-14. 2002
    ..We examined US age-specific breast cancer rates by hormone receptor status in white and black women and men to investigate this unexpected result...
  47. ncbi Male breast cancer: is the incidence increasing?
    Nicole C F Hodgson
    Department of Surgery, Room 3550 SCC, Division of Surgical Oncology, 1475 NW 12th Avenue, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Ann Surg Oncol 11:751-5. 2004
    ..The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of MBC in Florida in comparison with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End RESULTS (SEER) program data...
  48. ncbi Adjuvant systemic therapy for male breast carcinoma
    Sharon H Giordano
    Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer 104:2359-64. 2005
    ..In the current study, the authors describe the M. D. Anderson experience with adjuvant systemic therapy in male breast carcinoma patients...
  49. ncbi BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast/ovarian cancer patients from central Italy
    L Stuppia
    Dipartimenti di Scienze Biomediche, Universita G D Annunzio, Chieti, Italy
    Hum Mutat 22:178-9. 2003
    ..7%). However, if considering only patients with a carrier probability >10%, the detection rate was 36.8%, confirming the usefulness of the BRCAPRO software. One change (BRCA1 4172insT) was a novel mutation not reported in BIC database...
  50. ncbi Men with breast cancer have better disease-specific survival than women
    Mahmoud B El-Tamer
    Section of Breast Surgery, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Arch Surg 139:1079-82. 2004
    ..Male breast cancer patients have better disease-specific survival than carefully matched female breast cancer patients...
  51. ncbi Male breast cancer
    Ian S Fentiman
    Academic Oncology, Thomas Guy House, Guy s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
    Lancet 367:595-604. 2006
    ..Hormonal therapy is the main treatment for metastatic disease, but chemotherapy can also provide palliation. National initiatives are increasingly needed to improve information and support for male breast cancer patients...
  52. pmc Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population
    L S Friedman
    CRC Human Cancer Genetics Research Group, Addenbroke s Hospital, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 60:313-9. 1997
    ..The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene...
  53. ncbi Prevalence of Klinefelter's syndrome in male breast cancer patients
    R Hultborn
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg, Sweden
    Anticancer Res 17:4293-7. 1997
    ..The same median age at diagnosis, 72 years, was established for both groups of patients. No differences in survival were seen...
  54. ncbi Her-2/neu gene amplification and protein expression in primary male breast cancer
    Christian Rudlowski
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 84:215-23. 2004
    ..Further studies should be addressed on the potential application of the monoclonal rhuMAB HER-2/ neu antibody for treatment of HER-2/ neu positive male breast cancer...
  55. ncbi Metastatic carcinoma to the male and female breast
    M Muttarak
    Department of Radiology, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Thailand
    Australas Radiol 42:16-9. 1998
    ..In a patient with known extramammary malignancy and a breast mass, mammograms and ultrasonograms should be undertaken to exclude a primary breast carcinoma and for proper management...
  56. ncbi Association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and cancer phenotype in Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families: implications for genetic testing
    Miguel de la Hoya
    Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Hospital Universitario San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
    Int J Cancer 97:466-71. 2002
    ..4% and 79%, respectively (probability cutoff of 30%). The findings of our work may be a useful tool for increasing the cost-effectiveness of genetic testing in familial cancer clinics...
  57. pmc Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing
    Kaiyumars B Contractor
    Department of Surgery, Oncology, Reproductive Medicine and Anaesthetics, Imperial College, London, UK
    World J Surg Oncol 6:58. 2008
    ..In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome...
  58. pmc Molecular analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 32 breast and/or ovarian cancer Spanish families
    A Osorio
    Department of Genetics, , Madrid, Spain
    Br J Cancer 82:1266-70. 2000
    ..Our results are in agreement with the idea that a great proportion of moderate-risk cancer families could be due to low penetrance susceptibility genes distinct from BRCA1 or BRCA2...
  59. ncbi Male and female breast cancer--differences in DNA ploidy, p21 and p53 expression reinforce the possibility of distinct pathways of oncogenesis
    Saudade André
    Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, E P E, Lisboa, Portugal
    Pathobiology 74:323-7. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical profile of cell cycle inhibitors of G1/S phase transition (p21, p53 and pRb), Ki-67 proliferation marker and DNA ploidy in male (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC)...
  60. ncbi Role of imaging in diagnosis of carcinoma of breast
    Rashid Ahmed
    Department of Radiology, Advanced Radiology Clinic, Karachi
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 15:238-41. 2005
    ..This includes MRI of breast, color doppler ultrasound, contrast ultrasound, digital mammography etc. This article briefly describes the role of imaging in the diagnosis of carcinoma breast...
  61. pmc Androgen receptor expression in male breast carcinoma: lack of clinicopathological association
    A Pich
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Turin, Italy
    Br J Cancer 79:959-64. 1999
    ....
  62. ncbi Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast: a report of 19 cases and a review of the literature
    Stéphan Vignot
    centre de lutte contre le cancer René Huguenin, St Cloud, France
    Clin Lymphoma 6:37-42. 2005
    ..Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the breast represents 0.04%-0.50% of malignant lesions of the mammary gland. In this article, we report a single institution's experience with this rare disease...
  63. ncbi Comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence trends, tumor characteristics, and survival
    Teresa D Hill
    Cancer Prevention Institute, Dayton, OH 45439 2092, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 15:773-80. 2005
    ..To compare male and female breast cancer and to determine the predictors of tumor characteristics and survival in both genders...
  64. ncbi Sentinel lymph node biopsy in male patients with early breast cancer
    Oreste Gentilini
    Division of Breast Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, 20141, Milan, Italy
    Oncologist 12:512-5. 2007
    ..After a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 1-63) no axillary reappearance of the disease occurred. As with women, we recommend SLNB in male patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla...
  65. ncbi Choroidal metastasis in men with metastatic breast cancer
    K M Kreusel
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic Benjamin Franklin, Free University of Berlin, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 128:253-5. 1999
    ..To report two cases of choroidal metastasis in metastatic breast cancer in men...
  66. ncbi Immunohistochemical expression in male breast cancer: two case reports
    Shih Wen Hu
    Department of Pathology, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Kaohsiung J Med Sci 22:235-42. 2006
    ....
  67. pmc Second primary malignancies in patients with male breast cancer
    K Hemminki
    Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, Heidelberg D 69120, Germany
    Br J Cancer 92:1288-92. 2005
    ..Increases at other sites may be related to unknown factors or to chance. This large study shows that the risks for second discordant tumours after male breast cancer pose only a moderate excess risk...
  68. pmc Breast cancer in men
    George H Perkins
    BMJ 327:239-40. 2003
  69. pmc Clinicopathological characteristics of male breast cancer
    Seho Park
    Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodaemun gu, Seoul 120 752, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 49:978-86. 2008
    ..To investigate clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of male breast cancer (MBC)...
  70. ncbi Diagnosis and management of male breast cancer
    Sophocles Lanitis
    Breast Care Unit Mary Stanford Wing 5th Floor, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, St Mary s Hospital, Praed streed, W2 1NY, London, UK
    World J Surg 32:2471-6. 2008
    ..In this study, we review the special features, overall management, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with MBC managed under our care with a brief review of the current literature...
  71. ncbi Changes in male breast cancer over a 30-year period
    Nicholas Paul Schaub
    Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, USA
    Am Surg 74:707-11; discussion 711-2. 2008
    ..Survival has not significantly improved over the previous 30 years. Compilation of multi-institutional data of male breast cancer is needed to advance the treatment of this uncommon disease...
  72. ncbi Sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients
    A Goyal
    Department of Surgery, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK
    Eur J Surg Oncol 30:480-3. 2004
    ..SLN biopsy accurately staged the axilla in male breast cancer patients and should be considered for axillary staging in male breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillae...
  73. ncbi Mutation analysis of the BRCA2 gene in 49 site-specific breast cancer families
    C M Phelan
    Department of Human Genetic and Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Genet 13:120-2. 1996
    ..Our results suggest the possibility that the proportion of site-specific breast cancer families attributable to BRCA2 may be overestimated...
  74. ncbi Male breast cancer: a special therapeutic problem. Anything new? (Review)
    Roberto Gennari
    Department of Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, 20141 Milano, Italy
    Int J Oncol 24:663-70. 2004
    ....
  75. ncbi Incidence of prostate cancer in male breast cancer patients: a risk factor for prostate cancer screening
    U J Lee
    Cleveland Clinic, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 12:52-6. 2009
    ..Male breast cancer patients in this cohort have an incidence of prostate cancer higher than would be predicted in the general population; this risk factor has implications for careful prostate cancer screening...
  76. ncbi Clinicopathological study and its prognostic implication in male breast carcinoma
    Debabrata Mitra
    Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Kolkata
    J Indian Med Assoc 105:681-3, 686. 2007
    ..In absence of prospective randomised trial retrospective review data from various centres could provide useful guidelines regarding therapy...
  77. ncbi Alcohol drinking may increase risk of breast cancer in men: a European population-based case-control study
    Pascal Guénel
    INSERM, Unité 170, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Cancer Causes Control 15:571-80. 2004
    ..We have investigated the role of alcohol drinking in male breast cancer using data collected in a population-based case-control study on seven rare cancers, conducted in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden...
  78. ncbi The role of mammography in male patients with breast symptoms
    Stephanie L Hines
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 82:297-300. 2007
    ..To determine the contribution of mammography to the comprehensive clinical evaluation of men with breast symptoms...
  79. pmc Male breast cancer in Cowden syndrome patients with germline PTEN mutations
    J D Fackenthal
    Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    J Med Genet 38:159-64. 2001
    ..These two cases of male breast cancer associated with germline PTEN mutations and the CS phenotype suggest that CS may be associated with an increased risk of early onset male as well as female breast cancer...
  80. ncbi Risk of subsequent cancer following breast cancer in men
    Anssi Auvinen
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 7362, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1330-2. 2002
    ..We conclude that men diagnosed with breast cancer are at high risk of contralateral breast cancer...
  81. ncbi Strategies in treating male breast cancer
    Bruno Cutuli
    Radiation Oncology Department, Polyclinique de Courlancy, 38 rue de Courlancy, 51100 Reims, France
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 8:193-202. 2007
    ..Globally, the prognosis is similar to that in women (at identical stage), but the intercurrent death rate is higher due to the important impact of comorbidities and second neoplasm...
  82. ncbi Role of expression of cell cycle inhibitor p27 and MIB-1 in predicting lymph node metastasis in male breast carcinoma
    Joseph Anderson
    Department of Pathology, Rush Presbyterian St Luke s Medical Center, Rush Medical College, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Jelke 582, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Breast J 8:101-7. 2002
    ..The reduced expression of the p27 protein and the overexpression of the MIB-1 proliferation index in this study show a significant correlation in predicting lymph nodes metastasis in MBCs...
  83. ncbi Histological and immuno-histochemical study of male breast carcinoma in Northern Pakistan
    Muhammad Ashraf Sharif
    Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    J Pak Med Assoc 59:67-71. 2009
    ..Association of the immunohistochemical markers with histological prognostic markers was also studied...
  84. ncbi Male breast carcinoma in Israel: higher incident but possibly prognosis in Ashkenazi Jews
    Baruch Brenner
    Institute of Oncology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqva, Israel
    Cancer 94:2128-33. 2002
    ..Because Ashkenazi Jews comprise one of the major ethnic groups in Israel, the authors conducted a local study to shed more light on the features of this rare disease...
  85. ncbi Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the breast: The Mayo Clinic Experience
    William W Wong
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259, USA
    J Surg Oncol 80:19-25; discussion 26. 2002
    ..To retrospectively evaluate the characteristics, natural history, results of treatment, and prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with primary breast lymphoma...
  86. ncbi Male breast cancer--a reappraisal of clinical and biologic indicators of prognosis
    S Andre
    Departamento de Patologia Morfologica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Portugal
    Acta Oncol 40:472-8. 2001
    ..Clinically useful information on the probability of relapse can be added by determining c-erbB-2 (p = 0.02) and progesterone receptors (p = 0.04) in stage III and tumor ploidy (p = 0.04) in pN1 subgroups of patients...
  87. pmc BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population-based study of male breast cancer
    Victoria M Basham
    CRC Human Cancer Genetics Group, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 4:R2. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi Spindle cell lipoma-like tumor, solitary fibrous tumor and myofibroblastoma of the breast: a clinico-pathological analysis of 13 cases in favor of a unifying histogenetic concept
    Gaetano Magro
    Istituto di Anatomia Patologica, Universita di Catania, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania, Italy
    Virchows Arch 440:249-60. 2002
    ..Accordingly, the encompassing term "benign spindle stromal tumors of the breast" is advocated for such tumors...
  89. ncbi Male breast cancer: a gender issue
    Zeina Nahleh
    Breast Oncology Program, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA
    Nat Clin Pract Oncol 3:428-37. 2006
    ..This review aims at highlighting the major differences between male and female breast cancer with an emphasis on hormonal therapy, and discusses some of the recent advances in MBC...
  90. ncbi Expression of c-erbB-2, p53 and c-myc proteins in male breast carcinoma: Comparison with traditional prognostic factors and survival
    M Mourão Netto
    Hospital do Cancer A C Camargo, San Paulo, Brasil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 34:887-94. 2001
    ....
  91. pmc Phenotypic features and genetic characterization of male breast cancer families: identification of two recurrent BRCA2 mutations in north-east of Italy
    GianMaria Miolo
    Division of Experimental Oncology 1, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, National Cancer Institute, Aviano, Italy
    BMC Cancer 6:156. 2006
    ..The relative rarity of male breast cancer (MBC) limits our understanding of the epidemiologic, genetic and clinical features of this tumor...
  92. pmc Male breast carcinoma
    Ari Nareg Meguerditchian
    Department of Surgery, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Que
    Can J Surg 45:296-302. 2002
    ..To review the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer...
  93. ncbi BRCAPRO validation, sensitivity of genetic testing of BRCA1/BRCA2, and prevalence of other breast cancer susceptibility genes
    Donald A Berry
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 4009, USA
    J Clin Oncol 20:2701-12. 2002
    ....
  94. ncbi Male breast cancer: a different disease than female breast cancer?
    Ashok Kumar Malani
    St Joseph Oncology Inc, 901 North Riverside Road, Suite 200, St Joseph, MO 64507, USA
    South Med J 100:197. 2007
  95. ncbi Invasive lobular carcinoma of the male breast: a case report
    M Koc
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
    Jpn J Clin Oncol 31:444-6. 2001
    ..We reviewed the English literature and found 20 reported cases of lobular carcinoma of the male breast. Our case represents lobular carcinoma in a proven genotypic male patient showing no exogenous or endogenous estrogens...
  96. ncbi Male breast carcinoma: correlation of ER, PR, Ki-67, Her2-Neu, and p53 with treatment and survival, a study of 65 cases
    Jessica Wang-Rodriguez
    Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla 92093, USA
    Mod Pathol 15:853-61. 2002
    ....
  97. pmc WHO reclassification of breast lymphomas
    M B Loughrey
    Department of Pathology, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast BT9 7AB, Northern Ireland, UK
    J Clin Pathol 57:1213-4. 2004
    ..Most primary cases were diffuse large B cell lymphomas, whereas secondary cases were heterogeneous in type and most had a poor prognosis...
  98. ncbi A population-based assessment of the clustering of breast cancer in families eligible for testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations
    J Lorenzo Bermejo
    Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre DKFZ, Im Neuemheimer Feld 580, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Ann Oncol 16:322-9. 2005
    ..The prevalence of families eligible for BRCA1/2 mutation testing in the population burden of breast cancer was analysed and the aggregation of breast cancer in these families was explored...
  99. ncbi Sentinel lymph node biopsy is successful and accurate in male breast carcinoma
    Laurie W Flynn
    Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 206:616-21. 2008
    ..Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy minimizes this risk. We report results from the largest series of SLN biopsies for male breast cancer and compare this experience with that of female counterparts treated concurrently...
  100. pmc Expression and prognostic relevance of activated extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in breast cancer
    K Milde-Langosch
    Institute of Gynecopathology, University Clinics Hamburg Eppendorf UKE, Martinistr 52, Hamburg D 20246, Germany
    Br J Cancer 92:2206-15. 2005
    ....
  101. ncbi Novel intraoperative molecular test for sentinel lymph node metastases in patients with early-stage breast cancer
    Thomas B Julian
    Allegheny Breast Care Center, Allegheny General Hospital, 320 E North Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    J Clin Oncol 26:3338-45. 2008
    ..We present the results from a large, prospective evaluation of the first rapid molecular SLN test, the Breast Lymph Node (BLN) Assay...

Research Grants35

  1. Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer
    SUSAN AUDREY HALL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The public health relevance of the proposal is substantial given the common occurrence of prCA and the urgent need for more information regarding high-grade prCAs and breast cancers potentially caused by 5-ARIs. ..
  2. EORTC HEADQUARTERS
    Denis Lacombe; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALE AND FEMALE BREAST CANCER
    David Anderson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The project will thus have practical relevance to genetic counseling and early detection, as well as providing insight into the mechanisms underlying familial breast cancer...
  4. Case-Control Study of Pancreas Cancer Etiologic Factors
    Harvey Risch; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The factors to be examined here have received little attention with respect to pancreas cancer, and the proposed study will evaluate them systematically in a vigorous, large-scale and integrated project. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  5. COMMUNICATING GENETIC TEST RESULTS TO THE FAMILY
    Mary Daly; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Our long-term goal is both to advance the field of cancer communication science and to create a bridge to the development of practice guidelines and the diffusion of best practice to the genetic counseling community. ..
  6. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Cancer Screening
    Michael Andrykowski; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The overall goal of the training program is to prepare trainees for careers as independent investigators in behavioral oncology. ..
  7. NCI CANCER GENETICS NETWORK INFORMATICS CENTER AT UCI
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The design of the Cancer Genetics Network CIMS architecture is a very cost-effective solution without compromising performance and scalability and prepares for the challenges of the next millennium. ..
  8. ADVANCED CANCER RISK COUNSELING TRAINING FOR NURSES
    Mary Daly; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Course and mentoring evaluations will assess if this continuing education format is an effective method for preparing nurses skilled in the delivery of cancer genetic risk assessment and management. ..
  9. Benign Breast Registry to Assess Valid Endpoints
    Mary Daly; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..If promising, this work would lead to a larger prospective clinical research project to validate the findings of the pilot study and explore mechanisms of action. ..
  10. CARCR Confrence Support
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The March 2005 conference, which is the first to be covered by this proposal, will be held at a still to be determined site in Northern California. ..
  11. Enhanced Single-Visit Cervical Cancer Screening Program
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The incremental net cost associated with an incremental improvement in outcomes in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) will be measured. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. Body size, physical activity, and Hodgkin's disease risk
    Sally Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Cancer in the Middle Eastern Population in California
    Kiumarss Nasseri; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Patterns in the Middle Eastern population and will be compared to patterns in other racial and ethnic groups in California. ..
  14. RESEARCH TRAINING IN MEDICAL BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
    Michael Andrykowski; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Postdoctoral fellows will address each of the same elements with an intensity and emphasis that is tailored to their individual needs and prior experience. ..
  15. PHENOTYPIC AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDY OF THE L1307K MUTATION
    Henry Lynch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  16. Screening for Ovarian Cancer: Psychobehavioral Outcomes
    Michael Andrykowski; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. UCI UCSD CANCER GENETICS NETWORK
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The majority of the elements of the proposed network have already been established by our group and communications among them are in place. ..
  18. NCI CFRBCCS INFORMATICS CENTER AT UCI
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  19. Hereditary Breast Cancer: Genetic and Molecular Studies
    Hoda Anton Culver; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  20. Polybrominated Biphenyls and Cancer Risk
    KARIN ROSENBLATT; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. High Density Association Analysis of Lung Cancer
    Christopher I Amos; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We are collaborating with the International Lung Cancer Consortium so that it can further validate our findings for a variety of different populations, in future initiatives. ..
  22. Microenvironmental Control of the Radiation Response
    Adam Dicker; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The use of these tools in organotypic reconstructs promises to provide novel information about cell survival signaling in an 'in vivo' context with clear implications for therapeutic intervention. ..
  23. Neoadjuvant Cytokine Immunotherapy by PLA Microspheres
    Michael Sabel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..I will pursue this area of investigation as a full-time faculty member, with full commitment from the Department of General Surgery and the Division of Surgical Oncology at the University of Michigan Medical Center. ..
  24. DNA POLYMORPHISMS IN OVARIAN CANCER--CASE CONTROL STUDY
    Harvey Risch; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  25. Mammographic Densities: In the Pathway to Breast Cancer?
    KARIN ROSENBLATT; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Statistical Methods for Gene Environment Interactions In Lung Cancer
    Christopher Amos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The simulation approaches and analytical discoveries from our research will be widely distributed. (End of Abstract) ..
  27. CASE CONTROL STUDY OF OVARIAN CANCER HORMONAL ETIOLOGY
    Harvey Risch; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  28. Osteoporosis Prevention in Early Stage Breast Cancer
    Dawn Hershman; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. DIET AND DURATION OF CERVICAL HPV INFECTION
    MARC GOODMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  30. First International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference
    Massimo Cristofanilli; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..For project details please see "Conference Plan". [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  31. Genetic Susceptibility for Lung Cancer in African Americans
    Christopher Amos; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This analysis will allow us to identify groups of African-American individuals at particularly higher risks for developing lung cancer. ..
  32. Positional Gene Identification of Complex Traits
    Christopher Amos; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we will apply the methods that we are developing as part of existing studies of obesity, cancer-predisposition and rheumatoid arthritis. ..