thymus hyperplasia

Summary

Summary: Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi The thymus. Pediatric surgical aspects
    P S Midulla
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
    Chest Surg Clin N Am 11:255-67. 2001
  2. ncbi Thymic lesions and myasthenia gravis. Diagnosis based on mediastinal imaging and pathological findings
    T Pirronti
    Institutes of Radiology and Neurology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Acta Radiol 43:380-4. 2002
  3. ncbi Thymic hyperplasia and thymus gland tumors: differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging
    Tsutomu Inaoka
    Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2 1 1 1 Midorigaoka Higashi, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    Radiology 243:869-76. 2007
  4. pmc Pleiotropic effects of the 8.1 HLA haplotype in patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis and thymus hyperplasia
    Claire Vandiedonck
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U580 and Institut de Recherche Necker Enfants Malades, 161 rue de Sevres, 75743 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15464-9. 2004
  5. ncbi Characterization of the normal and hyperplastic thymus on chemical-shift MR imaging
    Koji Takahashi
    Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2 1 1 1 Midorigaoka Higashi, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:1265-9. 2003
  6. ncbi Morphological imaging of thymic disorders
    L Camera
    National Research Council Center of Nuclear Medicine and the Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy
    Ann Med 31:57-62. 1999
  7. ncbi Dendritic cells in hyperplastic thymuses from patients with myasthenia gravis
    Yuriko Nagane
    Department of Neurology, Iwate Medical University, Uchimaru 19 1, Morioka 020 8505, Japan
    Muscle Nerve 27:582-9. 2003
  8. ncbi Comparative study of pre-operative thymic imaging and pathology in patients with myasthenia gravis
    Yoshihiro Yasukawa
    Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science Kanazawa University, 13 1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    J Clin Neurosci 11:610-3. 2004
  9. ncbi [The history of thymus surgery]
    M Overhaus
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Allgemein, Viszeral, Thorax und Gefässchirurgie der Rheinischen Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str 25, 53105 Bonn, Deutschland
    Chirurg 78:950-3. 2007
  10. ncbi Chemotherapy-induced thymus hyperplasia can mimic tumor recurrence
    Osama Halaweh
    Department of Hematology Oncology, Providence Hospital and Medical Center, Southfield, Michigan, USA
    Breast J 12:381-2. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications133 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi The thymus. Pediatric surgical aspects
    P S Midulla
    Division of Pediatric Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
    Chest Surg Clin N Am 11:255-67. 2001
    ..It is apparent that further research is needed to clarify the functional role of the thymus gland in the developing immune system. Until better elucidated, a conservative approach to neonatal thymectomy may be justified...
  2. ncbi Thymic lesions and myasthenia gravis. Diagnosis based on mediastinal imaging and pathological findings
    T Pirronti
    Institutes of Radiology and Neurology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Acta Radiol 43:380-4. 2002
    ..To achieve a better understanding of the role of CT and MR imaging in the study of the mediastinum in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG)...
  3. ncbi Thymic hyperplasia and thymus gland tumors: differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging
    Tsutomu Inaoka
    Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2 1 1 1 Midorigaoka Higashi, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    Radiology 243:869-76. 2007
    ..To prospectively evaluate chemical shift magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for differentiating thymic hyperplasia from tumors of the thymus gland...
  4. pmc Pleiotropic effects of the 8.1 HLA haplotype in patients with autoimmune myasthenia gravis and thymus hyperplasia
    Claire Vandiedonck
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U580 and Institut de Recherche Necker Enfants Malades, 161 rue de Sevres, 75743 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15464-9. 2004
    ..the HLA complex has been reproducibly associated with several autoimmune diseases and traits, notably with thymus hyperplasia in patients with acquired generalized myasthenia gravis, an autoantibody-mediated disease directed at the ..
  5. ncbi Characterization of the normal and hyperplastic thymus on chemical-shift MR imaging
    Koji Takahashi
    Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2 1 1 1 Midorigaoka Higashi, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:1265-9. 2003
    ..We designed our study to prospectively assess a potential role for chemical-shift MR imaging in identifying a thymus that has not been completely replaced by fat tissue...
  6. ncbi Morphological imaging of thymic disorders
    L Camera
    National Research Council Center of Nuclear Medicine and the Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, University Federico II, Naples, Italy
    Ann Med 31:57-62. 1999
    ..MRI depicts accurately pleural and/or pericardial implants as well as the involvement of great vessels, offering considerable aid in the planning of surgery...
  7. ncbi Dendritic cells in hyperplastic thymuses from patients with myasthenia gravis
    Yuriko Nagane
    Department of Neurology, Iwate Medical University, Uchimaru 19 1, Morioka 020 8505, Japan
    Muscle Nerve 27:582-9. 2003
    ..DCs may present self-antigens, thereby promoting the priming and/or boosting of potentially autoreactive T cells against the acetylcholine receptor...
  8. ncbi Comparative study of pre-operative thymic imaging and pathology in patients with myasthenia gravis
    Yoshihiro Yasukawa
    Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science Kanazawa University, 13 1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920 8640, Japan
    J Clin Neurosci 11:610-3. 2004
    ..201)Tl-SPECT could not distinguish thymoma from LFH. We conclude that a CT study is recommended as an essential study for the detection of thymic abnormalities in pre-operative patients with MG...
  9. ncbi [The history of thymus surgery]
    M Overhaus
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Allgemein, Viszeral, Thorax und Gefässchirurgie der Rheinischen Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str 25, 53105 Bonn, Deutschland
    Chirurg 78:950-3. 2007
    ....
  10. ncbi Chemotherapy-induced thymus hyperplasia can mimic tumor recurrence
    Osama Halaweh
    Department of Hematology Oncology, Providence Hospital and Medical Center, Southfield, Michigan, USA
    Breast J 12:381-2. 2006
  11. ncbi True thymic hyperplasia associated with severe thymic cyst bleeding in a newborn: case report and review of the literature
    Frank Eifinger
    Department of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children s Hospital, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, D 50923, Cologne, Germany
    Ann Diagn Pathol 11:358-62. 2007
    ..The combination of true thymic hyperplasia and cyst bleeding in a newborn has not been previously reported and will be discussed in relation to the available literature on respiratory distress due to thymic pathology in childhood...
  12. ncbi Airway compression following thymus hyperplasia in an infant with Pierre Robin sequence and congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    R Hentschel
    Department of Pediatrics, , , Germany
    Pediatr Pulmonol 32:476-9. 2001
    ..At age 7 months, she was rehospitalized in respiratory failure because of pneumonia. At this time, thymus hyperplasia was first diagnosed, which had caused tracheobronchomalacia and displacement of the tracheobronchial tree...
  13. ncbi Raised prolactin levels in myasthenia gravis: two case reports and a study of two patient populations
    N Tsinzerling
    Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Neurol Scand 114:346-9. 2006
    ..To describe two patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and prolactinoma and analyze the associations between MG and prolactin (PRL) levels...
  14. ncbi Thymic hyperplasia after adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer
    Aasim S Sehbai
    Section of Hematology Oncology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 9162, USA
    J Thorac Imaging 21:43-6. 2006
    ..Awareness of this unusual side effect in patients treated with chemotherapy may prevent unnecessary investigation and surgical intervention...
  15. ncbi Thymic hyperplasia presenting as anterior mediastinal mass in 2 patients with Graves disease
    Adriane I Budavari
    Division of Community Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
    Mayo Clin Proc 77:495-9. 2002
    ..We report 2 patients with Graves disease and incidentally discovered anterior mediastinal masses presumed to be thymic hyperplasia. In both cases, these masses regressed spontaneously after treatment of hyperthyroidism...
  16. ncbi Rationale for a T cell receptor peptide therapy in myasthenia gravis
    F Jambou
    CNRS UMR 8078, IPSC, Universite Paris XI, Hopital Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 998:320-3. 2003
  17. ncbi [Advances in the research on immunopathogenesis of myasthenia gravis]
    Marcin Zielinski
    Oddziału Torakochirurgicznego Samodzielnego Publicznego Szpitala Specjalistycznego Chorób Płuc w Zakopanem
    Neurol Neurochir Pol 37:1085-94. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi [Is pure red cell aplasia a new extra digestive manifestation of celiac disease?]
    A L Couderc
    Service de Medecine Interne, Hopital Nord, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille APHM, Universite de la Mediterranee, Chemin des Bourrely, 13915 Marseille, Cedex 20, France
    Rev Med Interne 27:336-9. 2006
    ..Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy that appears on a predisposed genetic background. Its clinical presentation has been extended those last years by varied extradigestive manifestations...
  19. ncbi Myasthenia gravis with thymus hyperplasia and pure red cell aplasia
    Yutaka Suto
    Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36 1 Nishimachi, Yonago 683 8504, Japan
    J Neurol Sci 224:93-5. 2004
    A case of myasthenia gravis (MG) with thymus hyperplasia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is reported. A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed as having MG and was treated with thymectomy 26 years ago...
  20. ncbi Clinical features of patients with myasthenia gravis associated with autoimmune diseases
    M Kanazawa
    Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Asahimachi Dori, Niigata, Japan
    Eur J Neurol 14:1403-4. 2007
    ..Further studies should be performed to investigate whether MG associated with Graves' disease is a distinct subtype of MG...
  21. pmc Enhanced skin carcinogenesis and lack of thymus hyperplasia in transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b (CCND1b)
    Paola Rojas
    The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA
    Mol Carcinog 48:508-16. 2009
    ..We were unable to find any evidence of an alternatively spliced transcript in mouse Ccnd1. These results show that human cyclin D1b has different biological functions than cyclin D1a and confirm its oncogenic properties...
  22. ncbi Thymus hyperplasia after resolution of hypercortisolism in ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome: the importance of thymic vein catheterization
    Malebranche Berardo C Cunha Neto
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Rua Ovídio Pires de Campos 785, Cerqueira Cesar, 01060 970, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Eur J Endocrinol 154:807-11. 2006
    ....
  23. ncbi Genetic factors in autoimmune myasthenia gravis
    Matthieu Giraud
    Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1132:180-92. 2008
    ..The clinically typical form of autoimmune MG with thymus hyperplasia shows the most reproducible genetic associations, especially with the A1-B8-DR3 (8...
  24. ncbi Dysphonia as a primary manifestation in myasthenia gravis (MG): a retrospective review of 7 cases among 1520 MG patients
    Wei bin Liu
    Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat Sen University, 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, China
    J Neurol Sci 260:16-22. 2007
    ..Extended thymectomy was applied to MG patients with thymus hyperplasia or thymic tumor. Significant improvement was found in all 7 cases after these treatments...
  25. ncbi Dropped head syndrome as prominent clinical feature in MuSK-positive Myasthenia Gravis with thymus hyperplasia
    Konstantinos Spengos
    Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens School of Medicine, Vas Sofias 74, 11528 Athens, Greece
    Neuromuscul Disord 18:175-7. 2008
    ..patient with over four years slowly progressive weakness of the neck extensor muscles in the presence of thymus hyperplasia and discuss its uncommon and markedly focal clinical and electrophysiological features, as well as the ..
  26. ncbi Thymus alterations and systemic sclerosis
    C Ferri
    Servizio di Reumatologia, Policlinico Università di Modena, Largo del Pozzo no 71, 41100 Modena, Italy
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 45:72-5. 2006
    ..Previous anecdotal observations suggest a possible role for thymus alterations in some autoimmune rheumatic diseases, including SSc. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of radiological thymus alterations in SSc patients...
  27. ncbi True thymic hyperplasia associated with thymic hemorrhage in an adult patient
    Emanuela Pilozzi
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, II Faculty of Medicine, Sant Andrea Hospital, University La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Pathol Res Pract 206:331-3. 2010
    ..This finding raises the possibility that vascular malformations, perhaps due to an abnormal growth of the thymus, may be responsible for some cases of TH associated with TTH...
  28. ncbi The power of labels
    William A Silverman
    Lancet 364:929. 2004
  29. ncbi Diagnostic imaging and therapy in a case of myasthenia gravis associated with thymic hyperplasia
    Raffaella Foschi
    Istituto di Radiologia, Universita Cattolica del S Cuore, Policlinico A Gemelli, Roma, Italy
    Rays 28:369-78. 2003
    ..Definitive diagnosis of thymic hyperplasia was established. Therefore surgery should be essentially associated with the severity of the clinical presentation rather than with thymic hyperplasia...
  30. ncbi The thymus in autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis: Paradigm for a tertiary lymphoid organ
    J M Weiss
    Unité mixte de recherche CNRS UMR7215 Inserm U974 UPMC UM76 AIM, Thérapie des maladies du muscle strié, Institut de Myologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie Salpetriere, 105, Boulevard de l Hopital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 169:640-9. 2013
    ..These factors could also be of importance in other autoimmune diseases, especially those characterized by tertiary lymphoid neogenesis. ..
  31. ncbi Myasthenia gravis associated with thymoma and toxic multinodular goiter. A case report
    Lidia lonescu
    University of Medicine and Pharmacy Grigore T Popa lasi, Romania
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 116:540-4. 2012
    ..antithyroid drug treatment or surgery usually generates remission of myasthenia gravis (MG) in patients with thymus hyperplasia associated with Graves' hyperthyroidism...
  32. ncbi Positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose in the staging and follow-up of lymphoma in the chest
    M Bangerter
    Department of Medicine III, University of Ulm, Germany
    Acta Oncol 38:799-804. 1999
    ..In these two patients FDG uptake after therapy was caused by thymus hyperplasia. The remaining four cases before treatment remained unresolved...
  33. ncbi Mediastinal mass following successful chemotherapy for ovary dysgerminoma: benign process or disease relapse? A case report
    Michele Guida
    Medical Oncology Department, National Cancer Research Centre Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 26:e13-6. 2013
    ..This is the case of physiologic thymic hyperplasia, which occurs as a rebound phenomenon after chemotherapy in young women with ovarian dysgerminoma. Until now, no cases of dysgerminoma with benign mediastinal mass have been published...
  34. ncbi Variations with time and age in the risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure in childhood
    M P Little
    National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, U K
    Stat Med 17:1341-55. 1998
    ..05) and between the cohorts (P < 0.0001) in the speed of increase of the excess absolute risk with time since exposure...
  35. ncbi Fine-needle aspiration in the evaluation of thyroid lesions in children
    Jasleen Kaur
    Department of Cytology and Gynecological Pathology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
    Diagn Cytopathol 40:E33-7. 2012
    ..In lymphocytic thyroiditis, it provides a tissue diagnosis, thereby avoiding more invasive procedure for merely diagnostic purposes...
  36. ncbi Myasthenia gravis and scleroderma: two cases and a review of the literature
    Sasa A Zivkovic
    VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, PA 15240, United States
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 109:388-91. 2007
    ..Our findings also suggest that d-penicillamine may be cautiously used in selected patients with pre-existing scleroderma and myasthenia, when potential benefits outweigh the risk of possible myasthenia exacerbation...
  37. ncbi Seronegative myasthenia gravis and Graves' disease. Is there a link?
    A Polymeris
    2nd Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Alexandra General Hospital, Vas Sophias 80, Athens, Greece
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 120:254-6. 2012
    ..A 34-year-old male with seronegative myasthenia gravis due to thymic hyperplasia was diagnosed with also GD and opthalmopathy. Several diagnostic and therapeutic issues regarding the relevant literature are discussed...
  38. ncbi [Thymus CT scan and thymoma associated antibodies in myasthenia gravis with thymoma]
    Yan feng Li
    Department of Neurology, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, China
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 28:517-9. 2006
    ..To investigate the clinical significance of the serum anti-titin, anti-ryanodine receptor (RyR) antibody level and thymus CT scan in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis with thymoma...
  39. ncbi Chronic diazinon exposure: pathologies of spleen, thymus, blood cells, and lymph nodes are modulated by dietary protein or lipid in the mouse
    R D Handy
    Department of Biological Sciences and Plymouth Environmental Research Centre, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
    Toxicology 172:13-34. 2002
    ..We conclude that the immunotoxicity of diazinon is exacerbated by excess dietary protein or lipid. The limited recovery and post-exposure histochemical changes imply deleterious effects on metabolism with oxidative stress after exposure...
  40. ncbi Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and follicular thymic hyperplasia in systemic lupus erythematosus
    E Pasqualoni
    Department of Internal Medicine, Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris Diderot University, Paris, France
    Lupus 20:745-8. 2011
    ..We report on a well-defined LEMS associated with thymus hyperplasia in a SLE patient...
  41. ncbi Ablation of a peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1 from p53-null mice accelerated thymic hyperplasia by increasing the level of the intracellular form of Notch1
    K Takahashi
    Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
    Oncogene 26:3835-45. 2007
    ..Pin1 depletion also inhibited the degradation of NIC by proteasomes. These results suggest that both Pin1 and p53 control the normal proliferation and differentiation of thymocytes by regulating the NIC level...
  42. ncbi [Changes in the neuromediator system of the thymus in rats after splenectomy]
    G Iu Struchko
    Department of Medical Biology and Histology, Medical Institute, Chuvash State University, Cheboksrary
    Morfologiia 113:105-8. 1998
    ....
  43. ncbi Thymic hyperplasia in a child treated with growth hormone
    Lynda Polgreen
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 0356, USA
    Growth Horm IGF Res 17:41-6. 2007
    ..To report a case of thymic hyperplasia diagnosed three months after initiation of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) for the treatment of GH deficiency...
  44. ncbi True thymic hyperplasia in an infant
    Zheng Tan
    Department of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Children s Hospital of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003, China
    J Pediatr Surg 45:1711-3. 2010
    ..Percutaneous biopsy revealed normal thymic tissue. Steroids were administered with no response. Surgery may be required in patients with respiratory distress unresponsive to steroids...
  45. ncbi Co-administration of dopamine D1 and D2 agonists additively decreases daily food intake, body weight and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y level in rats
    Dong Yih Kuo
    Department of Physiology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan
    J Biomed Sci 9:126-32. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi Expression of immune molecules CD25 and CXCL13 correlated with clinical severity of myasthenia gravis
    Min Zhang
    Department of Neurology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, Shaanxi 710038, China
    J Mol Neurosci 50:317-23. 2013
    ..093; P = 0.000, r = 0.671). Taken together, our findings suggest CD25 and CXCL13 participate in the pathogenesis of MG and may influence the clinical symptoms of MG...
  47. ncbi A case report of hyperthyroid-associated thymic hypertrophy in a child, presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass
    Yvette Nchung Achuo-Egbe
    University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA
    Eur J Pediatr 170:937-40. 2011
    ..In selected cases, the diagnosis may be made based on the clinical picture, radiologic appearance, and response to antithyroid therapy without the need of a thymic biopsy or thymectomy...
  48. ncbi A rare cause of respiratory distress in infants: tracheal compression due to anomalous course of innominate artery
    Yusuf Kenan Yalcinbas
    Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Acibadem Hospital, Bakirkoy Istanbul, Turkey
    Turk J Pediatr 48:93-5. 2006
    ..Chest X-ray revealed enlarged upper mediastinum. Patent foramen ovale and thymus hyperplasia were detected on echocardiographic examination...
  49. ncbi Robotic-assisted thymectomy with Da Vinci II versus sternotomy in the surgical treatment of non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis: early results
    S Renaud
    Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Pôle de Pathologie Thoracique, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Nouvel Hopital Civil, 1, Place de l Hopital, BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 169:30-6. 2013
    ..Our objective was to demonstrate that the robot-assisted technique using the Da Vinci Surgical Robot II is at least as efficient and leaves fewer scars than the standard surgical technique...
  50. ncbi Autoimmunity, intestinal lymphoid hyperplasia, and defects in mucosal B-cell homeostasis in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome
    Mario Heindl
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    Gastroenterology 142:1093-1096.e6. 2012
    ..with PTEN mutations, we described gastrointestinal lymphoid hyperplasia, extensive hyperplastic tonsils, thymus hyperplasia, autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and colitis...
  51. ncbi SDF-1/CXCL12 recruits B cells and antigen-presenting cells to the thymus of autoimmune myasthenia gravis patients
    Julia Miriam Weiss
    Unite Mixte de Recherche, CNRS UMR7215 INSERM U974 UPMC UM76 AIM, Thérapie des maladies du muscle strié, Institut de Myologie, Paris, France
    Immunobiology 218:373-81. 2013
    ..Altogether, our results suggest that HEV development and engagement of SDF-1 contribute to MG pathology by recruitment of peripheral B cells and APCs to the MG thymus...
  52. ncbi A comparative study of ocular and generalized myasthenia gravis
    Sheng Yao Hsu
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kaohsiung Medical University, No 100, Shih Chuan 1st Rd, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
    Kaohsiung J Med Sci 18:62-9. 2002
    ..The associations with thymoma or thymus hyperplasia were more common in generalized MG than in ocular MG, and more common in younger than in older patients...
  53. ncbi Generation of polymorphic markers tightly linked to the thymus enlargement loci by phenotype-directed representational difference analysis
    M Toyota
    Carcinogenesis Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo 104, 5 1 1, Tsukiji, Chuo Ku, Japan
    Mamm Genome 9:735-9. 1998
    ..RDA with a DNA pool based on a quantitative phenotype (phenotype-directed RDA) can thus be considered an efficient approach for direct isolation of polymorphic markers linked to a quantitative trait...
  54. ncbi Advances in thymoma imaging
    Edith M Marom
    Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 4009, USA
    J Thorac Imaging 28:69-80; quiz 81-3. 2013
    ..This review serves as an update of the recent imaging studies on thymoma, which may help in tailoring the approach to the patient with a biopsy-proven or suspected thymoma...
  55. ncbi [Pediatric thymus in thoracic radiologic image: when ship sails and angels wings are uninformatory]
    I Honauer
    Klinik für Kinder und Jugendliche und Institut für Radiologie, Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich
    Praxis (Bern 1994) 96:937-9. 2007
  56. ncbi Comparative clinical features and immune responses after extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis in patients with atrophic versus hyperplastic thymus
    Zhenguang Chen
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, and Department of Immunology, Sun Yat Sen University, Guangzhou, People s Republic of China
    Ann Thorac Surg 91:212-8. 2011
    ..We therefore assessed the clinical features and immune responses in 175 MG patients who underwent thymectomy between 1990 and 2004...
  57. ncbi Giant mass due to Castleman's disease causing superior vena cava syndrome
    C Tekinbas
    Thoracic Surgery, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey
    Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 56:303-5. 2008
    ..We describe a case of mediastinal Castleman's disease which presented as vena cava superior syndrome; it is the largest mediastinal mass from Castleman's disease reported in the literature...
  58. ncbi Mediastinal tumors and cysts in the pediatric population
    Cameron D Wright
    Division of Thoracic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA, USA
    Thorac Surg Clin 19:47-61, vi. 2009
    ..CT imaging facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of mediastinal masses in children. Airway compression is always a concern with large mediastinal tumors in children given their relative softer and smaller airway...
  59. pmc Unusual thymic hyperplasia mimicking lipomatous tumor in an eight-year-old boy with concomitant pericardial lipomatosis and right facial hemihypertrophy
    Yoo Jin Kim
    Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul 110 744, Korea
    Korean J Radiol 12:376-81. 2011
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report on a child with a combination of thymic hyperplasia, pericardial lipomatosis, and right facial hemihypertrophy. The radiologic findings are presented with a brief discussion...
  60. ncbi TGF-beta promotes thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia and fibrosis in IFN-gamma-deficient NOD.H-2h4 mice
    Shiguang Yu
    Department of Veterans Affairs Research Service, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    J Immunol 181:2238-45. 2008
    ..Moreover, transgenic IFN-gamma(-/-)NOD.H-2h4 mice expressing TGF-beta on thyrocytes all develop fibrosis and moderate to severe TEC H/P with accelerated kinetics, directly demonstrating a role for TGF-beta in severe TEC H/P and fibrosis...
  61. ncbi Micronodular thymoma with lymphoid stroma: report of two cases and particular association with thymic lymphoid hyperplasia in one case
    Mezni Faouzi El
    Pathology 38:586-8. 2006
  62. ncbi Rebound thymic enlargement on CT in adults
    N Yarom
    Department of Oncology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine Tel Aviv University, Zerifin, Israel
    Int J Clin Pract 61:562-8. 2007
    ..This phenomenon should be included in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass appearing in the anterior mediastinum on follow-up CT in adult patients particularly following treatment for malignancy...
  63. ncbi [Filling of the thymic space after chemotherapy for ovarian cancer]
    A Achir
    Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, CHU Ibn Sina, Faculte de Medecine et Pharmacie, Universite Mohammed V, Rabat, Maroc
    Rev Mal Respir 27:1101-4. 2010
    ..Enlargement of the thymus following remission of a cancer treated by chemotherapy poses a problem of differential diagnosis between benign thymic hyperplasia and relapse of a mediastinal tumour...
  64. ncbi Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of mediastinal tumors
    Koji Takahashi
    Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Asahikawa, Japan
    J Magn Reson Imaging 32:1325-39. 2010
    ..Some mediastinal cysts may reveal high attenuation similar to solid lesions on CT depending on their contents and MRI can be useful in the differentiation of cystic masses from solid lesions...
  65. ncbi Graves' disease and thymic hyperplasia: the relationship of thymic volume to thyroid function
    Geanina Popoveniuc
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA
    Thyroid 20:1015-8. 2010
    ..We present two patients with Graves' disease and relatively rapid resolution of thymic enlargement after successful treatment of their hyperthyroidism...
  66. ncbi IL-2 and proteoglycans synergistically induce antigen-specific B-cell responses--a possible immune response in the hyperplastic myasthenia thymus
    Aiko Kikuchi
    The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo, Japan
    J Neuroimmunol 205:37-43. 2008
    ..In relation to this, we also discuss a new biological feature, an immunomodulator, of conventional biglycan and decorin...
  67. ncbi [Correlation between pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis and thymus mature dendritic cells]
    Qiang Xia
    Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 88:3349-51. 2008
    ..To investigate the correlation between onset of myasthenia gravis (MG) and the changes of the number and distribution of thymus mature dendritic cells (mDC)...
  68. ncbi True thymic hyperplasia versus follicular thymic hyperplasia: a retrospective analysis of 13 cases
    M Mlika
    Department of Pathology, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, 2080 Ariana, Tunisia
    Pathologica 101:175-9. 2009
    ..Thymic enlargement is a rare phenomenon that can be challenging...
  69. ncbi Myocardium and striated muscle damage caused by licit or illicit drugs
    Anita Réka Tóth
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged, H 6724, Szeged, Kossuth Lajos sgt 40, P O Box 427, Hungary
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 11:S484-7. 2009
    ..The focal myocardium and striated muscle damage could be assessed as the cause of death in one case, but microscopic investigation proved the presence of damage in each...
  70. ncbi Thymic hyperplasia and Graves disease: management of anterior mediastinal masses in patients with Graves disease
    Ator Yacoub
    Department of Medicine, Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center, 300 East Hospital Road, Fort Gordon, GA 30905 5650, USA
    Endocr Pract 15:534-9. 2009
    ..To describe a case of an anterior mediastinal mass (AMM) in a patient with Graves disease...
  71. ncbi Clinical features, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic outcome in myasthenia gravis patients with thymectomy
    Ali Yaghoobi Notash
    Department of Surgery, Medical Sciences University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
    Acta Neurol Taiwan 18:21-5. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic outcome in patients with MG who underwent thymectomy...
  72. ncbi Regulatory and pathogenic mechanisms in human autoimmune myasthenia gravis
    Rozen Le Panse
    UMR CNRS UPS 8162, avenue de la resistance, Le Plessis Robinson 92350, France
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1132:135-42. 2008
    ..Presence of AChR in the thymus and upregulation of its expression by the pro-inflammatory environment contribute to the triggering and maintenance of the anti-AChR autoimmune response...
  73. ncbi Preoperative steroid therapy stabilizes postoperative respiratory conditions in myasthenia gravis
    Hiroyuki Kaneda
    Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, 2 3 1 Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573 1191, Japan
    Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 56:114-8. 2008
    ..We reviewed our experience from 1990 to 2005 to examine whether control of myasthenia gravis (MG) with steroid therapy before surgery could stabilize postoperative respiratory conditions, compared with the nonsteroid treatment...
  74. ncbi Thyrotoxic myopathy mimicking myasthenic syndrome associated with thymic hyperplasia
    Emiko Tsuda
    Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine
    Intern Med 47:445-7. 2008
    ..This case highlights the fact that careful investigations are needed to differentiate MG-like symptoms from genuine MG in cases of hyperthyroidism with thymic lesions...
  75. ncbi Nodular thymic lymphoid follicular hyperplasia mimicking thymoma
    Motoo Nakagawa
    Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467 8601, Japan
    Clin Imaging 32:54-7. 2008
    ..The CT and MRI findings of the nodule were similar to those of thymoma, and it was difficult to differentiate the lesion from thymoma...
  76. ncbi [Thymus hyperplasia in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome]
    Adelino Carragoso
    Serviço de Medicina Interna 2, Hospital de São Teotónio, E P E Viseu, Portugal
    Acta Reumatol Port 34:251-255. 2009
    ..Thymoma and thymus hyperplasia have been associated with various autoimmune disorders, mainly myasthenia gravis...
  77. ncbi A case report of large thymic hyperplasia associated with hyperthyroidism
    Koji Takami
    Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan
    Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 15:404-7. 2009
    ..The potential response to antithyroid therapy must be considered before recommending resection of thymic tumors diagnosed as hyperthyroidism-related thymic hyperplasia...
  78. ncbi Ectopic and high CXCL13 chemokine expression in myasthenia gravis with thymic lymphoid hyperplasia
    Yu Ming Shiao
    Faculty of Life Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Neuroimmunol 221:101-6. 2010
    ..Our data indicated that serum CXCL13 can be used as an index of disease severity and ectopic thymic expression of CXCL13 might be associated with aberrant cell trafficking to the thymus of MG...
  79. ncbi The distribution of parenchyma, follicles, and lymphocyte subsets in thymus of patients with myasthenia gravis, with special reference to remission after thymectomy
    Takeshi Mori
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 133:364-8. 2007
    ..We sought to examine the distribution of parenchyma, follicles, and lymphocyte subsets in the thymus of patients with myasthenia gravis and to identify determinants of remission after thymectomy...
  80. pmc Cyclin D2 overexpression in transgenic mice induces thymic and epidermal hyperplasia whereas cyclin D3 expression results only in epidermal hyperplasia
    M L Rodriguez-Puebla
    University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA
    Am J Pathol 157:1039-50. 2000
    ..However, overexpression of each D-type cyclin produces a distinct phenotype in thymic epithelial cells...
  81. ncbi Thymic epithelial hyperplasia with nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's disease
    Wataru Ito
    Second Department of Medicine, Okayama University Medical School, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Leuk Lymphoma 43:2229-31. 2002
    ..Our findings suggest that thymic hyperplasia might be directly involved in the pathology of at least some cases of Hodgkin's disease...
  82. ncbi Elevated F-18 FDG uptake in the thymus in Graves' disease
    Yen Kung Chen
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    Clin Nucl Med 28:142-3. 2003
  83. ncbi Video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy and extended transsternal thymectomy (T-3b) in non-thymomatous myasthenia gravis patients: remission after 6 years of follow-up
    Renato Mantegazza
    Immunology and Muscular Pathology Unit, Department of Neuromuscular Diseases, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    J Neurol Sci 212:31-6. 2003
    ....
  84. ncbi Abnormalities of Th1 function in non-IgE food allergy, celiac disease, and ileal lymphonodular hyperplasia: a new relationship?
    Joseph A Bellanti
    Department of Pediatrics and the International Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Immunology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 90:84-9. 2003
    ..Our more recent studies have demonstrated Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles associated with non-IgE FA and other clinical entities...
  85. ncbi Massive benign thymic hyperplasia in a six-month-old girl: case report
    Kenneth W Gow
    Department of Surgery, Children s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am Surg 69:717-9. 2003
    ..The child has remained tumor free for a year since surgery. The rare nature of this tumor leads us to report this case and review the current literature...
  86. ncbi [Head retraction reflex-like movements with severe bulbar symptoms in a patient with stiff-person syndrome]
    Masahiko Atsumi
    Department of Neurology, Baba Memorial Hospital
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 43:322-6. 2003
    ..This suggests that head retraction reflex-like movements of this patient reflected the attenuation of inhibitory potentials from the brainstem...
  87. ncbi Lack of effect of soy isoflavone on thyroid hyperplasia in rats receiving an iodine-deficient diet
    H Y Son
    Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Jpn J Cancer Res 92:103-8. 2001
    ..These results thus suggest that isoflavones may not be involved in the mechanisms underlying the synergistic goitrogenic effect of soybean with iodine deficiency...
  88. ncbi Myasthenia gravis in pediatric and elderly patients
    Wei Liu
    Department of Thoracic Surgery, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, China
    Chin Med J (Engl) 116:1578-81. 2003
    ..To determine whether the clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognoses of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients below 15 years differ from those patients over 50 years after thymectomy...
  89. ncbi Response of thymectomy: clinical and pathological characteristics among seronegative and seropositive myasthenia gravis patients
    G R Guillermo
    Departament of Neurology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico
    Acta Neurol Scand 109:217-21. 2004
    ..We analyzed the associated diseases, thymus histology, and the severity of symptoms between the two groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS - DESIGN: Descriptive, comparative...
  90. ncbi [Factors which may influence the surgical outcome in myasthenia gravis]
    L Andriescu
    Facultatea de Medicină Clinica a III-a Chirurgie,
    Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 105:769-72. 2001
    ....
  91. ncbi Cytologic diagnosis of true thymic hyperplasia by combined radiologic imaging and aspiration cytology: a case report including flow cytometric analysis
    H D Hoerl
    Section of Cytology, Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
    Diagn Cytopathol 23:417-21. 2000
    ..We therefore present a case of thymic hyperplasia in a 5-mo-old child diagnosed by combined radiologic and cytologic parameters, including flow cytometric analysis...
  92. ncbi Increased metabolic activity in the thymus gland studied with 18F-FDG PET: age dependency and frequency after chemotherapy
    I Brink
    Division of Nuclear Medicine and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Nucl Med 42:591-5. 2001
    ..to evaluate the age dependency of 18F-FDG uptake in the thymus and the frequency of PET confirmation of thymus hyperplasia after chemotherapy in cancer patients...
  93. ncbi NKT-associated markers and perforin in hyperplastic thymuses from patients with Myasthenia gravis
    Y Nagane
    Department of Neurology, Iwate Medical University, Uchimaru 19-1, Morioka 020-8505, Japan
    Muscle Nerve 24:1359-64. 2001
    ....
  94. ncbi Thymic enlargement and FDG uptake in three patients: CT and FDG positron emission tomography correlated with pathology
    Conrad Wittram
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard University, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:519-22. 2003
    ..Subsequent biopsy or resection showed normal thymic tissue...
  95. ncbi Linkage of HLA to myasthenia gravis and genetic heterogeneity depending on anti-titin antibodies
    M Giraud
    INSERM U25, , Paris, France
    Neurology 57:1555-60. 2001
    BACKGROUND: MG is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. MG with thymus hyperplasia has been associated with, but not genetically linked to, the HLA-DR3 haplotype...
  96. ncbi [Thymus hyperplasia in patients with malignant testicular tumors]
    U Ruther
    Abteilung für Allgemeine Innere Medizin, Katharinen Hospital, Stuttgart
    Med Klin (Munich) 85:72-7. 1990
    ..Thus it may be impossible to distinguish benign thymus hyperplasia from tumor-infiltration on the basis of ct information alone and sternotomy may be required...
  97. ncbi Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the thymus hyperplasia vs lymphoma
    Marie Parrens
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Biology, University of Bordeaux 2, Pessac, France
    Am J Clin Pathol 117:51-6. 2002
    ..Appropriate sampling, cytokeratin staining, and molecular analyses may help to identify early MALT-type lymphoma developing in the setting of thymic lymphofollicular hyperplasia...
  98. ncbi CDS1 and promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene in human myasthenia gravis
    X B Wang
    Immunological Research Unit, Center for Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Genes Immun 3:46-9. 2002
    ..There was a strong linkage between the 86bp allele in the 3'-UTR and the A(+49) allele in CDS1. Our results suggest that the SNP at position +49 in CDS1 might be associated with the manifestations of MG...
  99. ncbi Lymphoma, thyrotoxicosis and thymic hyperplasia
    M V C De Silva
    Ceylon Med J 47:40. 2002
  100. ncbi Difficult diagnostic and therapeutic cases: CASE 1. true thymic hyperplasia in a patient treated for T-cell lymphoma
    Stefano Ascani
    Unit of Hematopathology, Institute of Hematology and Clinical Oncology L and A Seràgnoli, Bologna University, Bologna, Italy
    J Clin Oncol 22:953-4. 2004
  101. ncbi Expression of the onconeural CV2/CRMP5 antigen in thymus and thymoma
    Jean Philippe Camdessanche
    Equipe d Accueil 3062, Université Jean Monnet, Saint Etienne, France
    J Neuroimmunol 174:168-73. 2006
    ..Thus, the normal CRMP5 is probably not expressed by tumorous epithelial cells. These results indicate that the mechanisms leading to CRMP5 autoimmunization are different in SCLC and thymoma...

Research Grants2

  1. Tuberculosis Diagnostics: Towards More Precise Testing in Children
    Joseph Bellanti; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..