blindness

Summary

Summary: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010
    Donatella Pascolini
    World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Br J Ophthalmol 96:614-8. 2012
  2. ncbi Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States
    Nathan Congdon
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Wilmer 120, 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 122:477-85. 2004
  3. pmc Virally delivered channelrhodopsin-2 safely and effectively restores visual function in multiple mouse models of blindness
    M Mehdi Doroudchi
    Eos Neuroscience, Inc, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Mol Ther 19:1220-9. 2011
  4. pmc Functional specialization for auditory-spatial processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind humans
    Olivier Collignon
    Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4435-40. 2011
  5. ncbi Effect of gene therapy on visual function in Leber's congenital amaurosis
    James W B Bainbridge
    Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 358:2231-9. 2008
  6. ncbi Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: the Nigeria national blindness and visual impairment survey
    Mohammed M Abdull
    Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:4114-20. 2009
  7. pmc Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004
    Serge Resnikoff
    Chronic Disease Prevention and Management, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 86:63-70. 2008
  8. pmc Corneal blindness: a global perspective
    J P Whitcher
    Proctor World Blindness Center, Francis I Proctor Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, University of California at San Francisco, Box 0944, 95 Kirkham Street, San Francisco, CA 94143 0944, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 79:214-21. 2001
  9. pmc Gene therapy rescues photoreceptor blindness in dogs and paves the way for treating human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa
    William A Beltran
    Section of Ophthalmology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:2132-7. 2012
  10. ncbi Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish
    Yoshiyuki Yamamoto
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Nature 431:844-7. 2004

Detail Information

Publications297 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010
    Donatella Pascolini
    World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
    Br J Ophthalmol 96:614-8. 2012
    ..The definitions of visual impairment are the current definitions of presenting vision in the International Classification of Diseases version 10...
  2. ncbi Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States
    Nathan Congdon
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Wilmer 120, 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 122:477-85. 2004
    To estimate the cause-specific prevalence and distribution of blindness and low vision in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender, and to estimate the change in these prevalence figures over the next 20 years.
  3. pmc Virally delivered channelrhodopsin-2 safely and effectively restores visual function in multiple mouse models of blindness
    M Mehdi Doroudchi
    Eos Neuroscience, Inc, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Mol Ther 19:1220-9. 2011
    ..retinal ganglion cells and significant improvement in visually guided behavior for multiple models of blindness up to 10 months postinjection...
  4. pmc Functional specialization for auditory-spatial processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind humans
    Olivier Collignon
    Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4435-40. 2011
    ....
  5. ncbi Effect of gene therapy on visual function in Leber's congenital amaurosis
    James W B Bainbridge
    Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 358:2231-9. 2008
    ..These findings provide support for further clinical studies of this experimental approach in other patients with mutant RPE65. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00643747 [ClinicalTrials.gov].)...
  6. ncbi Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: the Nigeria national blindness and visual impairment survey
    Mohammed M Abdull
    Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:4114-20. 2009
    Determine causes of blindness and visual impairment among adults aged >or=40 years.
  7. pmc Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004
    Serge Resnikoff
    Chronic Disease Prevention and Management, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Bull World Health Organ 86:63-70. 2008
    ..from all causes: uncorrected refractive errors become the main cause of low vision and the second cause of blindness. Uncorrected refractive errors can hamper performance at school, reduce employability and productivity, and ..
  8. pmc Corneal blindness: a global perspective
    J P Whitcher
    Proctor World Blindness Center, Francis I Proctor Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, University of California at San Francisco, Box 0944, 95 Kirkham Street, San Francisco, CA 94143 0944, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 79:214-21. 2001
    Diseases affecting the cornea are a major cause of blindness worldwide, second only to cataract in overall importance...
  9. pmc Gene therapy rescues photoreceptor blindness in dogs and paves the way for treating human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa
    William A Beltran
    Section of Ophthalmology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:2132-7. 2012
    Hereditary retinal blindness is caused by mutations in genes expressed in photoreceptors or retinal pigment epithelium...
  10. ncbi Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish
    Yoshiyuki Yamamoto
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Nature 431:844-7. 2004
    ..These features can be mimicked in surface fish by twhh and/or shh overexpression, supporting the role of hh signalling in the evolution of cavefish eye regression...
  11. pmc LiGluR restores visual responses in rodent models of inherited blindness
    Natalia Caporale
    Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 2020, USA
    Mol Ther 19:1212-9. 2011
    ..In most retinal degenerations, other retinal neuron cell types survive for long periods after blindness from photoreceptor loss...
  12. ncbi Incidence of blindness during the Onchocerciasis control programme in western Africa, 1971-2002
    Mark P Little
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, St Mary s Campus, London, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 189:1932-41. 2004
    Infection with Onchocerca volvulus is associated with the prevalence of severe visual impairment and blindness. However, longitudinal studies of the incidence of blindness caused by onchocerciasis are scarce.
  13. ncbi The impact of Vision 2020 on global blindness
    A Foster
    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Eye (Lond) 19:1133-5. 2005
    ..The main causes of global blindness are cataract, glaucoma, corneal scarring (from a variety of causes), age-related macular degeneration, and ..
  14. pmc Findings from a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Southern Malawi
    Khumbo Kalua
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre, Malawi
    PLoS ONE 6:e19226. 2011
    Data on prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness in Malawi are not readily available...
  15. ncbi A ventral visual stream reading center independent of visual experience
    Lior Reich
    Department of Medical Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    Curr Biol 21:363-8. 2011
    ..Thus, we propose that the VWFA is a metamodal reading area that develops specialization for reading regardless of visual experience...
  16. pmc Cataract blindness--challenges for the 21st century
    G Brian
    Fred Hollows Foundation, Locked Bag 100, Rosebery, New South Wales 1445, Australia
    Bull World Health Organ 79:249-56. 2001
    Cataract prevalence increases with age. As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem...
  17. pmc Childhood blindness in the context of VISION 2020--the right to sight
    C Gilbert
    Department of Epidemiology and International Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, Bath Street, London EC1V 9EI, England
    Bull World Health Organ 79:227-32. 2001
    The major causes of blindness in children vary widely from region to region, being largely determined by socioeconomic development, and the availability of primary health care and eye care services...
  18. ncbi Leber congenital amaurosis: genes, proteins and disease mechanisms
    Anneke I den Hollander
    Department of Human Genetics and Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, P O Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Prog Retin Eye Res 27:391-419. 2008
    Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe retinal dystrophy causing blindness or severe visual impairment before the age of 1 year...
  19. ncbi 2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies
    D Pascolini
    WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness, Geneva, Switzerland
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 11:67-115. 2004
    For the past 25 years, the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness has maintained a Global Data Bank on visual impairment with the purpose of storing the available epidemiological data on blindness and low vision...
  20. ncbi The plastic human brain cortex
    Alvaro Pascual-Leone
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:377-401. 2005
    ..The challenge we face is to learn enough about the mechanisms of plasticity to modulate them to achieve the best behavioral outcome for a given subject...
  21. pmc Prevention of blindness and priorities for the future
    S West
    Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 9019, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 79:244-8. 2001
    ..The majority of blind people live in developing countries, and generally, their blindness could have been avoided or cured...
  22. ncbi Morphological alterations in the congenital blind based on the analysis of cortical thickness and surface area
    Hae Jeong Park
    Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Neuroimage 47:98-106. 2009
    ..These morphological alterations in CB may indicate cortical reorganization at the visual cortex in connection with other sensory cortices...
  23. ncbi Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness
    R Kupers
    Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3b, 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Neuropsychologia 49:2037-44. 2011
    ..This finding expands current knowledge about the supramodal function of the visually deprived occipital cortex in congenital blindness, linking it also to olfactory processing in addition to tactile and auditory processing.
  24. pmc The global burden of trachoma: a review
    Matthew J Burton
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e460. 2009
    Trachoma is the commonest infectious cause of blindness worldwide...
  25. ncbi Cross-modal plasticity revealed by electrotactile stimulation of the tongue in the congenitally blind
    Maurice Ptito
    PET Centre and CFIN, Aarhus University Hospitals, Aarhus, Denmark
    Brain 128:606-14. 2005
    ..Our data further show that the tongue can act as a portal to convey somatosensory information to visual cortex...
  26. pmc Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India
    John Neena
    Community Ophthalmology Unit, Dr RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, Delhi State, India
    PLoS ONE 3:e2867. 2008
    Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness...
  27. ncbi Leber congenital amaurosis - a model for efficient genetic testing of heterogeneous disorders: LXIV Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture
    Edwin M Stone
    Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Carver Family Center for Macular Degeneration, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 144:791-811. 2007
    ....
  28. ncbi Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans
    L G Cohen
    Human Cortical Physiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1428, USA
    Nature 389:180-3. 1997
    ..We conclude that blindness from an early age can cause the visual cortex to be recruited to a role in somatosensory processing...
  29. pmc Leading causes of certification for blindness and partial sight in England & Wales
    Catey Bunce
    Research and Development, Moorfields Eye Hospital, City Road, London, UK
    BMC Public Health 6:58. 2006
    ....
  30. ncbi Causes of blindness and visual impairment in urban and rural areas in Beijing: the Beijing Eye Study
    Liang Xu
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China
    Ophthalmology 113:1134.e1-11. 2006
    To evaluate the causes of visual impairment and blindness in adult Chinese in an urban and rural region of Beijing, China.
  31. ncbi Neural correlates of change detection and change blindness
    D M Beck
    Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Neurosci 4:645-50. 2001
    ..during a screen flicker was used to distinguish the neural correlates of change detection from those of change blindness. Change detection resulted in enhanced activity in the parietal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well ..
  32. ncbi Beyond visual, aural and haptic movement perception: hMT+ is activated by electrotactile motion stimulation of the tongue in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals
    Isabelle Matteau
    Ecole d Optometrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7
    Brain Res Bull 82:264-70. 2010
    ..In line with previous studies, the differential activations between sighted and congenitally blind individuals indicate that lack of vision leads to functional rearrangements of these supramodal cortical areas...
  33. pmc Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a fMRI study of Braille reading
    H Burton
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:589-607. 2002
    ..It is argued that these responses may represent critical language processing mechanisms normally present in visual cortex...
  34. ncbi The global burden of cataract
    Gullapalli N Rao
    L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 22:4-9. 2011
    To review the previous year's literature related to prevalence of blindness in general, blindness due to cataract, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and cataract surgical rates (CSRs).
  35. ncbi Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a Japanese adult population: the Tajimi Study
    Aiko Iwase
    Department of Ophthalmology, Tajimi Municipal Hospital, Tajimi, Japan
    Ophthalmology 113:1354-62. 2006
    To determine the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a Japanese adult population.
  36. ncbi Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in two northern provinces of Burundi without eye services
    Levi Kandeke
    University of Burundi, Bujumbura, Burundi
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 19:211-5. 2012
    To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment and visual impairment as well as cataract surgical coverage in two northern provinces of Burundi for the purpose of planning eye services.
  37. ncbi The Nakuru posterior segment eye disease study: methods and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Nakuru, Kenya
    Wanjiku Mathenge
    International Centre for Eye Health, Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
    Ophthalmology 119:2033-9. 2012
    To estimate the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI) in adults aged ≥50 years in the Nakuru district of Kenya and to identify sociodemographic risk factors for these conditions...
  38. pmc Language processing in the occipital cortex of congenitally blind adults
    Marina Bedny
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4429-34. 2011
    ..Innate microcircuit properties are not necessary for a brain region to become involved in language processing...
  39. pmc Blindness and visual impairment in an urban West African population: the Tema Eye Survey
    Donald L Budenz
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Ophthalmology 119:1744-53. 2012
    To determine the prevalence, causes, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons aged 40 years or older residing in an urban West African location.
  40. pmc Altered anatomical network in early blindness revealed by diffusion tensor tractography
    Ni Shu
    LIAMA Center for Computational Medicine, National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People s Republic of China
    PLoS ONE 4:e7228. 2009
    ..However, no previous study has used diffusion MRI to reveal changes in the brain anatomical network in early blindness. Here, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging to construct binary anatomical networks for 17 early blind subjects ..
  41. ncbi Using key informant method to assess the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in Xiu'shui County, Jiangxi Province, Southeast China
    Baixiang Xiao
    The Fred Hollows Foundation, China, Nanchang City, China
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 18:30-5. 2011
    Although childhood blindness is relatively rare, it is the leading cause of blind person years besides cataract...
  42. pmc Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI) in marine fishing communities in South India--study protocol and main findings
    Srinivas Marmamula
    International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
    BMC Ophthalmol 11:26. 2011
    ..This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project...
  43. ncbi Shape conveyed by visual-to-auditory sensory substitution activates the lateral occipital complex
    Amir Amedi
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:687-9. 2007
    ..Recognizing objects by their typical sounds or learning to associate specific soundscapes with specific objects do not activate this region. This suggests that LOtv is driven by the presence of shape information...
  44. pmc Cataract prevalence, cataract surgical coverage and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey
    Z Jadoon
    Pakistan Institute of Community Ophthalmlogy, Kyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:1269-73. 2007
    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness caused by cataract, the prevalence of aphakia/pseudophakia, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and to identify barriers to the uptake of cataract services among adults aged >or=..
  45. pmc Developmental vision determines the reference frame for the multisensory control of action
    Brigitte Röder
    Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology, University of Hamburg, Von Melle Park 11, D 20146 Hamburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4753-8. 2007
    ..This pattern of results implies that developmental vision induces the default use of an external coordinate frame for multisensory action control; this facilitates not only visual but also auditory-manual control...
  46. ncbi New light from the dark: what blindness can teach us about brain function
    Emiliano Ricciardi
    Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Curr Opin Neurol 24:357-63. 2011
    ..To what extent is vision truly necessary to 'see' the world around us?..
  47. ncbi Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Kunming, china
    Min Wu
    Red Cross Hospital, Kunming, Yunnan, China
    Ophthalmology 115:969-74. 2008
    ..of visual impairment (VI) in people aged > or = 50 years in Kunming using the Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness methodology, and to assess the prevalence of a pupillary defect in participants diagnosed as cataract visually ..
  48. ncbi Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: the National Blindness and Visual Impairment Study
    Fatima Kyari
    National Eye Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:2033-9. 2009
    To determine the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among adults aged > or = 40 years in Nigeria.
  49. ncbi Prevalence and causes of blindness, low vision and status of cataract in 50 years and older citizen of Qatar-a community based survey
    Hamad Al Gamra
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17:292-300. 2010
    Rapid Assessment for the Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) was conducted in Qatar during 2009. We present the prevalence and determinants of visual disabilities and status of cataract among citizens aged 50 years and older.
  50. ncbi Missing sights: consequences for visual cognitive development
    Daphne Maurer
    Department of Psychology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1
    Trends Cogn Sci 9:144-51. 2005
    The effects of early-onset blindness on the development of the visual system have been explained traditionally by the stabilization of transient connections through Hebbian competition...
  51. ncbi Auditory motion perception activates visual motion areas in early blind subjects
    C Poirier
    Neural Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Av Hippocrate, 54, UCL 54 46, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Neuroimage 31:279-85. 2006
    ..The similarity of these results with those we previously observed in sighted subjects suggests that occipital recruitment in blind people could be mediated by the same anatomical connections as in sighted subjects...
  52. pmc Category-specific organization in the human brain does not require visual experience
    Bradford Z Mahon
    Center for Mind Brain Sciences CIMeC, University of Trento, Rovereto, TN 38068, Italy
    Neuron 63:397-405. 2009
    ....
  53. ncbi Prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma in an urban south Indian population and comparison with a rural population. The Chennai Glaucoma Study
    Lingam Vijaya
    Glaucoma Project, Vision Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India
    Ophthalmology 115:648-654.e1. 2008
    ..To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an urban population and compare the same with that of our published rural population data in southern India...
  54. ncbi Thick visual cortex in the early blind
    Jiefeng Jiang
    LIAMA Center for Computational Medicine, National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
    J Neurosci 29:2205-11. 2009
    ..and regression, by analyzing the thickness of the visual cortex in humans with early- and late-onset blindness. The bilateral visual cortices of the early blind were significantly thicker than those of the late blind and ..
  55. pmc Sensitive period for a multimodal response in human visual motion area MT/MST
    Marina Bedny
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 46 4021, 43 Vassar Street, Room 46 4021, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Curr Biol 20:1900-6. 2010
    ..However, this specialization is modified by visual experience: after long-standing blindness, MT/MST responds to sound...
  56. ncbi Trachoma: global magnitude of a preventable cause of blindness
    S P Mariotti
    Chronic Disease and Health Promotion Department, Prevention of Blindness and Deafness, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Br J Ophthalmol 93:563-8. 2009
    Trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. It is known to be highly correlated with poverty, limited access to healthcare services and water...
  57. ncbi The effect of visual experience on the development of functional architecture in hMT+
    Emiliano Ricciardi
    Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Experimental Pathology, Medical Biotechnologies, Infectivology, and Epidemiology, University of Pisa Medical School, I 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Cereb Cortex 17:2933-9. 2007
    ....
  58. ncbi The magnitude and cost of global blindness: an increasing problem that can be alleviated
    Kevin D Frick
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 135:471-6. 2003
    To identify the potential effect on global economic productivity of successful interventions, that are planned as part of the "VISION 2020-right to sight" initiative. The initiative aims to eliminate avoidable blindness.
  59. pmc Optimized allotopic expression of the human mitochondrial ND4 prevents blindness in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction
    Sami Ellouze
    Institut de la Vision, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie PARIS6, Unité mixte de recherche S 592, 17 rue Moreau, Paris F 75012, France
    Am J Hum Genet 83:373-87. 2008
    ..Hence, these data provide the proof-of-principle that optimized allotopic expression can be an effective treatment for LHON, and they open the way to clinical studies on other devastating mitochondrial disorders...
  60. pmc Neural correlates of virtual route recognition in congenital blindness
    Ron Kupers
    Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Panum Institute, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12716-21. 2010
    ..This suggests that in the absence of vision, cross-modal plasticity permits the recruitment of the same cortical network used for spatial navigation tasks in sighted subjects...
  61. ncbi The prevalence of blindness and cataract surgery in rautahat district, Nepal
    Yuddha D Sapkota
    Nepal Netra Jyoti Sangh, Tripureshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17:82-9. 2010
    ..This study aimed to ascertain the impact of the hospital services by estimating the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical coverage among the older adult population of the Rautahat district.
  62. pmc Preserved functional specialization for spatial processing in the middle occipital gyrus of the early blind
    Laurent A Renier
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Neuron 68:138-48. 2010
    ..Thus, although the sensory modalities driving the neurons in the reorganized OC of blind individuals are altered, the functional specialization of extrastriate cortex is retained regardless of visual experience...
  63. ncbi Adaptive evolution of eye degeneration in the Mexican blind cavefish
    W R Jeffery
    Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    J Hered 96:185-96. 2005
    ..We conclude from these studies that eye degeneration in cavefish may be caused by adaptive evolution and pleiotropy...
  64. pmc Diffusion tensor imaging reveals white matter reorganization in early blind humans
    J S Shimony
    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Cereb Cortex 16:1653-61. 2006
    ..magnetic stimulation, and positron emission tomography have shown cortical reorganization in response to blindness. We investigated microanatomical correlates of this reorganization using diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion ..
  65. doi Restoring sight in blind cavefish
    Richard Borowsky
    Curr Biol 18:R23-4. 2008
  66. pmc Identifying photoreceptors in blind eyes caused by RPE65 mutations: Prerequisite for human gene therapy success
    Samuel G Jacobson
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6177-82. 2005
    Mutations in RPE65, a gene essential to normal operation of the visual (retinoid) cycle, cause the childhood blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA)...
  67. ncbi Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and cataract surgical services in kilimanjaro region, Tanzania
    Celestin Habiyakire
    Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College, Tumaini University, Tanzania
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17:90-4. 2010
    To estimate the prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment in persons 50 years of age and older, and to assess the impact of cataract surgical services.
  68. ncbi Speech processing activates visual cortex in congenitally blind humans
    Brigitte Röder
    Experimental and Biological Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 16:930-6. 2002
    ..The results demonstrate that the cerebral organization of complex cognitive systems such as the language system is significantly shaped by the input available...
  69. pmc Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting
    Wanjiku Mathenge
    Rift Valley Provincial Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya
    PLoS Med 4:e217. 2007
    ..The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older...
  70. pmc Seeing 'where' through the ears: effects of learning-by-doing and long-term sensory deprivation on localization based on image-to-sound substitution
    Michael J Proulx
    Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    PLoS ONE 3:e1840. 2008
    ..We here tested image-to-sound conversion-based localization of visual stimuli (LEDs and objects) in 13 blindfolded participants...
  71. ncbi Whole brain functional connectivity in the early blind
    Yong Liu
    National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, PR China
    Brain 130:2085-96. 2007
    ..connectivities between the occipital cortices and frontal language cortices in those with early onset of blindness, which indicate the predominance of compensatory plasticity...
  72. pmc Dissociating cortical regions activated by semantic and phonological tasks: a FMRI study in blind and sighted people
    H Burton
    Department of Anatomy, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurophysiol 90:1965-82. 2003
    ..described cortical activation of primary (V1) and higher tier visual areas, irrespective of the age of blindness onset. Specifically, participants were given nouns and asked to generate an associated verb...
  73. ncbi Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study
    Yuan bo Liang
    Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
    Ophthalmology 115:1965-72. 2008
    To describe the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural population in Northern China.
  74. ncbi Prevelence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in older adults in an area of India with a high cataract surgical rate
    Gudlavalleti V S Murthy
    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 17:185-95. 2010
    ..This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and causes of vision impairment/blindness among older adults in a high CSR area.
  75. pmc Visual cortex activity in early and late blind people
    H Burton
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 23:4005-11. 2003
  76. ncbi Vision following extended congenital blindness
    Yuri Ostrovsky
    Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Psychol Sci 17:1009-14. 2006
    Animal studies suggest that early visual deprivation can cause permanent functional blindness. However, few human data on this issue exist...
  77. ncbi An infrastructure model for the implementation of VISION 2020: the right to sight
    Gullapalli N Rao
    Can J Ophthalmol 39:589-90, 593-4. 2004
  78. ncbi Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey
    Mohammad Z Jadoon
    Pakistan Institute of Community Ophthalmology, Kyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47:4749-55. 2006
    To determine the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in adults aged 30 years and older in Pakistan and to assess socio-demographic risk factors.
  79. ncbi Low uptake of eye services in rural India: a challenge for programs of blindness prevention
    A E Fletcher
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England
    Arch Ophthalmol 117:1393-9. 1999
    ..To investigate service uptake in a rural Indian population served by outreach eye camps and to identify barriers to uptake...
  80. pmc The key informant method: a novel means of ascertaining blind children in Bangladesh
    Mohammad A Muhit
    International Centre for Eye Health, Clinical Research Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1 7HT UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:995-9. 2007
    Most information on the causes of blindness has come from examining children in special education...
  81. pmc Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Limbe urban area, South West Province, Cameroon
    Joseph Enyegue Oye
    Sight Savers International, West Africa Regional Office, P O Box 18190 KIA, Accra, Ghana
    Br J Ophthalmol 91:1435-9. 2007
    To conduct a rapid assessment of cataract surgical services to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in members of the population aged >/=40 years in the Limbe urban area, Cameroon.
  82. pmc Visual Motion Area MT+/V5 Responds to Auditory Motion in Human Sight-Recovery Subjects
    Melissa Saenz
    Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5141-8. 2008
    ..Regarding sight recovery after early blindness, our results further demonstrate that cross-modal responses coexist with regained visual responses within the ..
  83. ncbi Critical period for cross-modal plasticity in blind humans: a functional MRI study
    Norihiro Sadato
    National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
    Neuroimage 16:389-400. 2002
    ..Blind subjects, irrespective of the age at onset of blindness, exhibited higher activity in the visual association cortex than did sighted subjects...
  84. pmc Safety and efficacy of gene transfer for Leber's congenital amaurosis
    Albert M Maguire
    Scheie Eye Institute, University of Pennsylvania, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:2240-8. 2008
    ..Although the follow-up was very short and normal vision was not achieved, this study provides the basis for further gene therapy studies in patients with LCA...
  85. pmc Pattern of hippocampal shape and volume differences in blind subjects
    Natasha Lepore
    Laboratory of Neuro Imaging Department of Neorology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Neuroimage 46:949-57. 2009
    ..They offer a neuroanatomical substrate for future correlations with measures of navigation performance or functional activations related to variations in cognitive strategies...
  86. ncbi Blindness following cosmetic injections of the face
    Davide Lazzeri
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Hospital of Pisa Via Paradisa 2 Cisanello, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Plast Reconstr Surg 129:995-1012. 2012
    ..following facial cosmetic injections have recently heightened awareness of the possibility of iatrogenic blindness. The authors conducted a systematic review of the available literature to provide the best evidence for the ..
  87. pmc 'Visual' acuity of the congenitally blind using visual-to-auditory sensory substitution
    Ella Striem-Amit
    Department of Medical Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, The Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    PLoS ONE 7:e33136. 2012
    ..We show that congenitally fully blind adults can exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) blindness acuity threshold using SSDs, reaching the highest acuity reported yet with any visual rehabilitation approach...
  88. ncbi The large-scale organization of "visual" streams emerges without visual experience
    Ella Striem-Amit
    Department of Medical Neurobiology, The Institute for Medical Research Israel Canada, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91220, Israel
    Cereb Cortex 22:1698-709. 2012
    ..These results support the view that the brain is organized into task-specific but sensory modality-independent operators...
  89. ncbi Visual experience and blindsight: a methodological review
    Morten Overgaard
    Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg Oest, Denmar
    Exp Brain Res 209:473-9. 2011
    ..This review examines closer these remarks as well as experiments that directly approach the nature of possibly spared visual experiences in blindsight...
  90. ncbi Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Nakuru district, Kenya
    Wanjiku Mathenge
    Rift Valley Provincial Hospital, Nakuru, Kenya
    Ophthalmology 114:599-605. 2007
    To estimate the prevalence of avoidable blindness in > or =50-year-olds in Nakuru district, Kenya, and to evaluate the Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), a new methodology to measure the magnitude and causes of blindness.
  91. ncbi Incidence of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration in denmark: year 2000 to 2010
    Sara Brandi Bloch
    Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark
    Am J Ophthalmol 153:209-213.e2. 2012
    To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.
  92. ncbi Gene therapy restores vision in a canine model of childhood blindness
    G M Acland
    James A Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
    Nat Genet 28:92-5. 2001
    ..The molecular bases for both primary photoreceptor and RPE diseases that cause blindness have been identified...
  93. ncbi Global prevalence of vision impairment and blindness: magnitude and temporal trends, 1990-2010
    Gretchen A Stevens
    Department of Health Statistics and Information Systems, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Ophthalmology 120:2377-84. 2013
    ..However, no study of global and regional trends in the prevalence of vision impairment has been carried out. We estimated the prevalence of vision impairment and its changes worldwide for the past 20 years...
  94. ncbi Immunity causing blindness: five different paths to herpes stromal keratitis
    J W Streilein
    Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Immunol Today 18:443-9. 1997
    ..As discussed here by Wayne Streilein and colleagues, strategies designed to prevent and treat this syndrome must be aware of the fact that the disease is multifactorial in its cause and pathogenesis...
  95. pmc Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas: the L V Prasad Eye Institute experience
    Gullapalli N Rao
    Allen Foster Research Center for Community Eye Health, International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
    Indian J Ophthalmol 60:396-400. 2012
    b>Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO) showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind...
  96. ncbi Tactile acuity is enhanced in blindness
    Daniel Goldreich
    Department of Occupational Therapy, Rangos School of Health Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3439-45. 2003
    ..The results suggest that crossmodal plasticity may underlie tactile acuity enhancement in blindness.
  97. pmc Prevalence of visual impairment, cataract surgery and awareness of cataract and glaucoma in Bhaktapur district of Nepal: the Bhaktapur Glaucoma Study
    Suman S Thapa
    Nepal Glaucoma Eye Clinic, Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu, Nepal
    BMC Ophthalmol 11:2. 2011
    Cataract and glaucoma are the major causes of blindness in Nepal. Bhaktapur is one of the three districts of Kathmandu valley which represents a metropolitan city with a predominantly agrarian rural periphery...
  98. pmc Changing trends in barriers to cataract surgery in India
    K Vaidyanathan
    Danish Assistance to the National Programme for the Control of Blindness DANB, New Delhi, India
    Bull World Health Organ 77:104-9. 1999
    Cataract is a major cause of blindness in Asia. Efforts in India to provide cataract surgical services have had limited success in reaching the cataract-blind population...
  99. ncbi Blindness enhances tactile acuity and haptic 3-D shape discrimination
    J Farley Norman
    Department of Psychology, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd 21030, Bowling Green, KY 42101 1030, USA
    Atten Percept Psychophys 73:2323-31. 2011
    ..The improvements in tactile acuity that accompanied blindness occurred for all blind groups (congenital, early, and late)...
  100. ncbi Blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh
    L Dandona
    International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:908-16. 2001
    To determine the current prevalence and causes of blindness in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh to assess if blindness has decreased since the last survey of 1986-1989.
  101. pmc Extrageniculate mediation of unconscious vision in transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced blindsight
    Tony Ro
    Department of Psychology, MS 25, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9933-5. 2004
    ....

Research Grants80

  1. PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PHOTORECEPTORS
    TIMOTHY KRAFT; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Retinal degeneration is a major cause of blindness in our elderly population as well as the tens of thousands of younger Americans afflicted with inherited retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP)...
  2. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CONGENITAL ANOPHTHALMIA
    Thomas Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..3 and 1 2 per 10,000 children, respectively (Kallen et al. 1996), and are important causes of congenital blindness. These malformations are thought to arise from an inherent failure in optic vesicle growth or lens induction (..
  3. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Swelling of the macula leads to vision loss and possible blindness. Inflammation may play a role in diabetic macular edema...
  4. STATISITICAL DESIGN, MONITORING &COORD. OF VISION CLINICAL TRIALS &EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Keri Hammel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Swelling of the macula leads to vision loss and possible blindness. Inflammation may play a role in diabetic macular edema...
  5. Serpin Modulation of Inflammatory Vasculitis; Potential for Immunomodulatory Ther
    ALEXANDRA ROSE LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..specifically Giant Cell Temporal Arteritis (GCTA) and Takayasu's Disease (TKD), that cause sudden blindness, pulseless vessel occlusions, strokes, heart attacks, and aneurysms...
  6. Axonopathy in Glaucoma
    Samuel D Crish; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that makes up one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide...
  7. Prolonged Inhibition of Pathologic Neovascularization by Catalytic Antioxidants
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In some forms of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Degeneration (AMD), blindness results from the pathologic development of new blood vessels which are incomplete, weak and porous...
  8. The Neuroimmunology of Viral Infection
    DANIEL J CARR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..diseases associated with HSV-1 include herpetic stromal keratits, the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness in the industrialized world, and frank sporadic encephalitis, a rare but debilitating disease that can result in ..
  9. Ceramide Metabolism and Photoreceptor Homeostasis
    Usha R Acharya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We use them in all aspects of our lives - work, service, learning etc. Unfortunately, blindness compromises these abilities. Inherited eye diseases cause blindness in over 300 million people worldwide...
  10. Epithelial differentiation in cornea
    Bogi Andersen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..epithelial differentiation -- features which characterize several diseases of the cornea, some of which cause blindness. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: There are several blistering diseases that affect the cornea, frequently leading to ..
  11. Suppression of Ocular Scarring - Controlled Delivery of an ALK-5 Inhibitor
    Hiroshi Nakamura; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness in the United States...
  12. Mechanisms of Early Growth Response Factor 1 (Egr-1) Induction by HSV-1 Lytic Inf
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..1 (HSV-1) primary and recurrent infection may result in scarring of the cornea and is the leading cause of blindness in US and the developed world...
  13. Role of endothelin receptors in glaucomatous optic neuropathy
    Raghu R Krishnamoorthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the optic nerve, cupping of the optic disc and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, ultimately resulting in blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a prominent risk factor as seen in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG)...
  14. Membrane Ion-channels in Helminth Parasites: Anthelmintic Resistance and Sites of
    RICHARD JOHN MARTIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..the Soil-Transmitted Nematode (STN) parasites (ascariasis, hookworm, and trichuriasis), filariasis (river blindness and lymphatic filariasis) and schistosomiasis...
  15. Prevention of Retinal Degeneration by Crystallins in Experimental Uveitis
    Narsing A Rao; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by principal investigator): Intraocular inflammation, commonly referred to as uveitis, is a leading cause of blindness from retinal photoreceptor cell apoptosis...
  16. New Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Glaucoma
    Andrei Surguchov; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Approximately 4 million Americans have glaucoma and 120,000 are blind because of glaucoma...
  17. Preclinical testing of a novel PDK1 inhibitor for treating vestibular schwannoma
    Abraham Jacob; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..sensorineural hearing loss, balance abnormalities, tinnitus, vertigo, facial weakness, hydrocephalus, seizures, blindness, and even death...
  18. A Rapid Point-of-care Diagnostic for C.trachomitis STDs
    RICHARD F contact SELDEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..C. trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans that causes blindness, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and is an important cofactor in transmission of human ..
  19. Metabolic Crosstalk Between Immune Cells and the Liver in Obesity
    BENJAMIN MANTELL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with significant levels of morbidity and mortality;they are leading causes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, blindness, kidney failure and non-traumatic amputations, and these patients are also at increased risk for cardiovascular ..
  20. CCR3: a molecular marker for neovascular AMD
    Jayakrishna Ambati; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the majority of patients do not recover good, functional vision, and a significant fraction progress to legal blindness. This is due to the present inability to detect CNV before it invades the retina and causes structural and ..
  21. FASEB SRC on Mitochondrial Assembly &Dynamics in Health, Disease &Aging
    Antoni Barrientos; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..from a defect in assembly and this can lead to a myriad of clinical phenotypes ranging from ataxia, seizures, blindness, myoclonus, dystonia, deafness, and diabetes...
  22. Novel genetics, pathobiology &therapy of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies
    Friedhelm Hildebrandt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It can be associated with progressive blindness (retinal degeneration), liver fibrosis, mental retardation and malformations of brain, heart and bone...
  23. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium as a Model for A
    Alfred S Lewin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in the United States...
  24. MECHANISMS OF RETINAL VASCULAR PERMEABILITY IN DIABETES
    DAVID ANTONETTI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of blindness in the United States with no FDA approved medical therapy...
  25. Biomarkers of Fusarium biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo
    PRANAB KUMAR MUKHERJEE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Fungal infections of ophthalmic (or ocular) tissue are an important cause of morbidity and can result in blindness, and most common manifestations of ocular infections affect the cornea, resulting in keratitis...
  26. CNS Demyelinating Autoimmunity Targeting Water Channel Complexes
    SEAN JOSEPH PITTOCK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It is characterized by recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, resulting in blindness and paraplegia in most patients, and it is frequently misdiagnosed as MS...
  27. Downregulation of Rod Metabolism in Retinopathy of Prematurity
    JAMES DANIEL AKULA; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cases are newly diagnosed each year and, despite the best available medical management, 400-600 progress to blindness. This ranks ROP as the leading ocular cause of childhood blindness and strongly motivates research into the ..
  28. Multimodal Retinal Functional Imaging for Diabetic Retinopathy
    Hao F Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness among working-age adults, which is a typical type of ischemia driven retinal disease characterized by microvascular damage to ..
  29. Development of a novel method for inhibiting diabetic retinopathy
    David R Clemmons; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Since diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults, there is a need for new therapies that are directed toward treatment of this complication...
  30. Characterization of the thioredoxins system in the diabetic retina
    Folami Lamoke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a prominent feature of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common complication of diabetes and the leading cause of blindness in adults...
  31. Optic Nerve Aging and Glaucoma
    Thasarat Vajaranant; Fiscal Year: 2013
    PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and worldwide, remains a major global public health concern...
  32. Nuclear Control of Mitochondrial Gene Expression
    Gerald Shadel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that can cause human disease pathology, ranging from heart, skeletal muscle and nerve dysfunction to diabetes, blindness, and deafness...
  33. Novel Mitochondrial Targeted Neuroprotectants for Glaucoma
    Leonard Levin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Optic nerve diseases are common causes of irreversible blindness. Most are incurable or result in permanent visual loss by the time of diagnosis...
  34. Endothelial Cell Dysregulation in Neovascular AMD
    Mark E Kleinman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..VEGF)-A, the majority of patients do not regain functional vision, and a significant fraction progress to legal blindness. This treatment failure is attributed to the frequent clinical situation in which patients present to eye ..
  35. Gene Therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa
    Rajendra Kumar-Singh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..is to develop a therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), a disease that causes photoreceptor degeneration and blindness. There is currently no therapy available for this disease...
  36. Enzymology of Chlamydia Pathogenesis
    Dewey G McCafferty; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..disease-related complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and blindness. Infecting the single columnar layer of epithelial cells of the urogenital tract and conjunctiva, C...
  37. The Role of RNA Splicing Factors in Retinal Degeneration
    Michael Farkas; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..To study how mutations in PRPF3 and PRPF8 cause blindness, we generated mice with mutations in their Prpf3 and Prpf8 genes that mimic mutations found in people with RP...
  38. Neural Control of the Circulation: Sex and Hypertension
    Baojian Xue; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RELEVANCE: Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis, renal disease and blindness. There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that females of child bearing age in comparison to males are ..
  39. Gross Hall Animal Resource Center
    Susan V Bryant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..diabetes and other metabolic disorders, immunology, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, herpes-related blindness, spinal cord injury, and stroke...
  40. MicroRNA-Based Therapeutics for Rare Cystic Kidney Diseases
    Peter Igarashi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Extrarenal manifestations include congenital hepatic fibrosis (ARPKD), diabetes (RCAD), and blindness (NPHP)...
  41. Forward Genetics to Identify Complex Gene Interactions Involved in Glaucoma
    Elena V Semina; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness world-wide, with a prevalence of approximately 1.0% overall...
  42. The Effect Of Deafness Associated Mutations on MyosinVIIA Function
    Eva Forgacs; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..neuronal disorders including the Usher syndrome 1B, characterized by deafness, vestibular dysfunction and blindness (retinitis pigmentosa), and two autosomal recessive hearing disorders, DFNA11 and DFNB2 in humans, and the ..
  43. Discovery of Selective MT1 Melatonin Receptor Ligands for Sleep Disorders
    Margarita L Dubocovich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a drug that will mimic the effects of the hormone melatonin, which could be used to promote sleep and to treat sleep disorders caused by depression, Parkinson's disease, blindness, jet lag, shift work, and other related conditions.
  44. Screen for Small Molecule Regulators of Retinal Progenitor Epithelial Cell Phagoc
    CHARLES YOON HYUNG CHO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disease leading to blindness. The prevalence of typical RP is reported to be approximately 1 in 4000 in the United States and currently there is no treatment ..
  45. INTERNATIONAL HERPESVIRUS WORKSHOP
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CMV is a major cause of birth defects including mental retardation, blindness and deafness due to congenital transmission but also a significant opportunistic pathogen in AIDS patients and ..
  46. Gene therapy to support cone metabolism in retinitis pigmentosa
    Constance L Cepko; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Blindness is often caused by genetic lesions that directly affect photoreceptors. There are >200 disease genes in humans that lead to blindness (retnet:www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/Retnet)...
  47. Regulation and Function of the HCMV pp71 Tegument Protein
    Julie Kerry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..HCMV can cross the placenta and infect the fetus resulting in a high incidence of birth defects such as blindness and deafness...
  48. Serotonin Receptor Modulation of Neurotrophic Factors in the Retina
    Mark E Pennesi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..RP is the most common causes of inherited blindness in the United States. There are currently no effective treatments to halt the visual deterioration in RP...
  49. Mechanisms of assembly of photoreceptor G protein complexes
    Barry M Willardson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in which misfolding mutations in proteins cause photoreceptor cell death, resulting in retinal degeneration and blindness. This proposal investigates the mechanism of folding and assembly of physiologically important protein complexes ..
  50. Role of H-Ras in Retinal Cell Death in Diabetes
    Renu A Kowluru; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Diabetic retinopathy remains the leading cause of blindness among young adults...
  51. USHERIN: STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS
    DOMINIC E COSGROVE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION: Usher syndrome is the leading genetic cause of deaf/blindness in the world...
  52. Opioidergic System: Its Role(s) in Glaucoma
    Shahid Husain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glaucoma, one of the world's leading causes of visual impairment and blindness, is characterized by excavation of the optic nerve head and selective apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells (..
  53. CYP1B1, NF-kB , and Regulation of Angiogenesis
    TAMMY LYNN PALENSKI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, the major causes of blindness. A better understanding of how angiogenesis is regulated will aid in development of new and more effective ..
  54. Cell Specific Expression in the Pituitary Gland
    Sally A Camper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..others are recurrent, potentially causing disfigurement, multiple trans-sphenoidal surgeries, and can result in blindness and death...
  55. Cytoskeletal Keratins in Epithelial Immunity to Bacterial Keratitis
    K P CONNIE TAM; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in Epithelial Immunity to Bacterial Keratitis Corneal infection is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness in both adults and children worldwide...
  56. Circadian Rhythm in Cone Photoreceptors: Cellular Mechanisms
    GLADYS Y KO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..associated with ocular diseases such as Macular Degeneration (MD), the leading cause of vision impairment and blindness. This devastating disease is often specifically associated with the death of cone photoreceptors, which are ..
  57. INTERNATIONAL HERPESVIRUS WORKSHOP
    Jay A Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..CMV is a major cause of birth defects including mental retardation, blindness and deafness due to congenital transmission but also a significant opportunistic pathogen in AIDS patients and ..
  58. Expression control in Drosophila splicing assembly factor RNP-4F
    JACK VAUGHN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..affecting 1 in 4000 individuals, being characterized by progressive retinal degeneration and eventually total blindness. The long-term objective of our research is to understand evolutionarily conserved cellular, developmental, ..
  59. Mitochondrial Inborn Errors in Metabolism
    Douglas C Wallace; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Optic Neuropathy (LHON), the first inherited mtDNA disease identified, stereotypically presents as acute onset blindness in midlife and is one of the most common mtDNA mitochondrial disease phenotypes, >1 in 7000...
  60. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF INHERITED RETINAL DEGENERATION
    Matthew M Lavail; Fiscal Year: 2013
    PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT The most common inherited human disorder causing blindness is retinitis pigmentosa, and the most common cause of blindness in persons over the age of 60 is age-related macular degeneration...
  61. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Photoreceptor Mitochondrial DNA Damage
    Narsing A Rao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Intraocular inflammation, or uveitis, is a leading cause of blindness from retinal photoreceptor cell degeneration...
  62. Unfolded Protein Response as a Therapeutic Target for ADRP Animal Models
    Marina Gorbatyuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited form of blindness, affecting about 1 in every 4000 people in all ethnic groups worldwide...
  63. Regulated Transgene Expression in the Retina
    James M Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..following sub-retinal injection of AAV vectors;this approach has been used to treat a congenital form of blindness called Leber congenital amaurosis in animal models and humans...
  64. Development of an Inhibitor of Toxoplasma gondii
    Richard D Wood; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..T. gondii is the leading cause of uveitis (ocular disease) in the world, causing visual impairment and blindness. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a devastating infection that occurs when a pregnant woman acquires T...
  65. DIETARY & GENETIC CONTROL OF ROS DAMAGE TO THE LENS
    Norman S Wolf; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..show a significant delay in the development of ARC? Age-related (senile) cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world...
  66. Pluripotent Adult Spermatogonial Stem Cells: Prospective for Retinal Degeneration
    Nady Golestaneh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Retinal degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in the United States and other first world countries characterized by loss of retinal photoreceptor cells...
  67. CYSTEINE PROTEASES & INHIBITORS IN NEMATODE DEVELOPMENT
    Sara Lustigman; Fiscal Year: 2000
    Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is major filarial disease and is the fifth most common cause of blindness in the world...
  68. Prevention of Inherited Retinal Diseases by Therapeutic Rare Earth Nanoparticles
    JAMES FRANCIS MCGINNIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and super oxide dismutase by catalytically scavenging ROS and have been shown to prevent peroxide induced blindness in rats...
  69. CYSTEINE PROTEASES & INHIBITORS IN NEMATODE DEVELOPMENT
    Sara Lustigman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION (provided by the applicant): Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a major filarial disease and is the fifth most common cause of blindness in the world...
  70. Topical Nanoparticles for CNV
    Uday B Kompella; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in adults over 50 years...
  71. CMV ACCESSORY GENES AND RETINAL CELL INFECTION
    Lenore Pereira; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..CMV retinitis is a progressive disease which, if untreated, causes retinal detachment and blindness. It begins in the retinal capillaries and spreads directionally through the retina to the polarized retinal ..
  72. Artificial Cornea Using New Biomaterials
    MAX MAGINNESS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The Medical Problem: Corneal blindness opacification of the transparent tissue covering the front of the eye is one of the two most prevalent causes of ..
  73. Functional analysis of AMD-associated HTRA1 promoter polymorphism
    Noriko Esumi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..AMD is the leading cause of irreversible blindness among elderly people in the developed countries and an etiologically complex disease caused by multiple genetic ..
  74. MECHANISM OF LATENCY OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
    Nigel Fraser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..lesions which are common, encephalitis which is rare, an HSV infection of the eye which is a leading cause of blindness in the USA (400,000 cases). The seroprevalence of HSV in the US adult population is very high (~70%)...
  75. Recombinant T Cell Receptor Ligands for Treatmentof Uveitis
    Grazyna Adamus; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is further estimated that 10% to 15% of the blindness in the United States is due to uveitis...
  76. Sulfated Polysaccharide Derivatives for Treatment of Macular Degeneration
    Jianxing Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in the U.S., affecting 8 million Americans over fifty years of age...
  77. Novel Adeno-Associated Viral Therapy for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    James M Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Americans over 60 years of age, with wet AMD accounting for 90% of all AMD-related blindness...
  78. Scanning Chlamydia proteome for vaccine antigens
    Luis M de la Maza; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In areas with poor sanitary conditions C. trachomatis causes trachoma the most common cause of preventable blindness in the World...
  79. VA Low Vision Intervention Trial (LOVIT) II
    Joan Stelmack; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S. (157,000 with legal blindness and 1,026,000 with low vision not severe enough to be classified as legally blind)...
  80. Novel Combretastatin A4 analogs for Treatment of Retinal Neovascularization
    Danyang Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..by applicant): Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and a leading cause of blindness in developed countries...