exfoliation syndrome

Summary

Summary: The deposition of flaky, translucent fibrillar material most conspicuous on the anterior lens capsule and pupillary margin but also in both surfaces of the iris, the zonules, trabecular meshwork, ciliary body, corneal endothelium, and orbital blood vessels. It sometimes forms a membrane on the anterior iris surface. Exfoliation refers to the shedding of pigment by the iris. (Newell, Ophthalmology, 7th ed, p380)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Intraocular pressure decrease after phacoemulsification in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    A Merkur
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Cataract Refract Surg 27:528-32. 2001
  2. pmc Pseudoexfoliation in South India
    H Arvind
    Sankara Nethralaya, Medical and Vision Research, 18 College Road, Chennai, TN, 600006, India
    Br J Ophthalmol 87:1321-3. 2003
  3. pmc Genome-wide association study with DNA pooling identifies variants at CNTNAP2 associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Mandy Krumbiegel
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Hum Genet 19:186-93. 2011
  4. pmc Role of Lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms in Pakistani patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    Shazia Micheal
    Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
    Mol Vis 18:1040-4. 2012
  5. ncbi An investigation into LOXL1 variants in black South African individuals with exfoliation syndrome
    Robyn M Rautenbach
    Ophthalmology Department, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Arch Ophthalmol 129:206-10. 2011
  6. ncbi Ocular and systemic pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 141:921-937. 2006
  7. pmc Major LOXL1 risk allele is reversed in exfoliation glaucoma in a black South African population
    Susan E I Williams
    Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Mol Vis 16:705-12. 2010
  8. ncbi Structural changes of the trabecular meshwork in different kinds of glaucoma
    Ozan Yüksel Tektas
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Department of Anatomy II, Erlangen, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 88:769-75. 2009
  9. ncbi Analysis of LOXL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Polish population with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Grazyna Malukiewicz
    Department of Ophthalmology, the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Ludwik Rydygier s Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland
    Acta Ophthalmol 89:e64-6. 2011
  10. ncbi Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    Mesut Erdurmus
    Department of Ophthalmology, Fatih University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
    Curr Eye Res 36:713-8. 2011

Detail Information

Publications247 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Intraocular pressure decrease after phacoemulsification in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    A Merkur
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    J Cataract Refract Surg 27:528-32. 2001
    ..Phacoemulsification cataract surgery with PC IOL implantation may be effective in managing patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome who have elevated IOP and visually significant cataract but no advanced optic nerve damage...
  2. pmc Pseudoexfoliation in South India
    H Arvind
    Sankara Nethralaya, Medical and Vision Research, 18 College Road, Chennai, TN, 600006, India
    Br J Ophthalmol 87:1321-3. 2003
    ..To study the profile of pseudoexfoliation in a population based study...
  3. pmc Genome-wide association study with DNA pooling identifies variants at CNTNAP2 associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Mandy Krumbiegel
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Hum Genet 19:186-93. 2011
    ..Confirming efficiency of GWAS with DNA-pooling approach by detection of the known LOXL1 locus, our study data show evidence for association of CNTNAP2 with PEX syndrome and PEXG in German patients...
  4. pmc Role of Lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms in Pakistani patients with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    Shazia Micheal
    Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
    Mol Vis 18:1040-4. 2012
    ..Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of these two coding LOXL1 SNPs in Pakistani PEXG patients...
  5. ncbi An investigation into LOXL1 variants in black South African individuals with exfoliation syndrome
    Robyn M Rautenbach
    Ophthalmology Department, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Arch Ophthalmol 129:206-10. 2011
    To investigate the association between 2 lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) polymorphisms, rs1048661 (R141L) and rs3825942 (G153D), and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in black South African individuals.
  6. ncbi Ocular and systemic pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Am J Ophthalmol 141:921-937. 2006
    ....
  7. pmc Major LOXL1 risk allele is reversed in exfoliation glaucoma in a black South African population
    Susan E I Williams
    Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Mol Vis 16:705-12. 2010
    ..To investigate whether variants in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene are associated with exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an ancestral population from South Africa...
  8. ncbi Structural changes of the trabecular meshwork in different kinds of glaucoma
    Ozan Yüksel Tektas
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Department of Anatomy II, Erlangen, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 88:769-75. 2009
    ..In most parts of the circumference of the eye, the TM cells contained pigment granules. Occlusion of TM spaces by pigment granules or cells loaden with pigment was not seen in eyes with PG...
  9. ncbi Analysis of LOXL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Polish population with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Grazyna Malukiewicz
    Department of Ophthalmology, the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Ludwik Rydygier s Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz, Poland
    Acta Ophthalmol 89:e64-6. 2011
    ..To assess the possible association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene variants with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) in Polish population...
  10. ncbi Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in primary open angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    Mesut Erdurmus
    Department of Ophthalmology, Fatih University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
    Curr Eye Res 36:713-8. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to establish the antioxidant status and oxidative stress in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG)...
  11. ncbi Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude comparisons in different types of glaucoma using dynamic contour tonometry
    Omar S Punjabi
    University of California, San Francisco UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA
    Curr Eye Res 31:851-62. 2006
    ....
  12. ncbi Natural history of open-angle glaucoma
    Anders Heijl
    Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University, Malmo University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden
    Ophthalmology 116:2271-6. 2009
    ..This article, based on the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial (EMGT), provides prospective natural history data on progression of glaucomatous field defects in 3 of the most common glaucoma types...
  13. pmc Association of lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome in Koreans
    Min Sagong
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
    Mol Vis 17:2808-17. 2011
    To evaluate the association of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Korean population with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and to investigate the association between the SNPs and phenotypes of XFS.
  14. ncbi Increased oxidative stress in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Tongabay Cumurcu
    Department of Ophthalmology, Gaziosmanpasa University School of Medicine, Tokat, Turkey
    Ophthalmic Res 43:169-72. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant/oxidant status of serum in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX)...
  15. ncbi Multiplex cytokine analysis of aqueous humor in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma, and cataract
    Yasuyuki Takai
    Department of Ophthalmology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:241-7. 2012
    ..To measure levels of various inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), exfoliation glaucoma (EXG), and senile cataract...
  16. ncbi Prevalence of high-risk alleles in the LOXL1 gene and its association with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma in a Latin American population
    Martha Jaimes
    Department of Genetics Research Unit, Institute of Ophthalmology Conde de Valenciana Mexico City, Mexico
    Ophthalmic Genet 33:12-7. 2012
    ..The purpose of this study was to report the results of the first association study between LOXL1 polymorphisms and XFS and/or XFG in a Latin American population...
  17. pmc Association of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism G-308A with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in the Pakistani population
    Muhammad Imran Khan
    Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
    Mol Vis 15:2861-7. 2009
    ....
  18. pmc Analysis of LOXL1 polymorphisms in a Saudi Arabian population with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
    Khaled K Abu-Amero
    Ophthalmic Genetics Laboratory, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Mol Vis 16:2805-10. 2010
    ..To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG) in the Saudi Arabian population...
  19. pmc Decreased total antioxidants status in the plasma of patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
    Khaled K Abu-Amero
    Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Mol Vis 17:2769-75. 2011
    ..Additionally, we aim to investigate the effect of the combined action of the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) mutation status with TAS level on the development of PEG...
  20. pmc Development of novel LOXL1 genotyping method and evaluation of LOXL1, APOE and MTHFR polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome/glaucoma in a Greek population
    Dimitrios Chiras
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece
    Mol Vis 19:1006-16. 2013
    In the Greek population of Epirus, exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occur at a high prevalence...
  21. ncbi Ab interno trabeculectomy: outcomes in exfoliation versus primary open-angle glaucoma
    Jessica L M Ting
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alberta, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Cataract Refract Surg 38:315-23. 2012
    ..To compare outcomes in exfoliation glaucoma versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) after ab interno trabeculectomy alone (Trabectome) or in combination with cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation...
  22. pmc Evaluation of lysyl oxidase-like 1 gene polymorphisms in pseudoexfoliation syndrome in a Korean population
    Do Young Park
    Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Mol Vis 19:448-53. 2013
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate association profiles of lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene polymorphisms with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS) in a Korean population...
  23. pmc Association of LOXL1 gene polymorphisms with exfoliation syndrome/glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma in a Turkish population
    Burcu Kasım
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    Mol Vis 19:114-20. 2013
    To investigate the association of lysyl oxidase like 1 (LOXL1) variants with exfoliation syndrome (XFS), exfoliation glaucoma (XFG), and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a Turkish population.
  24. ncbi Hemodynamic evaluation of the posterior ciliary circulation in exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma
    Efstathios T Detorakis
    Department of Ophthalmology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 245:516-21. 2007
    ..studies have reported impaired blood flow in the ophthalmic artery (OA) and central retinal artery (CRA) in exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma...
  25. ncbi Intraoperative complications of phacoemulsification in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation
    Michael Hyams
    Department of Ophthalmology, Carmel Medical Centre, Haifa, Israel
    J Cataract Refract Surg 31:1002-5. 2005
    ..To determine the intraoperative complications in a large series of phacoemulsification procedures, including patients with and without pseudoexfoliation, excluding those with marked phacodonesis or lens subluxation...
  26. pmc Intraocular pressure following phacoemulsification in patients with and without exfoliation syndrome: a 2 year prospective study
    K F Damji
    Department of Opthamology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1H 8L6
    Br J Ophthalmol 90:1014-8. 2006
    To determine the long term intraocular pressure (IOP) response to phacoemulsification in patients with and without exfoliation syndrome (XFS).
  27. ncbi Decreased incidence of capsule complications and vitreous loss during phacoemulsification in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Raymond J Nagashima
    Department of Ophthalmology, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, CO 80231, USA
    J Cataract Refract Surg 30:127-31. 2004
    ..Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado, USA...
  28. ncbi Exfoliation syndrome
    R Ritch
    The Glaucoma Service, Department of Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Curr Opin Ophthalmol 12:124-30. 2001
    b>Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disorder of the extracellular matrix characterized by production and progressive accumulation of small, white deposits of a fibrillar extracellular material in many ocular tissues, most ..
  29. pmc Myocilin levels in primary open-angle glaucoma and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma human aqueous humor
    Kyle G Howell
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Glaucoma 19:569-75. 2010
    ..To determine the concentration of myocilin in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) aqueous humor...
  30. ncbi Frequency of systemic vascular diseases in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and exfoliation glaucoma
    Ahti Tarkkanen
    Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland
    Acta Ophthalmol 86:598-602. 2008
    ..electron microscopy in the heart, lung, liver, kidney, cerebral meninges and other tissues of patients with exfoliation syndrome (ES)...
  31. pmc The role of mitochondrial haplogroups in glaucoma: a study in an Arab population
    Khaled K Abu-Amero
    Mitochondrial Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Mol Vis 14:518-22. 2008
    ..Glaucoma prevalence can vary geographically and ethnically, which suggests that a genetic element could play a significant role. Studies investigating the role of various mitochondrial haplogroups in the pathogenesis of glaucoma are scarce...
  32. pmc Mitochondrial haplogroup U is associated with a reduced risk to develop exfoliation glaucoma in the German population
    Christiane Wolf
    Centre for Ophthalmology, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Tuebingen, Germany
    BMC Genet 11:8. 2010
    ....
  33. pmc Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms in Arab glaucoma patients
    Khaled K Abu-Amero
    Genetics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Mol Vis 14:425-30. 2008
    ..In humans, GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes (T0M1, T1M0, and T0M0) are associated with a variety of pathologic processes including certain ophthalmologic diseases...
  34. ncbi Exploring functional candidate genes for genetic association in german patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
    Mandy Krumbiegel
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:2796-801. 2009
    ..This study was focused on six functional candidate genes involved in PEX material deposition and the analysis of their potential association with PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma (PEXG)...
  35. ncbi A comparison of glaucoma patients identified through mass screening and in routine clinical practice
    Kirsti Grødum
    Department of Opthalmology, Malmo University, Malmo, Sweden
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 80:627-31. 2002
    ..To study differences between glaucoma patients identified through a population screening and glaucoma patients diagnosed in routine clinical practice (self-selected patients)...
  36. ncbi A possible link between the pseudoexfoliation syndrome and coronary artery disease
    M Citirik
    SB Ankara Eye Hospital, Turkey
    Eye (Lond) 21:11-5. 2007
    ..This is a collaborative case-control study from Ophthalmology and Cardiology departments of a tertiary care hospital, designed to explore the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX)...
  37. ncbi Molecular pathology of pseudoexfoliation syndrome/glaucoma--new insights from LOXL1 gene associations
    Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 88:776-85. 2009
    ....
  38. ncbi Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality associated with ocular pseudoexfoliation
    K R Shrum
    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    Am J Ophthalmol 129:83-6. 2000
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between ocular pseudoexfoliation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or all-cause mortality...
  39. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study
    Ravi Thomas
    Glaucoma Services, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:1170-6. 2005
    ..To report the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PXF) and its associations with ocular diseases in a south Indian population...
  40. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation in a rural population of southern India: the Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey
    R Krishnadas
    Aravind Eye Care System and Lions Aravind Institute for Community Ophthalmology, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
    Am J Ophthalmol 135:830-7. 2003
    ..To determine the prevalence and risk factors for pseudoexfoliation in a rural population of southern India...
  41. pmc The association of glutathione S-transferase GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphism with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma in a Pakistani population
    Muhammad Imran Khan
    Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
    Mol Vis 16:2146-52. 2010
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of glutathione S-transferase GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes with pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) in a group of Pakistani patients...
  42. ncbi Association of LOXL1 common sequence variants in German and Italian patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
    Francesca Pasutto
    Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:1459-63. 2008
    ..In this study, the genetic association of these variants was investigated in patients with PEX or PEXG of German and Italian descent...
  43. ncbi Evidence for oxidative stress in lens epithelial cells in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    S P Gartaganis
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, University Hospital of Patras, Patras, Greece
    Eye (Lond) 21:1406-11. 2007
    ..To investigate the oxidative status in lens epithelial cells of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome...
  44. pmc Variations in LOXL1 associated with exfoliation glaucoma do not affect amine oxidase activity
    Seonkwan Kim
    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Sinyong Dong 344 2, Iksan City, Jeollabuk Do 570 749, South Korea
    Mol Vis 18:265-70. 2012
    ..To evaluate the impact of the R141L and G153D variations on the amine oxidase activity of LOXL1, we generated four different haplotypes of LOXL1 with R141L and G153D and assessed the amine oxidase activity of the LOXL1 variant proteins...
  45. ncbi Role of transforming growth factor-beta1 and its latent form binding protein in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    U Schlötzer-Schrehardt
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 73:765-80. 2001
    ..Future therapeutic strategies might focus on TGF-beta1 antagonistic approaches...
  46. ncbi Prooxidant-antioxidant balance, peroxide and catalase activity in the aqueous humour and serum of patients with exfoliation syndrome or exfoliative glaucoma
    George G Koliakos
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 246:1477-83. 2008
    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathobiology of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliative glaucoma (XFG).
  47. ncbi Glutathione and lipid peroxide changes in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    S P Gartaganis
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
    Curr Eye Res 30:647-51. 2005
    ..To investigate the oxidative status of the aqueous humor of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome...
  48. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma
    Hideko Sawada
    Department of Ophthalmology, Niigata University School of Medicine, Asahimachi, Niigata, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:903-6. 2010
    ..To investigate the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the aqueous humor of patients with glaucoma, including correlations with glaucoma subtypes and intraocular pressure...
  49. ncbi [Patients with secondary open-angle glaucoma in pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome among a population with high prevalence of PEX. Clinical findings and morphological and surgical characteristics]
    A A Bialasiewicz
    Department of Ophthalmology and School of Ophthalmic Technicians, Sultan Qaboos University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman
    Ophthalmologe 102:1064-8. 2005
    ..The second most frequent treatable cause of noninfectious blindness in Oman is high-pressure glaucoma. Therefore, in 2002 a study was performed at our department of ophthalmology to evaluate pseudoexfoliation (PEX) in glaucoma patients...
  50. ncbi Differences between Goldmann Applanation Tonometry and Dynamic Contour Tonometry in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Emilia Grammenandi
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 38:444-8. 2010
    ..To evaluate differences between Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT) and Dynamic Controur Tonometry (DCT) in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX)...
  51. pmc Endothelial cell markers in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Joanna Stafiej
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwik Rydygier s Collegium Medicum, the Nicolaus Copernicus University, Curie Skłodowskiej 9, 85 094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
    ScientificWorldJournal 2012:863949. 2012
    ..Since the study size is limited, further investigations to confirm that there is no association between endothelial dysfunction in PEX and risk of future cardiovascular disease are necessary...
  52. ncbi Pulsatile ocular blood flow in patients with pseudoexfoliation
    A Mistlberger
    Department of Ophthalmology, County Hospital Salzburg
    Int Ophthalmol 23:337-42. 2001
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in pseudoexfoliation syndrome without (PEX) and with glaucoma (PEG)...
  53. ncbi Combined exfoliation and pigment dispersion: paradigm of an overlap syndrome
    R Ritch
    Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York 10003, USA
    Ophthalmology 107:1004-8. 2000
    To describe a series of patients with combined pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and to introduce a concept, the overlap syndrome, to aid in assessing multiple risk factors for glaucomatous damage.
  54. ncbi Retinal vascular occlusions occur more frequently in the more affected eye in exfoliation syndrome
    T S Prata
    Department of Ophthalmology, Einhorn Clinical Research Center, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Eye (Lond) 24:658-62. 2010
    To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions (RVOs) and exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in a cohort of patients with the two conditions.
  55. pmc Endothelin-1 concentration is increased in the aqueous humour of patients with exfoliation syndrome
    G G Koliakos
    Dept of Biological Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Br J Ophthalmol 88:523-7. 2004
    ..This molecule may play a significant role in the pathobiology of exfoliation syndrome (XFS), a disorder characterised by a progressive iris vasculopathy...
  56. ncbi Intraocular pressure changes after clear corneal phacoemulsification in nonglaucomatous pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    D J Cimetta
    Eye Surgery Service, Casa di Cura Madre F Toniolo, Bologna, Italy
    Eur J Ophthalmol 18:77-81. 2008
    ..To present a prospective, nonrandomized study of intraocular pressure (IOP) after clear corneal phacoemulsification in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome...
  57. ncbi Phacoemulsification in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Arsen Akinci
    Ulucanlar Eye Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    Ophthalmologica 222:112-6. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi Is exfoliation syndrome a sign of systemic vascular disease?
    Ahti Tarkkanen
    Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Acta Ophthalmol 86:832-6. 2008
    b>Exfoliation syndrome (ES) is an age-related disorder in which greyish-white flakes accumulate in different tissues in the anterior eye. Its pathogenesis is not completely known, but it results in electron-dense microfibrils...
  59. ncbi Intraocular pressure elevation within the first 24 hours after cataract surgery in patients with glaucoma or exfoliation syndrome
    Hani Levkovitch-Verbin
    Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
    Ophthalmology 115:104-8. 2008
    To investigate whether eyes with glaucoma or exfoliation syndrome without glaucoma are prone to exhibit intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation shortly after cataract surgery and, if so, whether timolol maleate 0.5% reduces these spikes.
  60. pmc Lack of association between LOXL1 gene polymorphisms and primary open angle glaucoma in the Saudi Arabian population
    Khaled K Abu-Amero
    Ophthalmic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Ophthalmic Genet 33:130-3. 2012
    ..To investigate whether major single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOXL1 gene associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma are associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in the Saudi Arabian population...
  61. pmc Evaluation of LOXL1 polymorphisms in exfoliation syndrome in the Uygur population
    - Mayinu
    Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumchi, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China
    Mol Vis 17:1734-44. 2011
    In Uygur populations, exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurred at a high frequency...
  62. ncbi Unilateral exfoliation syndrome: conversion to bilateral exfoliation and to glaucoma: a prospective 10-year follow-up study
    Päivi M Puska
    Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    J Glaucoma 11:517-24. 2002
    ..10-year follow-up study was conducted to examine conversion of nonglaucomatous eyes with unilateral exfoliation syndrome (EXS) to bilateral EXS and to glaucoma...
  63. pmc LOXL1 promoter haplotypes are associated with exfoliation syndrome in a U.S. Caucasian population
    Bao Jian Fan
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:2372-8. 2011
    LOXL1 is a major genetic risk factor for exfoliation syndrome (ES) and exfoliation glaucoma (EG)...
  64. pmc Geographic and climatic factors associated with exfoliation syndrome
    Joshua D Stein
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48105, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 129:1053-60. 2011
    To identify geographic and climatic risk factors associated with exfoliation syndrome (ES).
  65. ncbi Selenium and pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Ayca Yilmaz
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mersin University Faculty of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey
    Am J Ophthalmol 151:272-6.e1. 2011
    ....
  66. ncbi Ocular response analyzer to assess corneal biomechanical properties in exfoliation syndrome and exfoliative glaucoma
    Ali Bulent Cankaya
    M D Ulucanlar Eye Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 250:255-60. 2012
    The aim of this work was to investigate the differences in corneal biomechanical parameters between healthy and exfoliation syndrome (EXS) and exfoliative glaucoma (EXG) patients.
  67. pmc LOXL1 expression in lens capsule tissue specimens from individuals with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma
    Tanya T Khan
    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Vis 16:2236-41. 2010
    ..We also investigated the effects of four glaucoma drug medications on LOXL1 expression in primary human lens epithelial cell cultures to see if they could affect LOXL1 expression...
  68. ncbi Biometric characteristics of eyes with exfoliation syndrome and occludable as well as open angles and eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma
    Karim F Damji
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB T5H 3V9
    Can J Ophthalmol 44:70-5. 2009
    ..differences in axial length scan (A-scan) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) parameters in eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and occludable angles (XFSOc), XFS and open angles (XFSOp), and eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma ..
  69. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and its antioxidative protection deficiency as risk factors for age-related cataract
    L Zoric
    Clinic for Eye Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pristina, Settlement Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia and Montenegro
    Eur J Ophthalmol 16:268-73. 2006
    ..According to some findings, PES could be a factor of hastened aging, which means that it could be considered as a secondary aging factor...
  70. pmc Analysis of LOXL1 polymorphisms in a United States population with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
    Pratap Challa
    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Vis 14:146-9. 2008
    ..To identify if recently described LOXL1 (lysyl oxidase-like 1) polymorphisms are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (XFG) in a United States (U.S.) Caucasian patient population...
  71. ncbi Epidemiology of exfoliation syndrome in the Reykjavik Eye Study
    Arsaell Már Arnarsson
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
    Acta Ophthalmol 87:1-17. 2009
    b>Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a major risk factor for glaucoma. It is characterized by a pathological accumulation of polymorphic fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye...
  72. ncbi Pseudoexfoliative material on the IOL surface and development of glaucoma after cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Kyung Ah Park
    Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Cataract Refract Surg 33:1815-8. 2007
    ..This report suggests that careful follow-up is essential to monitor the development of glaucoma in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome, particularly when an IOL is implanted in the sulcus...
  73. ncbi Selective upregulation of the A3 adenosine receptor in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and glaucoma
    Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:2023-34. 2005
    ..In the current study, the role of the adenosine system in the pathophysiology of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, which is typically associated with anterior chamber hypoxia and elevated intraocular pressure, was examined...
  74. ncbi Prevalence of exfoliation syndrome in central Sri Lanka: the Kandy Eye Study
    A K Rudkin
    South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, Adelaide, 5000, South Australia, Australia
    Br J Ophthalmol 92:1595-8. 2008
    To report the prevalence and correlates of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in central, rural Sri Lanka.
  75. ncbi Aqueous humor dynamics in exfoliation syndrome
    Thomas V Johnson
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universityof Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 5840, USA
    Arch Ophthalmol 126:914-20. 2008
    To examine how aqueous humor dynamics are affected by exfoliation syndrome (XFS) with or without elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).
  76. ncbi Optic nerve head topography in nonglaucomatous, normotensive patients with unilateral exfoliation syndrome
    Päivi Puska
    Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 4C, P O Box 220, FIN 00029 HYKS, Helsinki, Finland
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 247:1111-7. 2009
    Optic nerve head damage may result from high intraocular pressure (IOP) associated with the exfoliation syndrome (EXS). At equal IOP levels, eyes with EXS may suffer damage more easily than eyes without EXS...
  77. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation syndrome: pathological manifestations of relevance to intraocular surgery
    R Max Conway
    Department of Ophthalmology and Eye Hospital, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 32:199-210. 2004
    ..In this short review, current reports relating to PEX pathological changes of practical interest to the intraocular surgeon are summarized...
  78. ncbi Central corneal thickness and corneal curvature in pseudoexfoliation syndrome with and without glaucoma
    Fatih Ozcura
    Department of Ophthalmology, Dumlupinar University School of Medicine, Kutahya, Turkey
    J Glaucoma 20:410-3. 2011
    ..To determine the central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal curvature (CC) in pseudoexfoliative (PE) eyes with and without glaucoma...
  79. ncbi Exfoliation syndrome in black South Africans
    Alan P Rotchford
    International Centre for Eye Health, Institute of Ophthalmology, London
    Arch Ophthalmol 121:863-70. 2003
    Data on exfoliation syndrome (XFS) in Africans are scarce.
  80. ncbi LOXL1 deficiency in the lamina cribrosa as candidate susceptibility factor for a pseudoexfoliation-specific risk of glaucoma
    Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Ophthalmology 119:1832-43. 2012
    ....
  81. pmc Exfoliation syndrome in Nigeria
    Olusola O Olawoye
    Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
    Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 19:402-5. 2012
    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and its association with ocular disease in patients attending the eye clinic of the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria.
  82. ncbi Cumulative incidence of converting from clinically unilateral to bilateral exfoliation syndrome
    Ahti Tarkkanen
    Department of Ophthalmology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    J Glaucoma 13:181-4. 2004
    To obtain long-term cumulative incidence estimates of time to conversion of clinically unilateral to bilateral exfoliation syndrome (ES).
  83. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    Joseph Sowka
    Nova Southeastern University, College of Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, Florida 33328, USA
    Optometry 75:245-50. 2004
    ..This anomaly arises from the predisposing condition, pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXE). Complications are common, making this one of the most difficult glaucomas to manage...
  84. ncbi Phacoemulsification in Indian eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    L Shastri
    Iladevi Cataract and IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India
    J Cataract Refract Surg 27:1629-37. 2001
    ..Apart from a higher flare response, the postoperative outcomes in eyes with pseudoexfoliation were within normal limits, and the outcome at 1 month was satisfactory...
  85. ncbi Exfoliation syndrome related to sensorineural hearing loss
    Theodoros Athanassios Papadopoulos
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 38:456-61. 2010
    To investigate the relationship between exfoliation syndrome and sensorineural hearing loss.
  86. ncbi Pathophysiologic changes in the optic nerves of eyes with primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma
    Johannes Gottanka
    Department of Anatomy II, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4170-81. 2005
    ..To determine whether differences in the optic nerve occur in eyes with primary versus secondary open-angle glaucoma...
  87. ncbi Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation of an AkreosFit intraocular lens
    Michael A Roberts
    Ophthalmology Department, Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Llantrisant, Wales UK
    Eur J Ophthalmol 19:1082-3. 2009
    ..To describe a case of intraocular lens opacification resembling pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation affecting an AkreosFit intraocular lens (IOL)...
  88. ncbi Atomic force microscopy-based antibody recognition imaging of proteins in the pathological deposits in pseudoexfoliation syndrome
    Rhiannon Creasey
    School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University of SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
    Ultramicroscopy 111:1055-61. 2011
    ..Our evaluation shows that TREC imaging is best suited for human tissue imaging and holds significant potential for imaging of human disease tissues in their native state...
  89. ncbi The management of exfoliative glaucoma
    Robert Ritch
    New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Prog Brain Res 173:211-24. 2008
    b>Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related, generalized disorder of the extracellular matrix characterized by the production and progressive accumulation of a fibrillar extracellular material in many ocular tissues and is the most ..
  90. ncbi Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C-T and homocysteine levels in Turkish patients with pseudoexfoliation
    M Erol Turacli
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
    Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 33:505-8. 2005
    ..This study aimed to investigate the frequency of MTHFR 677 C-T polymorphism and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in Turkish patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX)...
  91. ncbi Superoxide dismutase activity in the lens capsule of patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and cataract
    Omür O Uçakhan
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
    J Cataract Refract Surg 32:618-22. 2006
    ....
  92. ncbi Aqueous humor and serum erythropoietin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    Başak Doğu
    Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Izmit, Kocaeli, Turkey
    Int Ophthalmol 30:669-74. 2010
    ..35 mU/ml) and controls (7.30 ± 4.15 mU/ml) (P = 0.672). Contrary to predictions based on the relation with ischemic processes, no difference was revealed between levels of EPO in aqueous humor and serum in patients with PXS and PXG...
  93. pmc The role of lysyl oxidase-like 1 DNA copy number variants in exfoliation glaucoma
    Yutao Liu
    Center for Human Genetics, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Vis 18:2976-81. 2012
    ..To investigate whether DNA copy number variants (CNVs) in the lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) gene are associated with exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) in black South Africans...
  94. pmc Exfoliation syndrome angle characteristics: a lack of correlation with amount of disc damage
    C J Cobb
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK
    Br J Ophthalmol 88:1002-3. 2004
    The exact pathogenesis of glaucoma in exfoliation syndrome is unclear. There has been some suggestion that narrow angles are more common in exfoliation syndrome and that this may be a component in the disease...
  95. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation syndrome and trace elements
    Zuhal Yildirim
    Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, 06510 Besevler, Ankara, Turkey
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1100:207-12. 2007
    ..38-92.14 microg/g tissue) was not statistically different. The decreased content of zinc could increase oxidative stress. The results support the role of oxidative stress in the development of PSX in cataract patients...
  96. ncbi Exfoliative glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma: associations with death causes and comorbidity
    J S Ritland
    Eye Department, Alesund Hospital, Alesund, Norway
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 82:401-4. 2004
    ..To investigate whether type of glaucoma or use of acetazolamide are associated with main cause of death and comorbidity...
  97. ncbi Blood flow of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina in exfoliation syndrome with unilateral glaucoma or ocular hypertension
    M Harju
    Helsinki University Eye Hospital, P O Box 220, 00029 HYKS, Finland
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 239:271-7. 2001
    ..was to study whether any differences exist in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary retinal blood flow between the two eyes of patients with unilateral exfoliation glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT) with exfoliation syndrome.
  98. ncbi Sensorineural hearing loss in pseudoexfoliation
    M Erol Turacli
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey
    Can J Ophthalmol 42:56-9. 2007
    ..Pseudoexfoliation (PEX), which affects anterior segment structures, is thought to be a systemic disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relation between PEX and sensorineural hearing loss...
  99. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in Australian adults
    C A McCarty
    Centre for Eye Research Australia, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Am J Ophthalmol 129:629-33. 2000
    ..To describe the prevalence and correlates of pseudoexfoliation syndrome in Australians aged 40 years and older...
  100. ncbi Ultrasound biomicroscopy of zonular anatomy in clinically unilateral exfoliation syndrome
    Zaher Sbeity
    Einhorn Clinical Research Centre, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Acta Ophthalmol 86:565-8. 2008
    To evaluate the ability of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to detect abnormalities in the zonular apparatus in unaffected eyes of patients with clinically unilateral exfoliation syndrome (XFS) using a standardized grading system.
  101. ncbi Pseudoexfoliation syndrome at Jordan University Hospital
    Muawyah D Al-Bdour
    Department of Ophthalmology, Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan
    Acta Ophthalmol 86:755-7. 2008
    ..This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) and analyse its association with particular ocular diseases in patients attending the Department of Ophthalmology at Jordan University Hospital...

Research Grants13

  1. Exfoliation Syndrome: Development of a cell culture model of fibril formation
    JORGE A GHISO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Exfoliation syndrome (XFS), an age-related disorder which constitutes the most common identifiable cause of open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, is characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal ..
  2. Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Exfoliation Syndrome and Glaucoma
    Janey L Wiggs; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Exfoliation syndrome (ES) is a common condition characterized by deposition of a heterogeneous mix of macromolecules throughout the anterior segment of the eye...
  3. COLLABORATIVE INITIAL GLAUCOMA TREATMENT STUDY
    Robert Ritch; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  4. FAMILIAL PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA
    Janey Wiggs; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Initial genome screens to identify genes responsible for two POAG risk factors, ocular hypertension (OHT) and pseudoexfoliation (PEX), will be performed. ..
  5. LINKAGE STUDY OF JUVENILE GLAUCOMA
    Janey Wiggs; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..3) Screen candidate genes located in the RIEG2 region on chromosome 13q14. 4) Correlate mutations in genes known to cause glaucoma with clinical phenotypes. ..
  6. Genetic Etiologies of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
    Janey Wiggs; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Specific genetic defects will be correlated with clinical phenotype by investigating familial aggregation of clinical parameters and looking for evidence of gene/gene interactions and how these interactions may influence phenotype. ..
  7. Genetic Studies of Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma
    Janey Wiggs; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  8. The Molecular Basis of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome
    Pratap Challa; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The Ophthalmology department at Duke University is an ideal setting for training physician-scientists and has an established track record of strong support for promising clinician-scientists. ..
  9. Analysis of CIGTS Visual Field Data
    David Musch; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..3. Determine the relative impact of factors other than IOP control and race on progressive VF loss. Address age, sex, family history, comorbidities, smoking, alcohol ingestion, refractive error, and baseline VF damage. ..
  10. OCULAR HYPERTENSION TREATMENT STUDY (OHTS)
    James Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ....
  11. Genomic Convergence in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
    R Allingham; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Determining the molecular underpinnings of POAG will provide enormous benefits in the search for new diagnostic and treatment approaches to this disease. ..
  12. Genetic Studies of POAG in Ghana, West Africa
    R Allingham; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This dataset can also serve as a foundation for genetic linkage dataset for genome-wide screen to identify new candidate genes and loci in this important population. ..
  13. COLLABORATIVE INITIAL GLAUCOMA TREATMENT STUDY
    Philip Chen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....