Genomes and Genes
pancreatic ductal carcinoma
Summary: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Publications246 found, 100 shown here
- Pathologically and biologically distinct types of epithelium in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: delineation of an "intestinal" pathway of carcinogenesis in the pancreasN Volkan Adsay
Departments of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Am J Surg Pathol 28:839-48. 2004....
- Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analysesSian Jones
Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Ludwig Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Science 321:1801-6. 2008..Dysregulation of these core pathways and processes through mutation can explain the major features of pancreatic tumorigenesis...
- A comprehensive characterization of pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines: towards the establishment of an in vitro research platformBence Sipos
Department of Pathology, University of Kiel, Germany
Virchows Arch 442:444-52. 2003There are a large number of stable pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines that are used by researchers worldwide. Detailed data about their differentiation status and growth features are, however, often lacking...
- New classification of pancreatic intraductal papillary-mucinous tumour by mucin expression: its relationship with potential for malignancyAkiko Nakamura
Department of Pathology, Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, Japan
J Pathol 197:201-10. 2002..In conclusion, our classification of IPMTs by MUC2 expression pattern may be of value in the better assessment of the biological behaviour of IPMTs and their potential for malignancy...
- Secretion of N-ERC/mesothelin and expression of C-ERC/mesothelin in human pancreatic ductal carcinomaKoichi Inami
Department of Pathology and Oncology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113 8421, Japan
Oncol Rep 20:1375-80. 2008..b>Pancreatic ductal carcinoma remains a fatal disease because its diagnosis often occurs very late...
- Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 expression is repressed by miR-155, and its restoration inhibits pancreatic tumor developmentMeritxell Gironella
Institut National de Santé et de Recherche Médicale, U624 Stress Cellulaire, F 13288 Marseille, France
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16170-5. 2007..Finally, TP53INP1 expression is repressed by the oncogenic micro RNA miR-155, which is overexpressed in PDAC cells. TP53INP1 is a previously unknown miR-155 target presenting anti-tumoral activity...
- Tumor stroma interactions induce chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells involving increased secretion and paracrine effects of nitric oxide and interleukin-1betaSusanne Müerköster
Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 1st Department of Medicine, UKSH Campus Kiel, Schittenhelmstrasse 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Cancer Res 64:1331-7. 2004b>Pancreatic ductal carcinoma is characterized by a profound chemoresistance. As we have shown previously, these tumor cells can develop chemoresistance by interleukin (IL)-1beta in an autocrine and nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent fashion...
- Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and associated proteins in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and their impact on prognosisHong Cheng Sun
Department of General Surgery, Affiliated First People s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080, PR China
Int J Oncol 30:1359-67. 2007..These results suggest that over-expression of HIF-1alpha may play an important role in cancer progression through up-regulation of VEGF and Glut-1 in PDA patients. HIF-1alpha and VEGF are potential candidates for predicting survival...
- PIK3CA mutations in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma of the pancreasFrank Schönleben
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
Clin Cancer Res 12:3851-5. 2006..The mutational status of PIK3CA in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/IPMC) has not been evaluated previously...
- Pancreatic resection for M1 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaShailesh V Shrikhande
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Ernest Borges Marg, Parel, Mumbai, 400012, India
Ann Surg Oncol 14:118-27. 2007..Improved safety of pancreatic surgery has led to consideration of more aggressive approaches, such as resection for primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with metastatic disease (M1)...
- Discovery of new markers of cancer through serial analysis of gene expression: prostate stem cell antigen is overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinomaP Argani
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Cancer Res 61:4320-4. 2001..PSCA is a novel tumor marker for pancreatic carcinoma that has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. These results establish the validity of analyses of SAGE databases to identify novel tumor markers...
- HMGA2 protein expression correlates with lymph node metastasis and increased tumor grade in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaAlexandra C Hristov
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Mod Pathol 22:43-9. 2009..Our results support a role for HMGA2 in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and suggest that it could be a useful biomarker and rational therapeutic target in more advanced disease...
- The activated stroma index is a novel and independent prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaMert Erkan
Department of General Surgery, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:1155-61. 2008..Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) produce this excessively desmoplastic microenvironment. The impact of PSC activity on PDAC behavior in vivo is analyzed...
- Pancreatic carcinoma cells induce fibrosis by stimulating proliferation and matrix synthesis of stellate cellsMax G Bachem
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Ulm, D 89070 Ulm, Germany
Gastroenterology 128:907-21. 2005..The aims of this study were to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrogenesis associated with pancreatic adenocarcinomas...
- Concomitant pancreatic activation of Kras(G12D) and Tgfa results in cystic papillary neoplasms reminiscent of human IPMNJens T Siveke
Department of Internal Medicine, Technical University of Munich, D 81675 Munich, Germany
Cancer Cell 12:266-79. 2007..In conclusion, Egfr signaling in synergy with oncogenic Kras may be a prerequisite for IPMN development and progression to pancreatic cancer...
- Precursors to invasive pancreatic cancerAnirban Maitra
Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 2410, USA
Adv Anat Pathol 12:81-91. 2005..Finally, the potential clinical impact of recognizing these precursor lesions in the context of early detection of pancreatic cancer will be discussed...
- Molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancerAnirban Maitra
Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 20:211-26. 2006..This chapter will provide an overview of the molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer with emphasis on clinical applications...
- Inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 increases responsiveness of pancreatic cancer cells to anticancer treatmentPascal O Berberat
Division of Pancreatic Surgery and Molecular Pancreatic Research, Department of General Surgery, Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Clin Cancer Res 11:3790-8. 2005..Therefore, specific inhibition of HO-1 expression may be a new option in pancreatic cancer therapy and may be used as sensitizer to chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
- High expression of HIF1a is a predictor of clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and correlated to PDGFA, VEGF, and bFGFAndreas Claudius Hoffmann
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Neoplasia 10:674-9. 2008..In this study, we investigated the prognostic values of HIF1a, bFGF, VEGF, and PDGFA gene expressions as well as their interrelationships...
- Notch and Kras reprogram pancreatic acinar cells to ductal intraepithelial neoplasiaJean Paul De La O
Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, 15 North 2030 East, Room 2100, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:18907-12. 2008..At the cellular level, Notch/Kras coactivation promotes rapid reprogramming of acinar cells to a duct-like phenotype, providing an explanation for how a characteristically ductal tumor can arise from nonductal acinar cells...
- Serum C-reactive protein concentration and the prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreasJ K Pine
St James s University Hospital, Leeds, UK
Eur J Surg Oncol 35:605-10. 2009..We sought to determine the prognostic importance of serum CRP prior to biliary intervention in the prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
- Frequency of K-ras mutations in pancreatic intraductal neoplasias associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis: a meta-analysisMatthias Lohr
Department of Medicine II, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Neoplasia 7:17-23. 2005....
- Correlations between p53 gene mutations and histologic characteristics of pancreatic ductal carcinomaAtsuko Taii
Department of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Pancreas 38:e60-7. 2009....
- Aggressive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice caused by pancreas-specific blockade of transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cooperation with active Kras expressionHideaki Ijichi
Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
Genes Dev 20:3147-60. 2006..The data show that blockade of TGF-beta signaling and activated Ras signaling cooperate to promote PDAC progression...
- Experimental trial for diagnosis of pancreatic ductal carcinoma based on gene expression profiles of pancreatic ductal cellsMadoka Ishikawa
Division of Functional Genomics, Jichi Medical School, Kawachi gun, Tochigi, Japan
Cancer Sci 96:387-93. 2005b>Pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) remains one of the most intractable human malignancies, mainly because of the lack of sensitive detection methods...
- Pancreatic tumours: molecular pathways implicated in ductal cancer are involved in ampullary but not in exocrine nonductal or endocrine tumorigenesisP S Moore
Department of Pathology, , Italy
Br J Cancer 84:253-62. 2001..These data suggest that pancreatic exocrine and endocrine tumourigenesis involves different genetic targets and that among exocrine pancreatic neoplasms, only ductal and ampullary cancers share common molecular events...
- Aberrant methylation of preproenkephalin and p16 genes in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaNoriyoshi Fukushima
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 2196, USA
Am J Pathol 160:1573-81. 2002....
- Localization of the human hedgehog-interacting protein (Hip) in the normal and diseased pancreasHany Kayed
Department of General Surgery, The University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Mol Carcinog 42:183-92. 2005....
- Outcomes following resection of invasive and noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreasKeita Wada
Department of General Surgery, Virginia Mason Medical Center, 1100 Ninth Ave, C6 Gsurg, Seattle, WA 98111, USA
Am J Surg 189:632-6; discussion 637. 2005..Since any intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is at least premalignant, avoiding conversion to invasion by pancreatic resection should provide a survival advantage-but how much?..
- Long-term results of partial pancreaticoduodenectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head: 25-year experienceAxel Richter
Department of Surgery, University Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor Kutzer Ufer, 68167, Mannheim, Germany
World J Surg 27:324-9. 2003..We concluded that surgical treatment is "as good as it gets," as extended techniques have not proved to produce better results...
- Stromal biology of pancreatic cancerGerald C Chu
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA
J Cell Biochem 101:887-907. 2007..Such knowledge may be used to understand the evolution and biology of this lethal cancer and may convert these insights into new points of therapeutic intervention...
- Expression of Ezrin and phosphorylated Ezrin (pEzrin) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaYazhou Cui
Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Health for Biotech Drug, Key Laboratory for Modern Medicine and Technology of Shandong Province, Jinan, China
Cancer Invest 28:242-7. 2010..pEzrin(- Tyr353) may be a potent prognosis predictor for pancreatic cancer...
- The Nestin progenitor lineage is the compartment of origin for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasiaCATHERINE CARRIERE
Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Hanover, NH 03756, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4437-42. 2007..Thus, the Nestin cell lineage is highly responsive to Kras oncogenic activation and may represent the elusive progenitor population in which PDAC arises...
- Preinvasive pancreatic neoplasia of ductal phenotype induced by acinar cell targeting of mutant Kras in transgenic micePaul J Grippo
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, 53706, USA
Cancer Res 63:2016-9. 2003..Our findings suggest that Kras mutation is associated with development of early stage duct-like lesions in pancreas, but that additional alterations must accompany progression to malignancy...
- The immunohistochemical mucin expression pattern distinguishes different types of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and determines their relationship to mucinous noncystic carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinomaJ Luttges
Department of Pathology, University of Kiel, Germany
Am J Surg Pathol 25:942-8. 2001..The second group seems to be related to ductal carcinoma because of its MUC1 positivity in the absence or very weak MUC2 staining. The third group shows focal MUC1/MUC2 expression and is characterized by oncocytic histology...
- Expression of hypoxia-inducible factors is correlated with the presence of a fibrotic focus and angiogenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomasA Couvelard
Department of Pathology, Hopital Beaujon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Clichy, France
Histopathology 46:668-76. 2005..To study the expression of hypoxia-regulated markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PA) in relationship to the presence of a fibrotic focus, angiogenesis quantification and clinical outcome...
- Clinicopathological correlates of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a comparative analysis of 82 cases with and 152 cases without pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaAleodor Andea
Department of Pathology, Harper Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
Mod Pathol 16:996-1006. 2003..The relatively high absolute occurrence of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 1A (mucinous duct lesions) in benign conditions (43%) suggests that this group represents a combination of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions...
- Frequent activation of AKT2 kinase in human pancreatic carcinomasDeborah A Altomare
Human Genetic Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
J Cell Biochem 87:470-6. 2002..Overall, these data suggest that upstream perturbations of the PI3K/AKT pathway contribute to frequent activation of AKT2 in pancreatic cancer, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of this highly aggressive form of human malignancy...
- Chronic pancreatitis is essential for induction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by K-Ras oncogenes in adult miceCarmen Guerra
Molecular Oncology Program, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas, E 28029 Madrid, Spain
Cancer Cell 11:291-302. 2007..These observations suggest that, during adulthood, PDA stems from a combination of genetic (e.g., somatic K-Ras mutations) and nongenetic (e.g., tissue damage) events...
- Aberrant p16(INK4A) and DPC4/Smad4 expression in intraductal papillary mucinous tumours of the pancreas is associated with invasive ductal adenocarcinomaA V Biankin
Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, and Division of Surgery, St Vincent s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010 Australia
Gut 50:861-8. 2002....
- An illustrated consensus on the classification of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasmsRalph H Hruban
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 401 N Broadway, Weinberg 2242, Baltimore, MD 21231 2410, USA
Am J Surg Pathol 28:977-87. 2004..We present a consensus classification of the precursor lesions in the pancreatic ducts, PanINs and IPMNs...
- A comprehensive in vitro characterization of pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell line biological behavior and its correlation with the structural and genetic profilePaolo Monti
Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Department of Diabetes and Transplant Immunology, S Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy
Virchows Arch 445:236-47. 2004There are a large number of stable pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines (PDCL) that are used by researchers worldwide...
- Acinar cells contribute to the molecular heterogeneity of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasiaLiqin Zhu
Department of Biological Sciences and the Purdue Cancer Center, Purdue University, Hansen Life Sciences Research Building, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2064, USA
Am J Pathol 171:263-73. 2007..Identification of an acinar contribution to PanIN formation offers new directions for successful targeted therapeutic approaches to combat this disease...
- Nuclear factor-kappaB contributes to hedgehog signaling pathway activation through sonic hedgehog induction in pancreatic cancerHiroshi Nakashima
Department of Cancer Therapy and Research, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Cancer Res 66:7041-9. 2006....
- MUC1 and MUC2 expression in pancreatic ductal carcinoma obtained by fine-needle aspirationDavid C Chhieng
Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35249 6823, USA
Cancer 99:365-71. 2003..study was to examine the pattern of phenotypic expression of MUC1 and MUC2 in pancreatic lesions obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) and to determine the utility of MUC1 and MUC2 as markers for pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
- Outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer in elderly patientsRadu Scurtu
From the Centre de Chirurgie Viscérale et de Transplantation, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, CHU Hautepierre, France
J Gastrointest Surg 10:813-22. 2006..In elderly patients, age does not seem to influence the postoperative outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy with pancreato-gastrostomy...
- Elevated expression of microRNAs 155, 203, 210 and 222 in pancreatic tumors is associated with poorer survivalThomas Greither
Clinic of Radiation Therapy, Martin Luther University, Halle, Wittenberg, Germany
Int J Cancer 126:73-80. 2010..Furthermore, the putative target genes for these microRNAs suggest a complex signaling network that can affect PDAC tumorigenesis and tumor progression...
- Targeting histone deacetylases in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaGunter Schneider
Technische Universitat Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, II Medizinische Klinik, Munchen, Germany
J Cell Mol Med 14:1255-63. 2010..Translating these rational-based therapies into the clinic will finally increase our chance to establish an effective HDACI-containing combination therapy effective against PDAC...
- Laser microdissection and primary cell cultures improve pharmacogenetic analysis in pancreatic adenocarcinomaNiccola Funel
Department of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Division of Surgical Pathology, Molecular and Ultrastructural Pathology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Lab Invest 88:773-84. 2008..The use of these ex vivo techniques for molecular analysis of tumors therefore appears to be of some value in implementing the clinical management of PDAC...
- p16 Inactivation in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) arising in patients with chronic pancreatitisChristophe Rosty
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Am J Surg Pathol 27:1495-501. 2003..This alteration, common to pancreatic cancer-associated PanINs, may contribute to the predisposition of patients with chronic pancreatitis to develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
- MUC4 expression increases progressively in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasiaMichael J Swartz
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Am J Clin Pathol 117:791-6. 2002..Our data help establish the patterns of MUC4 expression in neoplastic precursors in the pancreas and add further support to the progression model for pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
- Analysis of long-term survivors after surgical resection for pancreatic cancerSung Sik Han
Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Pancreas 32:271-5. 2006..The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of surgical resection for pancreatic cancer and to characterize the clinicopathologic features of actual long-term survivors...
- Prognostic significance of activated Akt expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaShinji Yamamoto
Department of Surgery and Clinical Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan
Clin Cancer Res 10:2846-50. 2004..In addition, activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and the proliferation activity of tumor cells detected by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry were examined...
- Role of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-Akt signal pathway in the proliferation of human pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell linesAmi Takeda
Division of Organ Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan
Pancreas 28:353-8. 2004..LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, might inactivate Akt, consequently inhibiting cell proliferation in 3 human pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell lines, PSN-1, PANC-1, and KP-4...
- Adjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: historical and current perspectivesJ P Neoptolemos
Department of Surgery, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Ann Oncol 14:675-92. 2003....
- Overexpression of HMGA1 promotes anoikis resistance and constitutive Akt activation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cellsS S Liau
Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Br J Cancer 96:993-1000. 2007..Given the putative associations between anoikis resistance and metastatic potential, HMGA1 represents a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
- Clinical management of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas based on imaging findingsT Wakabayashi
Department of Gastroenterology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Japan
Pancreas 22:370-7. 2001....
- Relationships and differentially expressed genes among pancreatic cancers examined by large-scale serial analysis of gene expressionByungwoo Ryu
Department of Oncology, 451 Cancer Research Building, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
Cancer Res 62:819-26. 2002..Others suggest potential novel therapeutic targets...
- Long-term surgical outcome of noninvasive and minimally invasive intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the pancreasToshio Nakagohri
Second Department of Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine, 1 8 1 Inohana, Chuo Ku, Chiba 260 8670, Japan
World J Surg 26:1166-9. 2002..The remaining 13 patients are alive and disease free 3 to 12 years after surgery. Noninvasive and minimally invasive intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma had a favorable prognosis after surgical treatment...
- Mucin gene expression in intraductal papillary-mucinous pancreatic tumours and related lesionsBenoit Terris
Services d anatomie pathologique, Hopital Cochin, Paris, France
J Pathol 197:632-7. 2002....
- Prognosis of malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumours of the pancreas after surgical resection. Comparison with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaF Maire
Fédération Médico Chirugicale d Hépato Gastroentérologie, Hopital Beaujon, Clichy, France
Gut 51:717-22. 2002..Although the prognosis in malignant resectable intraductal papillary mucinous tumours of the pancreas (IPMT) is often considered more favourable than for ordinary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the long term outcome remains ill defined...
- Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreasNorihiro Sato
Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Gastroenterology 123:365-72. 2002..We hypothesized that an alternative mechanism for gene inactivation (notably, transcriptional silencing by promoter methylation) could be important in the pathogenesis of IPMNs...
- Molecular analysis of the EGFR-RAS-RAF pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas: lack of mutations in the BRAF and EGFR genesHeike Immervoll
Section for Pathology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen N 5021, Norway
Virchows Arch 448:788-96. 2006..Apparently, these tumors depend on no more than one genetic hit in the EGFR-RAS-RAF signaling pathway...
- Thrombospondin-1 expression as a prognostic predictor of pancreatic ductal carcinomaKosuke Tobita
Department of Surgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Bohseidai, Isehara, Kanagawa 259 1193, Japan
Int J Oncol 21:1189-95. 2002..These observations suggested that TSP-1 plays important roles in cancer cell growth and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer, and that stromal TSP-1 immunoreactivity is a good prognostic predictor of patients with pancreatic cancer...
- Is the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia of the biliary tract a counterpart of pancreatic papillary mucinous neoplasm?Gunter Kloppel
J Hepatol 44:249-50. 2006
- Expression of transcription factor E2F-1 in pancreatic ductal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical studyKazuto Yamazaki
Department of Pathology, Teikyo University, Ichihara Hospital, Ichihara, Chiba, Japan
Pathol Res Pract 199:23-8. 2003..015). The present analysis seems to support the theory that E2F-1 is upregulated in cell cycle, and its expression reflects the effector function of G1/S progression as far as pancreatic ductal carcinoma is concerned.
- Classification of types of intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas: a consensus studyToru Furukawa
Department of Molecular Pathology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 2 1 Seiryomachi, Sendai, 980 8575, Japan
Virchows Arch 447:794-9. 2005..These definitions can be used for further analyses of the clinicopathological significance of the variations of IPMN...
- Effects of bone sialoprotein on pancreatic cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasisHany Kayed
Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Cancer Lett 245:171-83. 2007....
- The pathology of ductal-type pancreatic carcinomas and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: insights for cliniciansGunter Kloppel
Department of Pathology, University of Kiel, Michaelisstr 11, 24105 Kiel, Germany
Curr Gastroenterol Rep 6:111-8. 2004..Molecular studies have revealed that PanIN-2 and PanIN-3 lesions represent a distinct step toward invasive carcinoma...
- Genetic profile of 22 pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Analysis of K-ras, p53, p16 and DPC4/Smad4P S Moore
Department of Pathology, University of Verona, Italy
Virchows Arch 439:798-802. 2001The K-ras, p53, p16 and DPC4 genes are among those most frequently altered in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. We analyzed 22 cell lines for alterations in these genes by direct sequence analysis and methylation-specific polymerase chain ..
- Protein expression profiles in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with normal pancreatic tissue and tissue affected by pancreatitis as detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometryJianjun Shen
Department of Carcinogenesis, Science Park Research Division, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, Texas, USA
Cancer Res 64:9018-26. 2004..The newly identified proteins in pancreatic tumors may eventually serve as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets...
- Activated Kras and Ink4a/Arf deficiency cooperate to produce metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaAndrew J Aguirre
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Genes Dev 17:3112-26. 2003..This faithful mouse model may permit the systematic analysis of genetic lesions implicated in the human disease and serve as a platform for the identification of early disease markers and for the efficient testing of novel therapies...
- Hypoxia-inducible proto-oncogene Pim-1 is a prognostic marker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaCarolin Reiser-Erkan
Department of Surgery, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
Cancer Biol Ther 7:1352-9. 2008..Clinically, absence of Pim-1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in prostate cancer. In the present study, the expression of Pim-1 is analyzed in pancreatic cancer and correlated to clinicopathological parameters...
- Evaluation of blood flow in pancreatic ductal carcinoma using contrast-enhanced, wide-band Doppler ultrasonography: correlation with tumor characteristics and vascular endothelial growth factorTadashi Ohshima
Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
Pancreas 28:335-43. 2004..However, there have been only a few reports on tumor vascularization in pancreatic ductal carcinoma, especially on vascularization depicted by imaging modalities...
- Consensus report of the national cancer institute clinical trials planning meeting on pancreas cancer treatmentPhilip A Philip
Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
J Clin Oncol 27:5660-9. 2009..Patients with either metastatic or locally advanced PDAC must be studied separately...
- GLI1 is regulated through Smoothened-independent mechanisms in neoplastic pancreatic ducts and mediates PDAC cell survival and transformationOlivier Nolan-Stevaux
Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
Genes Dev 23:24-36. 2009....
- Small molecule XIAP inhibitors enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreatic carcinomaMeike Vogler
University Children s Hospital, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
Cancer Res 69:2425-34. 2009..These findings build the rationale for further (pre)clinical development of XIAP inhibitors and TRAIL against pancreatic cancer...
- Alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16INK4a in pancreatic ductal carcinomaJyotika Attri
Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
BMC Gastroenterol 5:22. 2005..The purpose of the study was to evaluate primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas for potentially inactivating p16 alterations...
- Kras(G12D) and Smad4/Dpc4 haploinsufficiency cooperate to induce mucinous cystic neoplasms and invasive adenocarcinoma of the pancreasKamel Izeradjene
Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Cancer Cell 11:229-43. 2007..Our findings suggest that the sequence, as well as the context, in which these critical mutations are acquired helps determine the ensuing pathology...
- Combination of MUC5ac and WT-1 immunohistochemistry is useful in distinguishing pancreatic ductal carcinoma from ovarian serous carcinoma in effusion cytologyLiying Han
Department of Pathology, Wayne State University and Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Diagn Cytopathol 38:333-6. 2010..It appears that the combination of MUC5ac and WT-1 stains is useful in distinguishing pancreatic ductal from ovarian serous carcinoma in body fluid cytology...
- Proteomic analysis of pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells after combined treatment with gemcitabine and trichostatin ADaniela Cecconi
University of Verona, Department of Agricultural and Industrial Biotechnologies, Verona, Italy
J Proteome Res 4:1909-16. 2005..Our results demonstrate that the level of activation/repression of the proteins involved in these processes correlates with the growth inhibition and the apoptotic response of the cells subjected to single or combined drug treatment...
- Meta-analysis of microarray data on pancreatic cancer defines a set of commonly dysregulated genesRobert Grutzmann
Department of Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Oncogene 24:5079-88. 2005..Meta-analysis is an important tool for the identification and validation of differentially expressed genes. These could represent good candidates for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to pancreatic cancer...
- Pancreatic carcinogenesisJan Bart M Koorstra
Department of Pathology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Pancreatology 8:110-25. 2008..This review focuses mainly on the current knowledge about the molecular insights of the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma...
- Highly expressed genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas: a comprehensive characterization and comparison of the transcription profiles obtained from three major technologiesChristine A Iacobuzio-Donahue
Departments of Pathology, Surgery, Oncology, and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Cancer Res 63:8614-22. 2003....
- Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and painChristoph W Michalski
Department of General Surgery, Technische Universität Munich, Munich, Germany
Int J Cancer 122:742-50. 2008..Therefore, changes in the levels of endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes and cannabinoid receptors on pancreatic cancer cells may affect prognosis and pain status of PDAC patients...
- Gene expression profiling of microdissected pancreatic ductal carcinomas using high-density DNA microarraysRobert Grutzmann
Department of Visceral, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Neoplasia 6:611-22. 2004..Within the panel of genes, we identified novel differentially expressed genes, which have not been associated with the pathogenesis of PDAC before...
- Expression of EGF and EGFR strongly correlates with metastasis of pancreatic ductal carcinomaAnna Pryczynicz
Departments of General Pathomorphology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
Anticancer Res 28:1399-404. 2008..Recent reports have indicated that they are also involved in the growth of pancreatic ductal carcinoma, its invasiveness and metastasis.
- Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: an updated experienceTaylor A Sohn
Departments of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
Ann Surg 239:788-97; discussion 797-9. 2004..To update the authors' experience with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas...
- Vascular endothelial growth factor-D induces lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in models of ductal pancreatic cancerZofia Von Marschall
Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Charite University Medicine Berlin, CVK, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
Int J Oncol 27:669-79. 2005..Our results suggest that VEGF-D plays a pivotal role in stimulating lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in human ductal pancreatic cancer, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic target for this devastating disease...
- Possible detection of pancreatic cancer by plasma protein profilingKazufumi Honda
Chemotherapy Division and Cancer Proteomics Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute 5 1 1 Tsukiji Chuoh ku, Tokyo, Japan
Cancer Res 65:10613-22. 2005..Although a multi-institutional large-scale study will be necessary to confirm clinical significance, the biomarker set identified in this study may be applicable to using plasma samples to diagnose pancreatic cancer...
- Do consensus indications for resection in branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm predict malignancy? A study of 147 patientsMario Pelaez-Luna
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
Am J Gastroenterol 102:1759-64. 2007..Among a cohort of patients with IPMN-Br we determined if the consensus IR (CIR), presence of multifocal IPMN-Br, or growth of cyst size on follow-up predict malignancy...
- Detecting early pancreatic cancer: problems and prospectsSuresh T Chari
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
Semin Oncol 34:284-94. 2007..Although much work still needs to be done, the developments in the field provide us with hope that screening for early pancreatic cancer could become a reality in the not-so-distant future...
- Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: clinical predictors of malignancy and long-term survival following resectionRoberto Salvia
Department of Surgery, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Ann Surg 239:678-85; discussion 685-7. 2004..To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of a large cohort of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas affecting the main pancreatic duct...
- 1423 pancreaticoduodenectomies for pancreatic cancer: A single-institution experienceJordan M Winter
Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
J Gastrointest Surg 10:1199-210; discussion 1210-1. 2006..This is the largest single-institution experience with PD for pancreatic cancer. Patients who have cancers with favorable pathological features have a statistically significant improved long-term survival...
- Silencing of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) decreases gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cellsShailesh V Shrikhande
Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Anticancer Res 26:3265-73. 2006..It confers resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of XIAP in pancreatic cancer...
- Clinicopathological significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in human pancreatic carcinomaT Kitada
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan
Histopathology 43:550-5. 2003..The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of HIF-1alpha expression in pancreatic carcinoma...
- Does contrast-enhanced ultrasound reveal tumor angiogenesis in pancreatic ductal carcinoma? A prospective studyMutsumi Nishida
Radiation Oncology, Imaging and Diagnosis, Sapporo Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
Ultrasound Med Biol 35:175-85. 2009..Twenty-seven subjects with advanced pancreatic ductal carcinoma were treated by chemoradiotherapy...
- A case of mistaken identity? Nonductal origins of pancreatic "ductal" cancersL Charles Murtaugh
Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Cancer Cell 11:211-3. 2007..The results shed new light on the "cell of origin" of pancreatic ductal cancer and demonstrate that chronic pancreatitis provides a permissive environment for Kras-induced pancreatic neoplasia...
- Regulation and functional role of the Runt-related transcription factor-2 in pancreatic cancerH Kayed
Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Br J Cancer 97:1106-15. 2007..In addition, Runx2 has the potential to regulate the transcription of extracellular matrix modulators such as SPARC and MMP1, thereby influencing the tumour microenvironment...
- Retinoic acid can induce markers of endocrine transdifferentiation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: preliminary observations from an in vitro cell line modelT H El-Metwally
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
J Clin Pathol 59:603-10. 2006..The pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (HPAF) cells have a multipotent stem cell potential. It was hypothesised that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) can induce transdifferentiation of these cells into cells with an endocrine phenotype...
- Apoptotic pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaRainer Hamacher
II Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munchen, Germany
Mol Cancer 7:64. 2008....
- Proteasome-mediated Degradation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1 in PancreatiHuamin Wang; Fiscal Year: 2012..we demonstrated that HPK1 protein is expressed in normal pancreatic ducts, but is lost in >95% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) samples...
- Prevention & Metastasis: Final Frontiers in Colon CancerRobert Coffey; Fiscal Year: 2009..Finally, we are continuing efforts to model pancreatic ductal carcinoma in the mouse...
- Small Molecule Antibody Mimics: Toward a New Paradigm in Targeted Cancer TherapyDavid A Spiegel; Fiscal Year: 2013..both in prostate cancer cells and in tumor neovasculature for a wide variety of cancers (including pancreatic ductal carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and non-small cell lung carcinoma)...
- Inhibition of Prenylated Protein ProcessingRichard Gibbs; Fiscal Year: 2009..cell permeable inhibitors will be evaluated for their ability to mislocalize Ras, interfere with Ras- mediated signaling, block anchorage-independent growth of pancreatic ductal carcinoma, and block tumor growth in vivo.
- Biomarkers of COX-2 inhibitors in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)Christian Schmidt; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Molecular Epidemiology of Pancreatic CancerDonghui Li; Fiscal Year: 2008..Such information will be valuable for the primary prevention of this deadly disease. ..
- TARGETS OF METASTATIC PANCREATIC CANCERChristine Iacobuzio Donahue; Fiscal Year: 2008..abstract_text> ..
- CLASSIFYING PANCREATIC CANCERS BY METHYLATOR PHENOTYPESMichael Goggins; Fiscal Year: 2006..Aim #4: Determine if functional DNA methylation differences exist between CIMP+ compared to CIMP- pancreatic carcinomas. ..
- Does Hyperglycemia Predict Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosis?Suresh Chari; Fiscal Year: 2006..The research described in this application is 100% relevant to pancreatic cancer. ..
- FOLATE PATHWAY POLYMORPHISMS AND PANCREATIC CANCER RISKMichael Goggins; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- THE PanINs OF PANCREATITIS,PANCREAS CANCER AND CONTROLSMichael Goggins; Fiscal Year: 2002..abstract_text> ..
- Markers of Early Pancreatic CancerMichael G Goggins; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will also determine the diagnostic utility of combining the results of the markers derived from these 3 Aims. ..
- Biomarkers of Heavy Metal Exposure Related to Pancreatic Cancer Genetic MutationsAMR SOLIMAN; Fiscal Year: 2007..The results from this study will provide clues about the etiology of pancreatic cancer. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Role of ErbB/Stat3 in the establishment and progression of pancreatic cancerJames Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Mutant mouse models of exocrine pancreatic cancerDAVID TUVESON; Fiscal Year: 2008..Information gained from this murine model should facilitate further understanding of human pancreatic cancer. ..
- The Role of CXCR2 in Pancreatic CancerOSCAR HINES; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Adult pancreatic progenitor cells as target of early oncogenic eventsCATHERINE CARRIERE; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Ischemic Stroke Treatment with Microbubbles, a Novel Clot Lysis TherapeuticWilliam C Culp; Fiscal Year: 2010..Our proposed pilot study will determine which of these treatments is most successful, and future studies will further explore that treatment. (End of Abstract) ..
- ENTERIC PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TRANSPLANTED GUTMichael Sarr; Fiscal Year: 2007..This proposal will define important, novel neural mechanisms regulating motor and absorptive function in the denervated gut. Selected aspects have translational value to clinical gut transplantation. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- REGULATION OF ESOPHAGEAL EPITHELIAL GENE EXPRESSIONAnil Rustgi; Fiscal Year: 2001..Three specific aims are proposed: (1) to isolate cDNA clones encoding KSF, (2) to characterize the tissue expression of KSF, and (3) to characterize the regulation of expression of the keratin 4 promoter by KSF. ..
- A flexible somatic and sporadic mouse model for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaBrian Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2007..Such an advance would benefit public health by reducing the mortality associated with this disease. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- MoAbs for the Management of Pancreatic CancerDavid Gold; Fiscal Year: 2005..Finally, a PAM4IL2 fusion protein will be examined for its ability to enhance tumor uptake of a subsequently administered radiolabeled PAM4 antibody. ..
- A Sequencing Microarray for Mitochondrial MutationsAnirban Maitra; Fiscal Year: 2004..This study will serve as a model for array-based diagnosis of cancer in clinical samples. ..
- Characterization of the Chromosome 17q23 AmpliconFergus Couch; Fiscal Year: 2006..Thus, the project may involve a complete transition from benchtop to bedside. Finally, the amplified and overexpressed genes may prove useful as important targets of gene, pharmacological, and immunological therapy in the future. ..
- PHENOTYPIC AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STUDY OF THE L1307K MUTATIONHenry Lynch; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Epidemiology of Colon Cancer in a Special PopulationAMR SOLIMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006..Together, the training in these three areas will provide the skills and experience necessary for an independent career as a molecular and genetic epidemiologist interested in colorectal cancer. ..
- DPC4 function in human pancreatic cancerGloria Su; Fiscal Year: 2006..Su will be able to conduct her research in the richest intellectual and resourceful environment possible for academic and research career development. ..
- P21 INDUCTION BY BRCA2Fergus Couch; Fiscal Year: 2002....
- Molecular Characterization of Inflammatory Breast CancerAMR SOLIMAN; Fiscal Year: 2006..With the large number of patients included in this study from Egypt and the U.S., we may be able develop a better idea about molecular pathways and prognostic factors in IBC pathogenesis. ..
- Hedgehog signaling in pancreatic neoplasiaAnirban Maitra; Fiscal Year: 2006..Specifically, it will be determined whether Hh misexpression can generate a phenotype of multistep progression of pancreatic cancer that resembles the cognate human condition. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Implications of Retinoid-Induced CD38 Antigen ExpressionKapil Mehta; Fiscal Year: 2006..unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Molecular mediators of metastasis in hepatocellular carcinomaBrian C Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2010..abstract_text> ..
- Role of MUC1 in Pancreatic CancerPinku Mukherjee; Fiscal Year: 2010..This project is extremely relevant to pancreatic cancer. These preclinical studies will form the basis for designing more efficacious and novel therapies to combat the mortality associated with PDA. ..
- RECEPTORS FOR CCK AND OTHER GI-HORMONESCraig Logsdon; Fiscal Year: 2004..Together these studies will provide important insights into the mechanisms regulating pancreatic acinar cell function. ..
- NNK, Beta-Adrenergic AA Release and Lung CancerHILDEGARD SCHULLER; Fiscal Year: 2005..2. To determine which products of the AA cascade are formed in untreated cells and in response to NNK, which of these products stimulate DNA synthesis, and what downstream effectors are activated by these products. ..
- THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE OF THE PANCREATIC ACINAR CELLStephen Pandol; Fiscal Year: 2006..The results of the experiments described in the present application will allow us to propose how CCK, together with a cytokine modulating its effects, acts on the pancreatic acinar cell to cause experimental pancreatitis. ..
- Preclin. model for prevention of NSCLC in former smokersHILDEGARD SCHULLER; Fiscal Year: 2006....
- Alcohol and the Exocrine Pancreas ER Stress ResponsesStephen Pandol; Fiscal Year: 2007..The results deriving from this project will allow us to pursue further projects on integrating the effects of ethanol on the UPR to the pathological responses of pancreatitis due to ethanol as well as provide. [unreadable] [unreadable]..